ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0202.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: smart agriculture; agriculture 4.0; innovation adoption; digital technology; Taiwan
Online: 9 September 2020 (09:09:31 CEST)
Climate change and food security are the most relevant issues to be considered in sustainable agricultural development. The FAO’s initiative of climate-smart agriculture has attracted international attention. Since then, the smart agriculture (SA) has been recognized as the most influential trends in contributing to agricultural development. Therefore, encouraging farmers to adopt digital technologies and mobile devices into farming practices becomes a policy priority worldwide. However, there is limited literature available on psychologic factors that drive farmers’ intentions to adopt SA technologies. The purpose of this study is to investigate how farmer’s knowledge and attitude toward SA affects their adoption of smart technologies in Taiwan. A total of 321 farmers participated in the project’s survey in 2017 and 2018, from which the data was used to perform an OLS regression model of SA adoption. This study contributes to a preliminary understanding of relationship between innovation and adoption of SA technologies in a small-scale farming economic context. The findings suggest that the policy makers and R&D institutes need to concentrate on improving market access for well-known and high important SA technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1591.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: voice recognition; channel adversarial training; information security domain; speaker confirmation
Online: 24 July 2023 (11:36:43 CEST)
With the rapid development of big data, artificial intelligence, and Internet technologies, the human-human contact and human-machine interaction have produced an explosive growth of voice data. Rapidly identifying the speaker's identity and retrieving and managing his or her speech data in the massive amount of speech data has become a major challenge for intelligent speech applications in the field of information security. This research proposes a vocal recognition technique based on information adversarial training for speaker identity recognition in massive audio and video, and speaker identification when oriented to the information security domain. The experimental results show that the method projects data from different scene channels all onto the same space and dynamically generates interactive speaker representations. It solves the channel mismatch problem and effectively improves the recognition of speaker's voice patterns across channels and scenes. It is able to separate overlapping voices when multiple people speak at the same time and reduce speaker separation errors. It realizes speaker voice recognition for information security field and achieves 89% recall rate in massive database, which has practical application value for intelligent application field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0403.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: structural bias; compact algorithm; continuous optimisation; estimation of distribution algorithm; infeasible solution
Online: 23 April 2020 (04:49:23 CEST)
In the field of stochastic optimisation, the so-called structural bias constitutes an undesired behaviour of an algorithm that is unable to explore the search space to a uniform extent. In this paper, we investigate whether algorithms from a subclass of estimation of distribution algorithms, the compact algorithms, exhibit structural bias. Our approach, justified in our earlier publications, is based on conducting experiments on a test function whose values are uniformly distributed in its domain. For the experiment, 81 combinations of compact algorithms and strategies of dealing with infeasible solutions have been selected as test cases. We have applied two approaches for determining the presence and severity of structural bias, namely a visual and a statistical (Anderson-Darling) tests. Our results suggest that compact algorithms are more immune to structural bias than their counterparts maintaining explicit populations. Both tests indicate that strong structural bias is found only in one of the algorithms (cBFO) regardless of the choice of strategy of dealing with infeasible solutions and cPSO mirror. For other test cases, statistical and visual tests disagree on some cases classified as having mild or strong structural bias: the former one tends to make harsher decisions, thus needing further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0277.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: structural bias; algorithmic design; hypothesis testing; single solution methods; constraint handling
Online: 19 February 2020 (11:37:08 CET)
This paper investigates whether optimisation methods with the population made up of one solution can suffer from structural bias just like their multisolution variants. Following recent results highlighting the importance of choice of strategy for handling solutions generated outside the domain, a selection of single solution methods are considered in conjunction with several such strategies. Obtained results are tested for the presence of structural bias by means of a traditional approach from literature and a newly proposed here statistical approach. These two tests are demonstrated to be not fully consistent. All tested methods are found to be structurally biased with at least one of the tested strategies. Confirming results for multisolution methods, it is such strategy that is shown to control the emergence of structural bias in single solution methods. Some of the tested methods exhibit a kind of structural bias that has not been observed before.
