ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0423.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: community governance; conflict management; governance; peace; development; SSA
Online: 27 September 2022 (10:41:08 CEST)
This study provides an insightful overview of community-participatory governance and conflict management as instruments for utilizing resources for development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). SSA is a region rich in natural resources but prone to conflict. The study is conceptual and critically engages the application of community governance and conflict management strategies that SSA countries need to adopt. The study praises the notion that community governance is characterized by recognizing and accepting intercultural diversity and creating a democratic institution for promoting good governance and conflict management in SSA. The study recommends that good community governance is required to drive local communities' development, growth, and transformation into a sturdy, innovative, and productive society capitalizing on opportunities. The study voice for the amalgamation of appropriate models and theories of governance cogently in the context of SSA due to the heterogeneity of communities. Therefore, to resolve conflict, conflict management, resolution, and transformation strategies are necessarily needed to accomplish a viable peace to maintain and sustain development.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: citizen engagement; flood risk governance; governance capacity; climate adaptation
Online: 28 May 2019 (12:27:39 CEST)
Downpours are increasing in frequency and severity due to climate change. Cities are particularly susceptible to downpours because of their large share of impervious surfaces. Minimising pluvial flood risk requires all involved stakeholders to collaborate and overcome probable barriers. Simultaneously, an increase in citizen engagement in climate adaptation is preferred, whereas experiences with inclusive decision-making are still limited. The aim of this paper is to obtain a deeper understanding of how the capacity to govern pluvial flood risk can be developed through citizen engagement. We scrutinised the capacity of local actors to govern pluvial flood risk in the city of Utrecht, the Netherlands. For the analysis of Utrecht’s problem-solving capacity, the Governance Capacity Framework provided a consistent assessment of governance components. The results indicate that Utrecht’s capacity to govern pluvial flooding is relatively well-developed. Collaboration between public authorities is advanced, sufficient financial resources are available and smart monitoring enables high levels of evaluation and learning. However, citizen awareness and engagement in policy making is rather low. Accordingly, citizens’ willingness to pay for flood adaptation is limited. Stimulating flood risk awareness by combining financial incentives with more advanced arrangements for active citizen engagement is key for Utrecht and other cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0181.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: water governance; governance capacity; comparative studies; urban flooding; contextual factors
Online: 12 June 2018 (10:11:21 CEST)
Sea level rise and increased storm events, urge cities to develop governance capacity. However, a cohesive conceptual and empirical-based understanding of what governance capacity implies, how to measure it, and what cities can learn, is largely lacking. Understanding the influence of context is critical to address this issue. Accordingly, we aim to identify crosscutting contextual factors and their influence in impeding, enhancing or prioritising different elements of governance capacity to address urban flood risk. By assessing governance capacity through nine conditions and 27 indicators in two Dutch and two cities in the UK, three crosscutting contextual factors are identified: 1) flood probability and impact, 2) national imposed institutional setting, and 3) level of authority to secure long-term financial support. We found that contextual factors explain differences in urban capacity-priorities within and between both countries. The institutional setting in the UK and recent political devolution emphasized the role of citizen awareness, stakeholder engagement, entrepreneurial agents, and the overall necessity for local capacity-development. The Dutch focus on flood safety through centralised public coordination reduces flood probability but also inhibits incentives to reduce flood impacts and reduced public awareness. In conclusion, the three identified contextual factors enable a better understanding of capacity-building priorities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0276.v1
Online: 16 May 2020 (18:16:48 CEST)
Introduction: Governance, the least studied health system component, comprises a system of rules and processes, and is a key determinant for effective decision making for health care planning. This study aims to identify institutional, legal and policy factors which are either barriers or facilitators for the implementation of integrated mental health in primary care in the India. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 key informants at the district and national levels with policy makers, state level health care planners and district planners and managers in India. The data were analysed using thematic analysis using the qualitative software NViVO 10. Findings: Participants stated that a conducive environment for mental health service delivery is necessary at the legislative, policy and planning levels, to facilitate integration of mental health into primary care. Amongst other factors, the need for active involvement of civil society and service user organisations, strengthening mental health information systems, and building the non-technical skills of the mental health workforce, were identified as particularly necessary to deliver adequate mental health services.Conclusion: Amidst the favourable policy context supporting collaborative and integrated care in India, this study identified low resourcing, weak collaborations and inadequate information to be crucial for integrated mental health in India at present.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0014.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Governance, Environmental Management, Biodiversity, Bangladesh
Online: 3 June 2019 (09:57:59 CEST)
Governance is one of the most essential instruments for environmental management. Biodiversity is in the core field of environmental governance. Yet environmental authorities are persistently challenged the loss of biodiversity as a very important global issue for several years due to high dependent exposure to risks. The study attempts to relook at the key governance tools that strengthen policies towards managing biodiversity within and around the national park’s survey in Moulvibazar district. The study showed that biodiversity related legislation amended was the highest in Bangladesh for the period of 2010 to 2016. The growth of policy instruments maximized at but in low environmental governance services within the same period. The study assessed that the existing environmental policy instrument is inadequate and sluggish for effective conservation, compared with several others governance tools and various performances are still below par. Governance knowledge is indispensable for biodiversity management but such knowledge is poorly identified. These results reflect the importance of effective governance for transparency that the State provides. The research is to represent a dynamic and adaptable framework that can be applied for collective governance relevant to policy integration, participation and enforcement in order to foster environmental conservation sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0382.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Accountability; Governance; IPSS; Indicators; Sustainability; Transparency
Online: 23 December 2021 (11:25:02 CET)
Given the extreme importance of improving the accountability of Private Social Solidarity Institutions (IPSS), both for reasons of legal compliance (hard law) and for reasons of improving legitimacy and notoriety among their stakeholders (soft law), this paper aims to present a framework designed under a more comprehensive research project, for the assessment of IPSS accountability and, consequently, its improvement. This study also present results of the indicators conceived, identifying the main trends of the framework dimensions and sub-dimensions from a pilot test for the years 2018, 2019 and 2020 in Portugal. Given the results, we believe that the framework designed answers the research question: How to promote accountability (social, financial and economic) in the social economy sector, in particular: the case of the IPSS?, however, as this is an exploratory article, it incorporates the limitation that this is a pilot test with only 7 entities.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Climate Change; Policy; Migration; Health; Governance
Online: 12 November 2020 (11:39:36 CET)
Changing mobility patterns combined with changes in the climate present challenges and opportunities for global health, requiring effective, relevant and humane policy responses. This study used data from a systematic literature review that examined the intersection between climate change, migration and health. The aim of the present study was to synthesize policy recommendations in the peer-reviewed literature, regarding this type of environmental migration with respect to health, to strengthen the evidence-base. Systematic searches were conducted in four academic databases (PubMed, Ovid Medline, Global Health and Scopus) and Google Scholar for empirical studies published between 1990 – 2020 that used any study design to investigate migration and health in the context of climate change. Studies underwent a two-stage protocol-based screening process and eligible studies were appraised for quality using a standardized mixed-methods tool. From the initial 2,425 hits, 68 articles were appraised for quality and included in the synthesis. Among the policy recommendations, six themes were discernible: (1) avoid the universal promotion of migration as an adaptive response to climate risk; (2) preserve cultural and social ties of mobile populations; (3) enable the participation of migrants in decision-making in sites of relocation and resettlement; (4) strengthen health systems and reduce barriers for migrant access to health care; (5) support and promote optimization of social determinants of migrant health; (6) integrate health into loss and damage assessments related to climate change. The results call for transformative policies that support the health and wellbeing of people engaging in, or affected by mobility responses, including those whose migration decisions and experiences are influenced by climate change, and to establish and develop inclusive migrant healthcare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: smart community; smart dashboard; smart governance
Online: 4 November 2019 (02:54:13 CET)
Information and communication technologies play an increasingly important role in the process of knowledge and management of places at different scales. ICTs allow a rapid diffusion of data not only through institutional channels but also through social networks where the smart community share experiences and perceptions. In this sense, ICTs become strategic tools to support the promotion of sustainable tourism development of territories, especially if the digital data are organised within a circular smart dashboard. This research focuses on the case study of the Santa Barbara Walk (SBW), an ancient mining route in the Sulcis Iglesiente region (Sardinia, Italy), where the authors have recognized a state of disorganization in slow tourism promotion activities. In fact, if the SBW represents a network - material infrastructure - which connects the main points of interest along the Walk, its digital network - intangible infrastructure - is fragmented in terms of policies and contents. The goal of this study is to provide a comprehensive set of data and to propose the architecture and design for a circular dashboard of the SBW, capable of organizing information concerning the main features of the walk, in order to facilitate a shared governance for an effective tourism promotion.
