COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1187.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: galectin-3; cardiac hypertrophy; immunohistochemical expression; heart transplantation; heart disease; cardiorenal syndrome
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:42:54 CEST)
Background: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) overexpression is associated with fibroblastic proliferation and the production of collagen, resulting in increased cardiac fibrosis and remodelling. Aim of the study was to investigate on the expression of Gal-3 in hypertrophic hearts. We examined 19 surgical specimens taken from interventricular septum of 8 patients with Tetralogy of Fallot, 4 patients with aortic valve stenosis, 1 cardiac explant affected from dilated cardiomyopathy, and 6 myocardial biopsies of patients submitted to heart transplantation. Methods: All the samples were routinely processed, stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin, Trichromic stain and elastic fiber stain and selected by having the morphological features of myocardial hy-pertrophy: myocytolysis, nuclear pleomorphism, interstitial fibrosis. Results: At immunohistochemistry, myocardial fibers showed cytoplasmic expression of Gal-3 in the 4 patients with aortic valve stenosis (diffuse in 3 and mild in 1), in the 1 patient with cardiac explant (mild) and in the 4/6 transplanted hearts (mild and focal in 3 and diffuse in 1). The 8 patients affected from Tetralogy of Fallot and 2 patients with transplanted hearts resulted negative. Conclusions: The results agreed with the hypothesis that Gal-3 may play a role in cardiac hyper-trophy; its expression in myocardial fibers is not related with the morphological aspects as suggested by the absence in pediatric cases. The presence in myocardial biopsies taken from transplanted hearts would suggest a possible role in predicting clinical outcome of such patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1990.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: ChatGPT; chatbot; Artificial Intelligence; AI; Pathology; Histology
Online: 29 August 2023 (13:15:21 CEST)
Abstract: The advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has in just a few years invested multiple areas of knowledge, also affecting the medical-scientific sector. An increasing number of AI-based applications have been developed, among which conversational AI has emerged. Among these, ChatGPT has risen to the headlines, scientific and otherwise, for its distinct propensity to simulate a 'real' discussion with its interlocutor, based on appropriate prompts. Although several clinical studies using ChatGPT have already been published in the literature, very little has yet been written about its potential application in human pathology. We conduct a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Re-views and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, using PubMed and Scopus as databases, with the fol-lowing keywords: ChatGPT OR Chat GPT, in combination with each of the following: Pathology, di-ag-nostic pathology, anatomic pathology. A total of 90 records were initially identified in the literature search, of which 6 were duplicates. After screening for eligibility and inclusion criteria, only 5 publications were ultimately included. The majority of publications were original articles (n = 2), followed by case reports (n = 1), letter to the editor (n = 1) and review (n = 1). Although the premises are exciting and ChatGPT is able to co-advise the pathologist in providing large amounts of scientific data for use in routine microscopic diagnostic practice, there are many limitations that need to be addressed and resolved, with the caveat that an AI-driven system should always provide support and never a decision-making motive during the anatomo-pathological diagnostic process.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0305.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: mature triphyllic cystic teratoma; posterior mediastinum; fetal teratoma; germ cell tumor; prenatal diagnosis
Online: 18 September 2023 (07:14:56 CEST)
A teratoma is a neoplasm composed of cell populations or tissues that remind, in their appearance, normal elements derived from at least two embryonic layers. Fetal mature teratomas are normally benign, cystic, and typically occur along the midline, while they are rare in the posterior mediastinum. Teratomas are frequently solitary, however they may sometimes be associated with other congenital anomalies and/or with chromosomal abnormalities. Clinically, they are often asymptomatic but can occasionally cause compression symptoms. Prenatal diagnoses are uncommon and made with ultrasonography; differential diagnosis with other congenital conditions is mandatory. We report the case of a 21 weeks of gestational age-old fetus with a Mature Triphyllic Fetal Cystic Teratoma, grade 0, located in the right posterior mediastinum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0019.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Renal Cell Carcinoma; Pathological staging; Extrarenal extension; Renal vein invasion
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:31:46 CET)
