ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0423.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: community governance; conflict management; governance; peace; development; SSA
Online: 27 September 2022 (10:41:08 CEST)
This study provides an insightful overview of community-participatory governance and conflict management as instruments for utilizing resources for development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). SSA is a region rich in natural resources but prone to conflict. The study is conceptual and critically engages the application of community governance and conflict management strategies that SSA countries need to adopt. The study praises the notion that community governance is characterized by recognizing and accepting intercultural diversity and creating a democratic institution for promoting good governance and conflict management in SSA. The study recommends that good community governance is required to drive local communities' development, growth, and transformation into a sturdy, innovative, and productive society capitalizing on opportunities. The study voice for the amalgamation of appropriate models and theories of governance cogently in the context of SSA due to the heterogeneity of communities. Therefore, to resolve conflict, conflict management, resolution, and transformation strategies are necessarily needed to accomplish a viable peace to maintain and sustain development.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: citizen engagement; flood risk governance; governance capacity; climate adaptation
Online: 28 May 2019 (12:27:39 CEST)
Downpours are increasing in frequency and severity due to climate change. Cities are particularly susceptible to downpours because of their large share of impervious surfaces. Minimising pluvial flood risk requires all involved stakeholders to collaborate and overcome probable barriers. Simultaneously, an increase in citizen engagement in climate adaptation is preferred, whereas experiences with inclusive decision-making are still limited. The aim of this paper is to obtain a deeper understanding of how the capacity to govern pluvial flood risk can be developed through citizen engagement. We scrutinised the capacity of local actors to govern pluvial flood risk in the city of Utrecht, the Netherlands. For the analysis of Utrecht’s problem-solving capacity, the Governance Capacity Framework provided a consistent assessment of governance components. The results indicate that Utrecht’s capacity to govern pluvial flooding is relatively well-developed. Collaboration between public authorities is advanced, sufficient financial resources are available and smart monitoring enables high levels of evaluation and learning. However, citizen awareness and engagement in policy making is rather low. Accordingly, citizens’ willingness to pay for flood adaptation is limited. Stimulating flood risk awareness by combining financial incentives with more advanced arrangements for active citizen engagement is key for Utrecht and other cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0181.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: water governance; governance capacity; comparative studies; urban flooding; contextual factors
Online: 12 June 2018 (10:11:21 CEST)
Sea level rise and increased storm events, urge cities to develop governance capacity. However, a cohesive conceptual and empirical-based understanding of what governance capacity implies, how to measure it, and what cities can learn, is largely lacking. Understanding the influence of context is critical to address this issue. Accordingly, we aim to identify crosscutting contextual factors and their influence in impeding, enhancing or prioritising different elements of governance capacity to address urban flood risk. By assessing governance capacity through nine conditions and 27 indicators in two Dutch and two cities in the UK, three crosscutting contextual factors are identified: 1) flood probability and impact, 2) national imposed institutional setting, and 3) level of authority to secure long-term financial support. We found that contextual factors explain differences in urban capacity-priorities within and between both countries. The institutional setting in the UK and recent political devolution emphasized the role of citizen awareness, stakeholder engagement, entrepreneurial agents, and the overall necessity for local capacity-development. The Dutch focus on flood safety through centralised public coordination reduces flood probability but also inhibits incentives to reduce flood impacts and reduced public awareness. In conclusion, the three identified contextual factors enable a better understanding of capacity-building priorities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0276.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: mental health; governance; India
Online: 16 May 2020 (18:16:48 CEST)
Introduction: Governance, the least studied health system component, comprises a system of rules and processes, and is a key determinant for effective decision making for health care planning. This study aims to identify institutional, legal and policy factors which are either barriers or facilitators for the implementation of integrated mental health in primary care in the India. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 key informants at the district and national levels with policy makers, state level health care planners and district planners and managers in India. The data were analysed using thematic analysis using the qualitative software NViVO 10. Findings: Participants stated that a conducive environment for mental health service delivery is necessary at the legislative, policy and planning levels, to facilitate integration of mental health into primary care. Amongst other factors, the need for active involvement of civil society and service user organisations, strengthening mental health information systems, and building the non-technical skills of the mental health workforce, were identified as particularly necessary to deliver adequate mental health services.Conclusion: Amidst the favourable policy context supporting collaborative and integrated care in India, this study identified low resourcing, weak collaborations and inadequate information to be crucial for integrated mental health in India at present.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0525.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: flood; policy; governance; institutions; Nigeria
Online: 29 November 2022 (03:03:23 CET)
In recent years, Nigeria is witnessing increasing frequency of flood occurrence with devastating impact translating into significant loss of lives (in Nigeria, over 300 people died in September 2022) and properties. Addressing flood disaster requires holistic approach from policy and governance perspectives, integration of policies and programs and synergies between institutions. Using synergies and eliminating trade-offs, flood governance and policy coherence integrate all relevant policy fields and institutions to achieve common policy outcomes. The objective of this study is to examine and understand how flood governance and policy coherence are approached, as well as institutional design and implementation for coherence in Nigeria. The findings revealed that there is no single flood policy in Nigeria. Due to this, there is no focus and no defined objectives for flood governance, prevention, control, and management, and no imperative for the government to seek both short-term and long-term flood solutions. There is no synergy and coordination among institutions for flood governance in the country. Since the country established the federal ministry of environment in 1999, the environment, floods, and climate-related hazards were given less priority. State and local governments handle most flood disasters and emergencies. Federal assistance is provided, however, when flood disasters exceed the capabilities of local and state governments. This study recommends that across the country, flood policy needs to be designed, formulated, and implemented while assigning governance responsibility and decentralizing policy to state and local governments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0014.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Governance, Environmental Management, Biodiversity, Bangladesh
Online: 3 June 2019 (09:57:59 CEST)
Governance is one of the most essential instruments for environmental management. Biodiversity is in the core field of environmental governance. Yet environmental authorities are persistently challenged the loss of biodiversity as a very important global issue for several years due to high dependent exposure to risks. The study attempts to relook at the key governance tools that strengthen policies towards managing biodiversity within and around the national park’s survey in Moulvibazar district. The study showed that biodiversity related legislation amended was the highest in Bangladesh for the period of 2010 to 2016. The growth of policy instruments maximized at but in low environmental governance services within the same period. The study assessed that the existing environmental policy instrument is inadequate and sluggish for effective conservation, compared with several others governance tools and various performances are still below par. Governance knowledge is indispensable for biodiversity management but such knowledge is poorly identified. These results reflect the importance of effective governance for transparency that the State provides. The research is to represent a dynamic and adaptable framework that can be applied for collective governance relevant to policy integration, participation and enforcement in order to foster environmental conservation sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: blockchain; public services; governance approach; technology
Online: 17 November 2023 (08:13:56 CET)
Blockchain is considered a technological trend with a unique and unprecedented foundation of ways of working, and has the potential to fundamentally change society in conducting activities related to the public or private sector. Although the academic literature on blockchain is generally focused on cryptocurrencies, in recent years, literature with different perspectives has begun to emerge regarding the use of blockchain in the context of the public sector. The unique characteristics of how blockchain technology works make it an innovation that is expected to change many activities, structures, and processes related to the implementation of public sector activities, especially in public services such as administrative processes, welfare provision, and regulatory practices. This article discusses through a systematic literature review about the potential use of blockchain in public services. This literature review identifies the types of public services most likely affected by the introduction of blockchain. In addition, this article highlights the benefits, potentials, and challenges and risks of blockchain for governments and citizens/society in general. Governments, in general, can optimize efficiency and tracking through the use of blockchain, but regulatory uncertainty and scalability capabilities being major challenges, which are still poorly researched in the literature, can benefit from reduced bureaucracy and improved coordination through blockchain adoption, despite the lack of blockchain knowledge and skills being significant barriers to its implementation. For citizens or the public, security and transparency are key benefits, while the main risk lies in data security concerns. The article closes by noting a number of limitations in the existing literature and providing suggestions and recommendations for future research.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1281.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Corporate Governance; Earnings Management; Industry-wise
Online: 18 May 2023 (05:50:50 CEST)
This study investigates the impact of governance variables on the earnings quality based on the industry the firm is in. it has been identified that earnings management have been practised differently by different industries. Most of the research under earnings management have focussed on holistic impacts of corporate governance variables on discretionary accruals while this study has categorised the firms based on what industry they fall on while identifying the impacts of the variables of corporate governance on discretionary accruals. Initially, this paper has studied the estimation of the value of discretionary accruals and identified that performance matched discretionary accruals as the best model as per the explanatory power of the model is higher than other models. Hence, the estimation of the earnings management has been calculated based on performance matched discretionary accruals in this research. This research has studied the impacts of the governance attributes on the earnings management categorising the firms based on the industry they are in; hence, the value of earnings management has been categorically separated; hereafter, the impact of the corporate governance factors on the value of categorically separated earnings management have been statistically analysed. This study has considered the descriptive study to compare the means, medians and standard deviations of the earnings management of various industries. Moreover, Pearson correlations and Spearman rank correlation have been used as a research tool to examine the correlation coefficients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0382.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Accountability; Governance; IPSS; Indicators; Sustainability; Transparency
Online: 23 December 2021 (11:25:02 CET)
Given the extreme importance of improving the accountability of Private Social Solidarity Institutions (IPSS), both for reasons of legal compliance (hard law) and for reasons of improving legitimacy and notoriety among their stakeholders (soft law), this paper aims to present a framework designed under a more comprehensive research project, for the assessment of IPSS accountability and, consequently, its improvement. This study also present results of the indicators conceived, identifying the main trends of the framework dimensions and sub-dimensions from a pilot test for the years 2018, 2019 and 2020 in Portugal. Given the results, we believe that the framework designed answers the research question: How to promote accountability (social, financial and economic) in the social economy sector, in particular: the case of the IPSS?, however, as this is an exploratory article, it incorporates the limitation that this is a pilot test with only 7 entities.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Climate Change; Policy; Migration; Health; Governance
Online: 12 November 2020 (11:39:36 CET)
Changing mobility patterns combined with changes in the climate present challenges and opportunities for global health, requiring effective, relevant and humane policy responses. This study used data from a systematic literature review that examined the intersection between climate change, migration and health. The aim of the present study was to synthesize policy recommendations in the peer-reviewed literature, regarding this type of environmental migration with respect to health, to strengthen the evidence-base. Systematic searches were conducted in four academic databases (PubMed, Ovid Medline, Global Health and Scopus) and Google Scholar for empirical studies published between 1990 – 2020 that used any study design to investigate migration and health in the context of climate change. Studies underwent a two-stage protocol-based screening process and eligible studies were appraised for quality using a standardized mixed-methods tool. From the initial 2,425 hits, 68 articles were appraised for quality and included in the synthesis. Among the policy recommendations, six themes were discernible: (1) avoid the universal promotion of migration as an adaptive response to climate risk; (2) preserve cultural and social ties of mobile populations; (3) enable the participation of migrants in decision-making in sites of relocation and resettlement; (4) strengthen health systems and reduce barriers for migrant access to health care; (5) support and promote optimization of social determinants of migrant health; (6) integrate health into loss and damage assessments related to climate change. The results call for transformative policies that support the health and wellbeing of people engaging in, or affected by mobility responses, including those whose migration decisions and experiences are influenced by climate change, and to establish and develop inclusive migrant healthcare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: smart community; smart dashboard; smart governance
Online: 4 November 2019 (02:54:13 CET)
Information and communication technologies play an increasingly important role in the process of knowledge and management of places at different scales. ICTs allow a rapid diffusion of data not only through institutional channels but also through social networks where the smart community share experiences and perceptions. In this sense, ICTs become strategic tools to support the promotion of sustainable tourism development of territories, especially if the digital data are organised within a circular smart dashboard. This research focuses on the case study of the Santa Barbara Walk (SBW), an ancient mining route in the Sulcis Iglesiente region (Sardinia, Italy), where the authors have recognized a state of disorganization in slow tourism promotion activities. In fact, if the SBW represents a network - material infrastructure - which connects the main points of interest along the Walk, its digital network - intangible infrastructure - is fragmented in terms of policies and contents. The goal of this study is to provide a comprehensive set of data and to propose the architecture and design for a circular dashboard of the SBW, capable of organizing information concerning the main features of the walk, in order to facilitate a shared governance for an effective tourism promotion.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: wildfire; governance; Anthropocene; elemental; geography; anthropology
Online: 17 September 2019 (04:00:36 CEST)
Views of fire in the contemporary physical sciences arguably accord with Heraclitus’ proposal that ‘all things are an exchange for fire, and fire for all things, as goods for gold and gold for goods.’ Fire is a media, as John Durham Peters has stated, a species of transformative biochemical reactions between the flammable gases found in air, such as oxygen, and those found in fuels, such as plants. Inspired by an ignition source, these materials react and transform themselves and their surrounds into light and heat energy, carbon dioxide, water vapour, char and much else besides. Fire is conjunctural, durational and transformative. Fire is a dialectician, at once consuming living and dead organic matter and providing both the space and ingredients for new and renewed organic life. In this article, we consider the diverse ways in which fire is today framed as a social problem, an ecological process, an ancient tool, a natural disaster, a source of economic wealth and much more. In this way, we seek to explore the value and limits of ‘elemental thinking’ in relation to the planetary predicaments described by ‘the Anthropocene’.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0004.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Sustainable transport, policy implementation, governance, institutions
Online: 3 April 2017 (16:35:36 CEST)
There is a large potential for cost-effective solutions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to improve the sustainability of the transport sector that is yet unexploited, in particular in the urban context. Considering the cost-effectiveness and the potential for co-benefits, it is hard to understand why energy gains and mitigation action in the transport sector is still lagging behind the potential. Particularly interesting is the fact that there is substantial difference among countries with relatively similar economic performances, such as the OECD countries in the development of their transport CO2 emission over the past thirty years despite the fact that these countries had relatively similar access to efficient technologies and vehicles. This study aims to apply some well established political science theories on the particular example of climate change mitigation in the transport sector in order to identify some of the factors that could help explain the variations in success of policies and strategies in this sector. The analysis suggests that institutional arrangements that contribute to consensus building in the political process provide a high level of political and policy stability which is vital to long-term changes in energy end-use sectors that rely on long-term investments. However, there is no direct correlation between institutional structures, e.g. corporatism and success in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector. Environmental objectives need to be built into the consensus-based policy structure before actual policy progress can be observed. This usually takes longer in consensus democracies than in politically more agile majoritarian policy environments, but the policy stability that builds on corporatist institutional structures is likely to experience changes over a longer-term, in this case to a shift towards low-carbon transport that endures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0083.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: urban sustainability; environmental governance; energy policy
Online: 27 July 2016 (05:56:56 CEST)
As the world’s second largest economy, China ranks amount the world’s top nations when it comes to carbon emission, and therefore its attitude towards climate change is closely followed by all parties concerned. There have been few researches on the role of environmental governance in low-carbon city transformation process, especially the Chinese one. This paper analyses the role of government environmental regulation played in the low-carbon city transformation process by taking Shenzhen as the research object. One of the world's youngest super cities, it also happens to be the lowest carbon emission intensity city in China. Striving to explore green low-carbon development path for the whole country, Shenzhen provides practical experience for countries to cope with global climate change. However, its efforts to reduce the total carbon emissions failed, but it emphasized the carbon emission intensity, which is consistent with the international commitments made by the central government. China’s policy towards handling climate change relies on hierarchical governance arrangement. The strength of the NGOs in the country is weak and incomparable with the government’s, which has mastered most of the resources and is just a reality in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1413.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: Smart Government Strategies; Crisis Environments; Governance Robustness; Institutional Capacities; Effective Local Governance; Evaluation; Indicators Analytical Model.
