ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0252.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Recurrent neural network; Long-term short memory; Gated recurrent unit
Online: 12 July 2021 (12:03:06 CEST)
Deep neural networks (DNNs) have made a huge impact in the field of machine learning by providing unbeatable humanlike performance to solve real-world problems such as image processing and natural language processing (NLP). Convolutional neural network (CNN) and recurrent neural network (RNN) are two typical architectures that are widely used to solve such problems. Time sequence-dependent problems are generally very challenging, and RNN architectures have made an enormous improvement in a wide range of machine learning problems with sequential input involved. In this paper, different types of RNN architectures are compared. Special focus is put on two well-known gated-RNN’s Long Term Short Memory (LSTM) and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU). We evaluated these models on the task of force estimation system in pouring. In this study, four different models including multi-layers LSTM, multi-layers GRU, single-layer LSTM and single-layer GRU) were created and trained. The result suggests that multi-layer GRU outperformed other three models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0472.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: stock prices prediction; Gated Recurrent Unit; overfitting; reconstructed datasets
Online: 7 July 2023 (10:15:28 CEST)
The prediction of stock prices holds significant implications for researchers and investors in evaluating stock value and risk. In recent years, researchers have increasingly replaced traditional machine learning methods with deep learning approaches in this domain. However, the application of deep learning in forecasting stock prices is confronted with the challenge of overfitting. To address the issue of overfitting and enhance predictive accuracy, this study proposes a stock prediction model based on GRU (Gated Recurrent Unit) with reconstructed datasets. This model integrates data from other stocks within the same industry, thereby enriching the extracted features and mitigating the risk of overfitting. Additionally, an auxiliary module is employed to augment the volume of data through dataset reconstruction, thereby enhancing the model’s training comprehensiveness and generalization capabilities. Experimental results demonstrate a substantial improvement in prediction accuracy across various industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0286.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: electricity price forecasting; deep learning; gated recurrent units; long short term memory; artificial intelligence, turkish day-ahead market
Online: 23 April 2018 (11:38:27 CEST)
Accurate electricity price forecasting has become a substantial requirement since the liberalization of the electricity markets. Due to the challenging nature of the electricity prices, which includes high volatility, sharp price spikes and seasonality, various types of electricity price forecasting models still compete and can not outperform each other consistently. Neural Networks have been successfully used in machine learning problems and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) have been proposed to address time-dependent learning problems. In particular, Long Short Term Memory and Gated Recurrent Units (GRU) are tailor-made for time series price estimation. In this paper, we propose to use Gated Recurrent Units as a new technique for electricity price forecasting. We have trained a variety of algorithms with rolling 3-year window and compared the results with the RNNs. In our experiments, 3-layered GRUs outperformed all other neural network structures and state of the art statistical techniques in a statistically significant manner in the Turkish day-ahead market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0465.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: CGA-MGAN; Gated Attention Unit; Speech Enhancement
Online: 27 February 2023 (09:24:31 CET)
In recent years, neural networks based on attention mechanisms have been increasingly widely used in speech recognition, separation, enhancement, and other fields. In particular, the convolution-augmented transformer has achieved good performance as it can combine the advantages of convolution and self-attention. Recently, the gated attention unit (GAU) has been proposed. Compared with the traditional multi-head self-attention, approaches with GAU are effective and computationally efficient. In this article, we propose a network for speech enhancement called CGA-MGAN, a kind of Metric GAN based on convolution-augmented gated attention. CGA-MGAN captures local and global correlations in speech signals at the same time through the fusion of convolution and gated attention units. Experiments on Voice Bank + DEMAND show that the CGA-MGAN we propose achieves an excellent performance (3.47 PESQ, 0.96 STOI, and 11.09dB SSNR) at a relatively small model size (1.14M).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1395.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Remote Raman; Time-Gated; Traces Detection and Identification.