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: wildfire; governance; Anthropocene; elemental; geography; anthropology
Online: 17 September 2019 (04:00:36 CEST)
Views of fire in the contemporary physical sciences arguably accord with Heraclitus’ proposal that ‘all things are an exchange for fire, and fire for all things, as goods for gold and gold for goods.’ Fire is a media, as John Durham Peters has stated, a species of transformative biochemical reactions between the flammable gases found in air, such as oxygen, and those found in fuels, such as plants. Inspired by an ignition source, these materials react and transform themselves and their surrounds into light and heat energy, carbon dioxide, water vapour, char and much else besides. Fire is conjunctural, durational and transformative. Fire is a dialectician, at once consuming living and dead organic matter and providing both the space and ingredients for new and renewed organic life. In this article, we consider the diverse ways in which fire is today framed as a social problem, an ecological process, an ancient tool, a natural disaster, a source of economic wealth and much more. In this way, we seek to explore the value and limits of ‘elemental thinking’ in relation to the planetary predicaments described by ‘the Anthropocene’.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0004.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Sustainable transport, policy implementation, governance, institutions
Online: 3 April 2017 (16:35:36 CEST)
There is a large potential for cost-effective solutions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to improve the sustainability of the transport sector that is yet unexploited, in particular in the urban context. Considering the cost-effectiveness and the potential for co-benefits, it is hard to understand why energy gains and mitigation action in the transport sector is still lagging behind the potential. Particularly interesting is the fact that there is substantial difference among countries with relatively similar economic performances, such as the OECD countries in the development of their transport CO2 emission over the past thirty years despite the fact that these countries had relatively similar access to efficient technologies and vehicles. This study aims to apply some well established political science theories on the particular example of climate change mitigation in the transport sector in order to identify some of the factors that could help explain the variations in success of policies and strategies in this sector. The analysis suggests that institutional arrangements that contribute to consensus building in the political process provide a high level of political and policy stability which is vital to long-term changes in energy end-use sectors that rely on long-term investments. However, there is no direct correlation between institutional structures, e.g. corporatism and success in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector. Environmental objectives need to be built into the consensus-based policy structure before actual policy progress can be observed. This usually takes longer in consensus democracies than in politically more agile majoritarian policy environments, but the policy stability that builds on corporatist institutional structures is likely to experience changes over a longer-term, in this case to a shift towards low-carbon transport that endures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0083.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: urban sustainability; environmental governance; energy policy
Online: 27 July 2016 (05:56:56 CEST)
As the world’s second largest economy, China ranks amount the world’s top nations when it comes to carbon emission, and therefore its attitude towards climate change is closely followed by all parties concerned. There have been few researches on the role of environmental governance in low-carbon city transformation process, especially the Chinese one. This paper analyses the role of government environmental regulation played in the low-carbon city transformation process by taking Shenzhen as the research object. One of the world's youngest super cities, it also happens to be the lowest carbon emission intensity city in China. Striving to explore green low-carbon development path for the whole country, Shenzhen provides practical experience for countries to cope with global climate change. However, its efforts to reduce the total carbon emissions failed, but it emphasized the carbon emission intensity, which is consistent with the international commitments made by the central government. China’s policy towards handling climate change relies on hierarchical governance arrangement. The strength of the NGOs in the country is weak and incomparable with the government’s, which has mastered most of the resources and is just a reality in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0072.v1
Online: 5 January 2021 (10:28:29 CET)
Many countries are raising questions on the intentions behind Saudi reforms. The low oil prices in 2008-09 were the awakening call for Saudis, and later in 2014, it became the reason to look for the economy that is less dependent on oil. The article studies the initiated social reforms and social impact of foreign cultural activities. It scrutinizes the Saudi social fabric under the social exchange theory and looks for the positive and negative effects of cultural exchanges. The paper also considers the COVID-19 situation in KSA as it has broken the chain of cultural events planned all over the country to promote tourism and improve the image of KSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0372.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: School governance; General education innovation; School Autonomy.
Online: 30 June 2020 (11:49:23 CEST)
Innovation in general education governance is one of the development trends not only in Vietnam but also in the world. This is also an important measure to change and improve the quality of education, especially expand autonomy of high schools and universities. The paper focuses on some main contents: overview of general education; the experiences of some countries in the implementation of the school administration model towards the school autonomy model so that give lessons for Vietnam’s education can be learned in the context of development conditions nowadays. The results in this work would be used to classify the schools into the various groups. The data also analysts on decision-making capability, on what we called an “index of school autonomy”, expressed the possible level of school-level decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0426.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: sustainability; governance; piecemeal engineering; collaboration; Karl Popper
Online: 19 November 2018 (07:05:11 CET)
The challenges to sustainability governance across multiple geographical/cultural contexts lead us to the “piecemeal engineering” idea advocated by the philosopher Karl Popper, which explicitly considers context. We argue for adopting the piecemeal engineering approach, augmented by adaptive policies and modern (online) collaboration platforms to maximize the prospects of sustainable practices worldwide. This recommended course is not intended to be a theory in itself. Rather, it is a well-grounded, practical and practicable stop-gap measure in times when complexity and change outpace theories and strategies. We present a philosophical foundation for this “Augmented Popperian Experimentation.” Focusing on The Water Network (the largest collaborative platform for water researchers and professionals), we show that sustainability-oriented organizations in the water realm and others are inching toward the practice we advocate. We discuss implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0289.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: project governance; programme; infrastructure development; developing countries
Online: 15 October 2018 (08:24:48 CEST)
The governance of public sector infrastructure projects became an important topic of interest in the project, programme and portfolio management literature during the last decade. Today, it is becoming a central focus for policymakers seeking to ensure success in selecting, designing and implementing government-sponsored programme of multi-projects. Due to the multiple underlying risks and complexities, the governance of infrastructure programme constitutes a critical element in strategic planning in developing countries. This paper has analyzed infrastructure development programme and revealed shortcomings in the areas of appraisal, decision-making, quality assurance and stakeholder management. Approaches to remedy these shortcomings have been proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0422.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: transformation; flood risk reduction; Jakarta; risk governance
Online: 29 May 2018 (09:32:27 CEST)
Jakarta belongs to the cities with the highest flood risk in the world. Its flood hazard is driven by land subsidence, soil sealing, changes in river discharge and increasingly sea level rise. As all of these trends are set to continue, Jakarta’s flood hazard is expected to intensify in the future. Designing and implementing risk reduction and adaption measures is therefore of utmost importance. Against the background, the paper draws on a discourse analysis and original empirical household survey data to review and evaluate current adaptation measures and to analyze in how far they describe a path that is transformative from previous risk reduction approaches. The results show that the focus is clearly on engineering solutions, foremost in the Giant Sea Wall project. The project is likely to transform the city’s flood hydrology. However, it cements rather than transforms the current risk management paradigm which gravitates around the goal of controlling flood symptoms, rather than addressing their anthropogenic root causes. The results also show that the planned measures are heavily contested due to concerns about ecological impacts, social costs, distributional justice, public participation and long-term effectiveness. On the outlook, the results therefore suggest that the more the flood hazard will intensify in the future, the deeper a societal debate will be needed about the desired pathway in flood risk reduction and overall development planning – particularly with regards to the accepted level of transformation, such as partial retreat from the most flood-affected areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0153.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Urban waterscape; Covid-19; boreholes; urban governance; Nairobi
Online: 10 June 2022 (08:10:25 CEST)
The Covid-19 pandemic and the initial focus on handwashing measures have again highlighted the importance of water access as an essential service in protecting human health. Yet, especially in southern cities, uneven geographies of water access – often mediated by fragmented and unequal infrastructure systems – may hamper the fight against infectious diseases. The spread of SARS-CoV-2 presented a dilemma for water providers as well as residents in water-deprived urban areas as they had to adhere to new hygiene standards and requirements, despite limited access to basic water infrastructure. Therefore, a deeper understanding of pandemic urban waterscapes – the infrastructure and governance systems as well as everyday practices and technologies – is necessary for ongoing debates on (post-) pandemic or zoonotic cities. In our paper, we focus on changes in urban (water) governance and government water projects in Nairobi since early 2020. We show that Covid-19 has contributed to changes in Nairobi’s waterscape but only in conjunction with recent changes in the city’s overall governance structure. However, if these waterscape changes lead to greater equity in water access, and if they have helped to curb the spread of SARS-CoV-2, is more than questionable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0269.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Utility; Reforms; Governance; Regulation; Incentives; Agency; Liberalization; Performance
Online: 22 February 2022 (11:02:29 CET)
The power sectors in most African countries face an enduring problem of utility performance – electricity utilities have failed to deliver adequate, reliable and competitively priced electricity to support economic growth and improve the welfare of their populations. Despite more than two decades of power sector re-forms, outcomes have been varied and often disappointing. Using a case study de-sign, we explore the five key enduring power challenges. The research utilizes a more powerful analytical framework that combines power sector reform theory and principal-agent theoretical lens to explore the experience of power sector reforms in Kenya and provides a deeper understanding of drivers of utility performance and reform impacts. Empirical findings show that the structural, governance and regulatory reforms that previously created incentives for improved utility performance are increasingly threatened by political influence. Kenya Power’s financial viability has deteriorated in recent years and the regulator has been undermined. One of our major conclusions is that when the relationship between the principal (government) and agent (utility) is well understood and the agent is properly incentivized, performance improvements are possible. However, when the government undermines or muddies those incentives through conflicting political interventions, performance improvements can be reversed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0314.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: energy poverty; economic growth; energy governance; multidimensional poverty
Online: 16 August 2021 (09:00:19 CEST)
During the last two decades, energy poverty has captured a growing attention of researchers and policymakers due to its strong association with economic poverty and poor economic performance. This study uses a broad set of macro level indicators and makes the first attempt to measure energy poverty and its impact on economic growth of Pakistan over the period 1990 to 2017. In particular, our energy poverty indicator considers four main dimensions of energy poverty, namely, energy services, clean energy, energy governance and energy affordability. Our main results show that though the overall energy poverty has reduced in Pakistan during the selected sample period, the country shows an increasing dependence on polluted energy supply in order to meet its growing demand of energy. In second stage of the investigation, we test the neoclassical growth theory where we incorporate energy poverty along with human capital as source of economic growth. Our cointegration results reveal a strong relationship between energy poverty and economic growth that is also dynamically stable in short run. These strong negative linkages between energy poverty with economic growth for the sample economy complement the previous literature on the subject.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Governance; Livelihoods; Natural Resources; Resilience; Traditional Systems; Pastoralism
Online: 18 March 2021 (13:15:35 CET)
Kenya’s natural resource base has dwindled over years. The existence of many natural resource policies, some that are incompatible, has resulted in complex rangeland management regimes, giving rise to fragmented interventions and inadequate natural resource policies in relation to pastoralism. The majority of pastoral land resources held under a controlled access system by the national government that regulates management and utilization of resources. Pastoralists in Kenya have become among the most marginalized and disadvantaged minority groups. This is due to limited or under investment by government and other actors, and access to, or ownership of land, water and other resources, which are fundamental for pastoralism. This study examines significant obstacles for the establishment of a more inclusive ‘governance’ approach to natural resource management in northern Kenya, that characterize the customary Boran knowledge such as Deedha’s (traditional grazing unit) and formal institutions and seeks to address the tension between them through a legal framework that accommodates both. The results of the study established existence of the traditional structures and institutions in governance of natural resources within the pastoralist communities in Isiolo County. These institutions have evolved to cope with changing dynamics brought about by formalization of the natural resources governance. The resulted showed that various formal institutions from national government agencies to county government department were involved in management of the natural resources. However, the study established various operational divergence and links between informal and formal institutions involved in natural resources management. The study concluded that both informal institution such as Deedha and formal institutions constituted by national and county government did governance of natural resources among pastoralist communities in Isiolo County. The communities however have more trust in the informal structures and institutions because of their flexibility and inclusiveness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0127.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Case study; Collaborative ecosystem; Governance; Smart city; Sustainability
Online: 6 October 2020 (12:55:13 CEST)
Despite the increasing interest in ‘smart city’ initiatives worldwide, current literature still lacks the approaches and models that address challenges in organization and collaboration, which boost sustainability and ‘smartness’ in modern cities. This paper provides an overview of ‘smart city’ ecosystems as a mechanism to promote the expected outcomes of their sustainable development, and highlights the importance of conceptualizing cities from organizational and managerial perspectives. Representative exploratory models of ‘city organization’, which emphasize on the role of ‘governance’ and synergies, are presented to ‘decode’ complex city mechanisms and to determine key components that lead to ‘smart’ initiatives. Interesting case studies and applications are then analysed to examine the practical dimension of these approaches. As a review paper, this article lays out a general framework on the importance of ‘collaboration’, ‘governance’, ‘management’, and ‘ecosystem’. However, 'planning smartly’ and achieving ‘sustainability’ at the level of city ‘organization’ remain as challenges in this pioneering study of smart cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0371.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: General education; Basic education; School governance; Secondary education.