Online: 19 May 2023 (08:40:37 CEST)
Crisis environments, which are becoming systemic, pose significant challenges to smart government strategies. The paper aims to contribute to academic debate by proposing an analytical framework for examining the institutional capacities of smart government systems in addressing local crises. The paper focuses on the recent approach of robust governance and highlights a set of variables that promote effective smart government: contingency planning capacity, analytical capacity, organizational management capacity, and collaborative capacity. The study presents an analytical model for evaluating the robustness and effectiveness of local smart government systems in crises. One of the significant findings of this study has been the identification of critical indicators that inform institutional capacities of smart government systems. By analyzing these indicators, the proposed analytical framework provides a comprehensive approach to assess the preparedness of smart government systems in dealing with crises. Moreover, it can be used to benchmark the performance of local smart government systems in similar contexts and identify best practices for improving crisis management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0263.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: "dual carbon" goal; renewable energy; digitalization; governance
Online: 5 September 2023 (08:02:40 CEST)
Digital technology makes energy systems more dynamic, efficient, reliable and sustainable. Promoting the digital governance of renewable energy is not only a key part of energy transformation, but also an important initiative to cope with the global energy crisis, which provides a new impetus for realizing the goal of net-zero emissions. In order to achieve the "dual-carbon" goal, China has been actively promoting energy reform and enhancing the wide application of digital technologies in the development and utilization of renewable energy. The digital governance system and governance capacity of renewable energy is an important support for the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity. Although the digital governance of renewable energy in China has better policy support and advantages, the dilemmas it faces are still relatively prominent, including unsound laws and policies, insufficient governance capacity, and security loopholes in digital technology, etc. Therefore, this paper proposes a problem-oriented approach to the digital governance of renewable energy. Therefore, this paper puts forward problem-oriented optimization suggestions to innovate the legal system of renewable energy digital governance, promote the digital transformation of China's renewable energy industry, provide development space for renewable energy digital governance in a diversified mode, and enhance the digital governance capacity by improving the renewable energy security system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1934.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Coastal Exclusion Policy; Governance; Scale; Function Shift
Online: 27 June 2023 (15:28:07 CEST)
The coastal zone, situated at the sensitive interface between land and sea, serves as a pivotal area of extensive human economic activities. As one of China's economic special zones, Xiamen exemplifies the comprehensive trajectory of coastal governance in China. This research adopts an interdisciplinary approach grounded in historical geography and political ecology, employing data collection methods encompassing historical literature, field surveys, and interviews. The research findings indicate that:(1) The year 1994 witnessed the pivotal role played by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) in connecting Jimei Peninsula from a local context to the international arena, thus signifying a momentous turning point in the process of scale reconstruction. However, the subsequent implementation of the Coastal Exclusion Policy in 2002 had detrimental consequences, leading to the disintegration of the local scale, the erosion of maritime culture, and the disregard for the livelihood security of displaced coastal populations.(2)The Coastal Exclusion Policy serves as an instrumental tool for implementing scale politics, while its functional realignment has had profound implications for the coastal zone, encompassing economic transformation, ecological degradation, and the marginalization of the socio-cultural fabric that intertwines humans and the coastal environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0072.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Employment; Governance Indicators; Oil Economy; Reforms; Welfare
Online: 5 January 2021 (10:28:29 CET)
Many countries are raising questions on the intentions behind Saudi reforms. The low oil prices in 2008-09 were the awakening call for Saudis, and later in 2014, it became the reason to look for the economy that is less dependent on oil. The article studies the initiated social reforms and social impact of foreign cultural activities. It scrutinizes the Saudi social fabric under the social exchange theory and looks for the positive and negative effects of cultural exchanges. The paper also considers the COVID-19 situation in KSA as it has broken the chain of cultural events planned all over the country to promote tourism and improve the image of KSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0372.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: School governance; General education innovation; School Autonomy.
Online: 30 June 2020 (11:49:23 CEST)
Innovation in general education governance is one of the development trends not only in Vietnam but also in the world. This is also an important measure to change and improve the quality of education, especially expand autonomy of high schools and universities. The paper focuses on some main contents: overview of general education; the experiences of some countries in the implementation of the school administration model towards the school autonomy model so that give lessons for Vietnam’s education can be learned in the context of development conditions nowadays. The results in this work would be used to classify the schools into the various groups. The data also analysts on decision-making capability, on what we called an “index of school autonomy”, expressed the possible level of school-level decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0426.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: sustainability; governance; piecemeal engineering; collaboration; Karl Popper
Online: 19 November 2018 (07:05:11 CET)
The challenges to sustainability governance across multiple geographical/cultural contexts lead us to the “piecemeal engineering” idea advocated by the philosopher Karl Popper, which explicitly considers context. We argue for adopting the piecemeal engineering approach, augmented by adaptive policies and modern (online) collaboration platforms to maximize the prospects of sustainable practices worldwide. This recommended course is not intended to be a theory in itself. Rather, it is a well-grounded, practical and practicable stop-gap measure in times when complexity and change outpace theories and strategies. We present a philosophical foundation for this “Augmented Popperian Experimentation.” Focusing on The Water Network (the largest collaborative platform for water researchers and professionals), we show that sustainability-oriented organizations in the water realm and others are inching toward the practice we advocate. We discuss implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0289.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: project governance; programme; infrastructure development; developing countries
Online: 15 October 2018 (08:24:48 CEST)
The governance of public sector infrastructure projects became an important topic of interest in the project, programme and portfolio management literature during the last decade. Today, it is becoming a central focus for policymakers seeking to ensure success in selecting, designing and implementing government-sponsored programme of multi-projects. Due to the multiple underlying risks and complexities, the governance of infrastructure programme constitutes a critical element in strategic planning in developing countries. This paper has analyzed infrastructure development programme and revealed shortcomings in the areas of appraisal, decision-making, quality assurance and stakeholder management. Approaches to remedy these shortcomings have been proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0422.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: transformation; flood risk reduction; Jakarta; risk governance
Online: 29 May 2018 (09:32:27 CEST)
Jakarta belongs to the cities with the highest flood risk in the world. Its flood hazard is driven by land subsidence, soil sealing, changes in river discharge and increasingly sea level rise. As all of these trends are set to continue, Jakarta’s flood hazard is expected to intensify in the future. Designing and implementing risk reduction and adaption measures is therefore of utmost importance. Against the background, the paper draws on a discourse analysis and original empirical household survey data to review and evaluate current adaptation measures and to analyze in how far they describe a path that is transformative from previous risk reduction approaches. The results show that the focus is clearly on engineering solutions, foremost in the Giant Sea Wall project. The project is likely to transform the city’s flood hydrology. However, it cements rather than transforms the current risk management paradigm which gravitates around the goal of controlling flood symptoms, rather than addressing their anthropogenic root causes. The results also show that the planned measures are heavily contested due to concerns about ecological impacts, social costs, distributional justice, public participation and long-term effectiveness. On the outlook, the results therefore suggest that the more the flood hazard will intensify in the future, the deeper a societal debate will be needed about the desired pathway in flood risk reduction and overall development planning – particularly with regards to the accepted level of transformation, such as partial retreat from the most flood-affected areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1777.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: community; sustainability; transition; policy; governance; place-based; Scotland.
