BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0225.v1
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:35:01 CEST)
The Capon algorithm can be applied to reprocess SAR images, resulting in super-resolution super-resolution reconstructed scenes with lower sidelobe levels. Base on this idea, we have proposed a processing chain of Super-Resolution Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (SR-PSI), to increase PS density. In this paper, we review the main aspect of SR-PSI. We also propose a revised robust Capon algorithm. The result of real-life Sentinel-1 (S-1) data is shown.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1575.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Ship path-tracking; External meteorological disturbance; Model Predictive Control; Cost function; MATLAB simulation
Online: 24 November 2023 (08:28:38 CET)
Intelligent ship technology is currently an international research hotspot, and model predictive control is widely used in the path-tracking control of intelligent vehicles. To construct an intelligent ship anti-disturbance path-tracking control method, firstly, an environmental disturbance model was constructed with the actual meteorological data of the target sea area. Secondly, the Fossen ship equation of motion is linearized and discretized as the ship motion model. Thirdly, the expression of the prediction equation is derived from the ship motion model. Fourthly, the cost function is constructed by using the polar diameter and polar angle values of the ship. Fifth, the power function in the cost function is replaced with an exponential function to obtain an improved cost function. Sixthly, according to the Lyapunov theory and the MPC terminal constraint theory, the stability of the improved cost function is verified. Seventh, different test paths are set up, the environmental disturbance model is taken as the external disturbance, the ship motion model, the prediction equation, and the improved cost function are used to design the anti-disturbance path-tracking control algorithm according to the model prediction control idea for simulation experiments. Finally, different MATLAB simulation results show that the improved cost function can resist disturbance of the external wave, current, and wind, and effectively track the target path. Therefore, this study provides a reference for improving the navigation safety of ship path-tracking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2213.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: dong dwellings; comfortable residence; green building; building physical environment; life-cycle carbon emissions
Online: 30 June 2023 (10:33:06 CEST)
In recent years, due to the low energy utilization of the whole life-cycle of buildings and the di-minished indoor and outdoor comfort of buildings and the impact on the surrounding environ-ment caused by the carbon emissions of the building life-cycle, the establishment of a whole life- cycle carbon emission model for buildings to improve their energy utilization at all stages of their life-cycle has received unprecedented attention. In China, the construction industry has become a major carbon emitter, and traditional houses, as a green development building type, are an effec-tive way to achieve carbon neutrality in buildings, but the existing green building evaluation system lacks quantitative indicators of carbon emissions in the building life-cycle. The exclusive evaluation indexes for regional and characteristic buildings, such as traditional houses, are ne-glected; This study explored the formula for calculating the life-cycle carbon emissions model of traditional residential houses under a carbon emission intervention and used real measurements of the physical environment and comparative analysis of the limitations of existing local stand-ards; The results showed that the carbon emission calculation formulas for each stage of the life-cycle of traditional residential houses must be established by combining the selection of local building materials, and the materials for sustainable energy and carbon sinks of green systems. Based on the results of indoor and outdoor heat and humidity environmental tests of residential houses and an analysis of the limitations of existing evaluation indexes due to locality, four im-portant factors affecting locality green buildings in terms of energy utilization, site ecology and landscape, land saving and material saving were extracted; on this basis, the whole life-cycle carbon emission model of traditional residential houses is constructed by combining the existing green building evaluation standards with the carbon emission indexes of the life-cycle of tradi-tional residential houses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1590.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: ontology; spatial-temporal ontology; ocean circulation; semantic analysis; Web Ontology Language (OWL)
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:12:42 CEST)
