REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0227.v3
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT); groundwater level; groundwater resource; groundwater management models; groundwater monitoring system; wireless sensor network
Online: 28 December 2021 (12:10:17 CET)
Globally, groundwater is the largest distributed storage of freshwater and plays an important role in an ecosystem’s sustainability in addition to aiding human adaptation to both climatic change and variability. However, groundwater resources are dynamic and often change as a result of land usage, abstraction, as well as variation in climate. To solve these challenges, many conventional solutions, such as certain numerical techniques, have been proffered for groundwater modelling. The global evolution of the Internet of Things (IoT) has enhanced the culture of data gathering for the management of groundwater resources. In addition, efficient data-driven groundwater resource management relies hugely on information relating to changes in groundwater resources as well as their availability. At the moment, some studies in the literature reveal that groundwater managers lack an efficient and real-time groundwater management system that is needed to gather the required data. Additionally, the literature reveals that the existing methods of collecting data lack the required efficiency to meet computational model requirements and meet management objectives. Unlike previous surveys, which solely focussed on particular groundwater issues related to simulation and optimisation management methods, this paper seeks to highlight the current groundwater management models as well as the IoT contributions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0560.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: SEBAL, Remote Sensing, GIS, Groundwater Irrigation
Online: 23 June 2021 (10:15:05 CEST)
Irrigation water management components evaluation is mandatory for sustainable irrigated agriculture production in the era of water scarcity. In this research spatio-temporal distribution of irrigation water components were evaluated at canal command area in Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS) using remote sensing based geo-informatics approach. Satellite derived MODIS product-based Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was used for the estimation of the Actual Evapotranspiration (ETa). Satellite derived SEBAL based ETa was calibrated and validated using the ground data-based advection aridity method (AA). Statistical analysis of the SEBAL based ETa and AA shows the mean 87.1 mm and 47.9 mm and, 100 mm and 77 mm, Standard deviation of 27.7 mm and 15.9 mm and, 34.9 mm and 16.1 mm, R of 0.93 and 0.94, NSE of 0.72 and 0.85, PBIASE -12.9 and -4.4, RMSE 34.9 and 5.76 for the Kharif and Rabi season, respectively. Rainfall data was acquired from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). TRMM based rainfall was calibrated with the point observatory data of the Pakistan Metrological Department Stations. Canal water data was collected from the Punjab Irrigation department for the assessment of canal water availability. Water The water balance approach was applied in the unsaturated zone for the quantification of the gross and net Groundwater irrigation. Mmonthly variation of ETa with the minimum average value of 63.3 mm in January and the maximum average value of 110.6 mm in August was found. While, the average annual of four cropping years (2011-12 to 2014-15) ETa was found 899 mm. Average of the sum of Net Canal Water Use (NCWU) and Rainfall during the study period of four years was only 548 mm (36% of ETa) and this resulted the 739.6 mm of groundwater extraction. While the annual based variation in groundwater extraction of 632 mm and 780 mm was found. Seasonal analysis revealed 39% and 61% of groundwater extraction proportion during Rabi and Kharif season, respectively. The variation in four cropping year’s monthly groundwater extraction was found 28.7 mm to 120.3 mm. This variation was high in the 2011-12 to 2012-13 cropping year (0 mm to 148.7 mm), dependent upon the occurrence of rainfall and crop phenology. Net groundwater irrigation, estimated after incorporating the efficiencies was 503 mm year-1 on average for the four cropping years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0195.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: large-scale model; hydrology; groundwater; reservoirs; Cauvery; Narmada.
Online: 13 September 2021 (09:17:28 CEST)
A robust hydrological assessment is challenging in regions where human interference, within all aspects of the hydrological system, significantly alters the flow regime of rivers. The challenge was to extend a large-scale water resources model, GWAVA, to better represent water resources without increasing the model complexity. A groundwater and a regulated reservoir routine were incorporated into GWAVA using modifications of the existing AMBHAS-1D and Hanasaki methodologies, respectively. The groundwater routine can be varied in complexity when sufficient input data is available but fundamentally is driven by three input parameters. The reservoir routine was extended to account for the presence of large, regulated reservoirs using two calibratable parameters. The additional groundwater processes and reservoir regulation was tested in two highly anthropogenically influenced basins in India: the Cauvery and Narmada. The inclusion of the revised groundwater routine improved the simulation of streamflow in the headwater catchments and was successful in improving the representation of the baseflow component. In addition, the model was able to produce a time series of daily groundwater levels, recharge to groundwater and groundwater abstraction. The regulated reservoir routine improved the simulation of streamflow in catchments downstream of major reservoirs, where the streamflow was largely reflective of reservoir releases, when calibrated using downstream observed streamflow records. The model was able to provide a more robust representation of the annual volume and daily outflow released from the major reservoirs and simulate the major reservoir storages adequately. The addition of one-dimensional groundwater processes and a regulated reservoir routine proved successful in improving the model performance and traceability of water balance components, without excessively increasing the model complexity and input data requirements.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0261.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Africa; Biodiversity; Groundwater Resources; Integrated Watershed Management; River Basin
Online: 16 December 2021 (08:10:06 CET)
Human activities mostly impact the trend and direction of surface water, groundwater, and other river basin resources in the watershed in Africa. Human activities influence river flows and the water quality at both highlands and lowlands. A watershed is indeed a conserved area of land that collects rain and snow and empties or penetrates into ground water sources. The act of managing the activities around the watershed is the Integrated Watershed Management while considering the social, economic, and environmental issues, as well as community interests to manage water resources sustainably. These watersheds, river basins, and groundwater resources provide important services for communities and biodiversity. This paper reveals that the best way to protect groundwater resources is on a watershed basis using IWM. This technique enables us to handle a variety of concerns and objectives while also allowing us to plan in a complicated and uncertain environment. IWM involves cooperation and participation from a wide range of community interests and water users, including municipalities, companies, people, agencies, and landowners, for stakeholders' input to be successful. All of the strategies and plans are produced concerning one another, as well as the overall conditions of the watershed, local land uses, and specific issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0059.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: water footprint; bottled water; groundwater; Africa; water resource management; urban
Online: 10 December 2016 (08:41:51 CET)
Packaged water consumption has grown rapidly in urban areas of many low and middle income countries, but particularly in Ghana. However, the sources of water used by this growing packaged water industry and its implications for water resource management and transport-related environmental impacts have not been described. This study aimed to assess the spatial distribution of regulated packaged water production in Ghana, both in relation to demand and for natural mineral water, to hydrogeological characteristics. 764 addresses for premises licenced to produce packaged water from 2009-2015 were mapped and compared to regional sachet water consumption and beverage import/export data examined. We find evidence to suggest packaged water is transported shorter distances in Ghana than in developed countries. For natural mineral waters, producers should be able to address the most widespread water quality hazards (including high salinity, iron and nitrates) in aquifers used for production through reverse osmosis treatment. The study suggests there is scope to integrate beverage product and groundwater regulatory databases to support groundwater management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0032.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Karst spring, groundwater, discharge modelling, water management
Online: 4 March 2019 (10:13:29 CET)
The increasing occurrence of widespread drought phenomena is a global environmental emergency, especially for the effects of ongoing climate change on groundwater availability. Dry years and extreme temperatures are common drivers of current climate impacts all over the world, including, for example, freshwater supply for drinking and agriculture purposes, ecosystems, forestry, health, etc.. In this frame, to ensure temporal water availability in water-stressed areas, a sustainable groundwater management is an increasing challenge. Most of groundwater in the South-East Latium Region, Central Italy, as in the whole Apennine Mountains chain, is stored in karst aquifers. In this area important water resources are present, but even here in the last decades they are affected by groundwater depletion as a consequence of occurring drought events, the upward trend in the globally average temperature and the increasing of anthropogenic activities. Due to the lack of flow rates data of springs in many areas of Italy, the spring response modeling could be a useful tool for supporting a proper water resource management. Several research studies proposed methods based on relationships between spring discharges and rainfall data. The goal of this paper is to propose a model, based on rainfall-discharges cross correlations, in order to assess the spring flow rate patterns of Capodacqua di Spigno Spring, which is the main one in the study area. The results obtained using the developed model has been compared to an existing method that uses the SPI index for the estimation of the minimum annual spring discharge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0429.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Digital Twin; hazard; vulnerability; resilience; adaptive climate adaptation; groundwater; DK-model HIP
Online: 24 November 2022 (02:47:00 CET)
The paper analyses the national DK-model Hydrological Information and Prediction (HIP) system and HIP portal viewed as a ‘Digital Twin’ and how the introduction of real-time dynamic updating of the DK-model HIP simulations can give room for plug-in sub-models with real-time boundary conditions made available from a HIP portal. The possible feedback to a national real-time risk knowledge base during extreme events (flooding and drought) is also discussed. Under climate change conditions, Denmark is likely to experience more rain in winter, more evapotranspiration in summer, intensified cloudbursts, drought, and sea level rise. These challenges have been addressed as part of the Joint Governmental Digitalization Strategy 2016-2020 for better use and sharing of public data about the terrain, water, and climate to support climate adaptation, water management, and disaster risk reduction. This initiative included the development of a new web-based data portal (HIP portal) developed by the Danish Agency for Data Supply and Infrastructure (SDFI). GEUS delivered 5 terra-byte of hydrological model data to the portal with robust calibration methods and hybrid Machine Learning (ML) being key parts of the deliverables. The paper discusses the challenges and potentials of further developing the HIP Digital Twin with ‘plug-in Digital Twins’ for local river basins including feedback to the national level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0234.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Groundwater degradation; desertification; early warning system; System Dynamics; LDN; southern Spain
Online: 15 July 2022 (13:49:30 CEST)
Groundwater degradation is a global problem linked to irrigation agriculture and aggravated by climate change. In drylands, where aquifer recharge is low, irrigation has emerged as an engine of economic growth. This problem falls under the paradigm of desertification, as it fits the definition of this complex problem in that the degradation of drylands is due to climatic variations and inappropriate human activities. Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN), the response of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification to the lack of progress in tackling desertification, is integrated into Sustainable Development Goal 15.3 and provides the adequate framework for implementing effective solutions. LDN prioritizes prevention strategies, and early warning systems coupled to integrated simulation models is a sound approach. We analyze the dynamics of a coastal aquifer in southern Spain, a “desertification landscape” according to the Spanish National Action Plan to Combat Desertification. For this purpose, we have (i) adapted a generic desertification model that considers socio-ecological systems as a particular case of predator-prey systems; and (ii) coupled to this model a risk analysis to calculate the probabilities of groundwater salinization under the current scenario of water resources use, driven by the expansion of greenhouse agriculture supported by external water transfer. The risk of desertification is close to 100%: groundwater salinity is 40 dS m-1 (well above tomato tolerance, 3.5 dS m-1), and 2.4 Mm3 yr–1 water transfer is needed to support the 631 ha of greenhouses. This worrying result suggests that complimentary solutions should be promoted to deactivate the ongoing process of desertification. Among them, we propose reclaimed water, diversifying the economy, or promoting crops adapted to aridity. This simulation framework shows how to explore the future of a socio-ecosystem under current scenarios and others that consider climate change, the energy crisis, or the impact of alternative solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0199.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Water Security, Groundwater assessment, Groundwater quality, India