Online: 30 June 2020 (11:45:45 CEST)
In Vietnam, general education includes primary education, lower secondary education (the period of basic education) and upper secondary education (the period of vocational orientation education). In particular, primary education is compulsory for all children from 6 to 14 years old, is implemented in 5 school years, from first grade to fifth grade. The age of students entering first grade is six years old. Primary education aims to help students form the initial foundations for proper and long-term development of morality, intelligence, physicality, aesthetics and basic skills for students to continue high school. Secondary education is conducted in four school years, from grade six to grade nine. Students entering sixth grade must have an elementary school diploma. Secondary education aims to help students consolidate and develop the results of primary education; have basic secondary education and initial knowledge about technology and career to continue high school, vocational high school, vocational training or enter a working life. High school education is conducted in 3 school years, from grade ten to grade twelve. Students entering tenth grade must have a junior high school diploma. High school education is aimed at helping students consolidate and develop the outcomes of lower secondary education, complete high school education and common knowledge about technology and career guidance for further college education, college, professional secondary school, apprenticeship or enter the working life. Thus, the term general education is a term with broad connotation including primary education, lower secondary education (basic education period) and upper secondary education (education period) career orientation. Within the scope of this research, we use the term school governance used to mean a mode of action, which is directed toward the goal of being accomplished effectively, by and through others. Governance activities are indispensable activities that arise when people work together to accomplish goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0279.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: reservoirs; water allocation; water scarcity; alert volume; governance
Online: 15 October 2018 (05:13:54 CEST)
The Brazilian water legislation advocates that some uses have priority over others, but this aspect has never been clearly addressed, generating conflicts. Water authorities usually refer to hydrological models to justify their decisions on water allocation. However, a significant group of stakeholders does not feel qualified to discuss these models and is, therefore, excluded from the decision process. We hereby propose a hydrologically robust method to correlate water uses with their respective reservoir alert volumes, which should empower the less formally educated stakeholders. The method consists of: (i) generating the water discharge versus reliability curve, using a stochastic approach; (ii) generating the withdrawal discharge versus alert volume family of curves, using a water-balance approach; (iii) calibrating the key parameter T using field data; and (iv) associating each water use with its alert volume. We have applied the method to four of the largest reservoirs (2.10³ - 2.10² hm³) in the semi-arid Ceará State. The results indicate that low-priority water uses should be rationalized when the reservoir volume is below 20%; whereas uses with very high priority should start rationalization when it is below 11%. These hydrological guidelines should help enhance water governance among non-specialist stakeholders in water-scarce and reservoir-dependent regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0056.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: water-reuse; governance capacity; water management; water scarcity
Online: 3 May 2018 (08:36:07 CEST)
The world will experience an estimated 40% freshwater supply shortage by 2030, converting water scarcity into one of the principal global challenges that modern society face. Urban water-reuse is recognized as a promising and necessary measure to alleviate the growing water stress in many regions. The transformation to widespread application of water-reuse systems requires major changes in the way water is governed, and countries such as Spain already find themselves involved in this process. Through the systematic assessment of the city of Sabadell (Spain), we aim to identify the main barriers, opportunities and transferable lessons that can enhance governance capacity to implement systems for non-potable reuse of treated wastewater in cities. It was found that continuous learning, the availability and quality of information and level of knowledge and strong agents of change are the main capacity-building priorities. On the other hand, awareness, multilevel network potential and implementing capacity are already well-established. It is concluded that in order to undertake a widespread application of water-reuse practices, criteria examining water quality according to its use need to be developed, independently of the water’s origin. The development and implementation of such a legislative frame should be based on the experience of local water-reuse practices and continuous evaluation. Finally, the need for public engagement and adequate pricing mechanisms are emphasized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Sustainable Infrastructure; Governance; Design; Protocols; Implementation; Value Chain; Digitalization
Online: 19 July 2021 (09:11:56 CEST)
Twenty-first century infrastructure needs to respond to changing demographics, becoming climate neutral, resilient, and economically affordable, while remaining a driver for development and shared prosperity. However, the infrastructure sector remains one of the least innovative and digitalized, plagued by delays, cost overruns, and benefit shortfalls [1-4]. The root cause is the prevailing fragmentation of the infrastructure value chain . To support overcoming the shortcomings, an integration of the value chain is needed. This could be achieved through a use-cased-based creation of federated digital platforms applied to infrastructure projects. Such digital platforms enable full-lifecycle participation and responsible governance guided by a shared infrastructure vision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0633.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: collaborative governance; power; facilitation; peatland fire; West Kalimantan; Indonesia
Online: 29 January 2021 (15:39:22 CET)
Researchers have focused on collaborative governance as an effective measure to realise sustainable natural resource management through the participation of various stakeholders. However, the literature has indicated that issues such as power imbalances tend to undermine the effectiveness of collaborative governance. Powerful actors represented by the government tend to control collaborative processes and produce benefits for dominant groups, while less empowered local communities are often deprived of opportunities for livelihood improvement. Although numerous researchers have analysed the key factors that influence the processes and outcomes of collaborative governance, few have identified a concrete measure to reduce the risk of failure, particularly when managing power imbalances in developing countries. This study explored a methodology to address the power imbalances in collaborative governance based on a case study of a participatory peatland fire prevention project implemented in West Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Semi-structured interviews and questionnaire surveys conducted with project participants suggested that measures such as establishing a joint team of government officers and villagers, providing a common facilitation training programme, training villagers as facilitators, promoting equal knowledge sharing, and allowing villagers to make their own decisions mitigated the power imbalances between the two groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0577.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: corporate governance, Jordan, board of directors, compensation, board independence
Online: 26 November 2018 (09:48:49 CET)
Corporate governance is developing rapidly in many countries across the world. In this article, the existing state of corporate governance in Jordan is examined. Jordan does not have a corporate governance code per se. The article reveals that overall Jordan has in place some of the features of corporate governance best practice, but that there remains further progress to be made in areas such as independence of directors, compensation, and correlation between shareholding and entitlement to seats on the board. The article recommends legal reforms in order to enhance corporate governance in Jordan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0538.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: governance; agricultural value chain; links; captive chain; hierarchy chain
Online: 31 August 2018 (04:35:41 CEST)
The objective of this study is to determine the type of governance of the four main agricultural value chains in Tamaulipas, northeast of Mexico. For the preparation of this research used a qualitative design, using a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews to a sample of representatives of the four selected chains. The results showed that in all the studied networks, control and coordination capacity is limited by the influence that has a link on the rest of the chain. In all cases, was that the industrial link is who leads the chains and exert control over the rest of the links. The results showed that, when the industrial link is located close geographically to the rest of the links (chains of rice and sugar cane), the chains showed a hierarchical type, where the industrial exercised dominion over the rest of the links and captures most of the income. On the other hand, in chains where control is exercised by links that are outside the territory (chains of soybeans and sorghum), they function as captive chains, putting the rest of the chain to its influence and control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0036.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: conservation; governance; habitat loss; livelihood; eco-tourism; carbon credits
Online: 7 December 2016 (11:13:38 CET)
Establishment of protected areas (PAs) is one of the key global conservation strategies that currently cover approximately 15% of the earth’s land surface. Globally, PA networks are designed to curb the growing anthropogenic pressures in areas with high biological diversity. Despite the importance of PAs in conserving the vanishing biodiversity and unique habitats, many of them are in critical condition due to poor governance thus functioning below the expected level. Moreover, in many developing countries, the PA coverage is below the global standard. Recognizing their contemporary role in conservation, governments have recently agreed to expand the global PA coverage to 17% by the year 2020 (Aichi target 11). This book with eight chapters from different regions of the world provides an overview of the PAs governance, institutional mechanisms, conservation benefits, limitations and challenges associated with their respective policy discourse, integrated management, and functional attributes. Protected areas expect to to play an important role in the long rn in conservation and protection of biodiversity and ecosystems particularly in countries where population pressure and habitat loss are high. Regular intervention, political commitment, and effective governance are essential for the sustainability of PAs across the world. Here, we also attempted to shed some light on future development clues for the sustainable management and monitoring of PAs worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0096.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: corporate governance; EVA; board of directors; board index; EVA
Online: 9 August 2016 (11:51:50 CEST)
