ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0621.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Accessibility; Guiding Methods; Immersive Media; Subtitling; Virtual Reality; 360º video
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:28:27 CEST)
Every (multimedia) service needs to be accessible. Accessibility for multimedia content is typically provided by means of access services, of which subtitling is likely the most widespread one. Up to date, many recommendations and solutions for subtitling classical 2D audiovisual services are available. Likewise, recent efforts have been devoted to devising adequate subtitling solutions for VR360 video content. This paper, for the first time, goes a step beyond, by exploring two key requirements to fulfill remaining challenges towards efficiently subtitling 3D Virtual Reality (VR) content: presentation modes, and guiding methods. By leveraging insights from earlier work on VR360 content, the paper proposes novel presentation modes and guiding methods to not only deal with the freedom to explore the omnidirectional scenes, but also with additional specificities of 3D VR compared to VR360 content: depth, 6 Degrees of Freedom (6DoF), and viewing perspectives. The obtained results prove that always-visible and a novel proposed comic-style presentation mode are far more appropriate than state-of-the-art fixed-positioned subtitles, mainly in terms of immersion, ease and comfort of reading, and identification of speakers, when applied to professional pieces of content with limited displacement of speakers and with limited 6DoF (i.e. users are not expected to largely navigate around the virtual environment). Likewise, even in such limited movement scenarios, the results show that the use of indicators (arrows), as guiding methods, is well received. Overall, the paper provides relevant insights and paves the way toward efficiently subtitling 3D VR content.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1204.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: dimensionality reduction; autoencoder; feature extraction; feature selection; guiding layer; regularization
Online: 29 April 2023 (04:14:20 CEST)
In the era of big data, feature engineering has proved its efficiency and importance in dimensionality reduction and useful information extraction from original features. Feature engineering can be expressed as dimensionality reduction and is divided into two types of methods such as feature selection and feature extraction. Each method has its pros and cons. There are a lot of studies to combine these methods. Sparse autoencoder (SAE) is a representative deep feature learning method that combines feature selection with feature extraction. However, existing SAEs do not consider the feature importance during training. It causes extracting irrelevant information. In this paper, we propose a parallel guiding sparse autoencoder (PGSAE) to guide the information by two parallel guiding layers and sparsity constraints. The parallel guiding layers keep the main distribution using Wasserstein distance which is a metric of distribution difference, and it suppresses the leverage of guiding features to prevent overfitting. We perform our experiments using four datasets that have different dimensionality and number of samples. The proposed PGSAE method produces a better classification performance compared to other dimensionality reduction methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0216.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Fusion Energy; UN Global Compact; UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights
Online: 18 July 2022 (10:12:34 CEST)
Although the fusion energy sector is at a nascent stage, the private fusion energy market has grown. There are currently 38 private fusion energy companies around the world aiming to commercialise fusion energy in early 2030s and 2040s. Given the capability of fusion energy in transforming today’s energy paradigm and the global character of the market, it is important to analyse how these companies are interacting with international human rights standards. Therefore, this work investigates the involvement of the private fusion energy sector with two voluntary international initiatives in particular: the UN Global Compact and the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGP). This study attempts to answer two research questions: (i) Are private fusion energy companies participating in the UN Global Compact? (ii) How are private fusion energy companies publicly implementing the UNGP? Content analysis of secondary data collected from the UN Global Compact, Fusion Industry Association, ITER and companies’ official website as well as published reports is adopted. In summary, this work finds that private fusion energy companies are neither participants nor signatories of the UN Global Compact. Their observance of the UNGP is also very poor. This study contributes to the field by highlighting this gap which the private fusion energy companies need to consider and take measures in order to create a salutary human rights sector.