ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0440.v1
Online: 23 August 2021 (13:23:05 CEST)
Although, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus – 2 (SARS-CoV 2) represents one of the biggest challenges in the world today, the exact immunopathogenic mechanism that leads to severe or critical Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has remained incompletely understood. Several studies have indicated that high systemic plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines result in the so-called “cytokine storm”, with subsequent development of microthrombosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and multiorgan-failure. Therefore, we reasoned that elevated inflammatory cytokine might act as prognostic factors. Here, we analyzed 245 serum samples of patients with COVID-19, collected at hospital admission. We assessed the levels of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), soluble suppressor of tumorigenicity- 2 (sST2), caspase cleaved cytokeratin 18 (cCK18), 20S proteasome, and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR-1) and explored their associations with overall-, 30-, 60-, 90-day- and in-hospital mortality. Moreover, we investigated their association with the risk of ventilation. We demonstrated that increased serum sST2 was uni- and multivariably associated with all endpoints. However, we also identified 20S proteasome as independent prognostic factor for in-hospital mortality. Furthermore, elevated HSP27, sST2, and 20S proteasome levels at hospital admission were univariably associated with higher risk of invasive ventilation. These findings could help to identify high-risk patients early in the course of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0523.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Anticancer; Tubulin; HSP27; Nimesulide; SKOV3; SKBR3
Online: 22 September 2020 (15:19:02 CEST)
Tubulin and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) are up-regulated in cancer cells, and play a critical role in cell division, and proliferation. Therefore, they are targets for discovery of anticancer therapy. The objective of this study is to design, characterize, and biologically evaluate the nimesulide analogues to combat female cancer such as ovarian cancer, and breast cancer. Herein, the nimesulide analogues are designed to target both tubulin and HSP27 functions. Ovarian cancer (SKOV3) and breast cancer (SKBR3) cell lines were used as surrogate models to test the nimesulide analogs biological activities using MTT assay. In the present study, four nimesulide analogues were designed, synthesized and the chemical structures were with the biological evaluation were studied. The synthesized agents were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, the molecular weight was confirmed using GC-MS technique, and melting point. Besides, the agent L4 structure was confirmed using X-ray crystallographic analysis. The present data revealed that nimesulide analogs have potent anticancer activity against SKOV3and SKBR3 cell lines. The IC50 values for both SKOV3 and SKBR3 cell lines treated with the agents showed a potent cell growth inhibition range of 0.23-2.02 µM and 0.50-3.73 µM respectively. In conclusion, the designed nimesulide analogues can target both tubulins, and HSP27 concurrently, and they are promising agents as future chemotherapy female cancers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0081.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Heat shock protein 27; HSP27 inhibitor; Anti-cancer drugs, Resistance
Online: 4 July 2019 (13:19:51 CEST)
Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), induced by heat shock, environmental, and pathophysiological stressors, is a multi-dimensional protein that acts as a protein chaperone and an antioxidant. HSP27 plays a major role in the inhibition of apoptosis and actin cytoskeletal remodeling. HSP27 is upregulated in many cancers and is associated with poor prognosis, as well as treatment resistance whereby cells are protected from therapeutic agents that normally induce apoptosis. This review highlights the most recent findings and role of HSP27 in cancer, as well as strategies for using HSP27 inhibitors for therapeutic purposes.