Online: 20 September 2023 (11:19:27 CEST)
Raman spectroscopy is a type of inelastic scattering that provides rich information about a sub-stance based on the coupling of the energy levels of their vibrational and rotational modes with incident light. It has been applied extensively in many fields. As there is an increasing need for remote detection of chemicals in planetary exploration and anti-terrorism, it is urgent to develop a compact and easily transportable fully automated remote Raman detection system for trace detection and identification of information with high-level confidence about the target’s compo-sition and conformation in real-time and for real field scenarios. Here, we present an unmanned vehicle-based remote Raman system, which includes a 266 nm air-cooling passive Q-switched nanosecond pulsed laser of high-repetition frequency, a gated ICMOS, and an unmanned vehicle. This system obtains good spectral signals from remote distances ranging from 3 m to 10 m for simulating realistic scenarios, such as aluminum plate, woodblock, paperboard, black cloth, and leaves, and even for detected amounts as low as 0.1 mg. Furthermore, a CNN-based algorithm is implemented and packaged into the recognition software to achieve fast and more accurate de-tection and identification. This prototype provides a proof-of-concept for an unmanned vehicle with accurate remote substance detection in real-time, which can be helpful for remote detection and identification of hazardous gas, explosives, their precursors, and so forth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1916.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: urban design; sustainability; sustainable development; Gated Community; walkability
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:36:23 CEST)
The rapid urbanization growth of Dubai has resulted in connectivity issues, considered tre-mendous development pressure. That leads the local authorities to set a vision for Dubai as a 15-20 minute city by 2040. The 15-minute city, where all services can be reached with minimum travel time using sustainable mobility means (walking, cycling, or electric bik-ing). This paper aims to assess the current walkability situation within 15 minutes in the most significant parts of Dubai. This study considered 13 communities; Bur-Dubai and Business Bay were selected to represent the ungated communities, and eleven major gated communities were considered to indicate the gated ones. Those neighborhoods are selected based on the developments' socio-economic status and population density. The assessment considered 14 essential services, categorized into five categories: educational, health, social, entertainment, and religious. The research methodology conducted desktop research, site visits, interviewing random residents to collect data, and then using ArcGIS to assess walk-ability. The results show (64.5%) of the ungated neighborhoods population which access essential services within 15 minutes, while most of the gated communities residents must use cars to access many services. Furthermore, services distribution patterns and walkability infrastructures outside these developments should be developed to obtain higher walkability indicators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0870.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Range-gated; lidar; Conoscopic interference; Electro-optic crystal
Online: 25 April 2023 (03:21:09 CEST)
In this paper, a range-gated lidar system utilizing an LN crystal as the electro-optical switch and a SCMOS (Scientific Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) imaging device is designed. To achieve range-gated, we utilize two polarizers and a LN (LiNbO3) crystal to form an electro-optical switch. The optical switch is realized by applying a pulse voltage at both ends of the crystal due to the crystal's conoscopic interference effect and electro-optical effect. The advantage of this system is that low-bandwidth detectors such as CMOS and CCD (Charge-coupled Device) can be used to replace conventional high-bandwidth detectors such as ICCD (Intensified Charge Coupled Device), and time it has better imaging performance under specific conditions at the same. However, after using an electro-optical crystal as an optical switch, a new inhomogeneity error will be introduced due to the conscopic interference effect of the electro-optical crystal, resulting in range error of the lidar system. To reduce the influence of inhomogeneity error on the system, this paper analyzes the sources of inhomogeneity error caused by the electro-optical crystal and gives the crystal inhomo-geneity mathematical expression. A compensation method is proposed based on the above inho-mogeneity mathematical expression. An experimental lidar system is constructed in this paper to verify the validity of the compensation method. The experimental results of the range-gated lidar system show that in a specific field of view (2.6mrad), the lidar system has a good imaging per-formance, its ranging standard deviation is 3.86cm and further decreased to 2.86cm after com-pensation, which verifies the accuracy of the compensation method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0548.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Gated Communities; Opening Scenarios; Accessibility Benefits; Evaluation; Shanghai
Online: 27 October 2020 (11:36:59 CET)
