ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0293.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Golden ratio; Irrational numbers; Fibonacci sequence; Spiral galaxy; Planetary orbits; KAM Theorem; Ultimatum game; Proteins; Penrose tiling; Quasicrystals
Online: 16 August 2022 (14:29:27 CEST)
The Golden ratio is an irrational number that has a tendency to appear in many different scientific and artistic fields. It may be found in natural phenomena across a vast range of length scales; from galactic to atomic. In this review, the mathematical properties of the Golden ratio are discussed before exploring where in nature it has been found; beginning at astronomical scales and progressing to smaller lengths, until reaching those of atomic and quantum physics. In making such a tour across length scales, it is illustrated just how prevalent this single number is within the natural universe.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Fibonacci numbers; the Golden Ratio; the Golden Mean; dimensionality; quasiparticles; anions; non-Abelian; Fibonacci; excitations; Dimensional Gate Operators
Online: 22 February 2021 (15:21:52 CET)
The importance and near ubiquity of the Golden Ratio in disciplines like chemistry and biology is well known, but only recently has it come to light in areas pertaining to the Quantum domain. By using a modified tool-kit of hyper-complex numbers (known as Dimensional Gate Operators) and numerical analysis, we uncover a connection between hyper-dimensional objects, the Fibonacci sequence and that of quasiparticles and excitations. The results show that dimensionality increases in step with the Fibonacci sequence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0147.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Golden Triangle Energy Region; water resources; optical allocation
Online: 9 March 2020 (02:34:59 CET)
There are abundant coal, oil and natural gas resources in "Golden Triangle" energy region. Energy resources development, coal chemical industry, coal power and other industries play an important role in promoting regional economic growth, but facing the insufficient water supply. Under the condition of marginal equilibrium of water resources, the paper firstly analyzes the water utilization, and calculates the potential water-saving amount. Then, the paper constructs a cooperative game model and allocates the newly increased GDP by using the weight distribution method. Finally, the paper puts forward some policy suggestions to reduce the efficiency gap of water utilization among regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0101.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle & Field Physics Keywords: time reversal; retro-causality; fermi golden rule; perturbation theory
Online: 5 November 2018 (10:25:26 CET)
Quantum effects arising from manifestly broken time-reversal symmetry are investigated using time-dependent perturbation theory in a simple model. The forward time and the backward time Hamiltonians are taken to be different and hence the forward and backward amplitudes become unsymmetrical and are not complex conjugates of each other. The effects vanish when the symmetry breaking term is absent and ordinary quantum mechanical results such as Fermi Golden rule are recovered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0093.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Troponin I- Myocardial infarction- Ischemic heart diseases- Biosensors- golden plate.
Online: 5 September 2018 (10:09:33 CEST)
Rapid diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction is critical for intervention and treatment to decrease morbidity and mortality. For this reasons, this study aimed to design a sensitive biosensor for cardiac troponin I (cTnI) for early prediction and intervention. The sensor was designed from golden plate immobilized with anti- cTnI antibody conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme. The rate of degradation of H2O2 is directly related to serum cTnI level. Serum cTnI level was quantified from 3 studied groups including; healthy subjects and patients with ischemic heart (IHD) diseases and myocardial infarction (MI) by ELISA and biosensor techniques to achieve the improved sensitivity of the biosensor. It was found that cTnI levels in healthy subjects ranged from 8-13 ng/dl and in patients with IHD ranged from 20 - 41 ng/dl and MI range from 57- 180 ng/dl. The sensitivity of biosensor was ranged from 85-95% compared with ELISA technique. The developed biosensor is promising in ICU hospitals for early diagnosis and prevent complications of the stroke. It is recommended to apply this biosensor in the large scale of patients with different stages of the cardiac disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0411.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: IgY; SARS-CoV-2; Vero-E6, Syrian Golden hamster; antiviral strategy
Online: 30 June 2022 (03:37:45 CEST)