Ocean circulation serve as the primary channels for transporting material and energy flows throughout the entire ocean system, which plays a crucial role in shaping Earth’s climate, weather patterns, and marine ecosystems. The ocean movements have far-reaching impacts on both the environment and human life. An effective method for semantically modeling the ocean circulation is urgently required to be established. To achieve a unified description of ocean circulation at the semantic level, this paper introduces the theory and methodology of ocean ontology, which is developed through an analysis of domain knowledge in ocean circulation. We focus on analyzing the concepts, temporal relationships, and spatial relationships of ocean circulation. By defining classes, properties, relationships, instances, and constraint conditions within the logical structure of an ontology, it is feasible to formalize the expression of conceptual elements and their relationships. Additionally, semantic inference rules are established to finalize the construction of the ocean circulation ontology. The effectiveness of ontology construction has been verified through practical examples. Furthermore, a specialized knowledge base framework has been developed upon the ontology description of ocean circulation. Some examples of knowledge base queries have been articulated and verified. The results demonstrate that this ontology can effectively represent the relevant knowledge in the domain of ocean circulation and provide a meaningful strategy for investigating semantic integration and knowledge sharing in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0007.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: high variability phonetic training (HVPT), categorical perception (CP), cochlear implant (CI), lexical tone, Mandarin-speaking kindergarteners, training-induced gains
Online: 1 November 2022 (01:41:59 CET)
Objectives: Although pitch reception poses a great challenge for individuals with cochlear implants (CIs), formal auditory training (e.g., high variability phonetic training, HVPT) has been shown to provide direct benefits in pitch-related perceptual performances such as lexical tone recognition for CI users. As lexical tones in spoken language are expressed with a multitude of distinct spectral, temporal, and intensity cues, it is important to determine the sources of training benefits for CI users. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a rigorous fine-scale evaluation with the categorical perception (CP) paradigm to control the acoustic parameters and test the efficacy and sustainability of HVPT for Mandarin-speaking pediatric CI recipients. The main hypothesis was that HVPT-induced perceptual learning would greatly enhance CI users’ ability to extract the primary pitch contours from spoken words for lexical tone identification and discrimination. Furthermore, individual differences in immediate and long-term gains from training would likely be attributable to baseline performance and duration of CI use. Design: Twenty-eight prelingually deaf Mandarin-speaking kindergarteners with CIs were tested. Half of them received five sessions of HVPT within a period of three weeks. The other half served as control who did not receive the formal training. Two classical CP tasks on a tonal continuum from Mandarin Tone 1 (high-flat in pitch) to Tone 2 (mid-rising in pitch) with fixed acoustic features of duration and intensity were administered before (pretest), immediately after (posttest), and 10 weeks post training termination (follow-up test). Participants were instructed to either label a speech stimulus along the continuum (i.e., identification task) or determine whether a pair of stimuli separated by zero or two steps from the continuum was the same or different (i.e., discrimination task). Identification function measures (i.e., boundary position and boundary width) and discrimination function scores (i.e., between-category score, within-category score, and peakedness score) were assessed for each child participant across the three test sessions.Results: Linear mixed-effects (LME) models showed significant training-induced enhancement in lexical tone categorization with significantly narrower boundary width and better between-category discrimination in the immediate posttest over pretest for the trainees. Furthermore, training-induced gains were reliably retained in the follow-up test 10 weeks after training. By contrast, no significant changes were found in the control group across sessions. Regression analysis confirmed that baseline performance (i.e., boundary width in the pretest session) and duration of CI use were significant predictors for the magnitude of training-induced benefits. Conclusions: The stringent CP tests with synthesized stimuli that excluded acoustic cues other than the pitch contour and were never used in training showed strong evidence for the efficacy of HVPT in yielding immediate and sustained improvement in lexical tone categorization for Mandarin-speaking children with CIs. The training results and individual differences have remarkable implications for developing personalized computer-based short-term HVPT protocols that may have sustainable long-term benefits for aural rehabilitation in this clinical population.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land cover; Scale effect; Uncertainty; Spatial Heterogeneity
Online: 6 May 2023 (03:04:48 CEST)