Online: 29 November 2023 (07:14:04 CET)
Rural areas of advanced industrial countries have frequently experienced a dualistic set of policies: one designed for the land-use sector, especially agriculture; and another dealing with rural development . As problems of industrialised agriculture and forestry emerged, a more joined up approach to policy was advocated. Since the 1980s, at national and international level, new elements of rural policy have emerged to connect these two policy fields, including environmental payments, farm diversification grants, woodland creation within the farm sector and support for community-led local development. Rural land is also closely connected to the biodiversity and climate crises which have become important policy drivers. Policy towards community-led local development has moved further in Scotland than almost anywhere else as a result of policies for community-based land reform, community empowerment and community asset transfer. These communitarian approaches connect closely to collaborative landscape management as it addresses environmental challenges. As collaborative place-based and area-based approaches emerge as the guiding stars of the new rural development, this paper explores the challenges in the governance of sustainability transitions in moving from a sectoral rural policy hinging around support for land use to one based much more on communitarian values and place-based development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: territory space; ecological products; integrated protection; systematic governance
Online: 16 November 2023 (02:34:58 CET)
Territory space is an ecological resource carrier and place for human development. Human activities and ecological systems are the basis of ecological product supply. Promoting territory spatial protection and governance by improving the ecological products supply is very important. In this study, we established an ecological products supply capacity evaluation index system involving three types of ecological products, i.e., ecological environmental products, ecological material products, and ecological cultural products. For the case of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, we comprehensively used principal component analysis, equivalent factor method, and entropy method to evaluate the supply capacity of the ecological products from 2011 to 2021. Then, we analyzed the spatio-temporal pattern combining the natural breakpoint and quantile classification methods and analyzed the obstacle factors using the obstacle degree model of ecological supply. The results show that the supply capacity of different ecological product in each city are closely related to ecological resource endowment. The supply capacity of ecological products exhibited an upward trend, with the highest ecological environmental products supply, relatively smaller ecological material product supply, and the largest growth rate for ecological cultural product supply. The supply capacity of different ecological products varied across cities over time and displayed noticeable spatial differentiation. The main obstacle factors included eco-land, eco-tourism, eco-leisure, park green space, and fishery products, although there were variations among cities. Finally, based on the level, spatial-temporal pattern, and obstacle factors of ecological product supply, we proposed strategies for territory spatial protection and governance from the perspectives of integrated protection of elements, structural regulation, and systematic governance. The results reflected the ecological functional heterogeneity of territory space, which can provide spatial planning guidance for sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0322.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: land consolidation; social consciousness; modernization; governance; rural China
Online: 9 October 2023 (03:11:34 CEST)
With the changing relationship between urban and rural areas in China, the rural areas are experiencing rapid social transformation. To ensure successful implementation of the rural revitalization strategy, land consolidation has become a major measure of rural economic reform. Existing research focuses on quantitative studies exploring the relationship between land consolidation and rural economic development, but there is a lack of studies on the relationship between land consolidation and social change. In this study, Jin’an Village is selected as the research area, using semi-structured interviews and semi-participatory observation to obtain original materials, aiming to make a detailed description of the specific practice of land consolidation, and to analyze the impact of land consolidation on the transformation of rural social consciousness. The study found that rural land consolidation involves villagers in the land consolidation process, which can effectively stimulate villagers’ participation in public affairs. Concurrently, the interaction between villagers and outside investors disrupts the conventional socialization model in rural areas and motivates villagers to act in accordance with contractual agreements. The conclusion is that land consolidation in rural areas can enhance the political democracy and legal consciousness of local villagers, which can lead to a change in local social consciousness. Our findings also emphasize the crucial necessity to grant rural villagers with improved accessibility to professional services and information, coupled with the continued promotion of land consolidation to advance modernization in these areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1987.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: urban governance; sustainable development; wastewater management; Adétikopé; Togo
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:08:38 CEST)
Urban governance and sanitation in the peri-urban commune of Agoè-Nyvé 6 in Togo: Diagnosis of the sanitation system in Adétikopé.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0661.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Corporate Governance; Brand Equity; Profitability; Listed Tourism Companies
Online: 11 July 2023 (07:52:46 CEST)
Previous research has paid little attention to the relationship between corporate governance and brand equity in the tourism industry. This study aims to investigate the moderating effect of corporate governance (CG) on the relationship between brand equity (BE) and corporate profit-ability (CP) with ten control variables including five company characteristics and five macroeconomic variables. Financial data is retrieved from the Taiwan Economics Journal Database (TEJ), covering a total of 196 records from 32 listed companies for 16 years. Results indicate that BE has a significantly positive impact on CP in Taiwanese-listed tourism companies, and that CG moderates the relationship between BE and CP. These findings could help management executives enhance profitability by deepening BE and CG in the tourism industry. Managerial implications are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0261.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: wetlands; Interreg Italy-Croatia; governance; biodiversity; protection; participation
Online: 16 February 2023 (02:24:32 CET)
Wetlands are complex ecosystems, considered among the most productive environments of the world. They contain major biodiversity hotspots, providing the resources upon which countless species of plants and animals depend and they perform important environmental and economic functions. Wetlands reduce flooding events, improve water quality and represent a valuable cultural and natural heritage. It is estimated that 2/3 of Europe wetlands have disappeared since the beginning of the 20th Century, mainly lost through development processes which did not take their functions and values adequately into account. The European Directive (2000/60/EC) re-quires to foster an integrated approach for wetland management through collaborative governance processes. The Wetland Contract is a tool that has been developed and implemented to set the ground for voluntary-based commitments for the sustainable governance of water systems. Among the Mediterranean countries, Italy and Croatia count on a rich variety of coastal wetlands that, together with the plants and animals inhabiting and crossing them, constitute an extremely precious natural heritage. The aim of this paper is to present and discuss, whit a critical approach, the output of the Interreg Project CREW that, between 2018-21, contributed to the drafting of seven new Wetland Contracts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0153.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Urban waterscape; Covid-19; boreholes; urban governance; Nairobi
Online: 10 June 2022 (08:10:25 CEST)
The Covid-19 pandemic and the initial focus on handwashing measures have again highlighted the importance of water access as an essential service in protecting human health. Yet, especially in southern cities, uneven geographies of water access – often mediated by fragmented and unequal infrastructure systems – may hamper the fight against infectious diseases. The spread of SARS-CoV-2 presented a dilemma for water providers as well as residents in water-deprived urban areas as they had to adhere to new hygiene standards and requirements, despite limited access to basic water infrastructure. Therefore, a deeper understanding of pandemic urban waterscapes – the infrastructure and governance systems as well as everyday practices and technologies – is necessary for ongoing debates on (post-) pandemic or zoonotic cities. In our paper, we focus on changes in urban (water) governance and government water projects in Nairobi since early 2020. We show that Covid-19 has contributed to changes in Nairobi’s waterscape but only in conjunction with recent changes in the city’s overall governance structure. However, if these waterscape changes lead to greater equity in water access, and if they have helped to curb the spread of SARS-CoV-2, is more than questionable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0269.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Utility; Reforms; Governance; Regulation; Incentives; Agency; Liberalization; Performance
Online: 22 February 2022 (11:02:29 CET)
The power sectors in most African countries face an enduring problem of utility performance – electricity utilities have failed to deliver adequate, reliable and competitively priced electricity to support economic growth and improve the welfare of their populations. Despite more than two decades of power sector re-forms, outcomes have been varied and often disappointing. Using a case study de-sign, we explore the five key enduring power challenges. The research utilizes a more powerful analytical framework that combines power sector reform theory and principal-agent theoretical lens to explore the experience of power sector reforms in Kenya and provides a deeper understanding of drivers of utility performance and reform impacts. Empirical findings show that the structural, governance and regulatory reforms that previously created incentives for improved utility performance are increasingly threatened by political influence. Kenya Power’s financial viability has deteriorated in recent years and the regulator has been undermined. One of our major conclusions is that when the relationship between the principal (government) and agent (utility) is well understood and the agent is properly incentivized, performance improvements are possible. However, when the government undermines or muddies those incentives through conflicting political interventions, performance improvements can be reversed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0314.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: energy poverty; economic growth; energy governance; multidimensional poverty
Online: 16 August 2021 (09:00:19 CEST)
During the last two decades, energy poverty has captured a growing attention of researchers and policymakers due to its strong association with economic poverty and poor economic performance. This study uses a broad set of macro level indicators and makes the first attempt to measure energy poverty and its impact on economic growth of Pakistan over the period 1990 to 2017. In particular, our energy poverty indicator considers four main dimensions of energy poverty, namely, energy services, clean energy, energy governance and energy affordability. Our main results show that though the overall energy poverty has reduced in Pakistan during the selected sample period, the country shows an increasing dependence on polluted energy supply in order to meet its growing demand of energy. In second stage of the investigation, we test the neoclassical growth theory where we incorporate energy poverty along with human capital as source of economic growth. Our cointegration results reveal a strong relationship between energy poverty and economic growth that is also dynamically stable in short run. These strong negative linkages between energy poverty with economic growth for the sample economy complement the previous literature on the subject.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Governance; Livelihoods; Natural Resources; Resilience; Traditional Systems; Pastoralism
Online: 18 March 2021 (13:15:35 CET)
Kenya’s natural resource base has dwindled over years. The existence of many natural resource policies, some that are incompatible, has resulted in complex rangeland management regimes, giving rise to fragmented interventions and inadequate natural resource policies in relation to pastoralism. The majority of pastoral land resources held under a controlled access system by the national government that regulates management and utilization of resources. Pastoralists in Kenya have become among the most marginalized and disadvantaged minority groups. This is due to limited or under investment by government and other actors, and access to, or ownership of land, water and other resources, which are fundamental for pastoralism. This study examines significant obstacles for the establishment of a more inclusive ‘governance’ approach to natural resource management in northern Kenya, that characterize the customary Boran knowledge such as Deedha’s (traditional grazing unit) and formal institutions and seeks to address the tension between them through a legal framework that accommodates both. The results of the study established existence of the traditional structures and institutions in governance of natural resources within the pastoralist communities in Isiolo County. These institutions have evolved to cope with changing dynamics brought about by formalization of the natural resources governance. The resulted showed that various formal institutions from national government agencies to county government department were involved in management of the natural resources. However, the study established various operational divergence and links between informal and formal institutions involved in natural resources management. The study concluded that both informal institution such as Deedha and formal institutions constituted by national and county government did governance of natural resources among pastoralist communities in Isiolo County. The communities however have more trust in the informal structures and institutions because of their flexibility and inclusiveness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0127.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Case study; Collaborative ecosystem; Governance; Smart city; Sustainability
Online: 6 October 2020 (12:55:13 CEST)
Despite the increasing interest in ‘smart city’ initiatives worldwide, current literature still lacks the approaches and models that address challenges in organization and collaboration, which boost sustainability and ‘smartness’ in modern cities. This paper provides an overview of ‘smart city’ ecosystems as a mechanism to promote the expected outcomes of their sustainable development, and highlights the importance of conceptualizing cities from organizational and managerial perspectives. Representative exploratory models of ‘city organization’, which emphasize on the role of ‘governance’ and synergies, are presented to ‘decode’ complex city mechanisms and to determine key components that lead to ‘smart’ initiatives. Interesting case studies and applications are then analysed to examine the practical dimension of these approaches. As a review paper, this article lays out a general framework on the importance of ‘collaboration’, ‘governance’, ‘management’, and ‘ecosystem’. However, 'planning smartly’ and achieving ‘sustainability’ at the level of city ‘organization’ remain as challenges in this pioneering study of smart cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0371.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: General education; Basic education; School governance; Secondary education.
Online: 30 June 2020 (11:45:45 CEST)
In Vietnam, general education includes primary education, lower secondary education (the period of basic education) and upper secondary education (the period of vocational orientation education). In particular, primary education is compulsory for all children from 6 to 14 years old, is implemented in 5 school years, from first grade to fifth grade. The age of students entering first grade is six years old. Primary education aims to help students form the initial foundations for proper and long-term development of morality, intelligence, physicality, aesthetics and basic skills for students to continue high school. Secondary education is conducted in four school years, from grade six to grade nine. Students entering sixth grade must have an elementary school diploma. Secondary education aims to help students consolidate and develop the results of primary education; have basic secondary education and initial knowledge about technology and career to continue high school, vocational high school, vocational training or enter a working life. High school education is conducted in 3 school years, from grade ten to grade twelve. Students entering tenth grade must have a junior high school diploma. High school education is aimed at helping students consolidate and develop the outcomes of lower secondary education, complete high school education and common knowledge about technology and career guidance for further college education, college, professional secondary school, apprenticeship or enter the working life. Thus, the term general education is a term with broad connotation including primary education, lower secondary education (basic education period) and upper secondary education (education period) career orientation. Within the scope of this research, we use the term school governance used to mean a mode of action, which is directed toward the goal of being accomplished effectively, by and through others. Governance activities are indispensable activities that arise when people work together to accomplish goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0279.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: reservoirs; water allocation; water scarcity; alert volume; governance
Online: 15 October 2018 (05:13:54 CEST)
The Brazilian water legislation advocates that some uses have priority over others, but this aspect has never been clearly addressed, generating conflicts. Water authorities usually refer to hydrological models to justify their decisions on water allocation. However, a significant group of stakeholders does not feel qualified to discuss these models and is, therefore, excluded from the decision process. We hereby propose a hydrologically robust method to correlate water uses with their respective reservoir alert volumes, which should empower the less formally educated stakeholders. The method consists of: (i) generating the water discharge versus reliability curve, using a stochastic approach; (ii) generating the withdrawal discharge versus alert volume family of curves, using a water-balance approach; (iii) calibrating the key parameter T using field data; and (iv) associating each water use with its alert volume. We have applied the method to four of the largest reservoirs (2.10³ - 2.10² hm³) in the semi-arid Ceará State. The results indicate that low-priority water uses should be rationalized when the reservoir volume is below 20%; whereas uses with very high priority should start rationalization when it is below 11%. These hydrological guidelines should help enhance water governance among non-specialist stakeholders in water-scarce and reservoir-dependent regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0056.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: water-reuse; governance capacity; water management; water scarcity