Opening gated-communities (GCs) has been widely discussed for urban inclusion and revitalization. With the policies of opening GCs being promoted in China, quantitative and comprehensive evaluation of the potential benefits is heavily needed. Taking Shanghai as an example, this study quantifies and analyzes the accessibility benefits and risks of opening GCs with factors including GC types, opening levels, travel modes, and travel destinations considered. We found that (1) opening GCs can bring 50m+ accessibility gains to 17% and 52% of the residents in Moderately Opening (MO) and Completely Opening (CO) scenarios, respectively. (2) Cycling benefits more than walking in all cases and scenarios. (3) For different GCs, conventional GCs have fewer benefits in MO but more in CO than the newly-established one. For different facilities, trips to bus stations demonstrate the largest accessibility gains. (4) The accessibility benefit of a residential building is highly determined by its closeness to the gates and relative location in the block. (5) Only 1% and 5-7% of external trips may penetrate the opened communities in MO and CO scenarios, respectively, which are far less than both expectation and the benefits. These findings precipitate at least two policy implications in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0585.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: NDT Methods; Defects depth estimation; Pulsed thermography; Gated Recurrent Units
Online: 26 August 2020 (12:29:30 CEST)
Infrared thermography has already been proven to be a significant method in non-destructive evaluation since it gives information with immediacy, rapidity and low cost. However, the thorniest issue for wider application of IRT is the quantification. In this work, we proposed a specific depth quantifying technique by employing the Gated Recurrent Units (GRU) in composite material samples via pulsed thermography (PT). Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer(CFRP) embedded with flat bottom holes were designed via Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling in order to precisely control the depth and geometrics of the defects. The GRU model automatically quantified the depth of defects presented in the CFRP material. The proposed method evaluated the accuracy and performance of synthetic CFRP data from FEM for defect depth predictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0131.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: fetal heart rate; maternal heart rate; cardiotocogram; gated recurrent unit; deep learning
Online: 22 July 2022 (03:08:59 CEST)
We have developed deep learning models for automatic identification of the maternal heart rate (MHR) and, more generally, false signals (FSs) on fetal heart rate (FHR) recordings. The models can be used to preprocess FHR data prior to automated analysis or as a clinical alert system to assist the practitioner. Three models were developed and used to detect (i) FSs on the MHR channel (the FSMHR model), (ii) the MHR and FSs on the Doppler FHR sensor (the FSDop model), and (iii) FSs on the scalp ECG channel (the FSScalp model). The FSDop model was the most useful because FSs are far more frequent on the Doppler FHR channel. All three models were based on a multilayer, symmetric, GRU and were trained on data recorded during the first and second stages of delivery. The FSMHR and FSDop models were also trained on antepartum recordings. The training dataset contained 1030 expert-annotated periods (mean duration: 36 min) from 635 recordings. In an initial evaluation of routine clinical practice, 30 fully annotated recordings for each sensor type (mean duration: 5 h for MHR and Doppler sensors, and 3 h for the scalp ECG sensor) were analyzed. The sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV) and accuracy were respectively 62.20%, 87.1% and 99.90% for the FSMHR model, 93.1%, 95.6% and 99.68% for the FSDop model, and 44.6%, 87.2% and 99.93% for the FSScalp model. We built a second test dataset with a more solid ground truth by selecting 45 periods (lasting 20 min, on average) on which the Doppler FHR and scalp ECG signals were recorded simultaneously. Using scalp ECG data, the experts estimated the true FHR value more reliably and thus annotated the Doppler FHR channel more precisely. The models achieved a sensitivity of 53.3%, a PPV of 62.4%, and an accuracy of 97.29%. In comparison, two experts (blinded to the scalp ECG data) respectively achieved a sensitivity of 15.7%, a PPV of 74.3%, and an accuracy of 96.91% and a sensitivity of 60.7%, a PPV of 83.5% and an accuracy of 98.24%. Hence, the models performed at expert level (better than one expert and worse than the other), although a well-trained expert with good knowledge of FSs could probably do better in some cases. The models and datasets have been included in the Fetal Heart Rate Morphological Analysis open-source MATLAB toolbox and can be used freely for research purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0565.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: NDT methods; defects depth estimation; deep learning; pulsed thermography; gated recurrent unites
Online: 22 March 2021 (16:04:13 CET)