Online: 31 May 2018 (16:47:27 CEST)
Achieving water security and availability for all is among the principle agenda of the UN-Sustainable Development Goals. To achieve the goal of water security, particularly in rapidly expanding cities, identification of safe and sustainable water resources is an absolute necessity. The paper conducts an exploratory investigation in the hydro geochemical characteristics of groundwater and thereby, assess the suitability of groundwater as an alternative and reliable resource for public water supply in the Indian city of Surat. A total of 33-groundwater samples, selected on the basis of aquifer depth, land use signatures, were collected from open, bore, dug wells and hand pumps. After the hydrogeochemical analysis, the study evaluated the present state of the groundwater quality and determined the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters such as hardness, electrical conductivity, Cl −, pH, SO42-, and NO3 − concentrations. An interpolation technique, known as ordinary kriging, was used to acquire the spatial distribution of parameters of groundwater quality parameters. Based on the permeability index, result showed that 80% of the sampled groundwater quality falls under excellent class i.e. category I with PI value ranging from 1-24%, whereas the rest 20% of the samples has fallen under good class i.e. category II with PI value ranging from 25 to 75% on the suitability of water for irrigation. The results of this study outlines the unsustainability of groundwater for direct consumption, especially without any improved onsite water treatment, but it is appropriate for the irrigation purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0293.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: groundwater monitoring; modeling; MODFLOW; kriging; residuals; water levels; Edwards-Trinity aquifer
Online: 16 September 2021 (16:02:25 CEST)
Groundwater monitoring and water level predictions have been a challenging issue due to the complexity of groundwater movement. Simplified numerical simulation models have been used to represent the groundwater system; these models however only provide the conservative approximation of the system and may not always capture the local variations. Several other efforts such as coupling groundwater models with hydrological models and using geostatistical methods are being practiced to accurately predict the groundwater levels. In this study, we present a novel application of geostatistical tool on residuals of groundwater model. Kriging method was applied on the residuals of the numerical model (MODFLOW) generated by the TWDB (Texas Water Development Board) for the Edwards-Trinity (Plateau) aquifer. The study was done for the years 1995 through 2000 where 90% of the observation data was used for model simulation followed by cross-validation with the remaining 10% of the observations. The kriging method reduced the average absolute error of approximately 31 m (for MODFLOW simulation) to less than 5 m. Also, the residuals’ average standard error reduced from 9.7 to 4.7. This implies that the mean value of residuals over entire period can be a good estimation for each year separately. The use of kriging technique thus can provide with improved monitoring of groundwater levels resulting in more accurate potentiometric surface maps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0297.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Positive mathematical programming; Integrated multidisciplinary research; Aquifer depletion; Land use allocations; Groundwater use; Irrigation; Conservation; Profitability; Water economics; Groundwater; Alluvial aquifer; Row crops; Mississippi Delta; Lower Mississippi River Valley
Online: 16 September 2021 (17:50:37 CEST)
A method for calibrating models of agricultural production and resource use presented by Howitt  for policy analysis is proposed to leverage multidisciplinary agricultural research at the National Center for Alluvial Aquifer Research (NCAAR). An illustrative example for Sunflower County, MS is presented to show how plot-level research can be extended to draw systemic region or basin wide implications. A hypothetical improvement in yields for dryland soybean varieties is incorporated to the model and shown to have a positive impact on aquifer outcomes and producer profits. The example illustrates that a change in one practice-crop combination can have system-wide impacts as evidenced by the change in acreages for all crops and practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0452.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Flooding from Groundwater; FEFLOW; Groundwater Modelling; Rise in River stage, Super Mesh
Online: 29 September 2022 (05:53:43 CEST)
Groundwater (GW) flooding mechanisms differ from river flooding both spatially and temporally, and preventative methods against groundwater flooding must take this into account. Although groundwater flooding caused by river water rise occurs seldom, it can occasionally become severe and last for a long time if the river is significantly flooded. In the southwest portion of the research domain, Friedrichshafen with a few urban communities, the level of the groundwater table was discovered to be roughly 1 m below the surface. It was discovered that the urban settlement area only has one-story buildings. In the study region, it is typical for the single-story building's foundation bottom level to extend up to a depth of about 1.5 meters. Therefore, flood mitigation methods are taken into account for the southwest portion of the study region. The installation of a pumping well, drainage, and a barrier in the affected area are three different flood control strategies that are taken into consideration for the study area. From a technical and cost-benefit perspective, installing a pumping well that withdraws water and lowers the groundwater table was found to be the most effective flood control measure locally in a small region (e.g., 1km x 1km). By contrast, removing groundwater by building drainage and barriers was also shown to be ineffective to lower the groundwater table over an extended region and was significantly more expensive than the installation of wells. Additionally, when river flooding is taken into account compared to the default scenario where no intake of water from the river is included along the western border of the study area, it is discovered that the spread of pollution is significantly greater.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0288.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: radium; uranium; groundwater; interlaboratory comparison
Online: 15 November 2022 (11:04:44 CET)
226Ra and 228Ra are typically monitored for groundwater and surface water compliance at legacy U mining and milling sites. Groundwater monitoring results for combined Ra (226Ra+228Ra) reported by the existing contract laboratory at a former U mine and mill Site (Wyoming, USA) have been highly variable and with increasing trends at the Site compliance and background wells since the method was changed in 2005. Sample reanalysis has indicated poor reproducibility and significant analytical error in 228Ra measurements. An interlaboratory comparison was conducted to evaluate the potential causes of the high variability and analytical error. Two different methods were used for 226Ra (M903.0 and M903.1) and 228Ra (M904.0 and Ra-05). 226Ra results were less variable compared to 228Ra, and 228Ra data from the existing laboratory were qualified as estimated with high bias due to detection of 228Ra in the field blank. Compliance with the 226Ra+228Ra groundwater standard was either met or not met, depending on which laboratory conducted the analyses. Specific laboratory techniques, rather than the analytical method, are contributing to elevated 228Ra values being reported. It was recommended that samples whose 226Ra+228Ra results exceed the Site standard in the future be reanalyzed by the existing laboratory with a sample split also being sent to an outside laboratory for confirmatory analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0169.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Plumes; dynamics; resistivity; contamination; groundwater
Online: 10 December 2021 (11:28:20 CET)
The contamination of areas around solid urban waste dumps is a global challenge for the maintenance of environmental quality in large urban centres in developing countries. This study applied geophysical methods (electrical resistivity) to identify leachate contamina-tion plumes in the subsoil and groundwater, as well as to describe their temporal (2020 and 2021) dynamics in the lithology and groundwater around the Hulene - B waste dump, Maputo, Mozambique. Geophysical methods (electrical resistivity) were applied to identify possible groundwater contamination plumes, their dynamics, mechanisms of their enrichment and dispersion. Eight 400 m electrical resistivity profiles were performed, four profiles in January 2020 and four profiles in May 2021, overlapped, and the data were inverted with RES2D software. The electrical resistivity models indicate an E - W move-ment of large contamination plumes that dilute superficially into the natural surface wa-ter receiving basin and groundwater, creating zones of resistive anomalies. The thickness of the plumes in the subsurface environment was shown to be extensive in summer for profiles 1a and 2b and we associate it with the higher leachate production and migration mechanisms, which are intense in the hot and rainy season. Profile 4b showed the prop-agation of anomalous surface and subsurface areas, which was associated with higher leachate production and migration process in the new deposition zone (west). The spatial distribution of contamination plumes at both stations reduced significantly as we moved further away from the waste deposit, revealing the attenuating effect of groundwater and lithological substrate (Profile 3 a, b, and fig.7).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0255.v1
Online: 11 August 2021 (11:18:13 CEST)
Heavy metals contamination in groundwater often occurs in various industrial processes. Stud-ies have confirmed that polysulfide could reduce hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium, achieving the effect of in-situ stabilization. For other heavy metals contamination in groundwa-ter, whether polysulfide also had a stabilizing ability to achieve in-situ remediation. This re-search focused on heavy metals except for chromium that often contaminated in groundwater, including lead, nickel, zinc, copper, and cadmium to explore the feasibility of using calcium polysulfide (CaSx) as an in-situ stabilization technology for these heavy metals contamination groundwater. Results showed that CaSx had a great removal efficiency for heavy metals lead, nickel, zinc, copper, and cadmium. However, for nickel, zinc, copper and cadmium, when CaSx was added excessively, complexes would be formed, causing the result of re-dissolve and this would also reduce the removal efficiency. Since it is difficult to accurately control the dosage of agents for in-situ groundwater remediation, the concentration of re-dissolved nickel, zinc, cop-per, and cadmium may not be able to meet the groundwater control standards. CaSx had high lead removal efficiency, and it would not cause re-dissolution due to excessive CaSx dosing. CaSx can be used as an in-situ stabilization technique for lead contaminated groundwater.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0126.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: GIS, Groundwater, Physico- chemical parameters, Statistics
Online: 15 January 2018 (16:48:32 CET)
Groundwater is an important role of the environment in natural resources. The major sources of groundwater contamination in this study were open discharges of domestic sewage, inadequate sewerage system, open defecation, septic tanks, soak pits, contaminated water pools, unorganized solid waste dumping and use of fertilizers, pesticides for agriculture deteriorated the condition. In this present study revealed that the physical and chemical characteristics of ground water in different areas of Kannur district in Kerala have been determined different seasons with respect to its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. For this study the groundwater samples were collected during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons from 70 wells representing the entire the study area. The groundwater samples were analyzed for Physico-chemical characteristics using standard techniques in laboratory and compared with standards. The samples were analyzed with reference to the WHO and BIS standards. The groundwater quality information of the entire study area have been prepared using statistical and GIS technique for all the parameters. This paper proved in GIS will be helpful for measuring, monitoring and managing the groundwater pollution in the study area and suggested to protect groundwater resources in the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0024.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: aquifer, rock, radioactive isotopes, groundwater dating
Online: 4 October 2017 (16:45:54 CEST)