Land cover data are important basic data for earth system science and other fields. Multi-source remote sensing images have become the main data source for land cover classification. There are still many uncertainties in the scale effect of image spatial resolution on land cover classification. Since it is difficult to obtain multiple spatial resolution remote sensing images of the same area at the same time, the main current method to study the scale effect of land cover classification is to use the same image resampled to different resolutions, however errors in the resampling process lead to uncertainty in the accuracy of land cover classification. To study the land cover classification scale effect of different spatial resolutions of multi-source remote sensing data, we selected 1 m and 4 m of GF-2, 6 m of SPOT-6, 10 m of Sentinel-2 and 30 m of Landsat-8 multi-sensor data, and explored the scale effect of image spatial resolution on land cover classification from two aspects of mixed image element decomposition and spatial heterogeneity. For the study area, we compared the classification obtained from GF-2, SPOT-6, Sentinel-2, and Landsat-8 images at different spatial resolutions based on GBDT and RF. The results show that (1) GF-2 and SPOT-6 had the best classification results, and the optimal scale based on this classification accuracy was 4–6 m; (2) the optimal scale based on linear decomposition depended on the study area; (3) the optimal scale of land cover was related to spatial heterogeneity, i.e., the more fragmented and complex was the space, the smaller the scale needed; and (4) the resampled images were not sensitive to scale and increase the uncertainty of the classification. These findings have implications for land cover classification and optimal scale selection, scale effects and landscape ecology uncertainty studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1732.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: high variability phonetic training (HVPT); lexical tone; perception-production link; cochlear implant (CI); perceptual learning
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:00:33 CEST)
Purpose: This study builds upon an established effective training method to investigate the advantages of high variability phonetic identification training for enhancing lexical tone perception and production in Mandarin-speaking pediatric cochlear implant (CI) recipients, who typically face ongoing challenges in these areas. Method: Thirty two Mandarin-speaking children with CIs were quasi-randomly assigned into the training group (TG) and the control group (CG). The sixteen TG participants received five sessions of high variability phonetic training (HVPT) within a period of three weeks. The CG participants did not receive the training. Perception and production of Mandarin tones were administered before (pretest) and immediately after (posttest) the completion of HVPT via lexical tone recognition task and picture naming task. Both groups participated in the identical pretest and posttest with the same time frame between the two test sessions. Results: TG showed significant improvement from pretest to posttest in identifying Mandarin tones for both trained and untrained speech stimuli. Moreover, perceptual learning of HVPT facilitated trainees’ lexical tone production as rated by a cohort of 10 Mandarin-speaking adults with normal hearing. In contrast, CG did not exhibit significant changes in either perception or production. Conclusion: The results represent initial evidence of HVPT-induced transfer of perceptual learning to lexical tone production in CI users, which supports the application of this speech training protocol to aural rehabilitation practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0972.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Thermoacoustic instability; Ornstein–Uhlenbeck-type colored noises; Supercritical bifurcation; Coherence resonance
Online: 26 April 2023 (08:27:31 CEST)
Intense thermoacoustic oscillations may lead to severe deterioration due to the induced intolerable damage to combustors. A better understanding of unstable behaviors is important to prevent or suppress these oscillations. Active thermoacoustic coupling in practical combustors is caused primarily by two approaches: inherent turbulent fluctuations and the flame response to acoustic waves. Turbulent fluctuations are generally characterized by random noise. This paper experimentally expands on previous analytic studies regarding the influence of colored disturbances on the thermoacoustic response near the supercritical bifurcation point. Therein, a laboratory-scale Rijke-type thermoacoustic system is established, and both supercritical and subcritical bifurcations are observed. Then, Ornstein–Uhlenbeck (OU)-type external colored noise is introduced near the supercritical bifurcation point, and the effects of the corresponding correlation time τc and noise intensity D are studied. The experimental results show that these variables of the colored noise significantly influence the dynamics of thermoacoustic oscillations in terms of the most probable amplitude, autocorrelation, and correlation time. A resonance-like behavior is observed as the noise intensity or the autocorrelation time of the colored noise is continuously varied, which means that the coherent resonance occurs in the thermoacoustic system. Finally, when the system is configured closer to the stability boundary, the extent of the coherence motion is intensified in the stochastic system response. Meanwhile, the Signal to Noise Ratios (SNRs) of the colored-noise-induced response are found to become more distinguished, the optimal colored noise intensity decreases, and the optimal autocorrelation time increases. This provides valuable guidance to predict the onset of thermoacoustic instabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0327.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Gap filling, M-SSA, Monte Carlo test, Time series, LST
Online: 20 June 2018 (16:25:07 CEST)
Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a basic parameter in energy exchange between the land and atmosphere and is frequently used in many sciences such as climatology, hydrology, agriculture, ecology, etc. LST time series data have usually deficient, missing and unacceptable data caused by the presence of clouds in images, presence of dust in atmosphere and sensor failure. In this study, Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) algorithm was used to resolve the problem of missing and outlier data caused by cloud cover. The region studied in the present research included an image frame of MODIS with horizontal number 22 and vertical number 05 (h22v05). This image involved a large part of Iran and Turkmenistan and Caspian Sea. In this study, MODIS LST sensor (MOD11A1) was used during 2015 with 1×1 Km spatial resolution and day/night LST data (daily temporal resolution). The results of the data quality showed that cloud cover caused 36.37% of missing data in the studied time series with 730 day/night LST images. Further, the results of SSA algorithm in reconstruction of LST images indicated the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 2.95 K between the original and reconstructed data in LST time series in the study region. In general, the findings showed that SSA algorithm using spatio-temporal interpolation in LST time series can be effectively used to resolve the problem of missing data caused by cloud cover.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0354.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: 1,2,3-triazole; 1,1-enediamines; addition and cyclization; click chemistry
Online: 19 July 2018 (11:58:22 CEST)
Novel 1,2,3-triazole compounds 3–4 were synthesised via the regioselective addition and cyclization reaction of 1,1-enediamines (EDAMs) 1 with p-methylbenzenesulfonyl azide (TsN3) 2 in 1,4-dioxane at refluxing for 5 hours. As a result, 1,2,3-triazoles 3–4 can be easily and efficiently obtained via catalyst-free click chemistry. The reactions have some advantages such as metal-free catalyst, excellent yield, inexpensive raw materials, and convenient final treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0208.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Middle East; Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer; Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; time series analysis; governmental policy
Online: 15 December 2020 (12:59:50 CET)
The spatiotemporal variability of vegetation in the Middle East was investigated for the period 2001–2019 using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 16-day/500 m composites of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI; MOD13A1). The results reveal a strong increase in the NDVI coverage in the Middle East during the study period (R = 0.75, p-value = 0.05). In Egypt, the annual coverage exhibits the strongest positive trend (R = 0.99, p-value = 0.05). In Turkey, both the vegetation coverage and density increased from 2001 to 2019, which can be attributed to the construction of some of the biggest dams in the Middle East, such as the Atatürk and Ilisu dams. Significant increases in the annual coverage and maximum and average NDVI in Saudi Arabia are due to farming in the northern part of the country for which groundwater and desalinated seawater are used. The results of this study suggest that the main factors affecting the vegetation coverage in the Middle East are governmental policies. These policies can have a positive effect on the vegetation coverage in some countries such as Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, Iran, and Turkey.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2160.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: optical coherence tomography angiography; anti-VEGF; branch vascular network; polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy
Online: 1 August 2023 (03:01:37 CEST)
We performed a retrospective, observational study for 51 eyes of 51 treatment-naive patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), whose lesion ranged within the 6x6mm scope of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Patients were divided into two groups based on the pattern of branching vascular network (BVN) on OCTA: ill-defined group and well-defined group. BVN morphology was not related to baseline best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). But the BCVA in the ill-defined BVN group (-0.18 [interquartile range: -0.40 to 0.00]) was significantly improved after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections, compared with that (0.00 [interquartile range: -0.18 to 0.00]) in the well-defined group (z=2.143, p=0.032). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that male sex, smaller number of injections, and presence of polypoidal lesions on OCTA images at baseline predicted a poor prognosis of polypoidal lesions on OCTA images after anti-VEGF therapy (all p<0.05). Finally, BCVA at baseline and the number of injections were protective factors for BCVA after anti-VEGF therapy (all p<0.05). In contrast, history of hypertension and macular edema at baseline were risk factors for BCVA after anti-VEGF injections (all p<0.05). Our results revealed the visual and morphological prognosis of patients with active subfoveal circumscribed PCV after anti-VEGF therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0890.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Ceramics And Composites Keywords: regenerated magnesia-calcium bricks; aluminium oxide; microstructure; flexural strength; corrosion resistance; coating adherence
Online: 14 September 2023 (04:42:17 CEST)