Infrared thermography has already been proven to be a significant method in non-destructive evaluation since it gives information with immediacy, rapidity, and low cost. However, the thorniest issue for the wider application of IRT is quantification. In this work, we proposed a specific depth quantifying technique by employing the Gated Recurrent Units (GRU) in composite material samples via pulsed thermography (PT). Finite Element Method (FEM) modeling provides the economic examination of the response pulsed thermography. In this work, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) specimens embedded with flat bottom holes are stimulated by a FEM modeling (COMSOL) with precisely controlled depth and geometrics of the defects. The GRU model automatically quantified the depth of defects presented in the stimulated CFRP material. The proposed method evaluated the accuracy and performance of synthetic CFRP data from FEM for defect depth predictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2048.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: document binarization; deep learning; gated convolution; generative model; latent diffusion models; text stroke
Online: 30 August 2023 (08:23:05 CEST)
Binarization of degraded documents is an important preprocessing task for various document analysis such as OCR and historical document analysis. Existing studies have applied various convolutional neural network (CNN) models and generative models for document binarization, but they do not show generalized performance for noise that the model has not seen and it suffers from extracting elaborate text strokes. In this paper, to overcome these challenges, we utilize latent diffusion model (LDM), which is known for high-quality image generation model, for the first time in document binarization. By utilizing the iterative diffusion-denoising process in latent space, it shows high-quality cleaned binarized image generation and high generalized performance through using both data distribution and time step while training. Additionally, we apply gated U-Net to the backbone network to preserve text strokes using trainable gating value. Gated convolution can extract elaborate text stroke by allowing the model to focus on text region by combining gating value and feature. Furthermore, we maximize the effectiveness of the proposed model by training it with a combination of LDM loss and pixel-level loss, which is suitable for the model structure. Experiments on H-DIBCO and DIBCO benchmark datasets show that the proposed model outperforms existing methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0302.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: land tenure in Mexico; ejido system; land expropriation; gated-communities; San Andrés Cholula; Ocoyucan
Online: 26 July 2019 (16:40:05 CEST)
The ejido system in Mexico based on communal land was transformed for private ownership due to neoliberal trends during 1990. This research describes the evolution of Mexican land policies that changed the ejido system into private development to answer why land tenure change is shaping urban growth. To demonstrate this, municipalities of San Andrés Cholula and Ocoyucan were selected as a case study. Within this context, we evaluated how much ejido land is being urbanized due to real estate market forces and what type of urbanization model is created. These two areas represent different development scales: S.A. Cholula where its ejidos were expropriated as part of a regional urban development plan; and Ocoyucan where its ejidos and rural land were reached by private developers without local planning. To analyze both municipalities, historical satellite images from Google Earth were used with GRASS GIS 7.4 and corrected with QGIS 2.18. We found that privatization of ejidos fragmented and segregated the rural world for the construction of massive gated-communities. Therefore, a disturbing land tenure change occurred during the last 30 years, hence this research questions the role of local authorities in permitting land use change without regulations or local planning. The resulting urbanization model is a private sector development that isolates rural communities in their own territories, for which we provide recommendations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2052.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Link quality estimation; reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS); gated recurrent unit (GRU); unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).
Online: 30 August 2023 (11:39:45 CEST)
In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become a valuable platform for many applications, including communication networks. UAV-enabled wireless communication faces challenges in complex urban and dynamic environments. UAVs can suffer from power limitations and path losses caused by non-line-of-sight connections, which may hamper better communication performance. To address these issues, reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) have been proposed as a helpful tool to enhance UAV communication networks. However, due to the high mobility of UAV, complex channel environments, and dynamic RIS configurations, it is challenging to estimate the link quality of ground users. In this paper, we propose a link quality estimation model using a gated recurrent unit (GRU) to assess the link quality of ground users for a multi-user RIS-assisted UAV-enabled wireless communication system. Our proposed framework uses a time series of user channel data and RIS phase shift information to estimate the quality of the link for each ground user. Simulation results showed that the proposed GRU model effectively and accurately estimates the link quality of the ground users in the RIS-assisted UAV-enabled wireless communication network.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0127.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC); α2δ-1 subunit; Gabapentin (GBP); Local conformational inflexibility; VGCC trafficking
Online: 10 February 2020 (11:59:38 CET)
For voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (VGCC), its α2δ subunits are traditionally considered to be auxiliary subunits that regulates VGCC trafficking to the plasma membrane. The antiepileptic, antinociceptive and anxiolytic gabapentin (GBP) has previously been shown to bind the VGCC α2δ subunits with high affinity to disrupt VGCC trafficking. Yet, the interaction between GBP and α2δ still remains poorly understood from a structural point of view. For instance, it is not clear yet what the structural implication is of α2δ-1-bound GBP against VGCC trafficking. With a set of experimental data-driven structural analysis of the VGCC α2δ-1 and its ligand GBP, this article postulates for the first time that: 1), α2δ-1 bound GBP stabilizes the α2δ-1-GBP complex structure; 2), α2δ-1 bound GBP restrains the conformational flexibility of α2δ-1; 3), α2δ-1-bound GBP establishes an electrostatic axis consisting of Q535 (Gln535)-R241 (Arg241)-GBP (gabapentin)-D452 (Asp452), which constitutes an energetically favourable contribution towards the structural stability of the α2δ-1-GBP complex and helps restrains the conformational flexibility and local structural rigidification of α2δ-1; and 4), GBP-induced local conformational inflexibility and structural rigidification of α2δ-1 is one key step in the pharmacological disruption of VGCC trafficking by GBP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1195.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels; the ventral hippocampal CA1; nociceptive hypersensitivity; hippocampal neuronal excitability
Online: 18 July 2023 (10:11:02 CEST)
Chronic pain is a significant health problem worldwide. Recent evidence has suggested that dysfunctional states of the ventral hippocampus, including decreased neuronal excitability and connectivity with other brain regions, parallel pain chronicity and persistent nociceptive hypersensitivity in humans and rodents, respectively. But the molecular mechanisms underlying hippocampal modulation of pain remain poorly elucidated. In this study, we used ex vivo whole-cell patch-clamp recording, immunofluorescence staining and behavioral tests to examine whether hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels 2 (HCN2) in the ventral hippocampal CA1 (vCA1) were involved in regulating nociceptive perception and CFA-induced inflammatory pain in mice. Reduced sag potential and firing rate of action potentials were observed in vCA1 pyramidal neurons from CFA-injected mice. Moreover, the expression of HCN2, but not HCN1, in vCA1 decreased in mice injected with CFA. HCN2 knockdown in vCA1 pyramidal neurons induced thermal hypersensitivity, whereas over-expression of HCN2 alleviated thermal hyperalgesia induced by intraplantar injection of CFA in mice. Our findings suggests that HCN2 in the vCA1 plays an active role in pain modulation and could be a promising target for the treatment of chronic pain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0046.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: voltage-gated sodium channels; cardiac sodium channels; SCN5A; veratridine; toxins; molecular docking; Rosetta; electrophysiology; site-directed mutagenesis
Online: 5 January 2022 (18:02:52 CET)
The cardiac sodium ion channel (NaV1.5) is a protein with four domains (DI-DIV), each with six transmembrane segments. Its opening and subsequent inactivation results in the brief rapid influx of Na+ ions resulting in the depolarization of cardiomyocytes. The neurotoxin veratridine (VTD) inhibits NaV1.5 inactivation resulting in longer channel opening times, and potentially fatal action potential prolongation. VTD is predicted to bind at the channel pore, but alternative binding sites have not been ruled out. To determine the binding site of VTD on NaV1.5, we performed docking calculations and high-throughput electrophysiology experiments. The docking calculations identified two distinct binding regions. The first site was in the pore, close to the binding site of NaV1.4 and NaV1.5 blocking drugs in experimental structures. The second site was at the “mouth” of the pore at the cytosolic side, partly solvent-exposed. Mutations at this site (L409, E417, and I1466) had large effects on VTD binding, while residues deeper in the pore had no effect, consistent with VTD binding at the mouth site. Overall, our results suggest a VTD binding site close to the cytoplasmic mouth of the channel pore. Binding at this alternative site might indicate an allosteric inactivation mechanism for VTD at NaV1.5.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0224.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: multilabel; ensemble; incorporating multiple clustering centers; gated recurrent neural networks; temporal convolutional neural networks; long short-term memory
Online: 17 October 2022 (04:06:31 CEST)
