REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0594.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: autophagy, glycogen, lysosome, glycophagy, Atg8, Stbd1, Gabarapl1
Online: 24 June 2021 (08:48:36 CEST)
Macro-autophagy is an essential cellular process involved in degradation of aberrant organelles and proteins. Initially proposed to be a ‘bulk’ degradation pathway, a more nuanced appreciation of selective autophagy pathways has emerged in recent years. The discovery of a glycogen-selective autophagy pathway (‘glycophagy’) has highlighted the importance of autophagy in regulating cellular metabolic homeostasis and identified a novel non-canonical major pathway of glycogen flux. The field of glycogen autophagy research is at an early evolutionary stage, but already it is clear that the implications of these discoveries are far-reaching and provide scope for multi-disciplinary investigations into the role of glycophagy in health and disease. With potential cognate protein partners identified, the opportunities for targeted intervention have become viable. Here we review the current evidence relating to specific protein mediators involved in glycophagy, and highlight areas of uncertainty that provide opportunity for further investigation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0142.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: glycogen; autophagy; lysosome; Stbd1; Gabarapl1; acid α-glucosidase (Gaa)
Online: 8 August 2022 (09:58:31 CEST)
Degradation of intracellular components through autophagy is a fundamental process to maintain cellular integrity and homeostasis. Recently a glycogen-selective autophagy pathway has been described, termed ‘glycophagy’. Glycogen is a primary storage depot and regulator of glucose availability, and glycophagy is emerging as a critical physiological process involved in energy metabolism. Glycophagy-mediated degradation of glycogen appears to operate in parallel with the well-described canonical pathway of glycogenolysis involving glycogen phosphorylase. Evidence suggests that starch-binding domain protein-1 (Stbd1) is a key glycogen-binding protein involved in tagging glycogen for glycophagy, and that Gabarapl1 is primarily involved as the Atg8 family protein recruiting the Stbd1-glycogen complex into the forming glycophagosome. The nuances of glycophagy protein machinery, regulation and lysosomal glucose release are yet to be fully elucidated. In this mini-review, we critically analyze the current evidence base for glycophagy as a selective-autophagy process of physiological importance and highlight areas where further investigation is warranted.