(1) Background: Overall survival of the patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) depends mostly on extra-renal extension, documented by the invasion of the pelvicalyceal system, or the perinephric/renal sinus fat or the renal vein/its segmental intraparenchymal branches. Staging may be challenging because of the high inter-observer variability. We have introduced a more accurate procedure to detect the extra-renal extension and, to possibly evaluate the impact of such more laborious approach, we have compared the RCC pathological staging obtained following both standard and modified procedures; (2) Methods: We selected 54 consecutive cases of RCC diagnosed 18 months before and 54 consecutive cases diagnosed 18 months after the introduction of the new method of sampling. Clinico-pathological characteristics have been statistically analyzed; (3) Results: Most of the features analyzed were non statistically significative, except the extra-renal invasion. More precisely, the occurrence of retrograde venous invasion was higher in the cases grossly approached with the more accurate method; (4) Conclusions: Extra-renal extension to intraparenchymal renal vein branches may be underestimated, leading to an inappropriate under-staging. Using more accurate staging procedures, to disclose the occurrence of intra-renal veins tumoral thrombosis, helps to better define the pathological stage, allowing patients to benefit of better fitting treatments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0452.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: EMPSGC; Skin neoplasm; Mucinous carcinoma; rare neoplasms
Online: 7 August 2023 (10:06:48 CEST)
(1) Background: Endocrine Mucin-Producing Sweat Gland Carcinoma (EMPSGC) is a rare low-grade, neuroendocrine-differentiated, cutaneous adnexal tumour, officially recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) Skin Tumours Classification in 2018 as a separate entity and homologue of endocrine ductal carcinoma in situ (eDCIS)/solid papillary carcinoma of the breast. Although it is more frequent in the female sex, between the sixth and seventh decade, in the peri-orbital region, EMPSGC has also been described in the male sex, in subjects under 60 and over 80, and in extra-eyelid localizations (cheek, temple, scalp), but also in extra-facial localizations (chest and scrotum). (2) Methods: We present the clinical case of a 71-year-old woman with an undated lesion of the scalp, which presented as a nodule, skin-coloured, 2.5 cm in maximum diameter. We also conduct a comprehensive literature review from 1997 to the end of 2022, consulting PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science (WoS), using the following keywords: "Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma" and/or "EMPSGC" and/or "skin" AND "cutaneous neoplasms", and following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 248 patients were recorded with the majority, 146 females (58,8%) and 102 males (41,1%). The vast majority of the lesions were in the elides (peri-ocular region) and only a minority of cases involved the cheeks, supra-auricular, retro-auricular and occipital region, with very rare cases in the scalp, to which the present is also added (4) Conclusions: The morphological and immunophenotypical features are essential both for the correct diagnosis and to be able to classify this lesion among the corresponding eDCIS/solid papillary carcinoma of the breast, with neuroendocrine differentiation. Recent papers have attempted to shed light on the molecular features of EMPSGC and much remains to be done in the attempt to subtype the molecular profiles of these entities. Future studies with large case series, and especially with molecular biology techniques, will be needed to further add information about EMPSGC and its relationship in the PCMC spectrum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0222.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Takayasu arteritis; echocardiography; immune cell infiltration; vascular stiffness; T helper like cells; regulatory T lymphocytes
Online: 12 November 2021 (13:40:14 CET)
Background: Takayasu Arteritis (TAK) increases vascular stiffness and arterial resistance. Hypertension and atherosclerosis lead to similar changes. We investigated possible differences in cardiovascular remodeling between these diseases and whether the differences are correlated with immune cell expression. Methods: Patients with active TAK arteritis were compared with age- and sex-matched hypertensive and atherosclerotic patients. In a subpopulation of TAK patients, Treg/Th17 cells were measured before (T0) and after 18 months (T18) of infliximab treatment. Echocardiogram, supraaortic Doppler ultrasound, and lymphocytogram were performed in all patients. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluation of the vessel wall was performed to compare the in vivo results. Results: TAK patients have increased aortic valve dysfunction and diastolic dysfunction. These data have been associated with uric acid levels. A significant increase in aortic stiffness was also noted and associated with peripheral T lymphocyte levels. CD3+CD4+ cell infiltrates were detected in the vessel wall samples of these patients. They had a lower mean percentage of Tregs at T0 than controls, but levels increased significantly at T18. Opposite results were found in Th17 cells. Finally, TAK patients were found to have an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Conclusion: Our data suggest that different pathogenic mechanisms of vessel damage, including atherosclerosis, underlie TAK patients compared with control subjects. The increased risk of ASCVD in TAK patients correlates directly with the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration in the vessel wall. Infliximab restores the normal frequency of Tregs/Th17 in TAK patients and allows a possible reduction of steroids and immunosuppressants.