Online: 3 May 2018 (08:36:07 CEST)
The world will experience an estimated 40% freshwater supply shortage by 2030, converting water scarcity into one of the principal global challenges that modern society face. Urban water-reuse is recognized as a promising and necessary measure to alleviate the growing water stress in many regions. The transformation to widespread application of water-reuse systems requires major changes in the way water is governed, and countries such as Spain already find themselves involved in this process. Through the systematic assessment of the city of Sabadell (Spain), we aim to identify the main barriers, opportunities and transferable lessons that can enhance governance capacity to implement systems for non-potable reuse of treated wastewater in cities. It was found that continuous learning, the availability and quality of information and level of knowledge and strong agents of change are the main capacity-building priorities. On the other hand, awareness, multilevel network potential and implementing capacity are already well-established. It is concluded that in order to undertake a widespread application of water-reuse practices, criteria examining water quality according to its use need to be developed, independently of the water’s origin. The development and implementation of such a legislative frame should be based on the experience of local water-reuse practices and continuous evaluation. Finally, the need for public engagement and adequate pricing mechanisms are emphasized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0621.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Spatial planning; Urban governance; Commons; UNESCO cities; Historic Centre
Online: 8 August 2023 (14:09:02 CEST)
This article deals with the governance of common goods within regeneration projects of UNESCO heritage sites. The main objective is to evaluate the existence of conditions that prove the con-temporary function of common goods as drivers of strategic regeneration of complex territories with high cultural value. The research identifies some of the strategic planning policies implemented for the historical centre of Naples and analyses their proactive function in the enhancement, conser-vation and reuse of built commons. The expected result is to contribute to the debate on the cultural planning of the territory, aimed at the diversification of services and the fight against the process of touristisation. Through desk research and consultation of primary sources, a brief outline is given of the historical process that led to the birth of the "Great UNESCO Project" in the historical centre of Naples. The paper then analyses the "Discipline of the common goods - Principles for the govern-ance and management of the commons in the city of Naples", defining its addresses, opportunities and limitations as a contribution to relational, oriented and sustainable strategic territorial planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1886.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Digital Economy; Platform Governance; Life Cycle; Tripartite Evolutionary Game
Online: 27 June 2023 (11:01:50 CEST)
Today, the digital economy has pursued the required social and economic development, and enterprises can achieve long-term sustainability by relying on the digital platform ecosystem. However, the development of the digital economy and the rapid growth of platform ecosystems have also generated some problems. To study effective digital platform ecosystem governance, this study used the tripartite evolutionary game method and analyzed the changes and effects of platform regulation under different development stages from the perspectives of government, platforms, and enterprises. The results indicate that in the early stages, digital platforms primarily relied on the government’s obligation to regulate. With the digital platform ecosystem’s evolution, the platform organization and settled enterprises’ governance effects gradually appeared, establishing the three common constraints of governance mode. Finally, when the digital platform ecosystem is in its self-renewal period, the government effect is reduced, with the platform itself and settled enterprises taking primary supervisory roles. This study provides reasonable methods for effective platform governance at different stages and enriches the theoretical basis and management practices of platform ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1478.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Technological risks; Governance; Food Security; Food Innovations; Technologies; Ethics
Online: 22 May 2023 (08:51:53 CEST)
Recently, the world has experienced severe food insecurity problems with most countries having inadequate access to affordable, nutritious and safe foods. Consequently, many food innovations and technologies have been approved to secure sustainable access to food for millions of people. This study investigated the implementation of two technologies to address food insecurity, namely genetically modified foods (GMOs) and the use of antibiotics in crops and animal production. In particular, the study explored how their implementation can be governed responsibly through approved legislation. Therefore, the knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as the governance of antibiotic resistance risks and GMO foods were assessed. In-depth key interviews were conducted for the qualitative survey with triangulation with quantitative data sources. The findings showed that 46% of the population have little knowledge about GMOs with about 79% indicating that food with GM ingredients were being consumed in the country. The main concerns reported on GM foods by most respondents were impact on environment, human health and adverse effects on traditional farming practices with 36% indicating that it intensifies contamination and 32% indicating that it contributes to loss of biodiversity. Notably, 64%) reported that GMOs are a solution to food security and that they are safe. On the use of antimicrobials mainly meant to prevent diseases and access better markets, respondents perceived their use to be associated with antimicrobial resistance a “large level of risk” (score 2 in a scale of 1-3) (M = 1.85, SD = 1.06). Overall, the study found that efforts towards promoting awareness on antibiotic resistance risks and response in human health is relatively limited as reported by 56% of the respondents. Findings show that most of the respondents have only seen minimal or small-scale awareness campaigns. On governance of the two technologies, 71% and 50% of the respondents reported that scientists and elected officials respectively have the greatest role in governance of GMOs with small scale farmers playing a negligible role. Further, it was noted that all the respondents were knowledgeable in AMR and GMO technologies and these findings are crucial to the advancement of food innovations that are geared towards achieving food security in Kenya. This study highlights the risks associated with the poor governance and implementation of technologies and the need for a framework for technological risk governance that is sensitive to local values and socio-economic circumstances that will benefit the achievement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0403.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial intelligence; governance; philosophy; ethics; political theory; democracy
Online: 17 April 2023 (04:44:35 CEST)
In this work, a general framework for the analysis of governance of artificial intelligence is presented. A dashboard is presented for this analysis from the perspective of political theory. The dashboard allows eventual comparisons between democratic and non democratic regimes, useful for countries in the global south and western countries. The dashboard allows us to assess the key features that determine the governance model for artificial intelligence at the national level, for local governments and for other participant actors. The dashboard allows us to appraise aims of AI strategy and aims left aside in alternative strategies. The work shows the theoretical framework could be of use to advance case studies globally, and comparative endeavors. Applying the theoretical dashboard, the case study on China has been undertaken. These are the main points the study tackles in the final discussion, conclusion and further recommendations: 1) the complex reality of AI command and control 2) uncertainties about future society and the polity against AI development and 3) particular cultural values enshrined in countries' AI development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Sustainable Infrastructure; Governance; Design; Protocols; Implementation; Value Chain; Digitalization
Online: 19 July 2021 (09:11:56 CEST)
Twenty-first century infrastructure needs to respond to changing demographics, becoming climate neutral, resilient, and economically affordable, while remaining a driver for development and shared prosperity. However, the infrastructure sector remains one of the least innovative and digitalized, plagued by delays, cost overruns, and benefit shortfalls [1-4]. The root cause is the prevailing fragmentation of the infrastructure value chain . To support overcoming the shortcomings, an integration of the value chain is needed. This could be achieved through a use-cased-based creation of federated digital platforms applied to infrastructure projects. Such digital platforms enable full-lifecycle participation and responsible governance guided by a shared infrastructure vision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0633.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: collaborative governance; power; facilitation; peatland fire; West Kalimantan; Indonesia
Online: 29 January 2021 (15:39:22 CET)
Researchers have focused on collaborative governance as an effective measure to realise sustainable natural resource management through the participation of various stakeholders. However, the literature has indicated that issues such as power imbalances tend to undermine the effectiveness of collaborative governance. Powerful actors represented by the government tend to control collaborative processes and produce benefits for dominant groups, while less empowered local communities are often deprived of opportunities for livelihood improvement. Although numerous researchers have analysed the key factors that influence the processes and outcomes of collaborative governance, few have identified a concrete measure to reduce the risk of failure, particularly when managing power imbalances in developing countries. This study explored a methodology to address the power imbalances in collaborative governance based on a case study of a participatory peatland fire prevention project implemented in West Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. Semi-structured interviews and questionnaire surveys conducted with project participants suggested that measures such as establishing a joint team of government officers and villagers, providing a common facilitation training programme, training villagers as facilitators, promoting equal knowledge sharing, and allowing villagers to make their own decisions mitigated the power imbalances between the two groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0577.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: corporate governance, Jordan, board of directors, compensation, board independence
Online: 26 November 2018 (09:48:49 CET)
Corporate governance is developing rapidly in many countries across the world. In this article, the existing state of corporate governance in Jordan is examined. Jordan does not have a corporate governance code per se. The article reveals that overall Jordan has in place some of the features of corporate governance best practice, but that there remains further progress to be made in areas such as independence of directors, compensation, and correlation between shareholding and entitlement to seats on the board. The article recommends legal reforms in order to enhance corporate governance in Jordan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0538.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: governance; agricultural value chain; links; captive chain; hierarchy chain
Online: 31 August 2018 (04:35:41 CEST)
The objective of this study is to determine the type of governance of the four main agricultural value chains in Tamaulipas, northeast of Mexico. For the preparation of this research used a qualitative design, using a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews to a sample of representatives of the four selected chains. The results showed that in all the studied networks, control and coordination capacity is limited by the influence that has a link on the rest of the chain. In all cases, was that the industrial link is who leads the chains and exert control over the rest of the links. The results showed that, when the industrial link is located close geographically to the rest of the links (chains of rice and sugar cane), the chains showed a hierarchical type, where the industrial exercised dominion over the rest of the links and captures most of the income. On the other hand, in chains where control is exercised by links that are outside the territory (chains of soybeans and sorghum), they function as captive chains, putting the rest of the chain to its influence and control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0036.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: conservation; governance; habitat loss; livelihood; eco-tourism; carbon credits
Online: 7 December 2016 (11:13:38 CET)
Establishment of protected areas (PAs) is one of the key global conservation strategies that currently cover approximately 15% of the earth’s land surface. Globally, PA networks are designed to curb the growing anthropogenic pressures in areas with high biological diversity. Despite the importance of PAs in conserving the vanishing biodiversity and unique habitats, many of them are in critical condition due to poor governance thus functioning below the expected level. Moreover, in many developing countries, the PA coverage is below the global standard. Recognizing their contemporary role in conservation, governments have recently agreed to expand the global PA coverage to 17% by the year 2020 (Aichi target 11). This book with eight chapters from different regions of the world provides an overview of the PAs governance, institutional mechanisms, conservation benefits, limitations and challenges associated with their respective policy discourse, integrated management, and functional attributes. Protected areas expect to to play an important role in the long rn in conservation and protection of biodiversity and ecosystems particularly in countries where population pressure and habitat loss are high. Regular intervention, political commitment, and effective governance are essential for the sustainability of PAs across the world. Here, we also attempted to shed some light on future development clues for the sustainable management and monitoring of PAs worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0096.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: corporate governance; EVA; board of directors; board index; EVA
Online: 9 August 2016 (11:51:50 CEST)
In 2013, the CMA at the İstanbul Stock Exchange increased the weight assigned to the Board of Directors component of its Corporate Governance Index to 35% from the previous 25%. Interpreting this as a recognition of the increasing vital role of the board, this study seeks to enhance the work of Abdıoğlu and Kılıç (2015) by putting more focus on the role of women in the boards and the effect of the busy chairman as well as the presence of outside directors on the effectivity of the Board. (The general business structure is associated with family owned groups and holdings which results into a network of intertwined board membership and cases of multiple directorship where, one board chairman can hold the same position or any directorship in as many as ten firmshence the busy chairman). I employ a different method of evaluating performance (EVA) together with the accounting measures of ROE and ROA (as opposed to the overused Tobin’s Q), which I regress against the Board Index to be created. The focus is on firms on the BIST 100 index (excluding financial) between 2009 and 2013. The results reveal that the BINDEX has a significant and positive relationship with firm performance as measured by EVA. A second model reveals no relationship between the BINDEX and firm ROA, similar to the results of Kiliç and Abdioğlu (2015). ROA however has a positive relationship with the proportion of female directors in the board, as earlier reported by LückerathRovers (2013). Another model using ROE as the proxy for performance registers a significant negative relationship with the index. The contradiction obtained in the results from these three models underscore the importance choosing the right methods when estimating the performance of a firm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0160.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Complex Adaptative Systems (CAS); Complex Sociology; Socio Ecological Systems (SES); Constructivism; Spiral Dynamics; Systemic Governance; Polycentric Institution Governance; Innovation Facilitation; Transformation; Agile
Online: 12 November 2020 (08:33:58 CET)
Most mature companies have started some kind of “transformation”, either digital, or agile transformations, to cope with changes in the environment, yet most fail, ending up delivering nothing or just one more reorganization. We postulate that considering the Organization as a self-aware Complex Adaptative System (CAS) is paramount, as the common conception (Industrial: mechanistic and predictive) results in bringing the systems in a frozen or defensive mode. Stimulating the system enables us to use its adaptative power to develop new capabilities, and all layers should be tackled simultaneously, to prevent the system from collapsing back into its original state. To ensure this, it is necessary to create a seed per level, and a mechanism to propagate the transformation, with a focus on development instead of growth, that is qualitative change rather than quantitative. A common vocabulary should also be provided, so conversations can occur at every level. Finally, changing mindsets is key, and both concepts and techniques should be provided as enablers to the adequate mindset level. We detail one such transformation that resulted in distributed leadership and more intrinsic motivation, providing both an account of the transformation itself and a model to read it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0557.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Civil Society; Climate Politics; Environmental Governance; Faith-Based Environmentalism; Faith-Based Nonprofits; Global Governance; International Relations; Religion and Ecology; Religion and Society; Sustainability
Online: 24 February 2021 (16:45:12 CET)
How much is religion quantitatively involved in global climate politics? After assessing the role of the Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change from a normative perspective, this descriptive, transdisciplinary and unconventional study offers the first comprehensive quantitative examination of religious nongovernmental organizations that formally participate in its annual meetings, the largest attempts to solve the climate crisis through global governance. This study finds that although their numbers are growing, only about 3 percent of registered nongovernmental organizations accredited to participate in the conference are overtly religious in nature — and that more than 80 percent of those faith-based groups are Christian. Additionally, this study finds that religious nongovernmental organizations that participate in the conference are mostly from the Global North. The results call for greater participation of religious institutions in the international climate negotiations in order for society to address the planetary emergency of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1413.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: environmental health; multilevel governance; air pollution; water pollution; health policy.