Uranium isotopes actively investigated as mechanistic or time scale tracers of natural processes. This paper describes the occurrence and redistribution of U in the Vendian aquifer of the paleo valley at NW Russia. Forty-four rock samples were collected from boreholes, and twenty-five groundwater samples. The U, Fe concentration, and 234U/238U activity ratio were determined in the samples. We estimated the 14C and 234U-238U residence time of groundwater in an aquifer. It has been established that the processes of chemical weathering of Vendian deposits led to the formation of a strong oxidation zone, developed above -250 m.a.s.l. The inverse correlation between the concentrations of uranium and iron is a result of removal of U from paleo valley slopes in oxidizing conditions and accumulation of U at the bottom of the paleo valley in reducing conditions, and accumulation of Fe on the slopes and removal from bottom. Almost all U on the slopes replaced by a newly formed hydrogenic U with a higher 234U/238U activity ratio. After that dissolution and desorption of hydrogenic U was occurred from the slopes during periods without any glaciations and marine transgressions. Elevated concentrations of U preserved in not oxidized lenses at the paleo valley bottom.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0240.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: calibration; uncertainty quantification; numerical modeling; groundwater hydrology
Online: 17 March 2022 (02:48:38 CET)
Groundwater models serve as support tools to among others: assess water resources, evaluate management strategies, design remediation systems and optimize monitoring networks. Thus, the assimilation of information from observations into models is crucial to improve forecasts and reduce uncertainty of their results. As more information is collected routinely due to the use of automatic sensors, data loggers and real time transmission systems; groundwater modelers are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of using sophisticated tools to perform model calibration in combination with sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Despite their usefulness, available approaches to perform this kind of analyses still present some challenges such as non-unique solution for the parameter estimation problem, high computational burden and a need of a deep understanding of the theoretical basis for the correct interpretation and use of their results, in particular the ones related to uncertainty analysis. We present a brief derivation of the main equations that serve as basis for this kind of analysis. We demonstrate how to use them to estimate parameters, assess the sensitivity and quantify the uncertainty of the model results using an example inspired by a real world setting. We analyze some of the main pitfalls that can occur when performing such kind of analyses and comment on practical approaches to overcome them. We also demonstrate that including groundwater flow estimations, although helpful in constraining the solution of the inverse problem as shown previously, may be difficult to apply in practice and, in some cases, may not provide enough information to significantly constrain the set of potential solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0762.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Naturtejo Geopark; Groundwater; Vulnerability; DRASTIC; DRASTICAI; GIS
Online: 31 March 2021 (12:04:28 CEST)
Groundwater vulnerability assessment has become a useful tool for groundwater pollution pre-vention. Groundwater vulnerability maps provide useful data to protect groundwater resources. The identification of agricultural patterns is an important issue for optimized land management. The Tagus river watershed is the backbone of this survey. Naturtejo UNESCO Global Geopark, in central inland Portugal, corresponds to a rural territory. Intensive agricultural practices showed a rising tendency in the last decades. The most internationally used method for vulnerability evaluation is the DRASTIC index. In this survey, the DRASTICAI index is introduced. A new at-tribute - Anthropogenic Influence - is here added. Five levels of growing vulnerability, from low to high, can be here acknowledged. Idanha-a-Nova municipality is the most affected by intensive farming activities. A robust assessment of groundwater quality has a key role. Climate change scenarios and water scarcity are important issues in years to come. Therefore, optimized groundwater management is essential to consider in policy-making strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0321.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: quantile regression; groundwater; environmental; multivariate; metals; health
Online: 14 December 2020 (10:13:09 CET)
One of the most important defining characteristics of groundwater quality is pH as it fundamentally controls the amount and chemical form of many organic and inorganic solutes in groundwater. Groundwater data are frequently characterized by a wide degree of variability of the factors which possibly influence pH distribution. For this reason, it is challenging to link the spatio-temporal dynamics of pH to a single environmental factor by the ordinary least squares regression technique of the conditional mean. In this study, quantile regression was used to estimate the response of pH to nine environmental factors (As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and nitrates). Results of 25%, 50%, 75% quantile regression and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression were compared. The standard regression of the conditional means (OLS) underestimated the rates of change of pH due to the selected factors in comparison with the regression quantiles. The effect of arsenic increased for sampling locations with higher pH values (higher quantiles) likewise the influence of Pb and Mn. However, the effects of Cd and Fe decreased for sampling locations in higher quantiles. It can be concluded that these detected heterogeneities would be missed if this study had focused exclusively on the conditional means of the pH values. Consequently, quantile regression provides a more comprehensive account of possible spatio-temporal relationships between environmental covariates in groundwater. This study is one of the first to apply this technique on groundwater systems in sub-Saharan Africa. The approach is useful and interesting and has broad application for other mining environments especially tropical low-income countries where climatic conditions can drive rapid cycling or transformations of pollutants. It is also pertinent to geopolitical contexts where regulatory; monitoring and management capacities are weak and where mining pollution of groundwater largely occur.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0136.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: groundwater quality; environmental change; Permian Basin; Texas
Online: 9 April 2020 (05:50:27 CEST)
This study evaluates spatial analyses of groundwater quality and environmental changes to obtain information on the groundwater contamination in the Permian Basin, Texas. Coupled with the U.S. government’s open data, these analyses can identify regions where environmental change could have potentially effected groundwater quality. A total of thirty-six wells were selected within the six counties: Andrews, Martin, Ector, Midland, Crane, and Upton. Spatial distribution maps were created for six different parameters: pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride, fluoride, nitrate, and arsenic. Total groundwater quality maps incorporate all the contaminants and denote regions of poor, medium, and optimum conditions. To identify spatial changes in groundwater quality, maps were separated into two different time intervals, 1992-2005 and 2006-2019. We found that groundwater contamination resulted primarily from the mobilization of the contaminant from natural sources or anthropogenic activities such as chemical fertilizers. Overall, groundwater quality decreased during the study period from 1992 to 2019 as population and urban growth began to develop in the Permian Basin. This study contributes on understanding of the response of groundwater quality associated with environmental change in the Permian Basin. Therefore, this research provides important information for groundwater managements in developing plans for the use of water resource in the future for Texas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0356.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: potential; groundwater; geoelectrical; chemical parameter; physical parameter
Online: 30 October 2019 (10:20:22 CET)
The purpose of this study was to recommend to the government about the appropriate land use based on geoelectric and hydrochemical works. The results were supposed to be used as models for effective land use. During the study, a groundwater survey using a geoelectrical method was conducted and was used to map an aquifer flow. In general, Solok groundwater mapping was meant to provide information necessary to optimize follow-up activities for the use of clean water. It was also intended to minimize the negative impacts of exploitation and utilization of groundwater. This research aimed to provide information on groundwater conditions in Solok. It focused on the survey of groundwater sources, the inversion of measurement data on Sclumberger electrode configuration geoelectric in thirteen districts, and chemical analysis of pH, Fe, Nitrite, and DHL. The results show there was a great potential for groundwater-unconfined aquifers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0036.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Photo-sensitization; nitrate; sulfite, 1,4-dioxane, groundwater
Online: 3 September 2018 (13:45:12 CEST)
Groundwater contamination by nitrate and organic chemicals (e.g. 1,4-dioxane) is a growing worldwide concern. This work presents a new approach for simultaneously treating nitrate and 1,4-dioxane, which is based on UV sensitization of nitrate and sulfite, and the production of reactive species. Specifically, water contaminated with nitrate and 1,4-dioxane is irradiated by a UV source (< 250 nm) at relatively high doses, to sensitize in-situ nitrate and generate HO•. This leads to the oxidation of 1,4-dioxane (and other organics), and the (undesired) production of nitrite as an intermediate. Subsequently, sulfite is added at an optimized time-point, and its UV sensitization produces hydrated electrons which reacts and reduces nitrite. Our results confirmed the effectivity of the proposed treatment: UV irradiation of nitrate (at > 5 mg N/L) efficiently degraded 1,4-dioxane, while producing nitrite at levels higher than 1 mg N/L (its MCL in drinking water). Adding sulfite to the process after 10 minutes of irradiation reduced the concentration of nitrite, without affecting the degradation rate of 1,4-dioxane. The treated water contained elevated levels of sulfate; albeit at much lower concentration than its MCL. Treating water contaminated with nitrate and organic chemicals (often detected concomitantly) typically requires several (expensive) treatment processes. The proposed approach may present a cost-effective alternative, employing a single system for the treatment of nitrate and organic contaminants
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0027.v1
Online: 5 June 2017 (05:43:56 CEST)
This study investigated the presence of human Norovirus (HuNoV) by genotype in 1,486 groundwater samples, collected from 843 groundwater wells suspected of contamination during 2007-2016, in Republic of Korea. We identified and genotyped 186 HuNoV sequences in 178 HuNoV-positive samples using the RIVM-NoroNet norovirus genotyping tool (NGT) and phylogenetic tree analysis based on RIVM-NoroNet reference sequences. HuNoV GII was more prevalent than GI. The major genotypes detected were HuNoV GII.4 (43.0%), GII.22 (15.6%), GI.5 (10.2%) and GI.1 (8.6%); 14 genotypes accounted for < 5.0%. Increasing HuNoV GII.17 has displayed a worldwide trend, including in Europe and Asia since 2010, and it was the dominant HuNoV genotype during 2013-2014 in Korea. However, HuNoV GII.4 was the major genotype detected in groundwater in Korea in 2015-2016, and it is becoming increasingly prevalent similar to HuNoV GII.17.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0077.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Uranium; Groundwater; Colorado Plateau; Navajo Nation; Chinle Formation
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:38:21 CEST)
Uranium (U) is enriched in the waters of the southern Colorado Plateau, including waters of the Navajo Nation. The region has naturally occurring U in rocks and a history of U mining which may increase U concentrations in waters. Despite prior research into the concentration of U in the waters of the Navajo Nation, a framework has not been established to understand the variation of U in the region’s groundwater. To this end, we examined data from six studies to establish where and why U is likely to be enriched in waters of the southern Colorado Plateau. We show that U concentrations are related to the presence of U-rich rock bodies, elevation, and local aquifer salinity. Additionally, we show that U concentrations in waters downstream from abandoned U mines are higher than in waters that are not downstream from mines, and that the area around mines has an elevated U concentration relative to background U concentrations. Our work can act as a guide for local water withdrawal, regional water remediation and mitigation efforts, and provides a means for understanding the geographical patterns of U concentration in waters of the southern Colorado Plateau.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0281.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Sana’a Region; Rainfall; Surface Water; Groundwater; Water Crisis
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:07:08 CET)
Yemen is a water-scarce country with inadequate fresh water and considerable groundwater depletion, as well as a lack of adequate surface water. The study region is considered an arid region, and there is insufficient water to meet the needs of the region's yearly population growth rate of 4 %. This study aims to assess the water resources in the Sana'a region and to identify the current water situation and forecast for the future. Rainfall changes spatial and temporal in very few quantities and an annual average of 267 mm. Water harvesting facilities are entirely filled by 75% of the total water facilities in the rainy seasons. The groundwater level in Sana’a Basin decreases about 6-8 meters annually due to the increase in the number of wells, the abundance of abstraction, and the lack of recharge. The amount of abstraction exceeds 400% of the recharge in the Sana'a basin. The water per capita is 70 - 85 m³ annually. It is an abstraction from the aquifers by private wells. The crop cultivated area decreased from 184217 hectares in 2007 to 122583 hectares in 2018 due to lack of water. The sewage treatment plant treats 18.25 Mm³ annually, with less than 70 % efficiency. The water deficit is about 500 to 723 Mm³ annually; it is an abstraction from the aquifers by private wells. The current water situation in the Sana'a region is catastrophic, and the planning and management must ensure a water balance in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0096.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Central Asia; GRACE; drought; vegetation; water storage; groundwater