The regenerated magnesia-calcium brick samples that had added 0, 1.5, 3.0 wt.% aluminium oxide (Al2O3) were prepared by using spent magnesia-calcium bricks, fused magnesia and Al2O3 powder additive as the main raw materials. The phases, microstructures, room temperature and hot flexural strength, resistance to cement clinker corrosion and strength of coating adherence were investigated respectively. It indicated that the addition of Al2O3 increased mainly resulting in the content of tetracalcium aluminoferrite (C4AF) and tricalcium aluminate (C3A) increased in the regenerate samples. The bulk density, the room temperature flexural strength and the strength of coating adherence all increased, while the hot flexural strength and corrosion resistance both deteriorated along with the increase of Al2O3 addition. It was because that on the one hand the low melting point phases of C4AF and C3A improved the sinterability of the regenerated samples during the burning stage, on the other hand they melted or existed in liquid phase during the experimental temperature (1573 K and 1823 K) which degraded hot flexural strength and corrosion resistance, and enhanced the strength of coating adherence as the wettability of the liquid phase. The content of Al2O3 in the regenerated magnesia-calcium brick should not be higher than 1.1 wt.%, considering its room and high-temperature performances for cement rotary kiln.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0315.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: COMSOL Multiphysics; High-speed; Stirring rotor; Oily sludge
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:01:49 CEST)
In this paper, COMSOL Multiphysics software was used to simulate and analyze the process of cleaning oily sludge by high-speed stirring rotor. The physical phenomena such as velocity field, pressure field, heat dissipation and cavitation generated by the rotor during the process of the oily sludge cleaning were analyzed. The results showed that in the process of cleaning the oily sludge by high-speed stirring rotor, the shear force, heat dissipation and pressure increased with the enhance in the rotor speed. Cavitation occurs in the impeller area of the rotor because of the change of pressure, so the cavitation bubbles were formed. Shear force, heat dissipation and cavitation contributed to the separation of oil phase in oily sludge. Meanwhile, the simulation results were verified by experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0439.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: executive function; early childhood; fNIRS; working memory; cognitive shifting; inhibitory control
Online: 28 October 2022 (07:02:39 CEST)
This study examined the relationship among the three domains of executive function (EF; cognitive shifting, inhibitory control, and working memory) to test the applicability of the unity-diversity model in preschoolers using both behavioral and fNIRS approaches. Altogether 58 Chinese preschoolers (34 boys, 24 girls, Mage = 5.86 years, SD = 0.53, Age range = 4.83-6.67 years) were administered the Dimensional Card Change Sort (DCCS), go/no-go, and missing scan task. Their brain activations in the prefrontal cortex during the tasks were examined using fNIRS. First, the behavioral results indicated that the missing scan task scores (working memory) correlated with the DCCS (cognitive shifting) and go/no-go tasks (inhibitory control). But the latter two did not correlate with each other. Second, the fNIRS results demonstrated that the prefrontal activations during the working memory task correlated with those in the same regions during the cognitive shifting and inhibitory control tasks. Still, the latter two did not correlate. The behavioral and neuroimaging evidence jointly indicates that the unity-diversity model of EF does apply to Chinese preschoolers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0424.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: emotional speech processing; communication channel; emotion category; task type
Online: 27 October 2022 (08:04:59 CEST)
How language mediates emotional perception and experience is poorly understood. The present event-related potential (ERP) study examined the explicit and implicit processing of emotional speech to differentiate the relative influences of communication channel, emotion category and task type in the prosodic salience effect. Thirty participants (15 women) were presented with spoken words denoting happiness, sadness and neutrality in either the prosodic or semantic channel. They were asked to judge the emotional content (explicit task) and speakers’ gender (implicit task) of the stimuli. Results indicated that emotional prosody (relative to semantics) triggered larger N100 and P200 amplitudes with greater delta, theta and alpha inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) values in the corresponding early time windows, and continued to produce larger LPC amplitudes and faster responses during late stages of higher-order cognitive processing. The relative salience of prosodic and semantics was modulated by emotion and task, though such modulatory effects varied across different processing stages. The prosodic salience effect was reduced for sadness processing and in the implicit task during early auditory processing and decision-making but reduced for happiness processing in the explicit task during conscious emotion processing. Additionally, across-trial synchronization of delta, theta and alpha bands predicted the ERP components with higher ITPC values significantly associated with stronger N100, P200 and LPC enhancement. These findings reveal the neurocognitive dynamics of emotional speech processing with prosodic salience tied to stage-dependent emotion- and task-specific effects, which can reveal insights to research reconciling language and emotion processing from cross-linguistic/cultural and clinical perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1332.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: EMI shielding; sandwich structure; aramid nanofibers; environmental suitability