Online: 20 July 2023 (12:57:43 CEST)
The participation of civil society is essential for environmental health policies to be effective. The objective of this study was to know the perceptions of government officials, members of civil society, and academics about environmental health problems and its governance in Bucaramanga Metropolitan Area, Colombia. In the region there is a strong citizen movement that defends the moorland ecosystem (paramo) as source of drinking water, of large-scale mining projects. A multi-method study was carried out including the review of newspaper and scientific articles, a citizen survey, and interviews and focus groups with identified key stakeholders. The findings indicate that government officials prioritize their actions on issues related to air and water pollution and environmental education. In contrast, citizens prioritize water availability from the moorland ecosystem. There are some advances in the management of environmental health, mainly related to greater citizen awareness. The participation of civil society in the environmental health governance must be enforced to broaden the issues of interest and prioritize the activities in the short- and long-term policy planning. An experience between high school students and the academy that measures air pollutants can be the first meeting point with government officials in the pathway to improve the environmental governance in the territory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1760.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ecosystem disservices; ecosystem services; environmental equity; landcover; urban forest governance
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:00:48 CEST)
Background: Public engagement is needed to make sure urban forestry management efforts align with the values of the public being served. Noting this, we determined current and desired urban forest access of Florida (United States) residents using the criteria from the 3-30-300 rule (i.e., 3 trees visible from home, 30% canopy in neighborhood, and a green space within 300 meters of home). Methods: A survey of 1,716 Florida residents was conducted to assess canopy coverage and green space access. Respondents were then asked if this level of urban forest access was sufficient for their needs. We also asked their perceptions of the benefits and drawbacks of urban trees and whether they had any negative interactions with trees in the past. Results: We found that 37.3% of Florida residents met all three criteria of the 3-30-300 rule. Despite this, half the respondents would prefer more trees in their neighborhoods. When asked to name the top benefits provided by trees, the most common responses were shade, beauty, and attracting wildlife. The most common drawbacks to urban trees included risk to property, leaves/debris, and fears regarding storms and hurricanes. Conclusions: Florida residents largely value their urban forest and would like to see it maintained or enhanced. Improving access to greenspaces for recreation is the most pressing concern for urban forest managers in Florida looking to meet the requirements of the 3-30-300 rule. Results from this study can inform and test urban forest management at national and global scales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: stakeholder; engagement; project success; factors; criteria; governance; infrastructure; framework model
Online: 26 April 2023 (15:25:01 CEST)
Today, the world is undergoing a major investment cycle in infrastructure, which is vital for the development and prosperity of countries and society. Management deficiencies in infrastructure projects are well known and some of them concerns weak engagement of project stakeholders. Importance of stakeholder engagement as the key success factors for infrastructure projects is recognized. However, the literature gives very few answers how this process manifests in projects. Some scholars concluded that it is a complex and undertheorized management process which necessitates more empirical research. The research questions seek to identify how practitioners perceive the stakeholder engagement, who implements activities and processes related to engagement and in what way, which organizational aspects influence the process and how success is achieved in infrastructural projects. Interviews were conducted with eight experienced experts who participated in a whole series of (complex) infrastructure projects. The interviews examined all aspects of the engagement of stakeholders in detail, and a thematic analysis was carried out. Based on the analysis, success/failure factors related to the stakeholder engagement process were defined. As a result, a framework model for engaging stakeholders and achieving success in infrastructure projects is presented, which is based on three management levels and three levels of project success.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0077.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: green infrastructure; tree by-laws; tree ordinances; urban forest governance
Online: 6 April 2023 (08:38:44 CEST)
Tree ordinances can be an effective means of preserving urban forests in the face of development pressures. Despite this, they also have the potential to be divisive among the public - especially when applied to privately-owned land. In this study we surveyed 1,716 Florida urban residents to understand how they value regulation and management of the urban forest. Specifically, we asked about: tree protection ordinances, incentive programs to manage or plant trees, justification for tree removal, and development. Most respondents supported tree protections, even when applied to trees on their own property or when they had the potential to limit development activities. Additionally, there was limited support for removing healthy trees for development. Respondents supported the use of funds for urban forestry efforts – particularly at the local or state level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0216.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Quality of Governance; Tax Revenue; Multiple Regression Analysis; South Africa
Online: 12 January 2023 (08:40:18 CET)
The purpose of the study is to empirically analyze the effect of quality of governance on tax revenue in South Africa. This is done by analyzing a time series dataset covering 1996 to 2020. The study used voice and accountability, regulatory quality, government effectiveness, control of corruption, political stability and rule of law as proxies of quality of governance. Multiple regression analysis was performed to test hypotheses. Based on the regression results, all quality of governance variables in South Africa have a negative effect on tax revenue except corruption control. The findings of this study also include policy recommendations. The government of South Africa must design and implement effective ways to combat poor governance, which results in a tax revenue shortfall.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0227.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: smart cities; smart citizen; public governance; digital platforms; citizen participation
Online: 13 December 2022 (06:15:41 CET)
This research seeks to understand the impact of digital platforms on the governance of smart cities. It uses the Scaffold of Popular Participation to classify digital platforms and better understand participatory governance in cities, its benefits and complications, correlating them with the SDGs of the 2030 Agenda. It was also possible to list points of attention for the development of digitization in the public sector, including in Brazil. It concluded that the digitization of public services is in progress, pressured by the civil body for greater transparency and participation. In addition, the platforms must be guided by civil inclusion in the discussion of public policies, by the training of intelligent citizens and by sustainable guidelines that guide the themes addressed. In contrast, platforms can also facilitate deception and popular manipulation, which represents a high risk if used for this purpose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0078.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Urban planning Italy; Governance 3.0; New Digital Platforms; Sentiment Analysis
Online: 6 May 2021 (12:27:35 CEST)
Current acceleration in digital innovations, unexpected challenges in our social interactions, acceleration to virtualization, limitation in our physical spaces, and unpredictable changes in our Old lifestyles - as originated from the COVID-19 global pandemic 2020 - continue to provide us with a framework, rapidly updating under our eyes, of the modifications our world is undergoing by pursuing into a New “digital age”. Or, as many scholars say nowadays, into the New Normal! These are shared and deep changes that concretely stress their effects on how ideally a city should function. Forcing us to reflect on the capability to achieve shared choices and visions for the future by taking vantage from both the New digital platforms and New suddenly opened paths. In the pages of this article authors, through different but shared viewpoints, propose an answer to the topic of "Governance 3.0", addressing the attempt of a radical change of those paradigms, now consolidated, within which the spatial dimensions, in which we live and act, are shaped. Also analyzing the relationship between Technocracy and Democracy as defined by Khanna, it is argued that it is possible to realize new forecasts and acquire a more democratic and participatory (inclusive) dimension of Governance, also thanks to new digital technologies, by exploring the general unconscious "feeling" of people, through anonymous data collection and without any direct or indirect interference with it. The analysis of the "Sentiment", already developed in other fields but easily exportable within the urban discipline, can be considered as the beginning of hybrid practices where digital and analogic find a compromise to make the "Urbs" more attractive and inclusive, while the "Civitas", connected to the Internet, can contribute to the optimization of services, of the "Polis" and a new social/spatial reorganization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0170.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: finance; governance; water; sanitation; enabling environment; pro-poor; systems thinking
Online: 16 October 2019 (04:06:46 CEST)
Responding to the substantial finance gap for achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 and 6.2, the Water and Sanitation sector has mobilized to launch new blended finance vehicles with increasing frequency. The sustainability and scale-up of financial solutions is intended to support increased access to unserved, marginalized populations. However, without addressing foundational issues in the sector, any finance mechanism, whether public, private or blended, will be a short-term, band-aid solution and the sector will continue the cycle of dependency on external assistance. This paper presents the results of a collaborative effort of Water.org, IRC WASH and the World Bank Water Global Practice. Drawing from the latest research on effective public financial management and based on evidence from the countries where these organizations work, the paper demonstrates that sustainable success in mobilising finance at large scale is dependent on a reasonable level of performance across 10 foundational areas. The paper presents evidence on the 10 foundational areas and discusses why other aspects of finance and governance while necessary are not sufficient. Better coordination amongst all development partners and governments, including a collective commitment to and prioritization of working on these foundational issues, is a necessary first step.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0724.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Social-Ecological System; Water security; Governance; Institution; Learning; Data-Cube
Online: 22 November 2018 (14:47:31 CET)
The Social-Ecological Systems (SES) framework serves as a valuable framework to explore and understand social and ecological interactions, and pathways in water governance. Yet, it lacks a robust understanding of change. We argue an analytical and methodological approach to engaging global changes in SES is critical to strengthening the scope and relevance of the SES framework. Relying on SES and resilience thinking, we propose an institutional and cognitive model of change that institutions and natural resources systems co-evolve to provide a dynamic understanding of SES that stands on three causal mechanisms: institutional complexity trap, rigidity trap, and learning processes. We illustrate how Data Cube technology could overcome current limitations and offer reliable avenues to test hypothesis about the dynamics of social-ecological systems and water security by offering to combine spatial and time data with no major technical requirements for users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0427.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Water recycle; upscaling; water governance; water availability; climate change adaptation
Online: 18 October 2018 (16:34:29 CEST)
Cleaning wastewater and using it again for secondary purposes is a measure to address water scarcity in urban areas. However, upscaling of recycled water schemes is challenging due to the possible emergence of various barriers. Based on a review of the governance literature we suggest that a set of five governance conditions is necessary for a successful upscaling of recycled water schemes; (1) policy leadership, (2) policy coordination, (3) availability of financial resources, (4) awareness of a problem, and (5) the presence of a public forum. In order to elaborate on the practical relevance of these conditions we studied a recycled water scheme currently being upscaled in Sabadell, Spain. We reviewed policy documents, conducted a set of 21 semi-structured interviews, and attended two policy meetings about the subject. Our results suggest that Sabadell meets the required conditions for upscaling reused water to a certain extent. However, the presence of a public forum is lacking. We discuss the implications of the absence of the venue and procedures for public participation in Sabadell and how it could be strengthened. Following this discussion, we conclude with some lessons for other cities that plan to upscale their recycled water schemes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0301.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: adaptation; complex adaptative systems; ecosystem services; governance; resilience; sustainability; transdisciplinary
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:06:22 CEST)
In the last decade, probably in response to global changes and environmental crisis, the use of the term “social-ecological system” (SES) in the scientific literature has been growing. This is certainly a sign of the recognition of the need and importance of transdisciplinary research. Here, we explore whether the use of the term is a buzzword, or it actually represents a key concept toward the integration of social and ecological research. We compiled a data base of publications (N = 1289) that mentioned SES in title, keywords and abstract. Subsequently, we analyzed: authors affiliations, type of work (conceptual, empirical, review), study site, prevailing human use, temporal and spatial scales of analysis, kind of variables analyzed (socioeconomic, biophysical), and the method/s used to integrate them. We detected four time spans in the use of the term (1975–1997, 1998–2006, 2007–2012, 2013–2016). Our results suggest that SES is a widely invoked concept to study the interface between social and ecological systems. Most works show some common elements such as the analysis of resilience, ecosystem services, sustainability, governance and adaptive management. However, the majority of studies does not study SES as a whole, integrating both social and ecological variables and their feedback loops. We consider that SES is still a concept in construction in order to build a necessary framework to integrate social and ecological sciences. For a robust evolution we recommend to focus on 1. a conscious, discussed and agreed effort of scientists to conduct transdisciplinary research needed to study SES; 2. developing methodological tools for the true integration of social and ecological data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0079.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Natural Social Contract; Co-evolutionary governance; Transformative governance; Institutional change; Policy mixes; Transformative Social-Ecological Innovation; Transformative Social Innovation; Social Innovation; Sustainability Transition; Societal Transition
Online: 7 February 2022 (11:43:04 CET)
The corona (COVID-19) pandemic offers an opportunity for dealing with persistent problems, through a transformative recovery process. It is a crisis that offers opportunities for dealing with three interrelated crises: the ecological crisis (climate change, loss of biodiversity, resource depletion, pollution and ecosystem destruction), the confidence crisis (people losing trust in government, politics, companies, regular news channels, science, each other and the future), and the inequality crisis (the widening of the gap between rich and poor). Our argument is that sustainability transitions will not succeed without a different economy and another social contract with the associated rights and duties of care (for the environment and the well-being of others, including future generations). A different social contract is not only desirable from the point of view of sustainability and fairness, justice and equality, but is also necessary to restore citizens' trust in politics, government, companies and each other. In the paper we discuss mechanisms towards a Natural Social Contract, systemic leverage points for system transformations and possibilities for co-evolutionary governance by actor coalitions interested in transformative change. The combination of those three elements helps to synchronize different agendas and reduce the chance that they will work against each other.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1180.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Keywords: enterprise risk management; corporate governance; risk; risk management; COVID-19
Online: 21 November 2023 (10:18:17 CET)
Enterprise risk management (ERM) was introduced in the 1990s and has become an expectation by boards of directors and regulators as a sign of good management and good corporate governance. However, many organizations struggle to implement ERM, and still seek practical ad-vice on ERM implementation. This article explains many of the reasons why organizations are unsuccessful in their efforts at implementation and provides practical solutions by an experienced risk manager and consultant, an ex-Chief Risk Officer, and an academic, all who has writ-ten extensively in the subject. This article should be of interest to practitioners involved in implementing ERM, to consultants in ERM, and to academics teaching courses on ERM, risk management, and related topics. This article also provides a base against which further future re-search can be done as ERM best practices continue to evolve.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0379.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Corporate governance; event study; firm performance; abnormal return; merger and acquisition
Online: 7 November 2023 (07:11:59 CET)
The study investigates the effect of corporate governance characteristics on the financial performance of 124 Indian-listed companies that have undergone mergers and acquisitions during 2014–2020. It employs several performance measures, such as short-term capital market performance, long-term capital market performance, accounting-based and market-based measures, and firm-level control factors. The study found board size to be a positive and significant factor affecting short-term market performance. Further, it also documents weak linkages with other corporate governance variables like board independence, CEO duality, etc. Regarding control variables, leverage, the company's age, price-to-book ratio, and research and development expenses significantly impact the acquiring companies' financial returns. The study's findings add to our understanding of corporate governance's impact on performance in cases such as mergers and acquisitions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1903.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: destination management; tourism planning; indicator systems; local authorities; sustainable tourism; governance.