Online: 6 September 2021 (13:15:03 CEST)
With the influences of climate change and human activities, the resources and environment of “One Belt and One Road” are facing severe problems and challenges. This study aims to analyze the temporal and spatial dynamics of the drought environment and the response of vegetation cover to the drought by using drought indicators. Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) drought severity index (GRACE-DSI) and GRACE water storage deficit index (GRACE-WSDI), were calculated to present hydrological drought. Moreover, based on GRACE, Water-Global Assessment and Prognosis (WaterGAP) model, and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) data, the groundwater in Central Asia was retrieved to calculate the groundwater drought index called the GRACE Standardized Groundwater Level Index (GRACE-SGI). The results show that the annual precipitation in Central Asia increased slightly at a rate of 0.39 mm/year (p = 0.82) since 2000, while the temperature increased slightly at a rate of 0.05 ℃/year (p = 0.10). The water storage decreased significantly at -0.59 mm/year (p <0.01) and experienced a decrease-increase-decrease process. During the study period, the arid situation in Central Asia deteriorated, especially in the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea and the Aral Sea basin. From 2007 to 2015, the Central Asian environment was generally arid and suffered from different du-rations and degrees of hydrological and groundwater droughts. The drought indicators (i.e., GRACE-DSI, GRACE-WSDI) and the NDVI showed a significantly positive correlation during the growing season. However, the NDVI of cultivated land and grassland distribution areas in Central Asia showed a strong negative correlation with GRACE-SGI. It is concluded that the drought environment in Central Asia affected the growth of vegetation. The continued deterioration of the arid situation may further stress the ecological system in Central Asia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0079.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Groundwater quality; Shallow aquifers; agronomics; geospatial techniques; Aligarh
Online: 6 September 2021 (07:57:47 CEST)
Monitoring of groundwater quality in today's scenario is very much important. Due to urbanization and population pressure regular monitoring of groundwater for drinking as well as irrigation purposes need a major concern. With this aim, a study has been carried out consisting 26 groundwater samples in May 2017, to access the physiochemical characteristic, water quality index (WQI) of groundwater by using GIS software and to find out the groundwater suitableness for drinking as well as for irrigation purpose. The pH is slightly alkaline and the TDS is much more than prescribed limits of BIS. The trend of cations in groundwater are Ca2+>Na+>Mg2+>K+ while anions trend is HCO3->SO42->Cl->NO3->CO32->F-. The Ca-Mg-HCO3 and Na-K-Cl-SO4 types of groundwater facies were dominant. Generally, the chemical changes in groundwater are administered by the evaporation process with ion exchange, and mixing of particles is the significant source of the solute acquisition process. WQI of the study area suggested that the 15% sample is unsuitable, 69% is poor and remaining is good for drinking uses. The potential salinity of the groundwater sample is nearly high although the majority of the sample is suited for irrigation activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0412.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: deep learning; hydraulic conductivity; convolutional neural networks; groundwater
Online: 15 April 2021 (12:25:05 CEST)
We confirm that energy dissipation weighting provides the most accurate approach to determining the effective hydraulic conductivity (Keff) of a binary K grid. A deep learning algorithm (UNET) can infer Keff with extremely high accuracy (R2 > 0.99). The UNET architecture could be trained to infer the energy dissipation weighting pattern from an image of the K distribution with high fidelity, although it was less accurate for cases with highly localized structures that controlled flow. Furthermore, the UNET architecture learned to infer the energy dissipation weighting even if it was not trained on this information directly. However, the weights were represented within the UNET in a way that was not immediately interpretable by a human user. This reiterates the idea that even if ML/DL algorithms are trained to make some hydrologic predictions accurately, they must be designed and trained to provide each user-required output if their results are to be used to improve our understanding of hydrologic systems most effectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0006.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Fluoride, groundwater, in-situ remediation, pump and treat
Online: 2 January 2017 (13:57:12 CET)
A wide variety of pump and treat methods like chemical precipitation, adsorption, ion exchange and reverse osmosis have been trialled for many decades for fluoride removal from groundwater, but the problem of fluoride contaminated water remains in many parts of the world largely because these processes require constant monitoring, are expensive to implement and maintain at decentralised scale due to lack of reticulation infrastructure, and possess sludge disposal problem. This paper presents an overview of various fluoride removal processes and the limitations associated with each process and the application of in-situ permeable reactive barrier for remediating fluoride contaminated groundwater is explored, which displays the potential to be a cost effective, low maintenance and energy intensive technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0050.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: groundwater exploration; fracture trace analysis; geophysics; geomorphology; geospatial tools
Online: 2 December 2022 (10:46:03 CET)
Groundwater is a strategic resource for economic development, social justice, environmental sustainability, and water governance. The Lower Casas Grandes Basin located in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico is in a semi-arid region that has increasing groundwater demands while confronting regional challenges such as adverse climate change scenarios and depleting aquifers. Even though there is official information about the availability of groundwater, comprehensive aquifer characterization is still uncertain and needs interdisciplinary investigation using a diverse suite of tools and multiple data sources. This study presents a multi-technique framework to evaluate potential sites to drill for groundwater resources. The main components of the methodology included: wellhead leveling correction with a differential global positioning survey to define piezometric levels, principal component analysis using Landsat-8 images, application of geospatial tools, geophysics using Time Domain Electromagnetic Surveys and Vertical Electric Soundings and structural geohydrology to define aquifer characteristics. Results show that the application of the framework enhances the possibility of successful drilling for groundwater while saving time and money using “pin-point” positioning for drilling sites as compared to a traditional extensive groundwater exploration approach. Low resistivity values (35 Ohm-m) were found at depths from 50m to 85m at sites where the regional static water level reached 245 m deep adding a shallow groundwater potential at sites where the intersection of fracture trace was identified. This procedure can be used at other sites where limited or minimum information is available for groundwater exploration to reduce the risk of drilling dry wells in complex hydrogeological environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0055.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Aquifer, Ternate Island, Regional geology, Groundwater potential, Hydrogeochemistry zone.
Online: 2 November 2022 (11:02:30 CET)
Ternate Island is a volcanic island resulting from the activity of the Gamalama Volcano which is located in the northern Maluku archipelago, Indonesia. Ternate Island is famous as the only island that produces special spices and is the zero point of the world's spice route because the main producer of cloves is here. As a small island, Ternate Island has several limitations including the availability of water resources. Given the scarcity of surface water on the island of Ternate, groundwater in shallow aquifers and deep aquifers is the main source of fresh water which is important for irrigation activities, tourism, services and supporting urban and industrial infrastructure, as well as drinking water needs for people who live densely and are concentrated in the east. and the southern part of the island which is now the city of Ternate. The phenomenon of groundwater utilization in Ternate City is generally massively carried out to support economic activities in the city of Ternate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential and quality of groundwater resources which are an important part of water management on the island of Ternate by microzoning the quality of groundwater for the sustainability of the city which is famous as the world's spice city based on its groundwater potential. Determination of groundwater samples as many as 67 wells distributed on the island of Ternate, 58 well sample points were categorized as free aquifers (MA-SG) and 7 points of depressed aquifers (SB). Ternate island area of 102 km2 with volcanic geology in 3 rock categories. Geological distribution also affects the hydrogeological potential and groundwater quality on the island of Ternate. Piper's trilinear diagram and stiff diagram methods were adopted for the assessment of the main ion quality of groundwater and the distribution of groundwater potential was interpolated with cubic splines to obtain correlations between sample points based on basic parameters of volcanic hydrogeology. The total potential for groundwater recharge is 1,291 million m3/year, there are 5 groundwater quality zones spread among 67 sample points with 76% distribution of elements Calcium Bicarbonate (CaCO3), Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO₂), magnesium bicarbonate Mg(HCO3)2 and widely distributed on the island of ternate, while 25% magnesium chloride (MgCl2) and potassium chloride (KCL) are scattered locally on the island of ternate. On an ongoing basis the bicarbonate facies micro-zonation is hydrogeochemical with local flow interactions in volcanic deposits, where infiltration tends to be close to the groundwater sample point, while the chloride facies is a groundwater zone that is correlated with flow patterns from upstream to downstream and has interacted with magma or was intruded. seawater is characterized by high Ca and TDS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0445.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: 3D geological modelling; groundwater models; incised valleys; Rome; alluvium
Online: 28 October 2021 (16:13:54 CEST)
This study presents the results of a research project financed by the Lazio Regional Government. The research focused on defining an integrated model of recent alluvial deposits in the Tiber River. To achieve this objective, geological boreholes were made to monitor the aquifer and in situ and laboratory tests carried out. The data obtained was used to detail stratigraphic aspects and improve the comprehension of water circulation beneath the recent alluvial deposits of the Tiber River in the urban area of Rome, between the Ponte Milvio bridge and the Tiber Island. The stratigraphic intervals recognised in the boreholes were parameterised based on their litho-technical characteristics. The new data acquired, and integrated with existing data in the CNR IGAG database, made it possible to produce a three-dimensional model of the lithologies in the study area.The model of the subsoil, simplified for applied reasons, was described in hy-drostratigraphic terms: three different lithotypes were subjected to piezometric levels monitor-ing. Finally, the research generated a numerical hydrological level in a stationary regime. In general, this study demonstrates how a numerical hydrogeological model calibrated by piezo-metric monitoring data can support the construction of a geological model, discarding or con-firming certain hypotheses and suggesting other means of reconstructing sedimentary bodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0544.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Analysis; control; physicochemical quality; groundwater; Chari Baguirmi region; Chad
Online: 25 August 2020 (10:02:42 CEST)
Water resources are threatened nowadays by pollution that comes from domestic, industrial and agricultural discharges without prior treatment. This pollution causes the degradation of water quality. Surface pollutants can seep through the soil into water tables. The objective of our work is to assess and control the physicochemical quality of the Chari Baguirmi groundwater, to protect human health. The quality of 83 boreholes was assessed, while performing analysis for 12 physicochemical parameters at the National Water Laboratory and at the Center for Quality Control of Foodstuffs in Chad. These parameters are: pH, EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, NH4+ and NO3- , Fe2+ and HCO3-. Also, the results obtained were compared with WHO standards. The geochemical statistical approach has made it possible to characterize the hydro geochemical properties and to understand the major processes of the mineralization of groundwater resources in Chari Baguirmi region in Chad. Some of its waters are acidic and weakly mineralized, rich in Fe2+ and NH4+. The origin of the mineralization is due to the alteration of the host rocks and to the hydrolysis of silicate and ferromagnesian minerals as well as anthropogenic pollution. The ammonium concentrations in N’Djamena boreholes are higher than WHO standards, indicating the presence of pollution which may come from organic waste. These results constitute a preliminary step in understanding hydro geochemical functioning and a basis for monitoring the physicochemical quality of the water in the study area.