In 2013, the CMA at the İstanbul Stock Exchange increased the weight assigned to the Board of Directors component of its Corporate Governance Index to 35% from the previous 25%. Interpreting this as a recognition of the increasing vital role of the board, this study seeks to enhance the work of Abdıoğlu and Kılıç (2015) by putting more focus on the role of women in the boards and the effect of the busy chairman as well as the presence of outside directors on the effectivity of the Board. (The general business structure is associated with family owned groups and holdings which results into a network of intertwined board membership and cases of multiple directorship where, one board chairman can hold the same position or any directorship in as many as ten firmshence the busy chairman). I employ a different method of evaluating performance (EVA) together with the accounting measures of ROE and ROA (as opposed to the overused Tobin’s Q), which I regress against the Board Index to be created. The focus is on firms on the BIST 100 index (excluding financial) between 2009 and 2013. The results reveal that the BINDEX has a significant and positive relationship with firm performance as measured by EVA. A second model reveals no relationship between the BINDEX and firm ROA, similar to the results of Kiliç and Abdioğlu (2015). ROA however has a positive relationship with the proportion of female directors in the board, as earlier reported by LückerathRovers (2013). Another model using ROE as the proxy for performance registers a significant negative relationship with the index. The contradiction obtained in the results from these three models underscore the importance choosing the right methods when estimating the performance of a firm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0160.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Complex Adaptative Systems (CAS); Complex Sociology; Socio Ecological Systems (SES); Constructivism; Spiral Dynamics; Systemic Governance; Polycentric Institution Governance; Innovation Facilitation; Transformation; Agile
Online: 12 November 2020 (08:33:58 CET)
Most mature companies have started some kind of “transformation”, either digital, or agile transformations, to cope with changes in the environment, yet most fail, ending up delivering nothing or just one more reorganization. We postulate that considering the Organization as a self-aware Complex Adaptative System (CAS) is paramount, as the common conception (Industrial: mechanistic and predictive) results in bringing the systems in a frozen or defensive mode. Stimulating the system enables us to use its adaptative power to develop new capabilities, and all layers should be tackled simultaneously, to prevent the system from collapsing back into its original state. To ensure this, it is necessary to create a seed per level, and a mechanism to propagate the transformation, with a focus on development instead of growth, that is qualitative change rather than quantitative. A common vocabulary should also be provided, so conversations can occur at every level. Finally, changing mindsets is key, and both concepts and techniques should be provided as enablers to the adequate mindset level. We detail one such transformation that resulted in distributed leadership and more intrinsic motivation, providing both an account of the transformation itself and a model to read it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0557.v1
Subject: Keywords: Civil Society; Climate Politics; Environmental Governance; Faith-Based Environmentalism; Faith-Based Nonprofits; Global Governance; International Relations; Religion and Ecology; Religion and Society; Sustainability
Online: 24 February 2021 (16:45:12 CET)
How much is religion quantitatively involved in global climate politics? After assessing the role of the Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change from a normative perspective, this descriptive, transdisciplinary and unconventional study offers the first comprehensive quantitative examination of religious nongovernmental organizations that formally participate in its annual meetings, the largest attempts to solve the climate crisis through global governance. This study finds that although their numbers are growing, only about 3 percent of registered nongovernmental organizations accredited to participate in the conference are overtly religious in nature — and that more than 80 percent of those faith-based groups are Christian. Additionally, this study finds that religious nongovernmental organizations that participate in the conference are mostly from the Global North. The results call for greater participation of religious institutions in the international climate negotiations in order for society to address the planetary emergency of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0078.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Urban planning Italy; Governance 3.0; New Digital Platforms; Sentiment Analysis
Online: 6 May 2021 (12:27:35 CEST)
Current acceleration in digital innovations, unexpected challenges in our social interactions, acceleration to virtualization, limitation in our physical spaces, and unpredictable changes in our Old lifestyles - as originated from the COVID-19 global pandemic 2020 - continue to provide us with a framework, rapidly updating under our eyes, of the modifications our world is undergoing by pursuing into a New “digital age”. Or, as many scholars say nowadays, into the New Normal! These are shared and deep changes that concretely stress their effects on how ideally a city should function. Forcing us to reflect on the capability to achieve shared choices and visions for the future by taking vantage from both the New digital platforms and New suddenly opened paths. In the pages of this article authors, through different but shared viewpoints, propose an answer to the topic of "Governance 3.0", addressing the attempt of a radical change of those paradigms, now consolidated, within which the spatial dimensions, in which we live and act, are shaped. Also analyzing the relationship between Technocracy and Democracy as defined by Khanna, it is argued that it is possible to realize new forecasts and acquire a more democratic and participatory (inclusive) dimension of Governance, also thanks to new digital technologies, by exploring the general unconscious "feeling" of people, through anonymous data collection and without any direct or indirect interference with it. The analysis of the "Sentiment", already developed in other fields but easily exportable within the urban discipline, can be considered as the beginning of hybrid practices where digital and analogic find a compromise to make the "Urbs" more attractive and inclusive, while the "Civitas", connected to the Internet, can contribute to the optimization of services, of the "Polis" and a new social/spatial reorganization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0170.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: finance; governance; water; sanitation; enabling environment; pro-poor; systems thinking
Online: 16 October 2019 (04:06:46 CEST)
Responding to the substantial finance gap for achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 and 6.2, the Water and Sanitation sector has mobilized to launch new blended finance vehicles with increasing frequency. The sustainability and scale-up of financial solutions is intended to support increased access to unserved, marginalized populations. However, without addressing foundational issues in the sector, any finance mechanism, whether public, private or blended, will be a short-term, band-aid solution and the sector will continue the cycle of dependency on external assistance. This paper presents the results of a collaborative effort of Water.org, IRC WASH and the World Bank Water Global Practice. Drawing from the latest research on effective public financial management and based on evidence from the countries where these organizations work, the paper demonstrates that sustainable success in mobilising finance at large scale is dependent on a reasonable level of performance across 10 foundational areas. The paper presents evidence on the 10 foundational areas and discusses why other aspects of finance and governance while necessary are not sufficient. Better coordination amongst all development partners and governments, including a collective commitment to and prioritization of working on these foundational issues, is a necessary first step.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0724.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Social-Ecological System; Water security; Governance; Institution; Learning; Data-Cube
Online: 22 November 2018 (14:47:31 CET)
The Social-Ecological Systems (SES) framework serves as a valuable framework to explore and understand social and ecological interactions, and pathways in water governance. Yet, it lacks a robust understanding of change. We argue an analytical and methodological approach to engaging global changes in SES is critical to strengthening the scope and relevance of the SES framework. Relying on SES and resilience thinking, we propose an institutional and cognitive model of change that institutions and natural resources systems co-evolve to provide a dynamic understanding of SES that stands on three causal mechanisms: institutional complexity trap, rigidity trap, and learning processes. We illustrate how Data Cube technology could overcome current limitations and offer reliable avenues to test hypothesis about the dynamics of social-ecological systems and water security by offering to combine spatial and time data with no major technical requirements for users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0427.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Water recycle; upscaling; water governance; water availability; climate change adaptation
Online: 18 October 2018 (16:34:29 CEST)
Cleaning wastewater and using it again for secondary purposes is a measure to address water scarcity in urban areas. However, upscaling of recycled water schemes is challenging due to the possible emergence of various barriers. Based on a review of the governance literature we suggest that a set of five governance conditions is necessary for a successful upscaling of recycled water schemes; (1) policy leadership, (2) policy coordination, (3) availability of financial resources, (4) awareness of a problem, and (5) the presence of a public forum. In order to elaborate on the practical relevance of these conditions we studied a recycled water scheme currently being upscaled in Sabadell, Spain. We reviewed policy documents, conducted a set of 21 semi-structured interviews, and attended two policy meetings about the subject. Our results suggest that Sabadell meets the required conditions for upscaling reused water to a certain extent. However, the presence of a public forum is lacking. We discuss the implications of the absence of the venue and procedures for public participation in Sabadell and how it could be strengthened. Following this discussion, we conclude with some lessons for other cities that plan to upscale their recycled water schemes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0301.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: adaptation; complex adaptative systems; ecosystem services; governance; resilience; sustainability; transdisciplinary
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:06:22 CEST)