Online: 28 September 2023 (08:39:06 CEST)
Local Authorities have significant tourism planning responsibilities and can benefit from evidence-based approaches. Qualitative interviews with 29 Local Authorities identified impediments to adopting indicators. Key barriers included more knowledge of indicator systems, training in using systems and understanding sustainability value and governance issues. However, transitioning to sustainable tourism through monitoring requires efficient resourcing of Local Authorities. Statutory adoption of indicators may be needed to enable evidence-based planning and policymaking. More informed planning approaches can help destinations respond to tourism issues and sustainability threats. Findings have implications for facilitating indicator implementation and evidence-based planning in other tourism destinations internationally.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0352.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Sustainability Reporting; Climate Change; Energy Requirements; Companies; Boards; Governance; Literature Review
Online: 3 August 2023 (14:27:22 CEST)
The perceived poor performance of publicly traded companies on their sustainability commitments and the quality of sustainability reporting has prompted stakeholders to consider the economic, environmental, and social impacts of corporate activities. Economic activities have led to various threats in the form of climate change, pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, natural disasters, and other issues that have negatively impacted the environment and stakeholders. Companies are expected to report to stakeholders on their sustainability performance, but reality proves that present reporting falls below stakeholders’ expectations mainly due to its still voluntary nature. The present study aims to provide a literature review of the relationship between sustainability reporting and the role of companies governance, especially observing if climate change requirements and energy-needed changes are being accounted. Results highlight mixed evidence for the influence of board governance attributes, providing interesting insights for research advancement. The study has practical implications for businesses, regulators, governments, and other stakeholders in their policy deliberations and investment decisions. Further empirical studies are recommended to re-examine sustainability reporting using the variables identified as important factors and gaps in this study and other board characteristics to improve the generalizability of the results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0534.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: governance; social-ecological system; tropical cyclone; urban forest; urban tree canopy
Online: 23 July 2021 (10:31:50 CEST)
Urban Tree Canopy (UTC) greatly enhances the livability of cities by reducing urban heat buildup, mitigating stormwater runoff, and filtering airborne particulates, among other ecological services. These benefits, combined with the relative ease of measuring tree cover from aerial imagery, have led many cities to adopt management strategies based on UTC goals. In this study, we conducted canopy analyses for the 300 largest cities in Florida to assess the impacts of development practices, urban forest ordinances, and hurricanes on tree cover. Within the cities sampled, UTC canopy ranged from 5.9% to 68.7% with a median canopy coverage of 32.3% Our results indicate that the peak gust speeds recorded during past hurricanes events were a significant predictor of canopy coverage (P-value = <0.001) across the sampled cities. As peak gust speeds increased from 152 km/h (i.e., a lower-intensity Category 1 storm) to 225 km/h (lower-intensity Category 4 and the maximum gusts captured in our data), predicted canopy in developed urban areas decreased by 7.7%. Beyond the impacts of hurricanes and tropical storms, we found that historic landcover and two out of eight urban forest ordinances were significant predictors of existing canopy coverage (P-landcover <0.001; P-tree preservation ordinance = 0.02, P-heritage tree ordinance = 0.03). Results indicate that local policies and tree protections can protect or enhance urban tree canopy, even in the face of rapid development and periodic natural disturbances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0360.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Corporate social responsibility, corporate governance, stakeholder engagement, sustainability, sustainable development goals.
Online: 16 May 2021 (21:30:41 CEST)
Cooperative organizations try to balance economic viability and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) management through strategic policies that involve dialogue, participation and engagement with stakeholders. To measure the impact of CSR management, the electricity sector implements monitoring processes and models, such as the Sustainability Reporting Standards of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), which measure contributions to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations 2030 Agenda. This research analyses the strategic management of CSR in the 28 electric cooperatives that market electricity in Spain with the aim of determining their level of commitment to CSR and stakeholder participation in their corporate policies. The analysis is based on the descriptive-exploratory study of the whole population of electric cooperatives. The results indicate that the CSR management of most electric cooperatives is still in an emerging stage within the Value Curve. Importantly, there is a significant percentage of cooperatives that have already advanced towards the consolidating and institutionalized stages. However, most of these social-economy organizations are not developing programs that link their CSR strategies with their priority SDGs and sustainability as commitment to their community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0213.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: ecosystem services; voluntary sustainability certification; state regulation; plural governance arrangements; Indonesia
Online: 16 February 2020 (04:57:20 CET)
The Forest Stewardship Council initiated a pilot Forest Certification for Ecosystem Services (ForCES) project from 2011 to 2017 to improve and promote sustainable forest management addressing a range of ecosystem services. Three sites in Indonesia were studied in the pilot. Whilst the development of the certification standard was largely by a partnership between the certification standard organization, civil society and research organisations, implementation and monitoring of the impact of this voluntary sustainability standard will entail interaction with state regulations. This study sought to understand how certification and state regulations concerning ecosystem services in Indonesia interplay, particularly in the agenda setting and negotiation stage. Using the conceptual lenses of transition theory and state and non-state market-based governance, the interrelationships between ecosystem services certification and regulations were found to be both complementary, supporting and antagonistic. The majority were complementary. Antagonism occurred where regulations do not accommodate land use issues and due to different contradictory state regulations. The voluntary instruments were developed largely in the absence of state involvement and without any substitution with regulatory standards. Given the increasing proliferation of voluntary market-driven initiatives at farm, forest concession and landscape level, stakeholders developing and managing voluntary standards need to collaborate with national and local governments to create synergy to enable their acceptance, adoption and effectiveness to positively enhance the conservation of ecosystem services through incentivizing market-based instruments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0042.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: performance-based management; performance measurement; good governance; local government; public agency
Online: 3 April 2019 (11:27:59 CEST)
Performance appraisal is a fundamental indicator in public accountability to achieve the good governance principles. Hence, this study aims to analyze the performance measurement that can improve performance on government agencies in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The study was conducted in qualitative approach. The research found that non-integrated models of performance measurement in South Sulawesi are inefficient and ineffective. Inefficiency happens because it uses time and cost resources separately, while being ineffective is because both models focuses on each goal instead on performance goals and the process is not supported by the actual management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0205.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: integrity of financial reporting information; good corporate governance; firm size; leverage
Online: 10 October 2018 (06:05:12 CEST)
This research aims to determine the influence of the independent commissioners, audit committee, institutional ownership, firm size and leverage against the integrity of the financial reporting information. This research is quantitative research with the causal approach. This study uses secondary data and panel data regression analysis method. The research results prove that audit committee, institutional ownership and leverage effect on the integrity of the financial reporting information. But it does not prove that the independent commissioner and firm size effect on the integrity of the financial reporting information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1568.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: water governance; rice farming; irrigation; community fisheries; community fish refuge; water conflict
Online: 25 October 2023 (11:42:26 CEST)
Cambodia faces the challenge of managing excess water during the wet season and insufficient water during the dry season. This harms human life and endangers aquatic and natural resources, agricultural practices, and food security. In order to ensure the well-being of both people and food security, water governance is crucial. However, Cambodia's water governance is hindered by various obstacles, including sectoral and centralized influences, top-down and large-scale strategies, a lack of coordination among relevant agencies, and limited involvement of local communities. This study delves into water governance across different sectors, from centralized to community-based natural resources management to tackle these challenges. Through analyzing literature and case studies of farmer water user communities (FWUC), community fisheries (CFis), and community fish refuges (CFRs) in three Mekong Delta provinces in Cambodia, the study concludes that although water governance has improved, it has resulted in a decline in fishery resources from rivers and water bodies and an increase in water conflicts among farmers and sectors in the face of climate change. To enhance water governance in Cambodia, it is critical to integrate it at the district level. This will promote sustainable water use and management across the country and pave the way for a brighter future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1934.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Corporate governance structure; De facto CEO (substantial CEO); Corporate value; ESG activities
Online: 29 August 2023 (08:20:03 CEST)
This study analyzes the influence of CEO types on corporate governance, focusing on de facto (substantial) CEOs. We examine how substantial CEOs impact ESG activities (Hypothesis 1) and corporate value (Hypothesis 2). Data were collected from KIS-VALUE and DART (Electronic Disclosure System) of the Financial Supervisory Service, defining substantial CEOs as highest remuneration recipients exceeding the representative director of the company pay. Results sup-port Hypothesis 1, showing companies with substantial CEOs are more engaged in ESG activities, potentially to improve public image while concealing self-serving behaviors. Hypothesis 2 is validated, indicating lower corporate value in companies with substantial CEOs due to prioritizing personal interests over long-term profit maximization. Despite limitations in exploring governance relationships beyond remuneration data, the study offers key contributions. It expands research on corporate governance and ESG activities by identifying substantial CEOs through objective remuneration data. It highlights the importance of an independent board for transparent governance and positive corporate value. Lastly, empirical evidence shows the negative impact of misdirected ESG activities on corporate value. By using remuneration as an indicator, this study illuminates substantial CEOs' influence on corporate value and ESG activities, providing insights for future research in corporate governance and ESG.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0497.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: higher education; international students; leadership and governance; SEM; STEM; sustainable development; sustainability
Online: 31 December 2021 (09:39:26 CET)
Attracting and retaining international students has been widely discussed in higher education settings. Increasing the number of international students has become an indispensable strategy for national and global competition. This study focuses on effective strategies and international students' issues regarding satisfaction in the most popular STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) programs. We designed a structural equation modeling (SEM) method to determine the effect of institutional mediation between push factors and satisfaction factors for the development of better strategies by which to attract and retain international students. Taking Taiwan as an example, this study employed a self-designed questionnaire to collect data: 485 degree-seeking international students in STEM programs were invited and successfully participated in this study during spring 2021. IBM SPSS 26 and AMOS 26 (Analysis of Moment Structure) were used to carry out the data analysis. We employed reliability, factor, and SEM analyses. This study assumed that the impact of push factors can be modified by institutional situations and result in international students’ satisfaction with their learning and environment and regarding migration policy. The results revealed that the predictors, mediation, and criteria were significant at the 0.05 or 0.01 levels. The findings suggest that push factors impact international students’ satisfaction when using institutional leadership and international strategy. The results of the bootstrap with a generalized least square method showed that the SEM model fit in 2000 bootstrap samples. The effect of institutional mediation can provide useful information for STEM programs to boost their future recruitment and retention strategies. This study provides an innovative approach to the detection of issues among international students in specific programs. These findings can enrich our knowledge regarding attracting and retaining global students in higher education settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0148.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; information; Good Corporate Governance; abnormal stock return; audit quality
Online: 31 May 2021 (13:23:05 CEST)
This research contributes to the development of theories regarding the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and investment decisions. Acquisition of stock returns that exceed normal predictions depends on the successful implementation of Good Corporate Governance (GCG). This study aims to examine investors' reactions to information on CSR disclosure in several countries that are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Furthermore, this study also examines the role of implementing GCG in strengthening the impact of CSR disclosure on investor relations as measured by abnormal stock returns. The sampling technique used was purposive Sampling. The research was conducted on Manufacturing Companies in countries that are members of ASEAN during 2017-2019. The estimation model used to analyze data is a multiple regression model. The results showed that CSR information was able to increase investors' positive reactions. Meanwhile, GCG practice is proven to strengthen the impact of CSR information on investment decisions. Other variables involved in this study, namely audit quality, company size, debt level, and sales growth, are not proven to influence abnormal stock returns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0361.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: just transition; energy transition; regional development; public policy; governance; OECD; European Union
Online: 16 May 2021 (21:55:33 CEST)
The concept of a ‘just transition’ encompasses political and policy imperatives to minimise the harmful impacts of industrial and economic transitions on workers, communities and society more generally, and to maximise their potential benefits. This imperative has gained heightened importance as governments commit to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A wide range of policies strategies and initiatives have been adopted by national and regional governments to facilitate and help manage a just transition. It is a concept that is increasingly being put into practice. This scoping study identifies and compares strategies, policies and practices that are presently being implemented in order to manage a just transition across 25 countries and 74 regions alongside European Union-level policies. This work develops a typology of policy instruments to manage just transitions and identifies implementation gaps and leading practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0173.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Corporate governance; ROA; TNPM; dynamic system GMM; endogeneity; board size; board independence
Online: 10 March 2020 (14:31:50 CET)
Corporate governance is widely suggested by economists and regulators as a solution to reduce agency problems and improve firm performance. However previous studies have failed to generate consistent results. Using a dynamic panel system GMM estimator to alleviate endogeneity concerns we determine the effect of corporate board structure on the performance of a panel of 1265 Chinese firms listed on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges from 2010 to 2016. We compare the dynamic system GMM estimator to some commonly used estimators; ordinary least squares (OLS), fixed effects (FE) and the dynamic OLS, and show that these estimates are biased due to endogeneity. The dynamic system GMM estimator incorporates the dynamic nature of internal governance choices to provide valid and powerful instruments that address unobserved heterogeneity and simultaneity. Our results show support for the board model corporate governance mechanism. We find that board size is positive and significantly related to both return on assets and total net profit margin. In addition board independence is positive and significantly related to return on assets but insignificantly related to total net profit margin. Duality was found to have a negative but statistically insignificant relation with firm performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0114.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: tobacco; forest resources; deforestation; livelihoods; institutions; governance; landscape; land degradation; climate change
Online: 10 April 2018 (08:04:02 CEST)
The increase in tobacco production while ameliorating the condition of the participant households has caused challenges to stakeholders particularly those in the governance of forest resources upon which the sector is hinged. Massive deforestation has proceeded at an alarmingly high level, in a way that threatens the long term viability of the tobacco sector and sustainability of natural forest resources. The entrance of previously disadvantaged majority into the once minority-dominated tobacco sector (and economy) in a quest to improving their livelihoods, is driving forest landscape changes that pose inherent environmental challenges including climate change. This article adopts institutional and landscape approaches to explore and explain the drivers, nexus and implications of smallholder tobacco as a livelihood strategy to the forest landscape changes and the subsequent imperative for governance of the sustainable utilization of forest resources in Zimbabwe. Drawing on documentary evidence the paper concludes that this situation poses a dilemma to forest and livelihood policies, hence the need to examine new institutional and livelihood initiatives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1723.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Transdisciplinary synthesis; environmental policy; sustainable landscape; ecosystem services; landscape governance; land use framework
Online: 25 June 2023 (07:45:59 CEST)
The development of a decision framework for landscape governance and management has become one of the prioritised policy instruments for actualising policy objectives relating to agri-food system, biodiversity conservation, nature restoration, environmental management, climate change mitigation and adaptation, net zero greenhouse gas emissions, and the transition to renewable energy supplies in the United Kingdom (UK). However, the landscape lens in policy-making is challenging because of the diverse landscape archetypes, environmental problems, and diverging policy targets that it must address. This highlights the importance of having a robust, evidence-based landscape decisions framework. To address this issue, this study undertakes a systematic review and transdisciplinary synthesis of research outputs from the Landscape Decisions Programme (LDP). This study compiles and synthesizes outputs from the LDP projects in the context of the relevant literature to develop an understanding of the relationships among the emerging evidence with respect to decision-making for more sustainable and multifunctional landscapes. The synthesis analyzed the drivers of landscape decisions, and methodological approaches used to generate evidence for decision-making. The emerging themes from the synthesis were distilled into five principles that can be used as a basis for a roadmap towards the development of a holistic landscape decisions framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0894.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Educational policies; Learning and development; Machine Learning Techniques; Skillset; IT Governance; Team Members
Online: 13 June 2023 (08:19:19 CEST)
Software governance is a management structure that guides projects in terms of their accountability and responsibility. Prime motivation of this approach is to improve the skillset of the team members through software governance policies and increase the overall success rate of the software projects. The scope of skill development is across the pillars of governance, such as structure, people, and information. Primary focus of this paper is on the skillset development of the project team members through educational policies in software governance. As part of the governance process, educational policies are defined for the skillset development of project team members. The JIRA dataset was used to determine the skillset development of the team members. Machine learning techniques, such as J48, Random Forest, Decision Table, Logistics, and Naïve Bayes, were used in the JIRA dataset. These machine learning techniques were processed using WEKA open-source software. Based on these results, it was concluded that the J48 algorithm can be applied to multiple projects/programs to monitor and track the skill development process. Machine learning model such as J48 is required to use this model at an organizational level. The skillset development of project team members should be aligned with IT governance and educational policies. Overall upskilling and reskilling strategies are provided to demonstrate the impact of skillset development through software governance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0382.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: water and sanitation services; water governance; universal access; financial-economic capacity; sustainability; regionalization.