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: part transportation; Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control; carrier aircraft; transportation time; stochastic demand; cross rule group
Online: 15 April 2021 (15:00:28 CEST)
The part transportation efficiency is a main factor of aircraft sortie generation rate. Part transportation is used to transport spare part from base to carrier. Transportation strategy depends on both demand on carrier and inventory in transportation base. The transportation time and stochastic demand will induce fluctuations of cost and inventory. Thus, a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system of dynamic part transportation is established considering transportation time and stochastic demand. And a novel Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy robust control is designed for dynamic part transportation, which will keep transportation cost and part inventory stable. First of all, a fuzzy model with stochastic demand and transportation time is proposed. Then, a novel robust control with cross rule groups is conducted according to production and transportation strategy, which will reduce fluctuations induced by strategies switch. Moreover, robust stability is guaranteed and part can be supplied in time under a low cost. Finally, simulation illustrates usefulness and quickness of the novel Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy robust control. Besides, the proposed method will be useful in other transportation electrification systems with delay time and uncertainty.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: precipitation downscaling; convolutional neural networks; long short term memory networks; hydrological simulation
Online: 2 April 2019 (12:37:11 CEST)
Precipitation downscaling is widely employed for enhancing the resolution and accuracy of precipitation products from general circulation models (GCMs). In this study, we propose a novel statistical downscaling method to foster GCMs’ precipitation prediction resolution and accuracy for monsoon region. We develop a deep neural network composed of convolution and Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) recurrent module to estimate precipitation based on well-resolved atmospheric dynamical fields. The proposed model is compared against GCM precipitation product and classical downscaling methods in the Xiangjiang River Basin in South China. Results show considerable improvement compared to the ECMWF-Interim reanalysis precipitation. Also, the model outperforms benchmark downscaling approaches, including 1) quantile mapping, 2) support vector machine, and 3) convolutional neural network. To test the robustness of the model and its applicability in practical forecast, we apply the trained network for precipitation prediction forced by retrospective forecasts from ECMWF model. Compared to ECMWF precipitation forecast, our model makes better use of the resolved dynamical field for more accurate precipitation prediction at lead time from 1 day up to 2 weeks. This superiority decreases along forecast lead time, as GCM’s skill in predicting atmospheric dynamics being diminished by the chaotic effect. At last, we build a distributed hydrological model and force it with different sources of precipitation inputs. Hydrological simulation forced with the neural network precipitation estimation shows significant advantage over simulation forced with the original ERA-Interim precipitation (with NSE value increases from 0.06 to 0.64), and the performance is just slightly worse than the observed precipitation forced simulation (NSE=0.82). This further proves the value of the proposed downscaling method, and suggests its potential for hydrological forecasts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0103.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: multi-objective optimization; hypervolume indicator; Newton method; evolutionary algorithms; constraint handling; hypervolume scalarization
Online: 7 November 2022 (04:20:09 CET)
Recently, the Hypervolume Newton method (HVN) has been proposed as fast and precise indicator-based method for solving unconstrained bi-objective optimization problems with objective functions that are at least twice continuously differentiable. The HVN is defined on the space of (vectorized) fixed cardinality sets of decision space vectors for a given multi-objective optimization problem (MOP) and seeks to maximize the hypervolume indicator adopting the Newton-Raphson method for deterministic numerical optimization. To extend its scope to non-convex optimization problems the HVN method was hybridized with a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA), which resulted in a competitive solver for continuous unconstrained bi-objective optimization problems. In this paper, we extend the HVN to constrained MOPs with in principle any number of objectives. We demonstrate the applicability of the extended HVN on a set of challenging benchmark problems and show that the new method can be readily be applied to solve equality constraints with a high precision problems, and to some extend also inequalities. We finally use HVN as local search engine within a MOEA and show the benefit of this hybrid method on several benchmark problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0023.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Trauma, pelvic fracture, pelvic binder, external fixation, management
Online: 4 October 2017 (16:41:02 CEST)