In the last decade, probably in response to global changes and environmental crisis, the use of the term “social-ecological system” (SES) in the scientific literature has been growing. This is certainly a sign of the recognition of the need and importance of transdisciplinary research. Here, we explore whether the use of the term is a buzzword, or it actually represents a key concept toward the integration of social and ecological research. We compiled a data base of publications (N = 1289) that mentioned SES in title, keywords and abstract. Subsequently, we analyzed: authors affiliations, type of work (conceptual, empirical, review), study site, prevailing human use, temporal and spatial scales of analysis, kind of variables analyzed (socioeconomic, biophysical), and the method/s used to integrate them. We detected four time spans in the use of the term (1975–1997, 1998–2006, 2007–2012, 2013–2016). Our results suggest that SES is a widely invoked concept to study the interface between social and ecological systems. Most works show some common elements such as the analysis of resilience, ecosystem services, sustainability, governance and adaptive management. However, the majority of studies does not study SES as a whole, integrating both social and ecological variables and their feedback loops. We consider that SES is still a concept in construction in order to build a necessary framework to integrate social and ecological sciences. For a robust evolution we recommend to focus on 1. a conscious, discussed and agreed effort of scientists to conduct transdisciplinary research needed to study SES; 2. developing methodological tools for the true integration of social and ecological data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0079.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Natural Social Contract; Co-evolutionary governance; Transformative governance; Institutional change; Policy mixes; Transformative Social-Ecological Innovation; Transformative Social Innovation; Social Innovation; Sustainability Transition; Societal Transition
Online: 7 February 2022 (11:43:04 CET)
The corona (COVID-19) pandemic offers an opportunity for dealing with persistent problems, through a transformative recovery process. It is a crisis that offers opportunities for dealing with three interrelated crises: the ecological crisis (climate change, loss of biodiversity, resource depletion, pollution and ecosystem destruction), the confidence crisis (people losing trust in government, politics, companies, regular news channels, science, each other and the future), and the inequality crisis (the widening of the gap between rich and poor). Our argument is that sustainability transitions will not succeed without a different economy and another social contract with the associated rights and duties of care (for the environment and the well-being of others, including future generations). A different social contract is not only desirable from the point of view of sustainability and fairness, justice and equality, but is also necessary to restore citizens' trust in politics, government, companies and each other. In the paper we discuss mechanisms towards a Natural Social Contract, systemic leverage points for system transformations and possibilities for co-evolutionary governance by actor coalitions interested in transformative change. The combination of those three elements helps to synchronize different agendas and reduce the chance that they will work against each other.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0534.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: governance; social-ecological system; tropical cyclone; urban forest; urban tree canopy
Online: 23 July 2021 (10:31:50 CEST)
Urban Tree Canopy (UTC) greatly enhances the livability of cities by reducing urban heat buildup, mitigating stormwater runoff, and filtering airborne particulates, among other ecological services. These benefits, combined with the relative ease of measuring tree cover from aerial imagery, have led many cities to adopt management strategies based on UTC goals. In this study, we conducted canopy analyses for the 300 largest cities in Florida to assess the impacts of development practices, urban forest ordinances, and hurricanes on tree cover. Within the cities sampled, UTC canopy ranged from 5.9% to 68.7% with a median canopy coverage of 32.3% Our results indicate that the peak gust speeds recorded during past hurricanes events were a significant predictor of canopy coverage (P-value = <0.001) across the sampled cities. As peak gust speeds increased from 152 km/h (i.e., a lower-intensity Category 1 storm) to 225 km/h (lower-intensity Category 4 and the maximum gusts captured in our data), predicted canopy in developed urban areas decreased by 7.7%. Beyond the impacts of hurricanes and tropical storms, we found that historic landcover and two out of eight urban forest ordinances were significant predictors of existing canopy coverage (P-landcover <0.001; P-tree preservation ordinance = 0.02, P-heritage tree ordinance = 0.03). Results indicate that local policies and tree protections can protect or enhance urban tree canopy, even in the face of rapid development and periodic natural disturbances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0360.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Corporate social responsibility, corporate governance, stakeholder engagement, sustainability, sustainable development goals.
Online: 16 May 2021 (21:30:41 CEST)
Cooperative organizations try to balance economic viability and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) management through strategic policies that involve dialogue, participation and engagement with stakeholders. To measure the impact of CSR management, the electricity sector implements monitoring processes and models, such as the Sustainability Reporting Standards of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), which measure contributions to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations 2030 Agenda. This research analyses the strategic management of CSR in the 28 electric cooperatives that market electricity in Spain with the aim of determining their level of commitment to CSR and stakeholder participation in their corporate policies. The analysis is based on the descriptive-exploratory study of the whole population of electric cooperatives. The results indicate that the CSR management of most electric cooperatives is still in an emerging stage within the Value Curve. Importantly, there is a significant percentage of cooperatives that have already advanced towards the consolidating and institutionalized stages. However, most of these social-economy organizations are not developing programs that link their CSR strategies with their priority SDGs and sustainability as commitment to their community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0213.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: ecosystem services; voluntary sustainability certification; state regulation; plural governance arrangements; Indonesia
Online: 16 February 2020 (04:57:20 CET)
The Forest Stewardship Council initiated a pilot Forest Certification for Ecosystem Services (ForCES) project from 2011 to 2017 to improve and promote sustainable forest management addressing a range of ecosystem services. Three sites in Indonesia were studied in the pilot. Whilst the development of the certification standard was largely by a partnership between the certification standard organization, civil society and research organisations, implementation and monitoring of the impact of this voluntary sustainability standard will entail interaction with state regulations. This study sought to understand how certification and state regulations concerning ecosystem services in Indonesia interplay, particularly in the agenda setting and negotiation stage. Using the conceptual lenses of transition theory and state and non-state market-based governance, the interrelationships between ecosystem services certification and regulations were found to be both complementary, supporting and antagonistic. The majority were complementary. Antagonism occurred where regulations do not accommodate land use issues and due to different contradictory state regulations. The voluntary instruments were developed largely in the absence of state involvement and without any substitution with regulatory standards. Given the increasing proliferation of voluntary market-driven initiatives at farm, forest concession and landscape level, stakeholders developing and managing voluntary standards need to collaborate with national and local governments to create synergy to enable their acceptance, adoption and effectiveness to positively enhance the conservation of ecosystem services through incentivizing market-based instruments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0042.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: performance-based management; performance measurement; good governance; local government; public agency
Online: 3 April 2019 (11:27:59 CEST)
Performance appraisal is a fundamental indicator in public accountability to achieve the good governance principles. Hence, this study aims to analyze the performance measurement that can improve performance on government agencies in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The study was conducted in qualitative approach. The research found that non-integrated models of performance measurement in South Sulawesi are inefficient and ineffective. Inefficiency happens because it uses time and cost resources separately, while being ineffective is because both models focuses on each goal instead on performance goals and the process is not supported by the actual management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0205.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: integrity of financial reporting information; good corporate governance; firm size; leverage
Online: 10 October 2018 (06:05:12 CEST)
This research aims to determine the influence of the independent commissioners, audit committee, institutional ownership, firm size and leverage against the integrity of the financial reporting information. This research is quantitative research with the causal approach. This study uses secondary data and panel data regression analysis method. The research results prove that audit committee, institutional ownership and leverage effect on the integrity of the financial reporting information. But it does not prove that the independent commissioner and firm size effect on the integrity of the financial reporting information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0497.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: higher education; international students; leadership and governance; SEM; STEM; sustainable development; sustainability
Online: 31 December 2021 (09:39:26 CET)
Attracting and retaining international students has been widely discussed in higher education settings. Increasing the number of international students has become an indispensable strategy for national and global competition. This study focuses on effective strategies and international students' issues regarding satisfaction in the most popular STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) programs. We designed a structural equation modeling (SEM) method to determine the effect of institutional mediation between push factors and satisfaction factors for the development of better strategies by which to attract and retain international students. Taking Taiwan as an example, this study employed a self-designed questionnaire to collect data: 485 degree-seeking international students in STEM programs were invited and successfully participated in this study during spring 2021. IBM SPSS 26 and AMOS 26 (Analysis of Moment Structure) were used to carry out the data analysis. We employed reliability, factor, and SEM analyses. This study assumed that the impact of push factors can be modified by institutional situations and result in international students’ satisfaction with their learning and environment and regarding migration policy. The results revealed that the predictors, mediation, and criteria were significant at the 0.05 or 0.01 levels. The findings suggest that push factors impact international students’ satisfaction when using institutional leadership and international strategy. The results of the bootstrap with a generalized least square method showed that the SEM model fit in 2000 bootstrap samples. The effect of institutional mediation can provide useful information for STEM programs to boost their future recruitment and retention strategies. This study provides an innovative approach to the detection of issues among international students in specific programs. These findings can enrich our knowledge regarding attracting and retaining global students in higher education settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0148.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; information; Good Corporate Governance; abnormal stock return; audit quality