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: bioelectrochemical systems; in situ treatment; groundwater remediation; bioelectroremediation; denitrification; microbial electrochemical technologies
Online: 17 January 2020 (11:08:18 CET)
Groundwater contamination is an ever-growing environmental issue that has attracted much and undiminished attention for the past half century. Groundwater contamination may originate from both anthropogenic (e.g., hydrocarbons) and natural compounds (e.g., nitrate and arsenic); to tackle the removal of these contaminants, different technologies have been developed and implemented. Recently, bioelectrochemical systems (BES) have emerged as a potential treatment for groundwater contamination, with reported in situ applications that showed promising results. Nitrate and hydrocarbons (toluene, phenanthrene, benzene, BTEX and light PAHs) have been successfully removed, due to the interaction of microbial metabolism with poised electrodes, in addition to physical migration due to the electric field generated in a BES. The selection of proper BESs relies on several factors and problems, such as the complexity of groundwater and subsoil environment, scale-up issues, and energy requirements that need to be accounted for. Modeling efforts could help predict case scenarios and select a proper design and approach, while BES-based biosensing could help monitoring remediation processes. In this review, we critically analyze in situ BES applications for groundwater remediation, focusing in particular on different proposed setups, and we identify and discuss the existing research gaps in the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0290.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: groundwater model; well field; pre-field investigation; aquitard breach
Online: 15 October 2018 (08:30:00 CEST)
Memphis aquifer is the primary drinking water source in Shelby County (Tennessee, USA) and supplies industrial, commercial, and residential water. Memphis aquifer is separated from the Shallow aquifer by a clayey layer known as Upper Claiborne Confining Unit (UCCU). All of the production wells in the Memphis area are screened in the Memphis aquifer or even deeper in the Fort Pillow aquifer. Traditionally, it was assumed that the UCCU could fully protect the Memphis aquifer from the contaminated Shallow aquifer groundwater. However, recent studies show that at some locations the UCCU is thin or absent which possibly leads to the contribution of Shallow aquifer to the Memphis aquifer. Accurately locating the breaches demands expensive and difficult geological or geochemical investigations, especially within an urban area. Hence, a pre-field investigation to identify the locations where the presence of breaches is likely can significantly reduce the cost of field investigations and improve the their results. In this study, to identify the locations where the presence of breaches in the UCCU is likely we use three different analyses: (1) pilot point calibration (PPC), (2) velocity and flow budget (VFB), and (3) particle tracking (PT) to post-process the developed groundwater results. These pre-field numerical investigations provide relevant and defensible explanations for groundwater flow anomalies in an aquifer system for informed decision-making and future field investigations. In this study, we identify five specific zones within the broad study area which are reasonable candidates for the future field investigations. Finally, we test the results of each analysis against other evidence for breaches to demonstrate that the results of the numerical analyses are reliable and supported by previous studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0076.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: cations; groundwater; heavy metals; pollution; anions; surface water; microbes
Online: 9 January 2018 (07:39:44 CET)
Analysis of water resources of this area was carried out in order to assessing the water quality by determining the concentrations of Cations, Anions, Heavy metals, Trace elements, PH, Alkalinity, Total Dissolved Solids and microbial loads in water samples. Ten (10) water samples were collected from the study area - samples each of rain water, two pond waters - 1 and 2, stream water, four (4) hand-dug wells, hand pump water and a motorized borehole. The results obtained were compared with WHO standards and it showed that all the cations in water samples are within the limits. The water samples at locations B, E, F, G, H, I, and J have high alkalinity and HC0-3 content. The heavy metals (Pb, Ni and Cd) and trace elements (Fe and Cu) are dominantly high in the surface waters. Microbiological substances in the water samples from the study area revealed indicator organisms higher than the WHO standard for drinking water. Samples obtained from location G, I and J recorded an absence of E. coli and are fit for human consumptions but needed to be treated due to high MPN (Most Probable Number) index of viable microorganisms as against WHO standard. This research showed that the water resources of the study area are gradually polluted and in the near future may not be good for drinking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0347.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Groundwater; Stable isotopes; Zagros; Recharge rate; Recharge elevation; Simmr package
Online: 21 December 2021 (14:12:11 CET)
Zagros is an important region with high quality and quantity karstic water resources in the Middle East. This region provides a dominant part of potable and agricultural water needs for its inhabitants as well as agricultural water needs for nearby regions. Therefore, studying karstic water resources in Zagros by accurate methods such as stable isotopes techniques is very important. In this investigation, hydrological characteristics of groundwater resources including groundwater origin, recharge rate and recharge elevation have been studied using stable isotopes (18O and 2H). The results show that stable isotopes signatures in groundwater resources show notable variations across Zagros and groundwater resource mainly plot on south and west Zagros meteoric water lines. In addition, recharge elevation and recharge rate in groundwater resources also show significant variations in Zagros. Finally, the stable isotopes signatures in precipitation and groundwater has been used to study the role of each dominant air mass (contribution percentage of precipitation events originate from each air mass) in groundwater resources recharge using Simmr package in R language. Overall, groundwater resources in Zagros is recharged by precipitation events originate from various air masses and they have various recharge rates and recharge elevations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0578.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: glacial ripping; groundwater overpressure; breccia; rubble till; Cambrian quartz-arenite
Online: 21 April 2021 (12:20:51 CEST)
Glacial ripping is a newly recognized process sequence in which subglacial erosion is triggered by groundwater overpressure. Investigations in gneiss terrain in lowland Sweden indicate that ripping involves three stages of (i) hydraulic jacking, (ii) rock disruption under subglacial traction and (iii) glacial transport of rock blocks. Evidence for each stage includes, respectively, dilated fractures with sediment fills, disintegrated roches moutonnées and boulder spreads. Here we ask: can glacial ripping also occur in sedimentary rocks, and, if so, what are its effects? The case study area is in hard, thinly bedded, gently dipping Cambrian quartz-arenites at Loch Eriboll, NW Scotland. Field surveys reveal dilated, sediment filled, bedding-parallel fractures, open joints and brecciated zones, interpreted as markers for pervasive, shallow penetration of the quartz-arenite by water at over-pressure. Other features, including disintegrated rock surfaces, boulder spreads and monomict rubble tills, indicate glacial disruption and short distance subglacial transport. The field results, together with published cosmogenic isotope ages, indicate that glacial ripping operated with high impact close to the former ice margin at Loch Eriboll at 17.6-16.5 ka. Glacial ripping thus can operate effectively in bedded, hard sedimentary rocks and the accompanying brecciation is significant – if not dominant - in till formation. Candidate markers for glacial ripping are identified in other sedimentary terrains in former glaciated areas of the Northern Hemisphere.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: river valley bottom; GIS; cost distance accumulation; groundwater dependent ecosystems
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:50:04 CET)
River valley bottoms have hydrological, geomorphological, and ecological importance and are buffers for protecting the river from upland nutrient loading coming from agriculture and other sources. They are relatively flat, low-lying areas of the terrain that are adjacent to the river and bound by increasing slopes at the transition to the uplands. These areas have under natural conditions, a groundwater table close to the soil surface. The objective of this paper is to present a stepwise GIS approach for the delineation of river valley bottom within drainage basins and use it to perform a national delineation. We developed a tool that applies a concept called cost distance accumulation with spatial data inputs consisting a river network and slope derived from a digital elevation model. We then used wetlands adjacent to rivers as a guide finding the river valley bottom boundary from the cost distance accumulation. We present results from our tool for the whole country of Denmark carrying out a validation within three selected areas. The results reveal that the tool visually performs well and delineates both confined and unconfined river valleys within the same drainage basin. We use the most common forms of wetlands (meadow and marsh) in Denmark's river valleys known as Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems (GDE) to validate our river valley bottom delineated areas. Our delineation picks about half to two-thirds of these GDE. However, we expected this since farmers have reclaimed Denmark's low-lying areas during the last 200 years before the first map of GDE was created. Our tool can be used as a management tool, since it can delineate an area that has been the focus of management actions to protect waterways from upland nutrient pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0054.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Groundwater; Climate resilience; Deep wells, Deep aquifers, Drought, Somali, Ethiopia
Online: 7 June 2019 (12:03:05 CEST)
Groundwater is the most extracted raw material in the world with global annual withdrawal rates of 800–1500 km3/year. In East and Southern Africa, 70 % of the population are reliant on shallow groundwater as their primary drinking water source. With increased population growth, intensification of agriculture and industrialization, conflicting demands on groundwater present a challenge to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (6,3,11,12,15). Between 2015 and 2018, the Horn of Africa was affected by a series of climatic induced events, namely El Nino, La Nina and the Indian Ocean Diopole. These events modified the variability of rainfall patterns and resulted in long periods of low rainfall, low recharge and high evapotranspiration. As a result, shallow aquifers in alluvial deposits of Somali region have low yields and produce brackish and saline water. That situation prompted humanitarian water professionals to finance the transportation of water from selected locations with high groundwater potential through water trucks to areas facing groundwater depletion and drought. To address this challenge, UNICEF explored alternative, sustainable deeper groundwater sources that could be extracted using solar water pumping technology for multi water use. This paper describes a three-phase methodology of deep groundwater development of wells in the Ogaden Jesoma sandstone aquifers of the Somali region of the Horn of Africa to a depth of 600 meters below ground level. The results concluded that the deep sandstone aquifer of Jesoma can provide fresh water with yields of 15 l/s to the local population of Somali region. to the study provided insights into deep groundwater identification and development as well as adaptive deep boreholes drilling as a source for climate resilient water supplies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0511.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: arsenic; florida; soils; geologic units; groundwater; exposure; public health risk
Online: 30 August 2018 (05:13:13 CEST)
Florida geologic units and soils contain a wide range in concentrations of naturally-occurring arsenic. The average range of bulk rock concentrations is 1 to 13.1 mg/kg with concentrations in accessary minerals being over 1,000 mg/kg. Soils contain natural arsenic concentrations of between 0.18 and 2.06 mg/kg with organic-rich soils having the highest concentrations. Anthropogenic sources of arsenic have added about 610,000 metric tons of arsenic into the Florida environment since 1970, thereby increasing background concentrations in soils. The anthropogenic sources of arsenic in soils include: pesticides (used in Florida beginning in the 1890’s), fertilizers, chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood, soil amendments, cattle-dipping vats, chicken litter, sludges from water treatment plants, and others. The default Soil Cleanup Target Level (SCTL) in Florida for arsenic in residential soils is 2.1 mg/kg which is below some naturally-occurring background concentrations in soils and anthropogenic concentrations in agricultural soils. A review of risk considerations shows that adverse health impacts associated with exposure to arsenic is dependent on many factors and that the Florida cleanup levels are very conservative. Exposure to arsenic in soils at concentrations that exceed the Florida residential cleanup level in residential environments does not necessarily pose a meaningful public health risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0030.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Joint entropy; NDVI; temperature; precipitation; groundwater depth; Hei River basin
Online: 8 August 2017 (08:42:54 CEST)
Terrestrial vegetation dynamics are closely influenced by a multitude of factors. This study investigated the relationships between vegetation patterns and their main influencing factors. The joint entropy method was employed to evaluate the dependence between normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and coupled variables in the middle reaches of Hei River basin. Based on the spatial distribution of mutual information, the whole study area was divided into five sub-regions. In each sub-region, nested statistical models were applied to model the NDVI on the grid and regional scales, respectively. Results showed that the annual average NDVI increased with a rate of 0.005/a in recent 11 years. In the desert regions, the NDVI increased significantly with an increase in precipitation and temperature, and high accuracy of retrieving NDVI model was obtained by coupling precipitation and temperature, especially in sub-region I. In the oasis regions, groundwater was also an important factor driving vegetation growth, and the rise of groundwater level contributed to the growth of vegetation. However, the relationship was weaker in artificial oasis regions (sub-region III and sub-region V) due to the influence of human activities, such as irrigation. The overall correlation coefficient between the observed NDVI and modeled NDVI was observed to be 0.97. Outcomes of this study are suitable for ecosystem monitoring, especially under the realm of climate change. Further studies are necessary and should consider more factors, such as runoff and irrigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0163.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Carbonate aquifer; groundwater modelling; multilayer aquifer; MODFLOW-NWT formulation; Central Italy
Online: 11 July 2022 (14:19:53 CEST)
This paper concerns about a stepwise modelling procedure for groundwater flow simulation in a complex carbonate, folded and faulted, multilayer aquifer, in the Apennine chain in Central Ita-ly, which constitutes a source of good quality water for human consumption. A perennial river acts as the main natural drain for groundwater while sustaining valuable water related ecosys-tems. The spatial distribution of recharge was estimated using the Thornthwaite-Mather method on 60 years of climate data. The system was conceptualized as three main aquifers separated by two locally discontinuous aquitards. Three numerical models were implemented by gradually adding complexity to the model grid: single layer (2D), three layers (Quasi-3D), and five layers (Fully-3D), using an equivalent porous medium approach, in order to find the best solution with a parsimonious model setting. To overcome dry-cell problems in the Fully-3D model, the New-ton-Raphson formulation for MODFLOW-2005 was invoked. Calibration results show that a Fully-3D model was required to match the observed distribution of aquifer outflow to the river baseflow. The numerical model demonstrated the major impact of folded and faulted geological structures on controlling the flow dynamics in terms of flow direction, water heads and spatial distribution of the outflows to the river and springs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0206.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Remote sensing; GIS; AHP; Groundwater potential zone; Weighted overlay analysis; Kilinochchi
Online: 9 August 2021 (16:56:29 CEST)