Background: We aimed to evaluate the effect of early pelvic binder use in emergency management of suspected pelvic trauma, compared with the conventional stepwise approach. Methods: We enrolled trauma patients with initial stabilization using a pelvic binder for suspecting pelvic injury. Inclusion criteria were traumatic injury requiring a trauma team and at least one of the following: loss of consciousness or Glasgow coma score (GCS) < 13; systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg; falling from ≥6 m; injury to multiple vital organs; and suspected pelvic injury. Various parameters, including gender, age, mechanism of injury, GCS, mortality, hospital stay, initial vital sign, revised trauma score, injury severity score, and outcome, were assessed and compared with historical controls. Results: A total of 204 patients with high-energy multiple-trauma from single level I trauma center in North Taiwan were enrolled in the study from August 2013 to July 2014. The two group baseline patient characteristics were all collected and compared. The trauma patients with suspected pelvic fractures initially stabilized with a pelvic binder had shorter hospital and ICU stays. The study group achieved statistically significantly improved survival and lower mean blood transfusion volume and mortality rate although they were more severe in the trauma score. Conclusions: We recommend prompt pelvic binder use for suspected pelvic injury before definitive imaging is available, as a cervical spine collar is used to protect the cervical spine from further injury prior to definitive identification and characterization of an injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0742.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: thermal noise decoupling; micro-Newton thrust measurement; torsion balance; ZDVF; PID state extension; fine tree regression
Online: 31 May 2021 (11:11:05 CEST)
The space gravitational wave detection and drag free control requires the micro-thruster to have very low thrust noise within 0.1mHz~100mHz, which poses a great challenge to the ground thrust test. The evaluation and decoupling of thermal noise are the difficulties in the application of torsion balance for most thrusters dissipate heat in the experiment. The research has adopted a calibration scheme of micro-Newton thrust torsion balance. On the basis of Lisa Pathfinder's former research and using ideas inspired from PID control and multi time scale (MTS) for reference, the paper proposes to expand the state space of temperature to be applied on thrust prediction based on fine tree regression (FTR), to subtract the thermal noise filtered by transfer function fitted with z-domain vector fitting (ZDVF). The results show that the thrust amplitude thrust density in diurnal temperature fluctuation is decoupled from 24μN/Hz1/2 to 4.9μN/Hz1/2 at 0.11mHz. And the 1μN square wave modulations of electrostatic fins (ESF) is extracted from the simultaneously ambiguous background of temperature for PTC's heating and cooling. The FTR method is well demonstrated in thermal noise decoupling and can guide the design of thermal control and be extended to other physical quantities for noise decoupling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0233.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: cooling; heating and power (CCHP) microgrid; kernel learning machine (KELM); particle swarm optimization (PSO); shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA)
Online: 11 July 2020 (09:00:22 CEST)
An optimal scheduling strategy for cooling, heating and power (CCHP) joint-power-supply system is proposed to improve energy utilization and minimize costs in this paper. Firstly, the mathematical model of CCHP system is established. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to optimize the regularization coefficient C and the kernel parameter λ which can affect the prediction accuracy of KELM(PSO-KELM). Then PV generation and load prediction model are established by PSO-KELM. In order to jump out of local optimal solution, Cauchy variation is introduced in SFLA local update, and adaptive mutation operation is carried out on SFLA individuals. The predictions of PV generation and load power by PSO-KELM are imported into the objective function, and the microgrid dispatching model is solved by the improved SFLA algorithm. Compared with the traditional GA-KELM and KELM, PSO-KELM has faster convergence and prediction accuracy. Compared with the power supply division, the operation cost of the power grid is reduced by the proposed optimization dispatching strategy of CCHP micro-grid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1105.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: MethylRAD-Seq; A. japonicus; body wall; age identification
Online: 18 October 2023 (08:21:09 CEST)
The A. japonicus industry has expanded significantly, but no research has focused on how to de-termine the age of A. japonicus during farming. Correctly estimating the age of A. japonicus can provide a decision-making basis for the breeding process, and data for the protection of A. japonicus aquatic germplasm resources. DNA methylation levels in the body wall of Apostichopus japonicus at 4 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years old were determined by MethylRAD-Seq, and differentially methylated genes related to age were screened. The results of the study found that 441 and 966 differentially methylated genes were detected at CCGG and CCWGG sites, respectively. As-partate aminotransferase, succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, the histone H2AX, heat shock protein Hsp90, aminopeptidase N, cell division cycle CDC6, Ras GTPase activating protein (RasGAP), slit guidance ligand slit 1, integrin linked kinase ILK, mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase Mtor, protein kinase A Pka, and autophagy-related 3 atg3 these genes may play key roles in the growth and aging process of A. japonicus. This study provided data for identifying the age of A. japonicus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0398.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: COVID-19; pairwise epidemic model; household quarantine; clustering coefficient
Online: 27 February 2020 (11:00:23 CET)