Online: 31 May 2021 (13:23:05 CEST)
This research contributes to the development of theories regarding the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and investment decisions. Acquisition of stock returns that exceed normal predictions depends on the successful implementation of Good Corporate Governance (GCG). This study aims to examine investors' reactions to information on CSR disclosure in several countries that are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Furthermore, this study also examines the role of implementing GCG in strengthening the impact of CSR disclosure on investor relations as measured by abnormal stock returns. The sampling technique used was purposive Sampling. The research was conducted on Manufacturing Companies in countries that are members of ASEAN during 2017-2019. The estimation model used to analyze data is a multiple regression model. The results showed that CSR information was able to increase investors' positive reactions. Meanwhile, GCG practice is proven to strengthen the impact of CSR information on investment decisions. Other variables involved in this study, namely audit quality, company size, debt level, and sales growth, are not proven to influence abnormal stock returns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0361.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: just transition; energy transition; regional development; public policy; governance; OECD; European Union
Online: 16 May 2021 (21:55:33 CEST)
The concept of a ‘just transition’ encompasses political and policy imperatives to minimise the harmful impacts of industrial and economic transitions on workers, communities and society more generally, and to maximise their potential benefits. This imperative has gained heightened importance as governments commit to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A wide range of policies strategies and initiatives have been adopted by national and regional governments to facilitate and help manage a just transition. It is a concept that is increasingly being put into practice. This scoping study identifies and compares strategies, policies and practices that are presently being implemented in order to manage a just transition across 25 countries and 74 regions alongside European Union-level policies. This work develops a typology of policy instruments to manage just transitions and identifies implementation gaps and leading practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0173.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Corporate governance; ROA; TNPM; dynamic system GMM; endogeneity; board size; board independence
Online: 10 March 2020 (14:31:50 CET)
Corporate governance is widely suggested by economists and regulators as a solution to reduce agency problems and improve firm performance. However previous studies have failed to generate consistent results. Using a dynamic panel system GMM estimator to alleviate endogeneity concerns we determine the effect of corporate board structure on the performance of a panel of 1265 Chinese firms listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges from 2010 to 2016. We compare the dynamic system GMM estimator to some commonly used estimators; ordinary least squares (OLS), fixed effects (FE) and the dynamic OLS, and show that these estimates are biased due to endogeneity. The dynamic system GMM estimator incorporates the dynamic nature of internal governance choices to provide valid and powerful instruments that address unobserved heterogeneity and simultaneity. Our results show support for the board model corporate governance mechanism. We find that board size is positive and significantly related to both return on assets and total net profit margin. In addition board independence is positive and significantly related to return on assets but insignificantly related to total net profit margin. Duality was found to have a negative but statistically insignificant relation with firm performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0114.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: tobacco; forest resources; deforestation; livelihoods; institutions; governance; landscape; land degradation; climate change
Online: 10 April 2018 (08:04:02 CEST)
The increase in tobacco production while ameliorating the condition of the participant households has caused challenges to stakeholders particularly those in the governance of forest resources upon which the sector is hinged. Massive deforestation has proceeded at an alarmingly high level, in a way that threatens the long term viability of the tobacco sector and sustainability of natural forest resources. The entrance of previously disadvantaged majority into the once minority-dominated tobacco sector (and economy) in a quest to improving their livelihoods, is driving forest landscape changes that pose inherent environmental challenges including climate change. This article adopts institutional and landscape approaches to explore and explain the drivers, nexus and implications of smallholder tobacco as a livelihood strategy to the forest landscape changes and the subsequent imperative for governance of the sustainable utilization of forest resources in Zimbabwe. Drawing on documentary evidence the paper concludes that this situation poses a dilemma to forest and livelihood policies, hence the need to examine new institutional and livelihood initiatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0436.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Water Framework Directive; River Basin Management Plan; Water Resource Management; Water Governance; Stakeholders
Online: 16 June 2021 (10:29:51 CEST)
The River Basin Management Plan (RBMP) is an essential component of the European Union Water Framework Directive that details an integrated approach required to protect, improve and sustainably manage water resources. RBMP were intended to be produced for the periods 2009-2015, 2016-2021 and 2022-2027. However, after two years of delays in the development processes, the Republic of Ireland produced its first RBMP in 2010. The second RBMP cycle was also implemented in 2018 and is expected to run until the end of 2021 to give way to the third RBMP, whose consultation processes have been ongoing since December 2019. This paper contributes to the forthcoming RBMP by assessing stakeholders’ perspectives on the second RBMP through a desk-based review and by conducting interviews with nine institutions (14 interviewees). The qualitatively analysed interviews reveal a broad spectrum of actors associated with water management and governance in the Republic of Ireland through a three-tier governance structure that has been delivered (with amendment) through the first two RBMPs. Organisations such as the An Fóram Uisce|The Water Forum, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Local Authority Waters, and the Agricultural Sustainability Support and Advisory Programme have responsibilities designated in the RBMPs to deliver improved water quality, integrated catchment management, community engagement and awareness-raising. Trust has also been building up among these organisations and other agencies in the water sector. Despite these responsibilities and progress, the interviews identified communication lapses, ineffective collaboration and coordination among stakeholders and late implementation to be hampering the successful delivery of the second RBMP, in addition to significant pressures acting on water bodies from agricultural activities and urban wastewater treatment. Towards the third RBMP, the paper concludes that optimised water sector finance, enhanced and well-resourced communications, and improved stakeholder collaboration are needed to foster effective and efficient water services delivery and quality. More so, given the cross-cutting impact of the Sustainable Development Goals on water resources and the interconnected relations among the goals, the paper further recommends the integration of the SDGs in the various plans of actions and a co-benefits approach to derive the triple benefits from biodiversity, climate change initiatives and water quality measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0746.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Resilience; Social Progress; Enviromental Performance; Sustainable Development Goals; Governance; World Risks; Vulnerability; Susceptibility
Online: 30 December 2020 (08:58:20 CET)
Building Country Resilience is a long-term process particularly in the hyper connected world we are living today; and depends on good governance and appropriate equilibrium of respect for people, planet and profits as well as avoiding depleting natural resources that end up affecting the biosphere. Hence represent a most needed Learning ability that may be seeing to be related to the process of Sustainable Development. So, this paper seeks to find best practices and a Ranking of Countries that may help as guides to foster Country Resilience. For this purpose, it was developed a World Resilience Index - WRI based on a Statistical Analysis with updated data from 108 Countries divided into 3 Groups: American Countries – AMER (20 Countries), Advanced Economies - AVECO (22 Countries) mostly from Europe and OTHER (66 Countries); and using a set of Synthetic Variables like the Social Progress Index – SPI, the Environmental Performance Index – EPI, and the Sustainable Development Goals Index – SDGI, besides some related to Governance and the World Risk Index – WRI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0210.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: smart dashboard; smart governance; slow tourism; Santa Barbara Walk; Sulcis - Iglesiente; Sardinia; Italy
Online: 16 December 2019 (07:11:11 CET)
Information and communication technologies play an increasingly important role in the process of acquiring knowledge from a territory and managing it at different scales. ICTs allow a rapid diffusion of data not only through institutional channels but also through social networks where the smart community share experiences and perceptions. In this sense, ICTs become strategic to support the promotion of sustainable tourism development of territories. An important tool to implement it, can be a circular smart dashboard, a decision support system in which the digital data are organized and processed to produce an information output, to be used, after the evaluation by the decision makers, as a new input for the system. The present paper deals with a wider research the authors are involved in, related to the reconversion and valorization of a former mining area towards slow tourism, as the Santa Barbara Walk (SBW), an ancient mining route in the Sulcis Iglesiente area (Sardinia, Italy) . In particular, we here focus on the design proposal of a dashboard, capable of organizing information concerning the main features of the walk, in order to facilitate a shared governance for an effective tourism promotion. The paper is based on a thorough recognition of the main characteristics of the Walk, both the material ones and the digital, immaterial ones. The SBW represents in fact a network connecting the main points of interest along the Walk. On the contrary, its digital network – consisting of intangible infrastructure and flows - is however fragmented in terms of policies and contents Also a state of disorganization in slow tourism promotion activities can be observed. The goal of this paper is to present and analysis of the area, and to propose an evaluation and planning tool as the design of a circular dashboard of the SBW.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0047.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: change management; decision-making model; risk management; resource management; process improvement; good governance
