ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: ideal cardiovascular health; cardiovascular disease; health status; prevention and control; Poland
Online: 12 September 2018 (00:53:55 CEST)
Perfect cardiovascular health (CVH) has been defined by the American Heart Association as the lack of cardiovascular disease and the presence of seven key factors and health behaviors. In this study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of ideal and poor CVH among the Polish adult population, taking the chosen socio-demographic factors into consideration. This is a cross-sectional study conducted among 3,901 adults without cardiovascular diseases, aged between 35 and 64 years. Participants completed a questionnaire, and they had anthropometric and physiological measurements taken. Blood samples were analyzed for fasting glucose and cholesterol levels. Ideal CVH was found in 5.4% of the participants, with the advantage of being toward city dwellers over those living in the rural areas (6.3% vs. 5.0%) p = 0.02. In case of the residents of rural areas, their likelihood of having an ideal body mass index (BMI) was found to be 22% lower (odds ratio (OR) = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.66–0.92), their likelihood of having an ideal diet was found to be 27% lower (OR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.54–0.94), their likelihood of having perfect blood pressure was found to be 29% lower (OR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.56–0.89), and their likelihood of having the perfect glucose levels were found to be 28% lower (OR = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.63–0.84), than the residents of urban areas. The prevalence of ideal cardiovascular behaviors and factors is lower in the rural community compared with people living in the city. Results indicate that more effort should be dedicated toward the country’s health policy, specifically concerning primary prevention. Preventive actions in the field of cardiovascular disease should be addressed to the residents of rural areas to a larger extent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0176.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: COVID-19; nurses; posttraumatic stress disorder; perceived social support; changes in outlook; sense of security; meaning in life
Online: 7 August 2020 (08:10:28 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic affects not only physical health but also deteriorates mental health resulting in sleep problems, depression, and traumatic stress. Our research investigates the level of posttraumatic stress, perceived social support, opinions on positive and negative consequences of the pandemic, sense of security, and sense of meaning among nurses in the face of new and not fully understood global epidemiological phenomena. For this purpose, computer-assisted web interviewing methods were conducted between May 1 and May 15, 2020. Participating nurses completed the following research tools: The Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), The Changes in Outlook Questionnaire (CIOQ), The Safety Experience Questionnaire (SEQ) and The Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ). Three hundred and twenty-five nurses working throughout Poland joined the study of an average age of 39.18 ± 11.16 years. The average overall IES-R score in the study group was 1.78 ± 0.65. Among the dimensions of traumatic stress, the highest score was obtained in the dimension Avoidance 1.86 ± 0.73, then in the dimensions Hyperarousal 1.8 ± 0.78 and Intrusion 1.74 ± 0.83. Amongst studied nurses, the highest support rates were provided by significant others (22.58 ± 5.22), then from friends (21.91 ± 5) and family (21.45 ± 4.4). Among the surveyed nurses, higher average scores were noted in the subscale measuring positive psychological changes (18.56 ± 4.04). In contrast, a higher average level of assessment was noted on the Reflection on the safety dimension (4.21 ± 0.49). The mean MLQ score was 5.33 ± 0.87. A slightly higher result was observed in the subscale Presence (5.35 ± 1.14). The results of the research implemented during the period of severe psychological pressure associated with the COVID-19 pandemic provided information on symptoms of traumatic stress in the examined group of nurses. Their sense of security has been lowered and accompanied by an intensified reflection on issues concerning security. However, the sense of meaning (currently felt) in life remains higher than the tendency to searching for it. The surveyed nurses perceive individual support from the so-called significant others (apart from family and friends). They see positive changes resulting from painful experiences related to the COVID-19 pandemic, which can be characterized by adaptation in the form of posttraumatic growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0193.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: pregnant and non-pregnant women; health behaviours; preconceptional lifestyle; personal values; symbols of happiness
Online: 28 December 2017 (03:34:01 CET)
Preconception lifestyle modification and reducing several known risk factors may have an influence on the future pregnancy outcome. The aim of the study was to analyse health behaviour and personal values, as well as to assess the relationship of these factors in women without children, in pregnant ones and in women who had already delivered babies. The questionnaire survey included Health Behaviour Inventory (HBI), Personal Value List (PVL) and the sociodemographic data and was conducted in 538 women. These women were divided into 3 groups: women who recently delivered (n = 235), pregnant women (n = 121) and childless women (n = 182). Pregnant women demonstrated a significantly higher level of declared health behaviours and also they rated higher subscales values "positive mental attitude" and "health practices" in comparison to women who recently delivered and to childless women. In all tested groups the highest rated personal value was "a successful family life", while the most appreciated symbol of happiness was "love and friendship". Our results suggest that the system of values and the perception of happiness symbols may influence women's health behaviours. Positioning “health” in the hierarchy of personal values as the most important one may facilitate introduction of healthy behaviours. This in turn could reduce several adverse pregnancy outcomes that are potentially modifiable with changing preconception health attitudes. Our results also identify several unanswered questions and highlights areas where new research is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0297.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: oxidative status; antioxidant status; oxidative stress; cardiovascular diseases; overweight; obesity