Online: 22 November 2023 (07:28:39 CET)
The recent advancements in communication technology have facilitated the widespread deployment of electronic communication equipment globally, resulting in the pervasive presence of electromagnetic pollution. Consequently, there is an urgent necessity to develop a thin, lightweight, efficient, and durable electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding material, capable of withstanding severe environmental conditions, and possessing a scalable production method. In this paper, we proposed an innovative and scalable method for preparing EMI shielding films with a tunable sandwich-structure. The film possesses a nylon mesh (NM) backbone, with AgNWs serving as the shielding coating and aramid nanofibers (ANFs) acting as the cladding layer. The prepared film was thin and flexible, with a thickness of only 0.13 mm. AgNWs could easily form a conductive network structure with excellent performance, and the film had a high EMI shielding efficiency, up to 50.6 dB with 1.0mg/cm2. Due to the outstanding thermal resistance, acid and alkali resistance properties of aramid fibers, the NAAANF film demonstrates remarkable robustness in the face of complex usage environments. Such a thin, efficient and environmentally resistant EMI shielding film provided new ideas for the broad EMI shielding market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1570.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Asian dust; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; long-range transportation
Online: 23 August 2023 (03:35:05 CEST)
Asian dust (AD) events and total suspended particle (TSP) was observed at Kanazawa University Wajima Air Monitoring Station (KUWAMS), a Japanese background site, during the East Asian winter monsoon periods (from November to May of the following year) from 2010 to 2021. Nine kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in each TSP sample. In this study, a total of 54 AD events were observed. According to the different pathways of long-range transportation, AD events were divided into AD-high (transported at higher altitude, around 4000 m) and AD-low (transported at lower altitude, around 2500 m). The TSP concentrations in-creased sharply in the AD and was higher in AD-high (39.8 ± 19.5 μg/m³) than that in AD-low (23.5 ± 10.5 μg/m³). While AD didn’t have significant effect on ΣPAHs characteristic variation, as ΣPAHs concentration in non-AD periods, AD-high, AD-low were 543 ± 374, 404 ± 221, 436 ± 265 pg/m³, respectively. PAHs compositions were also consistent. As a result, TSP concentration was affected by the input air mass transported at higher altitude from the desert region while PAHs concentration was under the impact of air mass at lower altitude which carried the PAHs emitted from fossil fuels and biomass combustion in northeastern China. Moreover, the health risks of PAHs were calculated by inhalation lifetime cancer risk which ranged from 10−6 to 10−5 ng/m3, in-dicating a potential carcinogenic risk at KUWAMS during the East Asian winter monsoon period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0320.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: conjugated linolenic acid; Caco-2 cell; lipid peroxidation; apoptosis; pyroptosis
Online: 27 January 2020 (02:03:33 CET)
The probiotic bacterial strain Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 has been proved to manifest comprehensive functions, which were due to ability to synthesise conjugated fatty acids (CFAs). To investigate the specific functions of CFAs produced by this probiotic bacterium, α-linolenic acid was isomerized by Lactobacillus plantarum strain ZS2058, and two different conjugated α-linolenic acid (CLNA) isomers were successfully isolated. These isoforms, CLNA1 (c9, t11, c15-CLNA, purity 97.48%) and CLNA2 (c9, t11, t15-CLNA, purity 99.00%), both showed the ability to inhibit the growth of three types of colon cancer cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the expression of MDA in Caco-2 cells was increased by CLNA1 or CLNA2, which indicated lipid peroxidation was related to the antiproliferation activity of CLNAs. Examination of the key protein of pyroptosis showed that CLNA1 induced the cleavage of caspase-1 and gasdermin-D, while CLNA2 induced the cleavage of caspase-4, 5 and gasdermin-D. The addition of relative inhibitors could alleviate the pyroptosis by CLNAs. CLNA1 and CLNA2 showed no effect on caspase-3, 7, 9 and PARP-1, which were key proteins associated with apoptosis. And no sub-diploid apoptotic peak appeared in the result of PI single staining test. In conclusion, CLNA1 activated caspase-1 and induced Caco-2 cell pyroptosis, whereas CLNA2 induced pyroptosis through the caspase-4/5-mediated pathway. The inhibition of Caco-2 cells by the two isomers was not related to apoptosis. This is the first report showing the ability of CLNAs to activate antioxidant defenses resulting in pyroptosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: thyroid nodules; ultrasound; lifestyle; dietary; betel quid; red meat; nut; centenarians
Online: 16 January 2018 (10:04:38 CET)