Online: 4 October 2019 (10:42:05 CEST)
Abstract: Purpose – In this article we lay out the change management practices adopted by financial firms in small states within the Eurozone. We determine whether these organisations have the ability to identify triggers for change (Red Flags) and subject them to eight thematic elements to understand whether management practices can continue to exist and support operational environments, even when unexpected circumstances affect their day to day operations and processes. In doing this we examine the extent to which the eight thematic elements from the model designed by Dalli Gonzi, (2019) (The Dali Model) can assist organisations in risk identification and business continuity planning. Design/methodology/approach – A self-administered questionnaire purposely designed for this study was administered to personnel working in internal controls within financial institutions of small Eurozone states. The participants were asked to grade statements using a 5-point Likert scale, ‘1’ being ‘totally disagree’ and ‘5’ being totally agree’ to the statement posed under the thematic elements forming the basis of the Dali Model. Findings – Factor analysis provided support for the eight hypothesised dimensions of the decision-making model: connection, capacity, governance, network, policy, training, process improvement, standards. Originality/value – The study provides a better understanding and support of “best practice” in change management through an understanding and assessment of the eight factors that are the basis of this model. It addresses practical recommendations to ensure application to a wider frame of use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: data governance; data sovereignty; urban data spaces; ICT reference architecture; open urban platform
Online: 6 December 2018 (05:09:54 CET)
This paper presents the results of a recent study that was conducted with a number of German municipalities/cities. Based on the obtained and briefly presented recommendations emerging from the study, the authors propose the concept of an Urban Data Space (UDS), which facilitates an eco-system for data exchange and added value creation thereby utilizing the various types of data within a smart city/municipality. Looking at an Urban Data Space from within a German context and considering the current situation and developments in German municipalities, this paper proposes a reasonable classification of urban data that allows to relate the various data types to legal aspects and to conduct solid considerations regarding technical implementation designs and decisions. Furthermore, the Urban Data Space is described/analyzed in detail, and relevant stakeholders are identified, as well as corresponding technical artifacts are introduced. The authors propose to setup Urban Data Spaces based on emerging standards from the area of ICT reference architectures for Smart Cities, such as DIN SPEC 91357 “Open Urban Platform” and EIP SCC. Thereby, the paper walks the reader through the construction of an UDS based on the above mentioned architectures and outlines all the goals, recommendations and potentials, which an Urban Data Space can reveal to a municipality/city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0031.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: co-operative enterprises; indivisible reserves; common resources; rivalry; non-excludability; capital accumulation; governance
Online: 5 March 2018 (04:45:36 CET)
Contemporary literature dealing with the governance and exploitation of common-pool natural resources was initiated by Elinor Ostrom in 1990, and has been growing fast ever since. On the contrary, within the same research stream, the study of the presence and economic role of common resources in entrepreneurial organizations is, to date, under-researched. This work endeavors to fill some gaps in this research perspective by: (i) spelling out a new-institutionalist framework for the analysis of the accumulation and governance of common capital resources within organizational boundaries; (ii) considering co-operative enterprises as the organizational form that, on the basis of historical record, and of behavioral and institutional characteristics, demonstrated to be most compatible with a substantial role for common and non-divided asset-ownership and with its governance thereof; (iii) evidencing and explaining the strong connection between cooperative longevity and the presence of non-divided asset ownership. The economic forces influencing the optimal level of self-financed common capital resources in co-operatives are enquired. Conclusions to the paper evidence the main reasons why the new approach can better explain than preceding ones the economic sustainability and longevity of cooperative enterprises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0083.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: management and control practices; corporate governance; internal control; compliance; conformity; Social Health Organization (SHO)
Online: 4 March 2022 (14:06:21 CET)
To determine the adequacy of management practices in Social Health Organization (SHO) in face of compliance guidelines established by Brazilian organizations. This was qualitative research. Data were gathered through interviews and documentary analysis and were analyzed through the interpretation of significances and content analysis. The entity structures the compliance function based on three axes: a) normative - institutionalization of the integrity program, ethical conduct, internal controls and risk management; b) commercial - institutionalization of mechanisms aimed at transparency and accountability of the funds raised. However, the Covid-19 pandemic generated unforeseen contingencies such as accountability for funds from private donations; c) organizational - adherence by top management in maintaining a structure for inspection and control of the institution’s processes and behaviors in the market in which it operates. Based on the analysis of documents there is 76% adequacy of adherence of management practices to the compliance guidelines. It is concluded that organizations that depend on resources and understand that the subsidies they receive, whether government, whether public or private donations, will make the necessary efforts to ensure high levels of compliance, their choices and conduct preserve their image and the achievement of greater credibility and legitimacy.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0582.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: village independence; village; building the village; sustainability; regional analysis; region; rural development; governance; government
Online: 25 February 2021 (13:38:18 CET)
Village has a vital role in the national development efforts. The concept of development considered village as an object instead of a subject of development. This study focused on determining the important points in enabling a village to be independent by shifting the paradigm of “building the village” into “the building village”. This study was an exploratory research of public policies with qualitative legal studies. This study was conducted in 3 villages in Bandung regency with different characteristics, namely Neglawangi with urban characteristics, Cibiru Wetan with sub-urban characteristics, and Rancamanyar with plural characteristics. The results of this study showed that the wise step in building an independent village is through “the building village” road maps. First, encourage the inception of critical and care community and community organizations who dynamically interact in the policy making processes of village development. Second, implement a participative, accountable, and transparent planning and budgeting system within the limits of their authorities. Third, empower inclusive village economic institutions. The three road maps can succeed if they are supported by good implementation of participative, systematic, effective and efficient planning and budgeting system, as well as good monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban governance; public participation; public comments; web-crawling data; qualitative content analysis; urban China
Online: 9 September 2020 (03:37:38 CEST)
Public participation is crucial in the process of urban governance in smart-city initiatives to enable urban planners and policy makers to take account of the real public needs. Our study aims to develop an analytical framework using citizen-centred qualitative data to analyse urban problems and identify the areas most needed for urban governance. Taking a Chinese megacity as the study area, we first utilise a web-crawling tool to retrieve public comments from an online comment board and employ the Baidu Application Programming Interfaces and a qualitative content analysis for data reclassification. We then analyse the urban problems reflected by negative comments in terms of their statistical and spatial distribution, and the associative factors to explain their formation. Our findings show that urban problems are dominantly related to construction and housing, and most frequently appear in industry-oriented areas and newly-developed economic development zones on the urban fringe, where the reconciling of government-centered governance and private governance by real estate developers and property management companies are most needed. Areas with higher land price and a higher proportion of aged population tend to have less urban problems, while various types of civil facilities affect the prevalence of urban problems differently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0228.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Urban Planning, Artificial Intelligence, Information Technology, Smart Cities, E-Governance, E-participation and M-participation
Online: 10 August 2021 (10:12:16 CEST)
This article is an effort to scrutinize the role of Information Technology development in the chronological transformation of Urban Planning domain using the exploratory research approach. In this research, it is argued that the theoretical and practical understanding of Urban Planning should absorb and integrate the bright outcome of the rise of Information and Technology to foster congruent future urban development. The article addresses the trends of transformation in the urban planning domain through the myopic lens of the expansion of information and communications technology era followed by investigating the key drivers shaping the interaction between modern-day urban planning and information technology considering both the dark and bright sides into account.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0055.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Case-study analysis; Citizen engagement; Collaborative ecosystem; Governance; Innovation systems; n-Helix model; Smart city
Online: 2 June 2021 (08:49:42 CEST)
Despite the rising interest in smart city initiatives worldwide, governmental theories along with the managerial perspectives of city planning are a great lack in the literature. It is definitely understandable that the adoption of configurational pathways towards the ‘smart’ ‘governance’ models is required as key factor and smartness’ facilitator in modern cities. In this manuscript, we display an exhaustive analysis on the importance of the n-Helix models along with a benchmarking critical approach through selected European case-studies. The study, through the literature review, revealed the lack of exhaustive analyses for the methodological investigation, identification and adoption of the most appropriate governance model and collaborative approaches per project and collaborative approaches and create modular frameworks to address efficiently the continuous urban challenges, such as the rapid urbanization or the climate change.