Background: Some viruses cause outbreaks which require immediate attention. Neutralizing antibodies could be developed for viral outbreak management. However, development of monoclonal antibodies is often long, laborious, and unprofitable. Here we report a Norwegian platform for development of chicken polyclonal neutralizing antibodies with powerful therapeutic potential. Methods: Layers were immunized twice with 14-day interval using purified RBD of SARS-CoV-2. Eggs were harvested 14 days after the second immunization. Polyclonal IgY antibodies were extracted. Binding of anti-RBD IgY to RBD was measured by indirect ELISA. Neutralization capacity of anti-RBD IgYs was measured in Vero-E6 cells infected with SARS-CoV-2-mCherry strain using fluorescence and cell viability assay. In addition, the effect of IgYs on the expression of SARS-CoV-2 and host cytokine genes in lungs of Syrian Golden hamsters was examined using qRT-PCR. Results: Anti-RBD IgYs efficiently bind RBD of S protein of SARS-CoV-2 in situ, neutralize the virus in vitro, and lower viral RNA amplification without significant alteration of virus-mediated immune gene expression in vivo. Conclusions: Altogether, our results indicated that chicken polyclonal IgYs can be attractive targets for pre-clinical and clinical development for rapid management of outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging viruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0430.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: agriculture; agrivoltaic; Greater Golden Horseshoe; Canada; energy policy; farming; Ontario; photovoltaic; solar energy
Online: 27 December 2021 (13:52:09 CET)
Well-intentioned regulations to protect Canada’s most productive farmland restrict large-scale so-lar photovoltaic (PV) development. The recent innovation of agrivoltaics, which is the co-development of land for both PV and agriculture, makes these regulations obsolete. Burgeoning agrivoltaics research has shown agricultural benefits including increased yield for a wide range of crops, plant protection from excess solar energy and hail, improved water conservation while maintaining agricultural employment and local food supplies. In addition, the renewable electricity generation decreases greenhouse gas emissions while increasing farm revenue. As Canada in general, and Ontario in particular, is at a strategic disadvantage in agricultural without agrivoltaics, this study investigates the policy changes necessary to capitalize on the benefits of using agrivoltaics in Ontario. Land use policies in Ontario are reviewed. Then, three case studies (peppers, sweet corn and winter wheat) are analyzed for agrivoltaic potential in Ontario. These results are analyzed in conjunction with potential policies that would continue to protect the green-belt of the Golden Horseshoe, while enabling agrivoltaics in Ontario. Four agrivoltaic policy areas are discussed: increased research and development, enhanced education/public awareness, mechanisms to support Canada’s farmers converting to agrivoltaics and using agrivoltaics as a potential source of trade surplus with the U.S.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0501.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Cucurbit leaf crumple virus, Sida golden mosaic Florida virus, Whitefly, Snap beans, Lima beans
Online: 25 October 2020 (19:12:11 CET)
The production and quality of Phaseolus vulgaris (snap bean) have been negatively impacted by leaf crumple disease caused by two whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses; cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) and sida golden mosaic Florida virus (SiGMFV), which often appear as a mixed infection in Georgia. Host resistance is the most economical management strategy against whitefly-transmitted viruses. Currently, information is not available with respect to resistance to these two viruses in commercial cultivars. In two field seasons (2018 and 2019), we screened Phaseolus sp. genotypes (n = 84 in 2018; n = 80 in 2019; most of the genotypes were common in both years with a few exceptions) for resistance against CuLCrV and/or SiGMFV. Twenty genotypes with high- to moderate-levels of resistance (disease severity ranging from 5-50%) to CuLCrV and/or SiGMFV were identified. Twenty-one genotypes were found to be highly susceptible with a disease severity of ≥66%. Adult whitefly counts differed significantly among snap bean genotypes for both years. The whole genome of these Phaseolus sp. (n=82) genotypes was sequenced and genetic variability among them was identified. Over 900 giga-base (Gb) of filtered data were generated and >88% of the resulting data were mapped to the reference genome, and SNP and Indel variants in Phaseolus genotypes were obtained. A total of 645,729 SNPs and 68,713 Indels including 30,169 insertions and 38,543 deletions were identified, which were distributed in 11 chromosomes with chromosome 02 harboring the maximum number of variants. These phenotypic and genotypic information will be helpful in genome-wide association studies that will aid in identifying genetic basis of resistance to these begomoviruses in Phaseolus sp.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0021.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: White rot fungus; Co-immobilization; Dye wastewater treatment; Dye decolorisation; Acid golden yellow dye
Online: 4 March 2019 (09:04:40 CET)
