ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0342.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Online Fake News; Interpersonal influence; Self-evaluation; Motivation for Change; Food Consumption.
Online: 17 February 2021 (07:39:34 CET)
In the Italian context, the diffusion of online fake news about food is becoming increasingly fast-paced and widespread, making it more difficult for the public to recognize reliable information. Moreover, this phenomenon is deteriorating the relation with public institutions and industries. The purpose of this article is to provide a more advanced understanding of the individual psychological factors and the social influence contribute to the belief in food-related online fake news and the aspects that can increase or mitigate this risk. Data were collected with a self-report questionnaire between February and March 2019. We obtained 1004 valid questionnaires filled out by a representative sample of Italian population, extracted by stratified sampling. We used structural equation modelling (SEM) and the multi-group analyses to test our hypothesis. The results show that self-evaluation negatively affects the social-influence, which in turn positively affects the belief in online fake news. Moreover, this latter relationship is moderated by the readiness to change. Our results suggest that individual psychological characteristics and social influence are important to explain the belief in online fake news in the food sector; however, a pivotal role is played by the motivation of change lifestyle. This should be considered to engage people in clear and effective communication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0336.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: health literacy; patient health engagement model; Health Care Climate Questionnaire; patient autonomy; PHE-s; Patient Health Engagement Scale; health communication; patient centered communication; patient engagement
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:29:43 CET)
Individuals with low health literacy (HL) are known to have poorer health outcomes and to have higher mortality rates compared to individuals with higher HL: hence, the improvement of HL is a key outcome in modern healthcare systems. Healthcare providers are therefore asked to support patients’ literacy skills by encouraging the implementation of autonomy-supportive patient centered communication (PCC), which in turn requires the enhancement of patient engagement. Our main hypothesis is that the well-known relationship between autonomy-supportive PCC and HL is mediated by patient engagement which is known to play a role in HL promotion and that is related to PCC as well. The purpose of this study was to formulate a hypothetical structural equation model (SEM) linking PCC to patient engagement and HL. A cross-sectional survey design was employed involving 1007 Italian chronic patients. The hypothetical model was tested using SEM to verify the hypothesized mediation of patient engagement between PCC and HL. Results show that the theoretical model has a good fit indexes and that patient engagement fully mediates the relationship between PCC and HL. This finding suggests healthcare systems to implement a new paradigm where patients are supported to play an autonomous role in their own healthcare.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0663.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: dietary guidelines; evidence in nutrition; food behavior; sustainability; global health
Online: 10 November 2023 (08:53:07 CET)
Dietary guidance to recommend food patterns to deliver nutrients has been well accepted for the past century. Foods to deliver essential nutrients and energy are needed across the life cycle and are dependent upon local industries and accepted cultural practices to deliver essential nutrients to prevent nutrient deficiency diseases. Since the 1980s, dietary guidelines to prevent chronic diseases have relied on epidemiological research to predict what dietary patterns are linked to reduced risk of chronic disease or links to health outcomes. Dietary guidelines have been broad, typically recommending avoiding “too much sugar”, “too much saturated fat”, and “too much sodium”. Efforts to fine tune these recommendations have met with limited scientific data to support more specific recommendations across the life cycle. Consumers have become skeptical of dietary guidelines as media coverage of new studies is often in conflict with accepted nutrition dogma. We discuss whether we really have a science-based databank to support dietary guidelines, based on a scientific session at the 10th International Conference on Nutrition and Growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0016.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: patient engagement; consumer health; recommendation; consensus conference; guidelines; health services research
Online: 3 February 2020 (05:31:43 CET)
Patient engagement is receiving a growing attention in the healthcare context. However, although worldwide healthcare stakeholders agree that patient engagement is a priority for quality and effective care, no shared recommendations on how to promote patient engagement are currently available. Based on these premises, a Consensus Conference (CC) was promoted to address four main issues: What is the definition of Patient Engagement? How measuring Patient Engagement? What are the most recommended methodologies and the tools to promote Patient Engagement? What is the role of new technologies in promoting of Patient Engagement? The consensus was obtained through an iterative process that began with a systematic synthesis of the available literature in each domain followed by plenary expert discussions. This CC - including the systematic analysis of internationals scientific evidences (2749 sources across the major international scientific databases) together with experiences of a multi-disciplinary consortium of investigators and key stakeholders - attempted to provide the first evidence-based Expert Consensus Statement for the promotion of Patient Engagement in chronic care. These recommendations should be envisaged as inspirational principles to promote a real eco-system of engagement and might orient health services research and interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1305.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Alexithymia; burnout; hopelessness; healthcare workers; HCWs; Covid-19; pandemic
Online: 18 August 2023 (10:00:03 CEST)
In the present study, we aimed to assess the prevalence and the relationships between alexithymia, burnout and hopelessness in a large sample of healthcare workers (HCWs) during the third wave of Covid-19 in Italy. Alexithymia was evaluated by the Italian version of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), hopelessness was measured using the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and irritability (IRR), depression (DEP) and anxiety (ANX) were evaluated with the Italian version of Irritability‚ Depression‚ Anxiety Scale (IDA). This cross-sectional study recruited a sample of 1445 HCWs from a large urban healthcare facility in Italy from 1 June—31 May 2021. Comparison between individuals positive (n=214, 14.8%) or not for alexithymia (n=1231, 85.2%) controlling for age, gender and working seniority revealed that positive subjects showed higher scores on BHS, MBI, IRR, DEP and ANX than not positive ones (p<0.001). In the linear regression model, higher working seniority and higher MBI, DEP, ANX and TAS-20 scores were associated with higher hopelessness. In conclusion, increased hopelessness was associated with higher burnout and alexithymia. Comprehensive strategies should be implemented to support HCWs mental health and mitigate the negative consequences of alexithymia, burnout, and hopelessness