Multilabel learning goes beyond standard supervised learning models by associating a sample with more than one class label. Among the many techniques developed in the last decade to handle multilabel learning best approaches are those harnessing the power of ensembles and deep learners. This work proposes merging both methods by combining a set of gated recurrent units, temporal convolutional neural networks, and long short-term memory networks trained with variants of the Adam optimization approach. We examine many Adam variants, each fundamentally based on the difference between present and past gradients, with step size adjusted for each parameter. We also combine Incorporating Multiple Clustering Centers and a bootstrap-aggregated decision trees ensemble, which is shown to further boost classification performance. In addition, we provide an ablation study for assessing the performance improvement that each module of our ensemble produces. Multiple experiments on a large set of datasets representing a wide variety of multilabel tasks demonstrate the robustness of our best ensemble, which is shown to outperform the state-of-the-art. The MATLAB code for generating the best ensembles in the experimental section will be made available at https://github.com/LorisNanni.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0463.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Mass Spectroscopy, Bioinformatics, FGF14, Voltage Gated Channels, Schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s Disease, Sex-Specific Differences, Synaptic Plasticity, Cognitive Impairment, Excitatory/Inhibitory Tone
Online: 19 November 2018 (11:54:50 CET)
Fibroblast growth factor 14 (FGF14) is a member of the intracellular FGFs, a group of proteins with roles in neuronal ion channel regulation and synaptic transmission. We have previously demonstrated that a male Fgf14-/- mouse model recapitulates salient endophenotypes of synaptic dysfunction and behaviors associated with schizophrenia (SZ). As the underlying etiology of SZ and its sex-specific onset remain elusive, the Fgf14-/- model provides a valuable tool to interrogate pathways that might be related to the disease mechanism. Here, we performed label free quantitative proteomics and bioinformatics to identify enriched pathways at the proteome level in the male and female hippocampi from Fgf14+/+ and Fgf14-/- mice. We discovered that many differentially expressed proteins in Fgf14-/- animals are associated with SZ. In addition, measured changes in the proteome and signaling pathways were predominantly sex-specific with the male Fgf14-/- being distinctly enriched for pathways associated with neuropsychiatric disorders and addiction and the female exhibiting modest changes. In the male Fgf14-/- mouse the major protein changes that could in part explain the previously described neurotransmission and behavioral phenotype of this model were loss of ALDH1A1 and PRKAR2B. ALDH1A1 has been shown to mediate an alternative pathway for GABA synthesis, while PRKAR2B is essential for dopamine 2 receptor signaling, which is the basis of current antipsychotics. Collectively, our results provide new insights in the role of FGF14 and support the use of the Fgf14-/- mouse as a useful preclinical model of SZ for generating hypothesis on the disease mechanism, sex-specific manifestation and therapy.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: wind power forecasting; short-term prediction; hybrid deep learning; wind farm; long short term memory; gated recurrent network and convolutional layers
Online: 22 September 2020 (03:45:59 CEST)
Accurate forecasting of wind power generation plays a key role in improving the operation and management of a power system network and thereby its reliability and security. However, predicting wind power is complex due to the existence of high non-linearity in wind speed that eventually relies on prevailing weather conditions. In this paper, a novel hybrid deep learning model is proposed to improve the prediction accuracy of very short-term wind power generation for the Bodangora Wind Farm located in New South Wales, Australia. The hybrid model consists of convolutional layers, gated recurrent unit (GRU) layers and a fully connected neural network. The convolutional layers have the ability to automatically learn complex features from raw data while the GRU layers are capable of directly learning multiple parallel sequences of input data. The data sets of five-minute intervals from the wind farm are used in case studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model against other advanced existing models, including long short-term memory (LSTM), GRU, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and support vector machine (SVM), which are tuned to optimise outcome. It is observed that the hybrid deep learning model exhibits superior performance over other forecasting models to improve the accuracy of wind power forecasting, numerically, up to 1.59 per cent in mean absolute error, 3.73 per cent in root mean square error and 8.13 per cent in mean absolute percentage error.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0789.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: accuracy; data-driven approach, feed forward neural network; gated recurrent unit; hyper-parameters tuning; long short-term memory; short-term demand forecasting
Online: 12 July 2023 (11:29:06 CEST)
Electricity demand forecasting plays a significant role in energy markets. Accurate prediction of electricity demand is the key factor to optimize power generation, consumption, saving energy resources, and determining the energy prices. However, integrating energy mix scenarios, including solar and wind power which are highly non-linear and seasonal, into an existing grid increases uncertainty in generation, adds the challenges for precise forecast. To tackle these challenges, state-of-the-art methods and algorithms have been implemented in literature. We have developed Artificial Intelligence (AI) based deep learning models that can effectively handle the information of long time-series data. Based on the pattern of dataset, four different scenarios were developed and two best scenarios were selected for prediction. Dozens of models were developed and tested in deep AI networks. In the