Online: 6 June 2023 (05:32:30 CEST)
Achieving universal access to water and sanitation services in developing countries requires a coherent legal, political, and institutional environment, along with a clear financial strategy. Regionalizing utilities may be crucial for addressing disparities, economic inequalities, and governance challenges. Regionalization offers economies of scale, resource efficiency, knowledge sharing, and collaboration. The cornerstone will be ensuring the financial-economic viability of regional utilities, considering their social impacts in terms of affordability. The State of Santa Catarina case study is assessed. In the case of Santa Catarina, only four regional utilities currently generate sufficient revenue, without factoring in necessary investments, indicating the need to review design parameters to improve operational efficiency and increase revenues. Additional financial support may be required to ensure universal access. Tariff adjustments must strike a balance between cost-effectiveness and affordability for families.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0436.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Water Framework Directive; River Basin Management Plan; Water Resource Management; Water Governance; Stakeholders
Online: 16 June 2021 (10:29:51 CEST)
The River Basin Management Plan (RBMP) is an essential component of the European Union Water Framework Directive that details an integrated approach required to protect, improve and sustainably manage water resources. RBMP were intended to be produced for the periods 2009-2015, 2016-2021 and 2022-2027. However, after two years of delays in the development processes, the Republic of Ireland produced its first RBMP in 2010. The second RBMP cycle was also implemented in 2018 and is expected to run until the end of 2021 to give way to the third RBMP, whose consultation processes have been ongoing since December 2019. This paper contributes to the forthcoming RBMP by assessing stakeholders’ perspectives on the second RBMP through a desk-based review and by conducting interviews with nine institutions (14 interviewees). The qualitatively analysed interviews reveal a broad spectrum of actors associated with water management and governance in the Republic of Ireland through a three-tier governance structure that has been delivered (with amendment) through the first two RBMPs. Organisations such as the An Fóram Uisce|The Water Forum, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Local Authority Waters, and the Agricultural Sustainability Support and Advisory Programme have responsibilities designated in the RBMPs to deliver improved water quality, integrated catchment management, community engagement and awareness-raising. Trust has also been building up among these organisations and other agencies in the water sector. Despite these responsibilities and progress, the interviews identified communication lapses, ineffective collaboration and coordination among stakeholders and late implementation to be hampering the successful delivery of the second RBMP, in addition to significant pressures acting on water bodies from agricultural activities and urban wastewater treatment. Towards the third RBMP, the paper concludes that optimised water sector finance, enhanced and well-resourced communications, and improved stakeholder collaboration are needed to foster effective and efficient water services delivery and quality. More so, given the cross-cutting impact of the Sustainable Development Goals on water resources and the interconnected relations among the goals, the paper further recommends the integration of the SDGs in the various plans of actions and a co-benefits approach to derive the triple benefits from biodiversity, climate change initiatives and water quality measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0746.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Resilience; Social Progress; Enviromental Performance; Sustainable Development Goals; Governance; World Risks; Vulnerability; Susceptibility
Online: 30 December 2020 (08:58:20 CET)
Building Country Resilience is a long-term process particularly in the hyper connected world we are living today; and depends on good governance and appropriate equilibrium of respect for people, planet and profits as well as avoiding depleting natural resources that end up affecting the biosphere. Hence represent a most needed Learning ability that may be seeing to be related to the process of Sustainable Development. So, this paper seeks to find best practices and a Ranking of Countries that may help as guides to foster Country Resilience. For this purpose, it was developed a World Resilience Index - WRI based on a Statistical Analysis with updated data from 108 Countries divided into 3 Groups: American Countries – AMER (20 Countries), Advanced Economies - AVECO (22 Countries) mostly from Europe and OTHER (66 Countries); and using a set of Synthetic Variables like the Social Progress Index – SPI, the Environmental Performance Index – EPI, and the Sustainable Development Goals Index – SDGI, besides some related to Governance and the World Risk Index – WRI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0210.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: smart dashboard; smart governance; slow tourism; Santa Barbara Walk; Sulcis - Iglesiente; Sardinia; Italy
Online: 16 December 2019 (07:11:11 CET)
Information and communication technologies play an increasingly important role in the process of acquiring knowledge from a territory and managing it at different scales. ICTs allow a rapid diffusion of data not only through institutional channels but also through social networks where the smart community share experiences and perceptions. In this sense, ICTs become strategic to support the promotion of sustainable tourism development of territories. An important tool to implement it, can be a circular smart dashboard, a decision support system in which the digital data are organized and processed to produce an information output, to be used, after the evaluation by the decision makers, as a new input for the system. The present paper deals with a wider research the authors are involved in, related to the reconversion and valorization of a former mining area towards slow tourism, as the Santa Barbara Walk (SBW), an ancient mining route in the Sulcis Iglesiente area (Sardinia, Italy) . In particular, we here focus on the design proposal of a dashboard, capable of organizing information concerning the main features of the walk, in order to facilitate a shared governance for an effective tourism promotion. The paper is based on a thorough recognition of the main characteristics of the Walk, both the material ones and the digital, immaterial ones. The SBW represents in fact a network connecting the main points of interest along the Walk. On the contrary, its digital network – consisting of intangible infrastructure and flows - is however fragmented in terms of policies and contents Also a state of disorganization in slow tourism promotion activities can be observed. The goal of this paper is to present and analysis of the area, and to propose an evaluation and planning tool as the design of a circular dashboard of the SBW.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0047.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: change management; decision-making model; risk management; resource management; process improvement; good governance
Online: 4 October 2019 (10:42:05 CEST)
Abstract: Purpose – In this article we lay out the change management practices adopted by financial firms in small states within the Eurozone. We determine whether these organisations have the ability to identify triggers for change (Red Flags) and subject them to eight thematic elements to understand whether management practices can continue to exist and support operational environments, even when unexpected circumstances affect their day to day operations and processes. In doing this we examine the extent to which the eight thematic elements from the model designed by Dalli Gonzi, (2019) (The Dali Model) can assist organisations in risk identification and business continuity planning. Design/methodology/approach – A self-administered questionnaire purposely designed for this study was administered to personnel working in internal controls within financial institutions of small Eurozone states. The participants were asked to grade statements using a 5-point Likert scale, ‘1’ being ‘totally disagree’ and ‘5’ being totally agree’ to the statement posed under the thematic elements forming the basis of the Dali Model. Findings – Factor analysis provided support for the eight hypothesised dimensions of the decision-making model: connection, capacity, governance, network, policy, training, process improvement, standards. Originality/value – The study provides a better understanding and support of “best practice” in change management through an understanding and assessment of the eight factors that are the basis of this model. It addresses practical recommendations to ensure application to a wider frame of use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: data governance; data sovereignty; urban data spaces; ICT reference architecture; open urban platform
Online: 6 December 2018 (05:09:54 CET)
This paper presents the results of a recent study that was conducted with a number of German municipalities/cities. Based on the obtained and briefly presented recommendations emerging from the study, the authors propose the concept of an Urban Data Space (UDS), which facilitates an eco-system for data exchange and added value creation thereby utilizing the various types of data within a smart city/municipality. Looking at an Urban Data Space from within a German context and considering the current situation and developments in German municipalities, this paper proposes a reasonable classification of urban data that allows to relate the various data types to legal aspects and to conduct solid considerations regarding technical implementation designs and decisions. Furthermore, the Urban Data Space is described/analyzed in detail, and relevant stakeholders are identified, as well as corresponding technical artifacts are introduced. The authors propose to setup Urban Data Spaces based on emerging standards from the area of ICT reference architectures for Smart Cities, such as DIN SPEC 91357 “Open Urban Platform” and EIP SCC. Thereby, the paper walks the reader through the construction of an UDS based on the above mentioned architectures and outlines all the goals, recommendations and potentials, which an Urban Data Space can reveal to a municipality/city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0031.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: co-operative enterprises; indivisible reserves; common resources; rivalry; non-excludability; capital accumulation; governance
Online: 5 March 2018 (04:45:36 CET)
Contemporary literature dealing with the governance and exploitation of common-pool natural resources was initiated by Elinor Ostrom in 1990, and has been growing fast ever since. On the contrary, within the same research stream, the study of the presence and economic role of common resources in entrepreneurial organizations is, to date, under-researched. This work endeavors to fill some gaps in this research perspective by: (i) spelling out a new-institutionalist framework for the analysis of the accumulation and governance of common capital resources within organizational boundaries; (ii) considering co-operative enterprises as the organizational form that, on the basis of historical record, and of behavioral and institutional characteristics, demonstrated to be most compatible with a substantial role for common and non-divided asset-ownership and with its governance thereof; (iii) evidencing and explaining the strong connection between cooperative longevity and the presence of non-divided asset ownership. The economic forces influencing the optimal level of self-financed common capital resources in co-operatives are enquired. Conclusions to the paper evidence the main reasons why the new approach can better explain than preceding ones the economic sustainability and longevity of cooperative enterprises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0676.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: environmental; social and governance (ESG); individual investor’s behavioral factors; theory of planned behaviour (TPB)
Online: 12 October 2023 (14:31:14 CEST)
The present study investigates the decision-making process of investors on the Pakistan Stock Exchange with regard to portfolio construction, explicitly focusing on the incorporation of ESG concerns. The present study employed SmartPLS and structural equation modeling (SEM) to quantitatively assess data received from a sample of 393 out of 400 respondents. Based on the available data, investors participating in the Pakistan Stock Exchange are notably impacted by ESG aspects. The findings of this study hold significance for emerging economy firms, regulators, and investors, both in terms of theoretical and practical ramifications. The study's findings demonstrate a clear indication of investors' significant emphasis on ESG matters. Furthermore, it provides valuable insights for stakeholders who are involved in the ever-evolving realm of sustainable finance within developing countries
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1727.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Governance Assessment Tool (GAT); waste management; community-based solid waste management (CBSWM); waste bank
Online: 26 July 2023 (03:26:42 CEST)
Indonesia's government anticipates waste problems by managing them through a large number of waste reduction programs. From a governance perspective in Indonesia, it is known that actors from diverse governmental levels and across sectors are involved in waste management, and their involvement largely depends on their institutional goals and problems. Hence, they are expected to coherently collaborate together by developing and implementing sustainable instruments and resources for improving waste management problems. However, it is necessary to understand how supportive and restrictive the governance of waste reduction programs is to encourage successful trash reduction. This study is designed to evaluate and examine the application of Community-Based Solid Waste Management (CBSWM) in Makassar. In this research, The Governance Assessment Tool (GAT) was applied to analyze the governance context of the waste reduction programs in Makassar qualitatively. From the assessment, contexts can be described as either supportive or restrictive of the processes of implementing public policies on waste management. As a result of such an assessment, this study shed light on some opportunities to improve the governance of waste management implementation's impact on reducing waste in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The conclusion of this study depicts that the most important actors are affiliated with the local government and the community. Moreover, this study shows that the assessment of contextual governance is predominantly restrictive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0083.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: management and control practices; corporate governance; internal control; compliance; conformity; Social Health Organization (SHO)
Online: 4 March 2022 (14:06:21 CET)
To determine the adequacy of management practices in Social Health Organization (SHO) in face of compliance guidelines established by Brazilian organizations. This was qualitative research. Data were gathered through interviews and documentary analysis and were analyzed through the interpretation of significances and content analysis. The entity structures the compliance function based on three axes: a) normative - institutionalization of the integrity program, ethical conduct, internal controls and risk management; b) commercial - institutionalization of mechanisms aimed at transparency and accountability of the funds raised. However, the Covid-19 pandemic generated unforeseen contingencies such as accountability for funds from private donations; c) organizational - adherence by top management in maintaining a structure for inspection and control of the institution’s processes and behaviors in the market in which it operates. Based on the analysis of documents there is 76% adequacy of adherence of management practices to the compliance guidelines. It is concluded that organizations that depend on resources and understand that the subsidies they receive, whether government, whether public or private donations, will make the necessary efforts to ensure high levels of compliance, their choices and conduct preserve their image and the achievement of greater credibility and legitimacy.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0582.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: village independence; village; building the village; sustainability; regional analysis; region; rural development; governance; government
Online: 25 February 2021 (13:38:18 CET)