Online: 28 August 2019 (14:51:29 CEST)
Obesity is one of the factors leading to the development of atherosclerosis. This metabolic disorder is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species, which affect the oxidative stress level. The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative/antioxidative status and to investigate the correlation between redox markers and anthropometric parameters and body composition in adult patients after myocardial infarction and in individuals without a cardiovascular event in the past. Descriptive data on socio-demographic, clinical, and anthropometric features and blood samples were collected and categorized into two equal groups: after myocardial infarction (study group (SG), n = 80) and without a cardiovascular event (control group (CG), n = 80). The oxidative/antioxidative status was assessed in plasma on the basis of total oxidative/capacitive status (PerOx), total antioxidative status/capacity (ImAnOx), and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). OxLDL was significantly higher in the CG group compared to the SG group (p = 0.02). No significant differences were found with regard to PerOx and ImAnOx values between the studied groups. Significant positive correlation between PerOx and percentage of adipose tissue (FM [%]) and body adiposity index (BAI) was found in the two studied groups. ImAnOx significantly positively correlated with VAI in SG and FM% in CG. OxLDL negatively correlated with body mass index and waist to hip circumference ratio in CG. The total oxidative/antioxidative status is related to the amount of adipose tissue and the BAI of the subjects. It was observed that it correlates more frequently with the visceral distribution of body fat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0105.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: depression; total protein; elder people; physical function; long-term care
Online: 6 August 2018 (09:41:35 CEST)
Due to its devastating consequences, late life depression is an important public health problem. The aim of the study was the analysis of variables which may potentially influence risk of depression (GDS-SF). Furthermore, the aim was to study possible mediating effect of given variables on the relationship between the total protein concentration and risk of depression in older-adults with chronic diseases, and physical function impairment. The research sample included a total of 132 older adults with chronic conditions and physical function impairments, remaining under a long-term care in residential environment. Negative linear correlation was observed between patients’ physical functionality, total protein concentration, concentration of HDL cholesterol, arm circumference, and the risk of depression. Considerably stronger relationship was observed between total protein concentration, and GDS-SF, in elderly suffering from sensory dysfunction (b = −6.42, 95% CI = −11.27; −1.58). The effect of the mediation between depression risk is correlated to total protein concentration in blood serum, and the mediators are probably low function impairment and low levels of 25 (OH)D vitamin. Cohort control research is suggested to confirm the hypothesis.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cardiovascular disease; heavy metals; cooper; zinc; manganese; cobalt; iron; health risk assessment
Online: 9 June 2020 (03:25:06 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) constitute the first cause of death among the population of developing and developed countries. Atherosclerosis, which is a disorder with multifactorial etiopathogenesis, underlies most CVDs. The available literature includes ample research studies on the influence of classic cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. However, environmental exposure to heavy metals, among other substances, is still an unappreciated risk factor of CVDs. This study aimed to assess the concentration of some heavy metals (copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), and iron (Fe)) in the blood serum of postmyocardial infarction (post-MI) patients and patients free from myocardial infarction (MI) as well as estimate the relationship between the occurrence of MI and increased concentration of heavy metals. The concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, and Fe) was assessed using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique in a group of 146 respondents divided into two groups: post-MI group (study group (SG), n = 74) and group without cardiovascular event (CVE) having a low CV risk (control group (CG), n = 72). The concentration of the analyzed heavy metals was higher in SG. All the heavy metals showed a significant diagnostic value (p < 0.001). The highest value of area under the curve (AUC) was observed for manganese (Mn) (0.955; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.922–0.988), while the lowest value was found for zinc (Zn) (0.691; 95% CI = 0.599–0.782). In one-dimensional models, high concentrations of each of the analyzed heavy metals significantly increased the chances of having MI from 7-fold (Cu) to 128-fold (Mn). All the models containing a particular metal showed a significant and high discrimination value for MI occurrence (AUC 0.72–0.92). Higher concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, and Fe were found to considerably increase the chances of having MI. Considering the increasingly higher environmental exposure to heavy metals in recent times, their concentrations can be distinguished as a potential risk factor of CVDs.