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Smart City; Urban planning Italy; Governance 3.0; New Digital Platforms; Sentiment Analysis; Pandemic Urban Effects
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:41:22 CET)
Current acceleration in digital innovations, the unexpected challenges in our social interactions, open access to virtualization, huge limitation in our physical spaces, and unpredictable changes in our old lifestyles - as originated from the COVID-19 global pandemic in 2020 - continue to provide us with a framework, rapidly updating under our eyes, of the modifications our world is undergoing by pursuing into the “new digital age”. Or, as many scholars say nowadays, into the new normal! These are shared and deep changes that, regardless of their permanence or temporariness in the time, concretely stress, ever more greatly, their “own” effects on how ideally a city should function. Forcing us to reflect on the real ability to achieve choices and visions for the future by taking vantage from the new digital platforms. In the pages of this article authors, through different eyes but sharing an early response to the matter of new Governance, explore the theme of a radical change of those already consolidated paradigms and, therefore, of the innovations that are transforming the way we understand our society and its technologic advancements, economics, and culture, as defined through dimensions of time and space. This article identiﬁes a methodologic vision for acquiring a more democratic and participatory (inclusive) dimension in the newest conﬁguration of contemporary cities, the new smart city, and in the possible innovations in reading the common sentiments and wishes through the new digitalized world. The analysis investigates how ICT is altering the meanings/ideas of “urban planning”, driving us toward a more effective “governance” through a citizen-centred digital approach. Indeed, city governance's success must be measured based on the “listening capacity” of the inhabitants and the facilities that we are capable to provide to citizens. “Sentiment Analysis” tool is tested as a useful tool to achieve these aims.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0058.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: water rights; robustness; water governance; water scarcity; water allocation; water accounting; water trading; water sharing
Online: 6 November 2019 (10:43:15 CET)
A framework for the review of existing water management systems and their transformation into robust water sharing systems is offered. The framework focuses on the need to develop efficient and equitable ways to manage water scarcity and plan to deal with the tensions scarcity imposes on any community. The framework identifies a way to bring together traditional community-managed systems with those typically used to allocate water to large water users and more commonly found in developed countries. So that use can be kept within sustainable limits while optimizing use, the framework includes mechanisms that enable the reallocation of water as demand and supply conditions change. Non-consumptive uses are recognized and environmental objectives can be delivered efficiently. Compliance with well-established accounting and hydro-logical concepts. Ways to increase the value of existing entitlements, encourage innovation and protect investments are included as options. It is recognized that the governance and legal arrangements necessary to underpin successful implantation are context specific.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0140.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: common lands; baldios; wild mushrooms; non-timber forest products; Portugal; community; community forestry; forest governance
Online: 24 May 2017 (17:01:57 CEST)
Forest community connections are crucial to ensure forest stewardship and sustainability. We explored the potential of mushrooming to enable such connections in contexts where these connections have been historically broken, alienating local people from forests. Taking the case of the recent devolution of a community forest (baldios) in central Portugal to the local population, we present a five-year pilot project to rework mycology from a mushroom-centered approach to a mushroom-in-baldios approach. Mushrooms were used as an entry-point to connect the forest ecology with the challenges of governance and community building. The devised activities provided an opportunity for people inside and outside the local community to adventure into the woods and find out more about their socio-ecological history, develop communal and convivial relationships and engage in the responsible gathering of wild mushrooms. However, the hosting of mushroomers to know, value and engage with the community forest recovery has constantly working against the enclosure of mushrooms to provide marketable forms of leisure. The outcome of these activities depends on the relationships established between mushrooms, mycologists, local administrators, commoners and poachers, all operating within a framework that favors the eradication of resources instead of long-term relationships that sustain places.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0499.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: SDGs; urban inequality; urban governance; inclusive development; participatory geospatial methods; citizen-generated data; data practices; urban indicators
Online: 29 November 2018 (03:16:51 CET)
There is much discussion regarding the Sustainable Development Goals’ (SDGs) capacity to promote inclusive development. While some argue that they represent an opportunity for goal-led alignment of stakeholders and evidence-based decision-making, other voices express concerns as they perceive them as a techno-managerial framework that measures development according to quantitatively defined parameters and does not allow for local variation. We argue that the extent to which the positive or negative aspects of the SDGs prevail depends on the monitoring system’s ability to account for multiple and intersecting inequalities. The need for sub-nationally (urban) representative indicators poses an additional methodological challenge – especially in cities with intra-urban inequalities related to socio-spatial variations across neighbourhoods. This paper investigates the extent to which the SDG indicators’ representativeness could be affected by inequalities. It does so by proposing a conceptual framing for understanding the relation between inequalities and SDG monitoring, which is then applied to analyse the current methodological proposals for the indicator framework of the “urban SDG”, Goal 11. The outcome is a call for 1) a more explicit attention to intra-urban inequalities, 2) the development of a methodological approach to “recalibrate” the city-level indicators to account for the degree of intra-urban inequalities, and 3) an alignment between methodologies and data practices applied for monitoring SDG 11 and the extent of the underlying inequalities within the city. This would enable an informed decision regarding the trade-off in indicator representativeness between conventional data sources, such as censuses and household surveys, and emerging methods, such as participatory geospatial methods and citizen-generated data practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0249.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Land system science; governance; natural resource management; resource conflict; conservation; development; stakeholder en-gagement; ecosystem management; wicked problems
Online: 15 August 2022 (04:35:26 CEST)
Integrated landscape approaches (ILA) aim to reconcile multiple, often competing, interests across agriculture, nature conservation, and other land uses. Recognized ILA design principles provide guidance for their implementation, yet application remains challenging, and a strong performance evidence-base is yet to be formed. A comprehensive literature review and focus group discussions with practitioners identified considerable diversity of ILA in actors, temporal, and spatial scales, inter alia. This diversity hampers learning from and steering these integrated planning approaches because of its intractable nature. Therefore, we developed a tool—an ‘ILA mixing board’—to structure the complexity of ILA into selectable and scalable attributes in a replicable way to allow planning, diagnostics, and comparative assessment of ILA. The ILA mixing board tool presents seven qualifiers, each representing a key attribute of ILA design and performance such as project flexibility, inclusiveness of the dialogue, and the centrality of the power distribution. Each qualifier has five (non-normative) outcome indicators that can be registered as present or absent. This process in turn guides planners, evaluators and other participating stakeholders involved in landscape management to diagnose the ILA type, and or its performance. We apply the ILA mixing board as a diagnostic tool to three ILA cases in Nicaragua, Madagascar, and the Congo Basin to show some of the many possible configurations of qualifiers on the mixing board. Overall, the tool allows comparative analyses of the complexity of ILA in a structured and manageable way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0127.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, General Humanities Keywords: sustainability; Sustainable Development Goals; Africa/Ghana; women and gender; agriculture; food security; climate change; capital economics; patriarchal governance; care labor/logics/practices
Online: 5 August 2020 (10:38:58 CEST)
Africa was the only continent not to achieve the 2015 Millennium Development Goal of 50% poverty reduction. This paper asks whether Africa will fare better in meeting Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) addressing poverty and hunger by 2030. To answer this question we examine literature, including our field research published over the last thirteen years. We find that ‘sustainable development’ is a failed concept immersed in the contemporary global economic system that favors growth over ecosystem stability and patriarchal systems of governance that undervalue women’s capacity for sustainability in their care-work as food providers. We examine barriers to women’s farming (climate change, gender bias, limited access to land, technology, finance) and provide examples of women’s innovative strategies for overcoming these barriers in their care practices toward family and community well-being and ecosystem health. We conclude that sustainability is only possible through transformation of thinking away from approaches that value profit over people and ecosystems and toward gender-based approaches for achieving the goals laid out in the SDGs through holistic, integrative systems of ecosystem fit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0146.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Corporate governance; business sustainability; multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM); decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL); VIKOR; DEMATEL-based analytical network process (DANP); fuzzy set theory
Online: 12 December 2018 (12:43:40 CET)
While the importance of corporate governance has been broadly acknowledged in global financial markets and academic research, how to devise a practical evaluation system is relatively unexplored. This paper attempts to refine the Corporate Governance Evaluation System (CGES), constructed by the Taiwan Stock Exchange (TWSE) since 2014. The current CGES has several debatable issues in its complicated design (e.g., it comprises over 80 indicators in different types). To resolve those issues, this study invited ten senior domain experts (including several CEOs of financial holding companies) to retrieve 13 essential criteria from the CGES in four dimensions. And this study integrates several multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods (i.e., Decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL), modified VIKOR, DEMATEL-based analytical network process (DANP)) and the fuzzy evaluation technique to rank the exemplary companies. The obtained ranking is consistent with the one released from the CGES in 2017. This study conducted additional experiments to ensure the robustness of the findings. The newly devised model not only supports the ranking decisions but also provides a managerial guidance for companies to pursue systematic improvements. These findings enrich the understanding of corporate governance and contribute to gaining business sustainability for financial holding companies.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: sustainable development strategies; community development plans; small island developing states; governance; sanitation; water supply; hygiene; WASH; census results; top-down versus bottom-up; gender and age; SDG6
Online: 23 October 2020 (12:13:02 CEST)
Sanitation, water supply and their governance remain major challenges in many Pacific Island Countries. National sustainable development strategies (NSDSs) are promoted throughout the Pacific as overarching improved governance instruments to identify priorities, plan solutions and fulfill commitments to sustainable development. Their relevance to local village-level development priorities is uncertain. The Kingdom of Tonga provides opportunities to compare both. Tonga’s Strategic Development Frameworks (TSDFI 2011-2014 and TSDFII 2015-2025) were developed to focus government and its agencies on national outcomes. From 2007 to 2016, 136 villages throughout Tonga’s five Island Divisions (IDs) formulated Community Development Plans (CDPs) involving separately 80% of women, youth and men in each village. Censuses in 2006 and 2016 show linked improvements in water supply and sanitation systems but reveal IDs with continuing challenges. Sanitation and water are prominent in TSDFI but absent from the current TSDFII. In contrast, CDPs show in one ID, 53% of villages ranked sanitation as a priority with marked differences between IDs and between women, youth and men. CDPs’ sanitation priorities in IDs mostly correspond to sanitation and water metrics in the Censuses, but some reflect impacts of natural disasters. Explanations for differences in sanitation priorities between national and local development plans, as well as suggestions for improving NSDS processes in island countries, are advanced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0223.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: digitization; virtualization; digital twin; blockchain; crowdsourcing; decentralization; non-fungible token; NFT; smart contract; oracle; tokenization; digital ownership; consensus; governance; trust; incentivization; staking; reputation systems; reproducibility crisis; exponentiality; digital twin; metaverse; DeSci; decentralized science; citizen science; open science; distributed ledger; digital scarcity
Online: 17 May 2022 (05:50:03 CEST)
Fundamental science and applied research and technology development (RTD) are facing significant challenges that particularly compound to the notorious credibility, reproducibility, funding and sustainability crises. The underlying, serious shortcomings are substantially amplified by a metrics-obsessed publication culture, and a growing cohort of academics fishing for fairly stagnant (public) funding budgets. This work presents, for the first time, a groundbreaking strategy to successfully address these severe issues; the novel strategy proposed here leverages the distributed ledger technology (DLT) “blockchain” to capitalize on cryptoeconomic mechanisms, such as tokenization, consensus, crowdsourcing, smart contracts, reputation systems as well as staking, reward and slashing mechanisms. This powerful toolbox, which is so far widely unfamiliar to traditional scientific and RTD communities (“TradSci”), is synergistically combined with the exponentially growing computing capabilities for virtualizing experiments through digital twin methods in a future scientific “metaverse”. Project contributions, such as hypotheses, methods, experimental data, modelling, simulation, assessment, predictions and directions are crowdsourced using blockchain, and captured by so-called non-fungible tokens (“NFTs”). The so enabled, highly integrative approach, termed decentralized science (“DeSci”), is destined to move research out of its present silos, and to markedly enhance quality, credibility, efficiency, transparency, inclusiveness, sustainability, impact, and sustainability of a wide spectrum of academic and commercial research initiatives.