The scarcity of surface water resources in the dry season in the Kilinochchi district increases the demand for freshwater. Therefore, the existing groundwater resources should be managed to overcome the situation. Several authors worldwide have published studies on the delineation of potential groundwater zone. However, only a few studies addressed the delineation of potential groundwater zones in the Kilinochchi district. This study aims to delineate potential groundwater zones in Kilinochchi, Sri Lanka using integrated Remote Sensing, Geographic Information Systems, and Analytic Hierarchy Process techniques. Groundwater potential zones are demarcated for the Kilinochchi district by overlaying thematic layers: geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, soil types, drainage density, slope, lineament, and rainfall. Saaty's scale was applied to the assigned weights of the chosen thematic layers and their features. The thematic layers were integrated into a Geographic Information System, and a weighted overlay analysis is carried out to delineate groundwater zones. Thus the resultant map is categorized into five different potential zones: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. It was found that the very high groundwater potential zone is mainly found in the north-eastern part of the study area covering 111.26 km2. The upper north-western, middle, and eastern parts of the study area fall within the high groundwater potential zone covering about 507.74 km2. The moderate groundwater potential zones (309.89 km2) mainly occurred in the western part, and the extreme west part of the study area falls under low (207.78 km2) and very low (59.12 km2) zones. The groundwater potential map was validated with the existing seventy-nine wells, which indicated a good prediction accuracy of 81.8%. This research will help policymakers better manage the Kilinochchi district's groundwater resources and gives scope for further research into groundwater exploration in the area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0299.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: groundwater quality; extended SWAT model; water quality parameters; Athabasca River Basin
Online: 10 November 2020 (10:32:09 CET)
Groundwater is a vital resource for human welfare. However, due to various factors, groundwater pollution is one of the main environmental concerns facing. Yet, it is challenging to simulate groundwater quality dynamics due to the insufficient representation of nutrient percolation processes in the soil and Water Assessment Tool model. The objectives of this study were extending the SWAT module to predict groundwater quality. The results proved a linear relationship between observed and calculated groundwater quality considering No3 and TDS with R2, NSE and PBIAS values in the satisfied ranges, albeit underestimation and overestimation were observed due to limited data availability. These results highlight that nitrate and TDS concentrations and variability in groundwater may used as a tool in surface water quality that have to be assumed for designing adaptive management scenarios. Hence, extended SWAT model could be a powerful tool for future regional to global scale modelling of nutrient loads supporting effective surface and groundwater management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0043.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Groundwater Modeling; Hydrologic Monitoring Network; American Samoa; Jupyter Notebooks; GitHub; Python
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:45:15 CET)
Recent advancements in cloud-computing and social-networking are influencing how we communicate professionally, work collaboratively, and approach data-science tasks. Here we show how the groundwater modeling field is well positioned to benefit from these advancements. We present a case study detailing a vertically-integrated, collaborative modeling framework jointly developed by participants at the American Samoa Power Authority and at the University of Hawaii Water Resources Research Center. The framework components include direct collection and analysis of climatic and streamflow data, development of a water budget model, and initiation of a dynamic groundwater modeling process. The framework is entirely open-source and applies newly available data-science infrastructure using Python-based tools compiled with Jupyter Notebooks and cloud computing services such as GitHub. These resources allow for seamless integration of multiple computational components into a dynamic cloud-based workflow that is immediately accessible to stakeholders, resource managers, or anyone with an internet connection
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0171.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: groundwater; hydrogeological structures; remote sensing; aeromagnetic survey; radial vertical electrical sounding
Online: 30 September 2017 (12:29:44 CEST)
Aeromagnetic data coupled with Landsat ETM+ data and SRTM DEM have been processed in order to map regional hydrogeological structures in the basement complex region of Paiko, north-central Nigeria. Lineaments were extracted from derivative maps from aeromagnetic, Landsat ETM+ and SRTM DEM datasets. Ground geophysical investigation utilizing Radial Vertical Electrical Sounding (RVES) was established in nine transects comprising of four sounding stations which are oriented in three azimuths. Source Parameter Imaging (SPI) was employed to map the average depths structures from aeromagnetic dataset. Selected thematic layers which included lineaments density, lithologic, slope, drainage density and geomorphologic maps were integrated and modelled using ArcGIS to generate groundwater potential map of the area. Groundwater zones were classified into four categories: very good, good, moderate and poor according to their potential to yield sustainable water to drilled wells. Results from RVES survey reveal a close correlation to lineaments delineated from surface structural mapping and remotely sensed datasets. Hydrogeological significance of these orientations suggest that aeromagnetic data can be used to map relatively deep-seated fractures which are likely to be open groundwater conduits while remotely sensed lineaments and orientations delineated from the RVES survey may indicate areas of recharge. Regions with high lineament density have relatively better groundwater potential. This is attributable to areas having deep weathering profiles associated with intrusive bodies that have resulted in intense fracturing in the area. Drill depths in this area should target a minimum of 80 m to ensure sufficient and sustainable supplies to drilled wells. The outcome of this study should act as information framework that would guide the siting of productive water wells and while providing needed information for relevant agencies in need of data for the development of groundwater resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0052.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Ogallala aquifer; Groundwater quality; Statistical analysis; High plains region; Permian Basin; Texas
Online: 5 May 2022 (16:13:04 CEST)
The purposes of this study are to analyze the groundwater quality of Ogallala Aquifer and evaluate the hydrological characteristics in the southern High Plains region of the Permian Basin, Texas. Levels of chloride, fluoride, nitrate, pH, selenium, and total dissolved solids (TDS) were analyzed through the years 1990-2016. A total of 133 wells were collected from the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) which is an open database by the US government. Statistical analysis was utilized to evaluate the groundwater quality and propose trends. The average levels of the contaminants were compared to their respective Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Potential human health risks that each contaminant possesses were described. Possible sources of each contaminant were discussed with oil/gas activities, agricultural practices, and other human actions impact its conditions. This research provides important information for groundwater quality of Ogallala aquifer and contributes on understanding the response to development in the Permian Basin, Texas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0120.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Pre-COVID-19; Post-COVID-19; Secondary Schools; Water Demand; Groundwater; Nigeria
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:22:37 CEST)
The prevalence of corona virus and the novel COVID-19 disease in the entire globe has exacerbated different impact on socioeconomic spectrum in the world, including water use pattern. Thus a research was conducted to examine the comparative use of water during pre- and post-COVID-19 lockdown pattern among post-primary schools in Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria. A survey was conducted among fifteen schools which were randomly selected, but with eight public and seven private schools for the investigation. Both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were used in data analysis. The results revealed that the major source of water to the schools investigated is ground water which is obtained through hand-dug wells and boreholes. It was further discovered that there was increase in water use during post-COVID-19 lockdown era as a result of the directive by the government that clean water should be provided for hand-washing by all schools regardless of the owner to curtail the spread of COVID-19 disease in the country. One sample t-test also revealed that there was a significant difference in water use at (p<0.01) level. It is recommended that the government and other stakeholders in water sector to ensure that all-time and non-seasonal dependent source of water be provided rather than ground water source which is susceptible to variations in water yields from seasonal variations. This will enable continuous clean water supply, for all purposes, including COVID-19 protocols.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0449.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: groundwater; sustainability assessment; small islands; Caribbean islands; sustainability assessment indicators; water management
Online: 24 July 2018 (08:12:19 CEST)
Groundwater is an important resource for many countries and its scarcity is a major concern in small territories, especially in the islands where the constant extraction is creating a high risk of public calamity. This issue has been increasing because of the anthropogenic activities and the climate change and it has called the attention of scientists and stakeholders in order to assess the sustainability of the water management system, and therefore, to establish strategies for a more sustainable water use. San Andres island was taking as case study and a description of the water balance was carried out in order to understand the management system. Then, a water system sustainability assessment was performed with indicators such as water security, water quality, drinking water, sanitation, infrastructure, climate robustness, biodiversity, attractiveness, and governance, according to the City Blueprint Methodology. The result for the 24 evaluated indicators was a score of 3.2, whose interpretation is “an unsustainable water management”. The qualitative assessment was the base to propose water security, water quality, and governance strategies to improve the water management in the island. The assessment and its discussions are relevant for the water management in small islands across the world whose economy is based on the tourism and whose water security is at a high risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0013.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Groundwater quality; irrigation and drinking water; hydrochemistry; Water Quality Index; geochemical process; Senegal
Online: 1 February 2023 (11:45:43 CET)
Senegal central regions face rainfall deficit combined with scarcity of surface water and poor quality. Populations use groundwater for drinking and irrigation. A Groundwater assessment studiebased on 42 samples aims to determine their quality. Several parameters (TDS, TH, WQI, SAR, RSC, %N, PI, KR and MR) and ion chemistry determined . Samples exhibit an alcaline pH (7.6) and hydrochemical facies mainly Ca-Na-Mg-HCO3. The ionic dominance is Na+ ˃ Ca2+ ˃ Mg2+ ˃ K+ and HCO3- ˃ Cl- ˃ SO42- ˃ NO3- ˃ F-. From TDS and WQI index most of the groundwaters are suitable for drinking. Irrigation quality (based on SAR, %N, RSC, KR, MR) varie from excellent to good water type. Plotting chemical data (USSL salinity & Wilcox diagrams) reveals that the majority of the groundwater samples belong to the fields excellent to good and from good to permissible . Natural processes (rock weathering, mineral dissolution, evaporation and ion exchange) control groundwater quality. As the region faced a persistent rainfall deficit combine with fragile groundwater quality should alert the stakeholders. A sustainable development of the region can be faced if strong measures are planned to follow water quality evolution and quantity available for human purposes
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0318.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: Drinking water management; drinking water criteria; groundwater; reverse osmosis; sustainable development; water aesthetics
Online: 17 August 2022 (10:08:44 CEST)
A Water demand per capita will rise in the Arab world as a result of climate change and population expansion. One of the most important aims in coping with population increase around the world is to conserve water supplies. As a result, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia constructed Al Wajeed Water Treatment System to meet the demands of the southern population. This research aims to assess the drinking water quality produced from the AlWajeed Water Treatment System. Monthly water samples were collected (January 2018 to January 2021) from the Al Wajeed Water Treatment Framework (4sites), extending to governorates; Bishah`s distribution system (5sites) and Tathleeth`s distribution system (7sites). Water quality criteria, such as physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters, revealed that the majority of water samples collected from the Al Wajeed Water Framework and its environs are of a good quality matched the national and international standards. Few sites showed water quality criteria, such turbidity, fluoride and total coliform did not comply with national and global standards. The obtained results explained the importance of monitoring and follow-up programs for drinking water criteria. In addition, they can help the authorities and stakeholders in the sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0269.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: groundwater chemistry; surface water chemistry; lead toxicity; lead exposure; solubility diagrams; solubility modeling
Online: 15 November 2021 (15:00:46 CET)
The research was conducted in the Kırklareli stream, which flows southwest through the city of the same name toward the village of Kavaklı. The aim of the study is to evaluate water analysis results and assess the potential that the European Union drinking water standard for lead can be achieved in the Kırklareli stream by reliance on the low solubility of lead phosphate minerals. The present study used Visual MINTEQ 3.1 for all water chemistry simulations. The European Union drinking water standard for lead, which is 10 μg L−1, is exceeded at least once and as many as three times at seven of the ten sites during the 2018 sampling season. Although the database solubility of hydroxypyromorphite is exceeded in most samples, it appears this may be the result of major ion substitutions in the hydroxypromorphite that forms in the Kırklareli stream which increases the effective solubility of lead in the stream.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0536.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: open-pit coal mine; dewatering; groundwater level; vadose zone; moisture movement; capillary water
Online: 24 February 2021 (09:55:58 CET)
Long-term dewatering of groundwater is a necessary operation for mining safety in open-pit coal mines, while extensive dewatering might cause ecological problems due to dramatical changes of moisture movement in the soil, especially in ecological-fragile areas. This paper presents a quantitative methodology to evaluate the impact of the coal mining operation on moisture movement in the vadose zone by taking the Baorixile open-pit coal mine as an example. A long-term in-situ experiments（from 2004 to 2018), laboratory analysis and numerical modelling were conducted to analyse the mechanisms and relationship among the dropping groundwater level, the vadose-zone moistures, and the ecological responses in the grassland area. The experiment data and modelling results suggest that groundwater level dropping during open-pit mining operation has limited influence on the vadose zone, exhibiting a variation of capillary water zone within a depth of 3 m while the vadose zone and soil water zone were at least 16 m deep. The critical evaporation depth of ground water is 8 m. The long-term influence radius of groundwater dewatering is about 2.72 km during the Baorixile mining operation, and the groundwater level change mainly influences the lower part of the intermediate vadose zone and the capillary water zone below 16 m, with little influence on the moisture contents in the soil water zone where the roots of shallow vegetation grow. The results from this study provide useful insight for sustainable development of coal mining in ecological-fragile areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0328.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: groundwater; rainwater harvesting; climate variability; small island developing states; water planning; community participation.