The dye effluent is usually difficult to be degraded by conventional wastewater treatment in leather industry. In order to develop efficient and cost-effective treatment methods, we evaluate the effect of white-rot fungus immobilization for dye decolorisation in this paper. The Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 was used for immobilization. This research found that the white-rot fungus immobilization had an obviously decolorisation effect in dye wastewater treatment, and plant carriers such as sorghum stalk and corn cob were helpful to the growth of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in white-rot fungus immobilization. Due to the stability and recyclability, the white-rot fungus co-immobilization was considered as the most suitable treatment for decolorisation of dye effluent which enjoyed the advantages of both adsorption immobilization and entrapment immobilization. Furthermore, the dye decolorisation evaluation was carried out to find the most suitable carrier for co-immobilization, and it found that sorghum stalk - calcium-alginate gel spherical particle (SS-CGPB) has better decolorisation effect than corn cobs - calcium-alginate gel spherical particle (CC-CGPB), and the dye decolorisation rate was 86.77%. After 5 cycles, the dye decolorisation rate was 85.87% which indicated the SS-CGPB preserved functional integrity successfully. By further analyzing the biodegradation process with white-rot fungus immobilization, the intermediate products were observed and the degradation pathway of acid golden yellow dye molecular was proposed. The results showed that the C-N single bonds attached to the central benzene in the dye molecule were attacked and destroyed in white-rot fungus co-immobilization treatment, thus the structure of dye molecule could be successfully degraded into small molecules which would be more easily treated by conventional treatment methods. Therefore, the white rot fungus co-immobilization might be appropriate for pre-treatment as an important biotechnology for the advanced treatment of dye effluent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0391.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: IdentiFlight; avoidance response; golden eagle; white-tailed eagle; red kite; wind turbine curtailment; flight types
Online: 17 February 2021 (13:04:09 CET)
Some wind farms have implemented automated camera\textendash based monitoring systems e.g. IdentiFlight to mitigate the impact of wind turbines on protected raptors. These systems have effectuated the collection of large amounts of data that can be used to describe flight behavior in a novel way. This data uniquely provides both flight trajectories and images of individual birds throughout their flight trajectories. The aim of this study was to evaluate how this unique data could be used to create a robust quantitative behavioral analysis, that could be used to identify risk prone flight behavior and avoidance behavior thereby in the future assess collision risk. This was attained through a case study at a wind farm on the Swedish island Gotland, where golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), and red kites (Milvus milvus), were chosen as the selected bird species. The results demonstrate that flight trajectories and bird images can be used to identify high risk flight behavior and thereby also used to evaluate collision risk and avoidance behavior. This study presents a promising framework for future research, demonstrating how data from camera\textendash based monitoring systems can be utilized to quantitatively describe risk prone behavior and thereby assess collision risk and avoidance behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0080.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle & Field Physics Keywords: neutrino; neutrino’s flavor; neutrino oscillation; many-body interactions; superconducting energy gap; a quantized space-time; zero-point energy; lepton; Fermi’s golden rule; mass gap
Online: 8 October 2019 (08:47:19 CEST)
We herein described an investigation of a theory, which describes the energies of neutrinos and the source of neutrino oscillations. A series of experiments were conducted to show evidences of the existence a neutrino mass. We also applied theories to explain the reason for the extremely small energy of a neutrino, mainly by employing a vacuum-derived superconducting energy gap from the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer ground state. Moreover, we succeeded in obtaining the transition probabilities of neutrinos’ flavors (i.e., in terms of neutrino oscillation). We focused on the fact that up- and down-quantized space pairs combine by the Lorentz forces, undertake Bose-Einstein condensation, and then create a superconducting energy gap at the energy level of the vacuum with quantum mechanics fluctuation. Eventually, the superconducting energy gap vanishes to form a real body of the neutrino. Furthermore, assuming that the speed of the neutrino is near the speed of light and exhibits Planck’s blackbody emissions, we derived many-body interactions of neutrinos and applied them in Fermi’s golden rule. As a result, the neutrino energy we calculated agreed well within the realms of the experimental results. The calculated transition probabilities of neutrino’s flavor also explain the experiment results very well.