ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0205.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: city trees; landscape design; nursery production; urban greenspace
Online: 16 May 2022 (10:38:21 CEST)
While many practitioners and experts understand the risks associated with low urban tree diversity, they often lack the ability to rectify issues they encounter on their own. The current system of tree production and procurement is complex – shaped by market pressures, nursery and site constraints, local governance, and differing professional objectives among those who grow, specify, and plant trees. To understand this complexity as well as constraints to- and opportunities for increasing urban tree diversity, we conducted a series of focus groups comprised of nursery growers, landscape architects, and urban foresters. Our results highlight a significant list of considerations and constraints to diversity (both shared among green industries and some specific to growers or purchasers). More importantly, in discussing our findings we outline actionable strategies for increasing urban tree diversity.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: hurricane; tree risk assessment; urban forest strike team; species failure profile; likelihood of failure
Online: 24 April 2020 (04:37:51 CEST)
Trees in residential landscapes provide many benefits, but can injure persons and damage property when they fail. In hurricane-prone regions like Florida, USA, the regular occurrence of hurricanes has provided an opportunity to assess factors that influence the likelihood of wind-induced tree failure and develop species failure profiles. We assessed open-grown trees in Naples, Florida, following the passage of Hurricane Irma in September 2017 to determine the effect of relevant factors on the degree of damage sustained by individual trees. Of 4,034 assessed individuals (n = 15 species), 74% sustained no damage, 4% sustained only minor damage (i.e., minimal corrective pruning needed), 6% sustained significant damage (i.e., major corrective pruning needed), and 15% were whole tree failures (i.e., overturned trees or trees requiring removal). The proportion of individuals in each damage category varied among species, stem diameter at 1.4 m above ground, and the presence of utility lines, which was a proxy for maintenance. We compared our results with the findings of seven previous hurricanes in the region to explore species’ resilience in hurricanes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0517.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: city trees; landscape design; landscape architecture; socio-ecological system; urban ecosystem; urban forest
Online: 30 August 2022 (09:54:35 CEST)
Despite the abundance of tree diversity in the natural world, and generally high tree species richness in urban areas, urban forests continue to be dominated by a limited number of species. As socio-ecological systems, urban forests are shaped by historical and current management efforts and decision-making of a wide range of human actors. Drawing on past research, we offer a conceptual framework for describing the complex interactions among tree producers and consumers as trees are selected, grown, specified, and planted in private and public urban areas. We illustrate how multiple layers of selection criteria filter down the entirety of potential local tree diversity to a handful of commonly used and accepted tree species. We detail the actors and decision makers who impact tree composition and diversity across several land types. Finally, we identify research, education and outreach needs as they relate to creating more diverse and resilient urban forest ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0030.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: By-laws; Construction; Ordinance; Regulations; Tradeoffs; Tree preservation
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:00:11 CEST)
Development and redevelopment are important drivers of tree removal and canopy loss in urban landscapes. Local ordinances are often used to curtail tree removal, but punitive regulations alone may not be enough to reduce urban tree canopy loss in land development. In Florida (US), efforts to balance trees and development have so far focused on fees and fines, but with a recent backlash against tree regulations and the fast pace of urban growth, we explored the possible role of incentives in urban tree policies. We interviewed 20 land developers across Florida to understand their perspectives on current barriers and potential incentives for tree preservation and planting. We collected data from developers, whose perspectives on tree preservation are often unknown or overlooked, despite their significant role in tree planting, removal, and retention in and around cities. Our results show that major barriers to tree preservation and planting include requirements to grade sites for stormwater management, site constraints, and monetary costs. Most developers did not know of any existing incentives beyond intrinsic motivations but said that financial incentives would be most appealing to them. Top incentive suggestions include increasing building density, reducing impact fees and tax liability, and changing tree mitigation policies. Another promising finding is that developers are willing to work with regulators to find solutions that benefit both parties. Future research should consider evaluating the level of support and viability of different incentives by gathering feedback from policymakers, land developers, and the public.