ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0396.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Convolutional Neural Network; Ensemble Learning; Transfer Learning; Fine-tuning; Plankton Classification; foraminifera
Online: 23 February 2023 (03:37:23 CET)
This paper presents a study of an automated system for identifying planktic foraminifera at the species level. The system uses a combination of deep learning methods, specifically Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), to analyze digital images of foraminifera taken at different illumination angles. The dataset is composed of 1437 groups of sixteen grayscale images, one group for each foraminifer, that are then converted to RGB images with various processing methods. These RGB images are fed into a set of CNNs, organized in an Ensemble Learning (EL) environment. The ensemble is built by training different networks using different approaches for creating the RGB images. The study finds that an ensemble of CNN models trained on different RGB images improves the system's performance compared to other state-of-the-art approaches. The proposed system was also found to outperform human experts in classification accuracy.