Online: 15 September 2020 (04:38:05 CEST)
UN 2030 Sustainable Development Goal 6 presents difficulties for small island developing states such as the Kingdom of Tonga, which relies on rainwater and groundwater lenses for freshwater supply. Planning and managing water resources to supply demands in dispersed small islands under variable climate and frequent extreme events is challenging. Tensions between water planning using top-down versus bottom-up processes have long been recognized. Tonga’s overarching national planning instrument is the Tonga Strategic Development Framework, 2015-2025 (TSDFII). This identifies desired national outcomes and is used to direct and resource Ministries and address international and regional commitments. Water supply was a low priority in the three-month consultations that led to TSDFII. Community Development Plans (CDPs), developed by rural villages throughout Tonga’s five Island Groups over nine years, involved participation from 80% of each village population who ranked local priorities. Analysis of priorities in 117 available village CDPs reveals improvements to village water supply was the highest overall priority in all five Island Groups and ranked within the top three priorities by 76% of all villages, with women, youth and men returning figures of 83%, 66% and 80% respectively. The mismatch between top-down and bottom-up priorities appears to result from an urban/rural divide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0057.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: groundwater; Haiti; filtration; water treatment; developing country; point of use treatment; household treatment
Online: 3 August 2018 (04:03:22 CEST)
Water resources, especially safe, potable water, are limited for many Haitians. In areas where shallow groundwater is available, many household water needs such as laundry, bathing, and cooking are supplied by hand-dug wells. In order to better understand the water quality and prevalence of these household wells, 35 hand-dug wells were surveyed and sampled near the Hôpital Albert Schweitzer (HAS) in Deschapelles, Haiti. Water samples were collected and tested for fecal coliform and E. coli using the IDEXX Colilert-18 method. Of the samples collected, 89 percent were determined unsafe to use as a drinking water source based on the World Health Organization standard of 1.0 colony-forming unit (cfu) Escherichia Coli (E. coli) per 100 mL. 66 percent of the wells exceeded recreational/body contact standards for the state of Michigan (130 cfu/100 mL). Some of these wells were deemed suitable for conversion to a new well type called In-Situ Filtration (ISF) wells. ISF wells are installed with an internal sand filter pack, PVC casing, pump, and cap which seals the well from surface contamination and provides additional water treatment as water is pumped. Previous ISF installations have reduced E. coli to safe drinking water levels within 90 days.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: complex aquifer; karst; hydrogeology; groundwater pollution risk map; integrative approach; water resources management; Syria
Online: 16 March 2021 (09:17:51 CET)
As for most Mediterranean countries, groundwater is the main resource for irrigation and drinking supply in most parts of Syria, however this resource suffers from mismanagement. In the study area (Northeast of Mt. Hermon), the lack of information makes water management in this area extremely difficult. Assessing groundwater pollution risk is the most essential issue for water resources management, especially in the regions where complex interaction between climate, geology, geomorphology, hydrogeology, water scarcity and water resource mismanagement exist. This complexity leads to significant complication in determining pollution risk of studied system. In the present work, we adopted an Integrative Approach to assess groundwater pollution risk in the study area. This methodology is based on the analysis of hydrogeological characteristic of aquifer system and the available information about socio-economic context and physio-chemical groundwater condition that might affect this system. This approach allowed us to delineate the groundwater pollution risk map based on the analysis of concerning parameters/ indicators. The degree of risk was assessed based as the sum and average of rating of these parameters and indicators for each subarea. Typically, very high pollution risk index was identified over the Quaternary/Neogene horizon, i.e shallow and unconfined aquifer and in the lower part of Jurassic aquifer. In these two parts, the majority of anthropogenic activities are concentrated. Low pollution risk index was found for the outcropping of low permeable Quaternary basalt at the Southern part of the study area. A moderate pollution index was identified for the low/moderate permeability of silt, clay and marly limestone rich horizons of the major part of Neogene aquifer outside of the intersected zones with Quaternary aquifer and for the Paleogene formations. The spatial analysis shows that about 50% of the study area is characterized as being at very high and high pollution risk index. Hence, the overall natural protective capacity of this area is still poor. This study demonstrates the flexibility of the proposed approach to assess groundwater pollution risk in local complex aquifer system characterized by lack of information and data in order to reduce the risk of future groundwater pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0187.v1
Subject: Keywords: sodium adsorption ratio; SAR; CROSS, electrical conductivity; specific conductivity; salinity; irrigation; groundwater; water quality
Online: 9 October 2020 (08:45:56 CEST)
Soil water loss by evaporation influences the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of irrigation drainage water. Evaporation concentrates sodium and magnesium but calcite precipitation has a more complicated effect on soluble calcium and alkalinity. Here we propose a revised sodicity hazard assessment that quantifies the impact of evaporative water loss and calcite precipitation on drainage water SAR. This paper shows sodicity hazard is determined by the initial composition of irrigation water as originally suggested by previous researchers, and provide a simple, accurate way to identify the potential sodicity hazard of any irrigation water. In particular, the initial equivalent concentration of alkalinity and calcium determine the salinization pathway followed during evaporation. If the irrigation water alkalinity exceeds soluble calcium expressed as equivalent concentrations, drainage water SAR approaches an upper limit determined by the initial relative concentration of sodium and magnesium. If irrigation water alkalinity is less than soluble calcium, drainage water SAR approaches a lower limit determined by the initial calcium, magnesium and sodium. In both cases the SAR is scaled by the square root of the concentration factor √Fc quantifying soil water loss. To assess the impact of evaporation and calcite precipitation on the SAR and test the accuracy of the new sodicity hazard assessment, we evaluated data from previously published lysimeter studies. We plotted water composition boundaries for each source water, comparing these boundaries to the drainage water composition recorded in the lysimeter studies. As salinity increased by evaporation, each drainage water followed a distinct salinization path.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0261.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: SEAWAT; multi-criteria decision-making; seawater intrusion; recharge pond; control groundwater use; location prioritization
Online: 30 March 2018 (08:53:05 CEST)
Coastal areas are increasingly being damaged with the expansion of seawater intrusion areas. We suggest a three-step method for reducing seawater intrusion areas by predicting future damage to groundwater being used continuously. First, the area most vulnerable to seawater intrusion damage is selected from among 25 areas on the west coast of the Republic of Korea. Having identified the Taean area as the region in question in the second step, we use RCP 4.5 and 8.5 as future sea level rise scenarios and predict the future usage of groundwater using linear-regression analysis of data for the past 10 years. Consequently, for RCP 8.5 (groundwater-usage scenario 1.0), 68.5% of the total Taean area is projected to be influenced by seawater intrusion. In the third step, the effectiveness of seawater intrusion reduction measures is analyzed considering the projected future situation and the local characteristics of the Taean area. After considering the effects of alternative locations, as well as seawater intrusion related data, alternatives were prioritized using a multi-criteria decision-making method. Consequently, 3, 5, and 4 were prioritized in the listed order, and we judged that by applying seawater intrusion area reduction measures according to this result, we will achieve the biggest effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0180.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Electrical Conductivity, Sodium Adsorption Ratio, Salinity, Sodicity, Groundwater Chemistry, Surface Water Chemistry, Irrigation Water Quality
Online: 9 November 2021 (14:08:29 CET)
Seyfe Lake is an important part of the natural ecosystem of Central Anatolia and lies within a 1487 km2 closed basin. Groundwater withdrawal for irrigation and recent climatic change have caused lake area to decrease for decades and to completely disappear briefly in August 2008. Groundwater quality is crucial for sustainable irrigation in the Seyfe Basin. A key finding of this study is the difference in the Hardie-Eugster alkalinity-to-calcium ratio of the lake water and that of most groundwater wells in the basin. This difference in the chemical signature of Seyfe Lake and basin groundwater means the evaporative salinization pathway of most groundwater discharged into the lake cannot account for the composition of Seyfe Lake. The ratio of actual evapotranspiration to precipitation will increase under current climate change projections. A second finding, with implications for soil salinization, is that most groundwater in Seyfe Basin has a Hardie-Eugster alkalinity-tocalcium ratio greater than unity, meaning soil alkalization will accompany soil salinization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: hydroxyapatite; calcite; vivianite; onsite wastewater treatment; phreeqc; precipitation; groundwater contamination; septic tank; drainfield; reactive filter
Online: 1 November 2019 (11:21:52 CET)
The objective of this work was to evaluate the removal of phosphorus and carbon dioxide capture of a conventional septic system upgraded with a sidestream steel slag filter used in recirculation mode. A pilot scale sidestream experiment was conducted with two septic tank and drainfield systems, one with and one without a sidestream slag filter. The experimental system was fed with real domestic wastewater. Recirculation ratios of 25%, 50% and 75% were tested. Limestone soils and silica soils were used as drainfield media. The phosphorus removal efficiency observed in the second compartment of the septic tank was 30% in the slag filter upgraded system, compared to -3% in the control system. The drainfield of silica soils achieved very high phosphorus removal in both control and upgraded systems. In the drainfield of limestone soil, the slag filtration reduced the groundwater phosphorus contamination load by up to 75%. Phosphorus removal in the septic tank with a slag filter was attributed to either sorption on newly precipitated calcium carbonate or precipitation of vivianite, or both. Recirculation ratio design criteria were proposed based on simulations. Simulations showed that the steel slag filter partly inhibited biological production of carbon dioxide in the septic tank. The influent alkalinity strongly influenced the recirculation ratio needed to raise the pH in the septic tank. The control septic tank produced carbon dioxide, whereas the slag filter upgraded septic tank was a carbon dioxide sink.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0339.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: water quality index (WQI); groundwater quality; modeling irrigation water quality; Tabriz aquifer; water resource management
Online: 30 July 2019 (11:35:19 CEST)