first scenario (Scenario1), data for weekdays excluding holidays was taken and in the second scenario (Scenario2) all the data in the basket was taken. Remaining two scenarios, weekends and holidays were tested and neglected because of their high prediction error. To find the optimal configuration, models were trained and tested within a large space of alternatives called hyper-parameters. In this study, an Aritificial Neural Network (ANN) based Feed-forward Neural Network (FNN) showed the minimum prediction error for Scenario1 while a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) based Gated Recurrent Network (GRU) showed the minimum prediction error for Scenario2. While comparing the accuracy, the lowest MAPE of 2.47% was obtained from FNN for Scenario1. When evaluating the same testing dataset (non-holidays) of Scenario2, the RNN-GRU model achieved the lowest MAPE of 2.71%. Therefore, we can conclude that grouping of weekdays as Senario1 prepared by excluding the holidays provides better forecasting accuracy compared to the single group approach used in Scenario2, where all the dataset is considered together. However, Scenario2 is equally important to predict the demand for weekends and holidays.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0192.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: voltage-gated calcium channels; major depressive disorder; autism spectrum disorder; schizophrenia; bipolar disorder; attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder; anxiety; calcium channel modulators; psychiatric disorders; auxiliary subunits; genetic risk variations
Online: 20 June 2019 (04:16:52 CEST)
Psychiatric disorders are mental, behavioral or emotional disorders. These conditions are prevalent, one in four adults suffer from any type of psychiatric disorders world-wide. It has always been observed that psychiatric disorders have a genetic component, however new methods to sequence full genomes of large cohorts have identified with high precision genetic risk loci for these conditions. Psychiatric disorders include, but are not limited to, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Several risk loci for psychiatric disorders fall within genes that encode for voltage-gated calcium channels (CaVs). Calcium entering through CaVs is key for multiple neuronal processes. In this review, we will summarize recent findings that link CaVs and their auxiliary subunits to psychiatric disorders. First, we will provide a general overview of CaVs structure, classification, function, expression and pharmacology. Next, we will summarize tools and databases to study risk loci associated with psychiatric disorders. We will examine functional studies of risk variations in CaV genes when available. We will review pharmacological evidence of the use of CaV modulators to treat psychiatric disorders. Our review will be of interest for those studying pathophysiological aspects of CaVs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0345.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep learning; solar radiation forecasting; model prediction; solar energy; multi climates data; generalizability; sustainability; Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM); Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU); Convolutional Neural Network (CNN); Hybrid CNN-Bidirectional LSTM; LSTM Autoencoder
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:59:18 CEST)
The sustainability of the planet and its inhabitants is in dire danger and is among the highest priorities on global agendas such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations (UN). Solar energy -- among other clean, renewable, and sustainable energies -- is seen as essential for environmental, social, and economic sustainability. Predicting solar energy accurately is critical to increasing reliability and stability, and reducing the risks and costs of the energy systems and markets. Researchers have come a long way in developing cutting-edge solar energy forecasting methods. However, these methods are far from optimal in terms of their accuracies, generalizability, benchmarking, and other requirements. Particularly, no single method performs well across all climates and weathers due to the large variations in meteorological data. This paper proposes SENERGY (an acronym for Sustainable Energy), a novel deep learning-based auto-selective approach and tool that, instead of generalising a specific model for all climates, predicts the best performing deep learning model for GHI forecasting in terms of forecasting error. The approach is based on carefully devised deep learning methods and feature sets through an extensive analysis of deep learning forecasting and classification methods using ten meteorological datasets from three continents. We analyse the tool in great detail through a range of metrics and methods for performance analysis, visualization, and comparison of solar forecasting methods. SENERGY outperforms existing methods in all performance metrics including Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Forecast Skills (FS), Relative Forecasting Error, and the normalised versions of these metrics. The proposed auto-selective approach can be extended to other research problems such as wind energy forecasting and predict forecasting models based on different criteria (in addition to the minimum forecasting error used in this paper) such as the energy required or speed of model execution, different input features, different optimisations of the same models, or other user preferences.