The ongoing outbreak of the novel coronavirus pneumonia (also known as COVID-19) has triggered a series of stringent control measures in China, such as city closure, traffic restrictions, contact tracing and household quarantine. These containment efforts often lead to changes in the contact pattern among individuals of the population. Many existing compartmental epidemic models fail to account for the effects of contact structure. In this paper, we devised a pairwise epidemic model to analyze the COVID-19 outbreak in China based on confirmed cases reported during the period February 3rd--17th, 2020. By explicitly incorporating the effects of family clusters and contact tracing followed by household quarantine and isolation, our model provides a good fit to the trajectory of COVID-19 infections and is useful to predict the epidemic trend. We obtained the average of the reproduction number $R=1.494$ ($95\%$ CI: $1.483-1.507$) for Hubei province and $R=1.178$ ($95\%$ CI: $1.145-1.158$) for China (except Hubei), suggesting that some existing studies may have overestimated the reproduction number by neglecting the dynamical correlations and clustering effects. We forecasted that the COVID-19 epidemic would peak on February 13th ($95\%$ CI: February $9-17$th) in Hubei and 6 days eariler in the regions outside Hubei. Moreover the epidemic was expected to last until the middle of March in China (except Hubei) and late April in Hubei. The sensitivity analysis shows that ongoing exposure for the susceptible and population clustering play an important role in the disease propagation. With the enforcement of household quarantine measures, the reproduction number $R$ effectively reduces and epidemic quantities decrease accordingly. Furthermore, we gave an answer to the public concern on how long the stringent containment strategies should maintain. Through numerical analysis, we suggested that the time for the resumption of work and production in China (except Hubei) and Hubei would be the middle of March and the end of April, 2020, respectively. These constructive suggestions may bring some immeasurable social-economic benefits in the long run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0456.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; mathematical model; basic reproduction number; potential second epidemic; isolation; close contacts
Online: 31 March 2020 (10:20:25 CEST)
The first case of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Since then, COVID-19 has quickly spread out to all provinces in China and over 150 countries or territories in the world. With the first level response to public health emergencies (FLRPHE) launched over the country, the outbreak of COVID-19 in China is achieving under control in China. We develop a mathematical model based on epidemiology of COVID-19, incorporating the isolation of healthy people, confirmed cases and close contacts. We calculate the basic reproduction numbers 2.5 in China (excluding Hubei province) and 2.9 in Hubei province with the initial time on January 30 which show the severe infectivity of COVID-19, and verify that the current isolation method effectively contains the transmission of COVID-19. Under the isolation of healthy people, confirmed cases and close contacts, we find a noteworthy phenomenon that is the potential second epidemic of COVID-19, and estimate the peak time and value and the cumulative number of cases. Simulations show that the isolation of close contacts tracked measure can efficiently contain the transmission of the potential second epidemic of COVID-19. With isolation of all susceptible people or all infected people or both, there is no potential second epidemic of COVID-19. Furthermore, resumption of work and study can increase the transmission risk of the potential second epidemic of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0091.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: reanalysis climate data; hydrologic modeling; comparative analysis
Online: 3 February 2017 (03:50:07 CET)
Large-scale hydrological modeling in China is challenging given the sparse meteorological stations and large uncertainties associated with atmospheric forcing data.Here we introduce the development and use of the China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Datasets for the SWAT model (CMADS) in the Heihe River Basin(HRB) for improving hydrologic modeling, by leveraging the datasets from the China Meteorological Administration Land Data Assimilation System (CLDAS)(including climate data from nearly 40000 area encryption stations, 2700 national automatic weather stations, FengYun (FY) 2 satellite and radar stations). CMADS uses the Space Time Multiscale Analysis System (STMAS) to fuse data based on ECWMF ambient field and ensure data accuracy. In addition, compared with CLDAS, CMADS includes relative humidity and climate data of varied resolutions to drive hydrological models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. Here, we compared climate data from CMADS, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) and traditional weather station (TWS) climate forcing data and evaluatedtheir applicability for driving large scale hydrologic modeling with SWAT. In general, CMADS has higher accuracy than CFRS when evaluated against observations at TWS; CMADS also provides spatially continuous climate field to drive distributed hydrologic models, which is an important advantage over TWS climate data, particular in regions with sparse weather stations. Therefore, SWAT model simulations driven with CMADS and TWS achieved similar performances in terms of monthly and daily stream flow simulations, and both of them outperformed CFRS. For example, for the three hydrological stations (Ying Luoxia, Qilian Mountain, and ZhaMasheke) in the HRB at the monthly and daily Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency ranges of 0.75-0.95 and 0.58-0.78, respectively, which are much higher than corresponding efficiency statistics achieved with CFSR (monthly: 0.32-0.49 and daily: 0.26 – 0.45). The CMADS dataset is available free of charge and is expected to a valuable addition to the existing climate reanalysis datasets for deriving distributed hydrologic modeling in China and other countries in East Asia.