The key goal of the current study was to determine suitable areas of water pumping for drinking and agricultural harvest in Tabriz aquifer, locateed in East Azerbaijan province, northwest Iran. In the study area, groundwater is the key foundation of water for drinking and farming requirements. Groundwater compatibility study was conducted by analysing Electrical conductivity (EC), Total dissolved solids (TDS), Chloride (Cl), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Sulfate (SO4), Total hardness (TH), Bicarbonate (HCO3), pH, carbonate (CO3) and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) obtained from 39 wells in the period of 2003 to 2014. For this purpose, the Water Quality Index (WQI) and irrigation water quality (IWQ) index is respectively utilized. The WQI index zoning exposed that the groundwater of the study area for drinking purposes is categorized as excellent, good and poor water. Most drinking water harvested for urban and rural areas are in the class of "excellent water". IWQ index average for the study area was in the range of 25.9 to 34.55. The results revealed that about 37 percent (296 km2) of groundwater has high compatibility, and 63 percent of the study area (495 km2) has average compatibility for agricultural purposes. The trend of IWQ and WQI indexes demonstrates that the groundwater is getting worse over the time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0247.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Chemometrics; Wastewater; Hydrochemical Characterization; North Africa; Environmental Science; Groundwater; Data Analysis; Time Series; Multivariate Analysis; Statistics
Online: 14 November 2022 (09:25:04 CET)
Drinking water quality is a major concern, especially in African countries. This manuscript aims to analyze the chemical composition of Lioua’s groundwater in order to determine the geological processes influencing the chemical elements' composition and origin. Therefore, chemometrics techniques such as multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) and time series methods (TSM) are used. Indeed, MSA includes a component analysis (PCA) and a cluster analysis (CA), while au-tocorrelation analysis (AA) supplemented by simple spectral density analysis (SDA) is used for TMS. PCA displays three main factors explaining a total variance (TV) of 85.01 %. Factors 1, 2, and 3 are 68.72%, 11.96%, and 8.89 % of TV, respectively. In the CA, three groups were controlled by TDS and EC. G1 reveals a close association between SO42−, K+, Ca2+, and TDS; G2 reveals a close association between Na+, Cl−, Mg2+, and EC; G3 shows the dissociation of bicarbonates HCO3− and NO3− from other chemical elements. AA shows a linear interrelationship of EC, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl−, and SO42−. However, NO3− and HCO3− indicate uncorrelated characteristics with other parameters. For SDA, the correlograms of Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl−, and SO42− have a similar trend with EC. None-theless, pH, Ca2+, HCO3− and NO3− exhibit multiple peaks related to the presence of several dis-tinct cyclic mechanisms. The methods enabled the authors to conclude that the geochemical processes influencing the chemical composition are: (i) dissolution of evaporated mineral depos-its, (ii) water-rock interaction, and (iii) evaporation process. In addition, Groundwater exhibits two bipolar characteristics, one recorded with negative and positive charges on pH and Ca+ and another recorded only with negative charges on HCO3− and NO3−. On the other hand, SO42-, K+, Ca2+, and TDS are the major predominant elements in the groundwater’s chemical composition. The major participation of salts and chlorides is in the electrical conductivity of water. The dominance of the lithological factor in the overall mineralization of the Plio-Quaternary surface aquifer waters. The origins of HCO3− and NO3− are different. Indeed, carbonated for HCO3- has a carbonate origin, whereas NO3– has an anthropogenic origin. The salinity was affected by Mg2+, SO42-, Cl-, Na+, K+, and EC. Ca2+, HCO3− and NO3− are resulted from human activity fertilizers, the carbonate facies outcrops, and domestic sewage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0403.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: lead biosensors; FRET; portable Pb sensor; smartphone-based device; Met-lead; tap water lead; groundwater lead
Online: 23 February 2022 (10:53:14 CET)
Most methods for measuring environmental lead (Pb) content are time consuming, expensive, hazardous, and restricted to specific analytical systems. To provide a facile, safe tool to detect Pb, we created pMet-lead, a portable fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based Pb biosensor. pMet-lead comprises a 3D-printed frame housing a 405-nm laser diode — an excitation source for fluorescence emission images (YFP and CFP) — accompanied by optical filters, a customized sample holder with a Met-lead 1.44 M1 (the most recent version)-embedded biochip, and an optical lens aligned for smartphone compatibility. Measuring the emission ratios (Y/C) of the FRET component enables Pb detection with a dynamic range of nearly 2 (1.96), pMet-lead/Pb dissociation constant (Kd) 45.62 nM, and limit of detection 40 nM (0.832 μg/dL, 8.32 ppb). To mitigate earlier problems with lack of selectivity for Pb vs. zinc, we preincubated samples with tricine, a low-affinity zinc chelator. We validated pMet-lead measurements of characterized laboratory samples and unknown samples from six regions in Taiwan by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Notably, two unknowns had Y/C ratios significantly higher than that of the control (3.48 ± 0.08 and 3.74 ± 0.12 vs. 2.79 ± 0.02), along with Pb concentrations (10.6 ppb and 15.24 ppb) above the WHO-permitted level of 10 ppb in tap water, while the rest four unknowns showing no detectable Pb upon ICP-MS. These results demonstrate that pMet-lead provides a rapid, sensitive means for on-site Pb detection in water from the environment and in living/drinking supply systems to prevent potential Pb poisoning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0614.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: groundwater depletion; precision water management; adoption; sustainability; Ogallala aquifer; Arkansas Delta; Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer
Online: 25 May 2021 (14:18:47 CEST)
Even though groundwater-based irrigation has increased agricultural productivity and economic activity in the United States (US), the current rate of groundwater withdrawals from major aquifers could significantly affect the sustainability of agricultural production systems in the near future. In the major agricultural regions, producers are now facing challenges to irrigate to meet full crop water needs. There is an increasing need to strategize irrigation management under various climatic and environmental conditions to optimize water use in agriculture while optimizing crop yields. This study reviews some of the major challenges facing irrigated agriculture in the US and the potential measures to ensure the sustainability of groundwater-based irrigation. Identified challenges included diminishing quantity and quality of groundwater resources, frequent droughts, low adoption rates of precision irrigation technologies, and rising energy requirements for irrigation abstractions. Irrigation efficiency improvements, shifting to high water use efficiency crops, wastewater reuse, groundwater monitoring, availing incentives, and policy changes, were identified as promising water management strategies to ensure irrigation sustainability. The success of these strategies will depend on the uptake and adoption by the producers in the affected agricultural regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0370.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: irrigation; groundwater; alluvial aquifer; water conservation adoption; row crops; Mississippi Delta; precision agriculture; Lower Mississippi River Valley
Online: 17 July 2020 (08:42:24 CEST)
This article identifies irrigated row-crop farmer factors associated with the adoption of water conserving practices. The analysis is performed on data from a survey of irrigators in Mississippi. Regression results show that the number of irrigated acres, years of education, perception of a groundwater problem, and participation in conservation programs are positively associated with practice adoption; while number of years farming, growing rice, and pumping cost are negatively associated with adoption. However, not all factors are statistically significant for all practices. Survey results indicate that only a third of growers are aware of groundwater problems at the farm or state level; and this lack of awareness is related to whether farmers noticed a change in the depth-to-water distance in their irrigation wells. This evidence is consistent with a report to Congress from the Government Accountability Office (GAO) that recommends policies promoting the use of: (1) more efficient irrigation technology and practices and (2) precision agriculture technologies, such as soil moisture sensors and irrigation automation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0204.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: groundwater; pre-treatment; contact filtration; infiltration ponds; nutrients removal; TP; Cyanobacteria; Cyanotoxin; microcystin-LR; eutrophic lakes; TOC
Online: 19 August 2019 (04:08:58 CEST)
Artificial groundwater recharge is commonly used for drinking water supply. The resulting water quality is highly dependent on the raw water quality. In many cases, pre-treatment is required. Pre-treatment improves the drinking water quality, although how and to what extent it affects the subsequent pond water quality and infiltration process, is still unknown. We evaluated two treatment systems by applying different pre-treatment methods for raw water from a eutrophic and temperate lake. An artificial recharge pond was divided into two parts, where one received raw water, only filtered through a micro-screen with 500 µm pores (control treatment), while the other part received pre-treated lake water using chemical flocculation with polyaluminium chloride (PACl) combined with sand filtration, i.e. continuous contact filtration (contact filter treatment). Water quality such as cyanobacterial biomass, microcystin-LR as well as organic matter and nutrients were measured in both treatment processes. We found cyanobacterial biomass and microcystin-LR level after the contact filter treatment was significantly different from the control treatment and also significantly different in the pond water. In addition, with contact filter treatment, total phosphorus (TP) and organic matter removal were significantly improved in the end water, TP was reduced by 96 % (< 20 µg/L) and the total organic carbon (TOC) was reduced by 66 % instead of 55 % (TOC content around 2.1 mg/L instead of 3.0 mg/L). This full-scale onsite experiment demonstrated effective pre-treatment would benefit a more stable water quality system, with less variance and lower cyanotoxin risk. In a broader drinking water management perspective, the presented method is promising to reduce cyanotoxin risk, as well as TP and TOC, which are all predicted to increase with global warming and extreme weather.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0202.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: groundwater salinization; soil salinization; salinization risk assessment; climate analysis; water balance; salinity balance; salt leaching; processing tomato; crop yield decrease.
Online: 11 September 2018 (15:29:31 CEST)
Mediterranean climate is marked by arid climate conditions in summer, therefore, crop irrigation is crucial to sustain plant growth and productivity in this season. If groundwater is utilized for irrigation, an impressive water pumping is needed to satisfy crop water requirements at catchment scale. Consequently, irrigation water quality gets worse, specifically considering groundwater salinization near the coastal areas due to seawater intrusion, also triggering soil salinization. With reference to an agricultural coastal area in the Mediterranean basin (Southern Italy), close to the Adriatic sea, an assessment of soil salinization risk due to processing tomato cultivation was carried out. A simulation model was arranged to perform, on daily basis, a water and salt balance along the soil profile. Long-term weather data and soil physical parameters representative of the considered area were utilized in applying the model, also considering three salinity levels of irrigation water. Based on the climatic analysis performed and the model outputs, the probability of soil salinity came out very high, such as to seriously threaten tomato yield. Autumn-winter rainfall resulted frequently insufficient to leach excess salts away from the soil profile and reach sustainable conditions of tomato cultivation. Therefore, alternative cropping strategies were prospected.