Thyroid nodules (TNs) are common thyroid lesions in older population. Few studies focused on the prevalence of TNs and its relationship to lifestyle characteristics and dietary habits in centenarians. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of TNs in Chinese centenarians using high-resolution ultrasound equipment and investigate its relationship to lifestyles and dietary habits. The current study was part of China Hainan Centenarian Cohort Study (CHCCS) which conducted in Hainan, an iodine sufficient region in China. A total of 874 permanent residents aged 100 years or older (mean age, 102.8 ± 2.8 years) without any missing data were included in the analysis. Among the participants, 649 of them were detected at least one thyroid nodule under the ultrasound examinations. The overall prevalence rate of TNs was 74.3%. The prevalence of TNs was higher in participants who were females, hypertension, diabetes, and underweight than their counterparts. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that being female, hypertension, diabetes, betel quid consumption, red meat consumption were independent risk factors, while being underweight, and nut consumption were independent protective factors for TNs. Our findings indicate that the presence of thyroid nodules was highly prevalent in Chinese centenarians, particularly in females. In addition to gender, hypertension, diabetes, and underweight, the presence of TNs was independently associated with betel quid, red meat, and nut consumptions. Further prospective studies are warranted to verify these associations in population from different age strata, races, cultures, and iodine backgrounds.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; acute kidney injury; angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2); transmembrane serine protease (TMPRSSs)
Online: 23 February 2020 (15:42:24 CET)
Purpose: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a severe symptom of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), especially for patients in a critical condition.This study explored the potential mechanism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on AKI at the single-cell level. Methods: 15 normal human kidney samples were collected and analyzed using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). Subsequently, we analyzed the components and proportions of kidney cells expressing the host cellular receptor ACE2 and the key protease TMPRSSs family, and analyzed the expression differences in Occidental and Asian populations. Results: We drafted the currently available world's largest human kidney cell atlas with 42,589 cells and identified 19 clusters through unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis. ACE2 and TMPRSSs genes were significantly co-expressed in podocytes and proximal convoluted tubules as potential host cells targeted by SARS-CoV-2. Comparative analysis showed that ACE2 expression in kidney cells was no less than that in the lung, esophagus, small intestine and colon, suggesting that the kidney may be an important target organ for SARS-CoV-2. In addition, given the high expression of ACE2 and kidney disease-related genes in Occidental donors relative to Asian donors, Occidental populations with SARS-CoV-2 infection might be a higher risk of of kidney injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: corrosion fatigue; characteristic life prediction; 25CrMo steel; microscopic analysis; Weibull distribution
Online: 17 March 2017 (05:11:02 CET)
The effects of environmental media on the corrosion fatigue fracture behavior of 25CrMo steel were investigated. The media include air, and a 3.5 wt.% and a 5.0 wt.% NaCl solutions. Experimental results indicate that the media induces the initiation of corrosion fatigue cracks at multiple sites. The multi-cracking sites cause the changes in the crack growth directions, the crack growth rate during the coupling action of the media and the stress amplitude. The coupling effects are important for engineering applications and research. The probability and predictions of the corrosion fatigue characteristic life can be estimated using the 3-parameter Weibull distribution function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD); platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR); neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR); monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR); baso-phil-to-lymphocyte ratio (BLR); eosinophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (ELR); in-hospital mortality; nom-ogram; decision curve analysis (DCA); clinical impact curve (CIC)
Online: 14 November 2022 (04:42:59 CET)
The study comprehensively evaluated the prognostic roles of PLR, NLR, MLR, BLR, and ELR in patients with acute exacerbation chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). 619 patients with AECOPD and 300 healthy volunteers were retrospectively included into the study. The clinical characteristics containing laboratory findings of the AECOPD patients and the blood cell counts (CBCs) of the healthy volunteers were collected. Compared with the healthy volunteers, PLR, NLR, and MLR were elevated in COPD patients in stable condition, and were further ele-vated during exacerbation. ELR showed the opposite trend. PLR, NLR, and MLR were all posi-tively correlated with hospital LOS as well as CRP. In contrast, ELR was negatively correlated with hospital LOS as well as CRP. Elevated PLR, NLR, and MLR were all associated with more serious airflow limitation in AECOPD. Elevated PLR, NLR, and MLR were all associated with increased in-hospital mortality while Elevated ELR was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality in AECOPD. A nomogram was construct to predict in-hospital mortality in AECOPD. The nomo-gram had a C-index of 0.850 (95% CI: 0.799 – 0.901) with good predictive value and clinical ap-plicability. In summary, PLR, NLR, MLR, and ELR served as predictors for clinical outcomes in patients with AECOPD.