Village has a vital role in the national development efforts. The concept of development considered village as an object instead of a subject of development. This study focused on determining the important points in enabling a village to be independent by shifting the paradigm of “building the village” into “the building village”. This study was an exploratory research of public policies with qualitative legal studies. This study was conducted in 3 villages in Bandung regency with different characteristics, namely Neglawangi with urban characteristics, Cibiru Wetan with sub-urban characteristics, and Rancamanyar with plural characteristics. The results of this study showed that the wise step in building an independent village is through “the building village” road maps. First, encourage the inception of critical and care community and community organizations who dynamically interact in the policy making processes of village development. Second, implement a participative, accountable, and transparent planning and budgeting system within the limits of their authorities. Third, empower inclusive village economic institutions. The three road maps can succeed if they are supported by good implementation of participative, systematic, effective and efficient planning and budgeting system, as well as good monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: urban governance; public participation; public comments; web-crawling data; qualitative content analysis; urban China
Online: 9 September 2020 (03:37:38 CEST)
Public participation is crucial in the process of urban governance in smart-city initiatives to enable urban planners and policy makers to take account of the real public needs. Our study aims to develop an analytical framework using citizen-centred qualitative data to analyse urban problems and identify the areas most needed for urban governance. Taking a Chinese megacity as the study area, we first utilise a web-crawling tool to retrieve public comments from an online comment board and employ the Baidu Application Programming Interfaces and a qualitative content analysis for data reclassification. We then analyse the urban problems reflected by negative comments in terms of their statistical and spatial distribution, and the associative factors to explain their formation. Our findings show that urban problems are dominantly related to construction and housing, and most frequently appear in industry-oriented areas and newly-developed economic development zones on the urban fringe, where the reconciling of government-centered governance and private governance by real estate developers and property management companies are most needed. Areas with higher land price and a higher proportion of aged population tend to have less urban problems, while various types of civil facilities affect the prevalence of urban problems differently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1493.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Institutional Analysis and Development Framework (IADF); Hydropolitics; Water management; Water governance; Colonial period; Water conflicts
Online: 21 July 2023 (12:48:47 CEST)
The number of disputes related to water that reach courts in Chile has increased in the last decades, the topics of these disputes have become more complex, and the current conflict resolution system has not been able to adjust to this situation. This study analyses colonial texts from water-related conflicts that were addressed at the Royal Hearings in Santiago (1691-1800) and from the Cabildo gatherings (1541-1802), using an adaptation of the Institutional Analysis and Development framework. The research shows a strong institutional system surrounding conflict resolution during colonial times, with nested schemes and empowered figures appointed in leading roles. However, a lack of equity and inclusion of all actors is also visible, reducing its legitimacy. At present, the increasing value of water and a sense of distrust in the institutional system have led to longer and more complex conflict resolution processes. Here, learning from past times about the empowerment of the institutional system for solving water disputes could be useful. An increased support towards initial conflict resolution mechanisms, giving space for local knowledge and generating stronger participation in these initial steps, could also be a lesson for the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1718.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: forest education; innovations in teaching; transformative learning; strategy games; sustainable forest landscape governance; social innovation
Online: 25 May 2023 (03:07:38 CEST)
Forest education is pivotal for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and promoting sustainable forest management in the face of global challenges. However, existing programs struggle to keep up with rapidly changing crises and uncertainties that contribute to deforestation and forest degradation. To address these challenges, integrating innovative approaches into forest education is crucial. This paper demonstrates the transformative use of a role-playing game as an innovative teaching method for integrated forest management. The game provides students with practical experience and a comprehensive understanding of landscape approaches, using the Congo Basin as a case study. Our research focuses on sustainable forest governance, stakeholder roles, and valuing natural assets and ecosystem services, supporting the transformation of economic, political, and social/cultural relationships at various scales. We highlight the potential of innovative forest education to foster sustainability, trigger critical thinking, resolve conflicts, and prevent costly forest losses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0058.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Sustainability performance; Environmental; Social and Governance (ESG) performance; Innova-tion performance; mediating effect; manufacturing firms
Online: 3 March 2023 (06:17:55 CET)
In this age of global warming, academics and policymakers are increasingly concerned about firm environmental sustainability success. Therefore, this study aims to investigate whether Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) performance impacts sustainability performance through the mediating effect of firm innovation. To this end, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was deployed to analyze data collected from the employees of manufacturing industries in an emerging economy like Bangladesh. The results revealed that ESG performance significantly enhances the innovation and sustainability performance of manufacturing industries, indicating that the higher the ESG performance of a firm, the greater its innovation and sustainability performance. Furthermore, the results confirmed that firm innovation performance fully mediates the relationship between ESG initiatives and sustainability performance. The findings of this study provide policymakers and industry authorities with valuable insight into the role of ESG and innovation performance in improving sustainability performance. Specifically, the study sheds knowledge on how firm ESG initiatives and innovation performance impact sustainability performance in the manufacturing sector of an emerging economy like Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0228.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Urban Planning, Artificial Intelligence, Information Technology, Smart Cities, E-Governance, E-participation and M-participation
Online: 10 August 2021 (10:12:16 CEST)
This article is an effort to scrutinize the role of Information Technology development in the chronological transformation of Urban Planning domain using the exploratory research approach. In this research, it is argued that the theoretical and practical understanding of Urban Planning should absorb and integrate the bright outcome of the rise of Information and Technology to foster congruent future urban development. The article addresses the trends of transformation in the urban planning domain through the myopic lens of the expansion of information and communications technology era followed by investigating the key drivers shaping the interaction between modern-day urban planning and information technology considering both the dark and bright sides into account.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0055.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Case-study analysis; Citizen engagement; Collaborative ecosystem; Governance; Innovation systems; n-Helix model; Smart city
Online: 2 June 2021 (08:49:42 CEST)
Despite the rising interest in smart city initiatives worldwide, governmental theories along with the managerial perspectives of city planning are a great lack in the literature. It is definitely understandable that the adoption of configurational pathways towards the ‘smart’ ‘governance’ models is required as key factor and smartness’ facilitator in modern cities. In this manuscript, we display an exhaustive analysis on the importance of the n-Helix models along with a benchmarking critical approach through selected European case-studies. The study, through the literature review, revealed the lack of exhaustive analyses for the methodological investigation, identification and adoption of the most appropriate governance model and collaborative approaches per project and collaborative approaches and create modular frameworks to address efficiently the continuous urban challenges, such as the rapid urbanization or the climate change.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Smart City; Urban planning Italy; Governance 3.0; New Digital Platforms; Sentiment Analysis; Pandemic Urban Effects
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:41:22 CET)
Current acceleration in digital innovations, the unexpected challenges in our social interactions, open access to virtualization, huge limitation in our physical spaces, and unpredictable changes in our old lifestyles - as originated from the COVID-19 global pandemic in 2020 - continue to provide us with a framework, rapidly updating under our eyes, of the modifications our world is undergoing by pursuing into the “new digital age”. Or, as many scholars say nowadays, into the new normal! These are shared and deep changes that, regardless of their permanence or temporariness in the time, concretely stress, ever more greatly, their “own” effects on how ideally a city should function. Forcing us to reflect on the real ability to achieve choices and visions for the future by taking vantage from the new digital platforms. In the pages of this article authors, through different eyes but sharing an early response to the matter of new Governance, explore the theme of a radical change of those already consolidated paradigms and, therefore, of the innovations that are transforming the way we understand our society and its technologic advancements, economics, and culture, as defined through dimensions of time and space. This article identiﬁes a methodologic vision for acquiring a more democratic and participatory (inclusive) dimension in the newest conﬁguration of contemporary cities, the new smart city, and in the possible innovations in reading the common sentiments and wishes through the new digitalized world. The analysis investigates how ICT is altering the meanings/ideas of “urban planning”, driving us toward a more effective “governance” through a citizen-centred digital approach. Indeed, city governance's success must be measured based on the “listening capacity” of the inhabitants and the facilities that we are capable to provide to citizens. “Sentiment Analysis” tool is tested as a useful tool to achieve these aims.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0058.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: water rights; robustness; water governance; water scarcity; water allocation; water accounting; water trading; water sharing
Online: 6 November 2019 (10:43:15 CET)
A framework for the review of existing water management systems and their transformation into robust water sharing systems is offered. The framework focuses on the need to develop efficient and equitable ways to manage water scarcity and plan to deal with the tensions scarcity imposes on any community. The framework identifies a way to bring together traditional community-managed systems with those typically used to allocate water to large water users and more commonly found in developed countries. So that use can be kept within sustainable limits while optimizing use, the framework includes mechanisms that enable the reallocation of water as demand and supply conditions change. Non-consumptive uses are recognized and environmental objectives can be delivered efficiently. Compliance with well-established accounting and hydro-logical concepts. Ways to increase the value of existing entitlements, encourage innovation and protect investments are included as options. It is recognized that the governance and legal arrangements necessary to underpin successful implantation are context specific.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0140.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: common lands; baldios; wild mushrooms; non-timber forest products; Portugal; community; community forestry; forest governance
Online: 24 May 2017 (17:01:57 CEST)
Forest community connections are crucial to ensure forest stewardship and sustainability. We explored the potential of mushrooming to enable such connections in contexts where these connections have been historically broken, alienating local people from forests. Taking the case of the recent devolution of a community forest (baldios) in central Portugal to the local population, we present a five-year pilot project to rework mycology from a mushroom-centered approach to a mushroom-in-baldios approach. Mushrooms were used as an entry-point to connect the forest ecology with the challenges of governance and community building. The devised activities provided an opportunity for people inside and outside the local community to adventure into the woods and find out more about their socio-ecological history, develop communal and convivial relationships and engage in the responsible gathering of wild mushrooms. However, the hosting of mushroomers to know, value and engage with the community forest recovery has constantly working against the enclosure of mushrooms to provide marketable forms of leisure. The outcome of these activities depends on the relationships established between mushrooms, mycologists, local administrators, commoners and poachers, all operating within a framework that favors the eradication of resources instead of long-term relationships that sustain places.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0375.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Internet of things; blockchain; governance; European Union (EU) policy; policy makers; International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
Online: 9 October 2023 (10:52:31 CEST)
The number of Internet of Things (IoT) applications is increasing at a fast-paced and so is the interest in blockchain-enabled IoT ecosystem. IoT applications make our day-to-day life more efficient, while integrating blockchain into the IoT ecosystem (blockchain-IoT) brings security, transparency, trust, and privacy to IoT applications. Perhaps, smart logistics, smart health, and smart city are some of the potential blockchain-enabled IoT application domains. One of the reasons that is hindering the mass adoption of blockchain-IoT into mainstream applications is the lack of a dedicated governance. Without proper governance and regulations, and because of the obfuscated and concealed cryptographic nature of blockchain, blockchain can be used for various illicit activities such as ransomware, money laundering, fraud and so on. Furthermore, blockchain and IoT are relatively contemporary technologies and paucity of exclusive governance can ultimately lead to lack of confidence in these technologies. Therefore, in order to fully avail from blockchain and IoT integration (blockchain-IoT) and as well as further prevail this integration, governance can play an important role. Proper regulations and standarization are required to benefit from the novel characteristics of blockchain-IoT and avoid blockchain being used for malicious purposes. In this research, we address the role of blockchain in governance mechanisms, governance for blockchain, and finally proposed a vigorous governance framework for blockchain-enabled IoT ecosystem. We also demonstrate the applications of our proposed governance framework through a smart logistics case study. We anticipate that our proposed governance framework can facilitate and encourage blockchain and IoT integration in various application domains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0195.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Urban Water Metabolism; City of Puebla; Urban Sustainability; Human Right to Water and Sanitation; Water Governance.
Online: 5 July 2023 (02:44:38 CEST)
Abstract: Urban population growth and the expansion of the built environment, pollution, overexploitation of water, inequality in water distribution, and the impacts of climate change in future availability of water, are all elements that jeopardize urban water security. Due to the complexity of urban water systems and their relevance for urban life, a holistic and integrative perspective is therefore needed to address such challenges. In this paper, Urban Water Metabolism (UWM) has been used for comprehensively understanding water (in)security in the City of Puebla (Mexico) and its metropolitan area. Water inflows and outflows have been estimated using a Material Flow Analysis (MFA) method with data either obtained from official sources or simulated with the Monte Carlo method. Our findings show that the UWM configuration in the City of Puebla and its metropolitan area is effective for generating profits to service providers and water related business, yet ineffective to guarantee citizens’ Human Right to Water and Sanitation (HRWS), a right recognized in the Constitution of Mexico. We conclude that to advance towards an inclusive and sustainable provision of water, economic interests must be reconsidered and therefore adjusted so they can be in line with such aspirational socioecological goals. UWM accounting can therefore inform new water governance arrangements, those based on both the best available knowledge and a vibrant participation of all relevant stakeholders.