ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0297.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: breast cancer; predictive model; stacked GRU-LSTM-BRNN; LSTM; GRU; RNN
Online: 24 June 2020 (18:02:03 CEST)
Breast Cancer diagnosis is one of the most studied problems in the medical domain. In the medical domain, cancer diagnosis has been studied extensively which instantiates the need of early prediction of cancer disease. For obtaining advance prediction, health records are exploited and given as input to an automated system. This paper focuses on constructing an automated system by employing deep learning based recurrent neural network models. A stacked GRU-LSTM-BRNN is proposed in this paper that accepts health records of a patient for determining possibility of being affected by breast cancer. Proposed model is compared against other baseline classifiers such as stacked Simple-RNN model, stacked LSTM-RNN model, stacked GRU-RNN model. Comparative results obtained in this study indicate that stacked GRU-LSTM-BRNN yield better classification performance for predictions related to breast cancer disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0316.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: LSTM; GRU; Cryptocurrency, Artificial Intelligence
Online: 6 October 2023 (11:06:19 CEST)
Predicting the prices of cryptocurrency owing to its volatility, instability, and other factors has been challenging; investors and traders especially in Nigeria have been on a constant look for a more reliable way of knowing market trends and prices and while there has been so many research conducted using deep learning, the results for which has fall short of what investors could called a strong predictor. This research reviewed the results of many works that had been done and proposed two types of recurrent neural network (RNNs) namely Long Short-Term Memory and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) for predicting the future prices of two of the most common crypto assets namely Bitcoin (BTC) and Ethereum (ETH), these two were selected based on their popularity, the volume traded and their market capitalization. The experiment was conducted in a GPU Jupyter Notebook environment and the performance of our experiment was evaluated on a test set using root mean square error (RMSE) and based on its values, the LSTM presented a better performance with rsme scores of 654.66, and 80.30 respectively for BTC and ETH as compared to GRU. The paper proceeds further to compare the results of this experiment with other related works and we discovered that its performance is a great improvement.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1089.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: SDN; machine learning; algorithms; GRU-LSTM
Online: 15 August 2023 (09:40:34 CEST)
Recent SDN advances address traditional network management challenges through centralized control and plane separation. SDN prevents breaches using a centralized controller but introduces risks. The controller can be a single point of failure. Thus, an OpenFlow Controller's flow-based anomaly detection enhances SDN security. Our research explored two OpenFlow intrusion detection methods. The first employed machine learning, NSL-KDD dataset, and feature selection, yielding 82% accuracy with random forest. The second combined deep neural networks with GRU-LSTM, achieving 88% accuracy using ANOVA F-Test and feature elimination. Experiments highlighted deep learning as superior for OpenFlow intrusion detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1191.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: prophet; LSTM; GRU; meteorological data; electricity consumption forecasting
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:33:08 CEST)
This study proposes a short- and medium-term electricity consumption prediction algorithm by combining the GRU model suitable for long-term forecasting and the Prophet model suitable for seasonality and event handling. (1) Manufacturing Company B's Electricity consumption data and meteorological data in Naju, Jeollanam-do, South Korea are collected and preprocessed. (2) The preprocessed data proposes the Prophet model in the first step for seasonality and event handling prediction. (3) In the second step, seven multivariate data are experimented with GRU. Specifically, the seven multivariate data consist of six meteorological data and the residuals between the predicted data from the proposed Prophet model in Step 1 and the observed data. These are utilized to predict electricity consumption at 15-minute intervals. (4) Electricity consumption is predicted for short-term (2 days and 7 days) and medium-term (15 days and 30 days) scenarios. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the conventional Prophet model by more than 23 times and the modified GRU model by more than 2 times in terms of MAPE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0714.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: EEG; epileptic seizure; entropy; deep learning; LSTM; BiLSTM; GRU; classification
Online: 12 September 2023 (10:12:33 CEST)
One of the most prevalent brain diseases, epilepsy is characterized by recurring seizures that happen quite frequently. During seizures, a patient suffers uncontrollable muscle contractions that cause loss of motion and balance, which could lead to harm or even death. Establishing an automatic method for warning patients about impending seizures requires extensive research. It is possible to anticipate seizures by analyzing the Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal from the scalp region of the human brain. Time domain-based features such as Hurst exponent (Hur), Tsallis Entropy (TsEn), improved permutation entropy (impe), and amplitude-aware permutation entropy (AAPE) were extracted from EEG signals. In order to diagnose epileptic seizure children from normal children automatically, this study conducted two sessions, in the first session, the extracted features from the EEG dataset were classified using three machine learning (ML)-based models including support vector machine (SVM), K nearest neighbor (KNN), or decision tree (DT), while in the second session, the dataset was classified using three deep learning (DL)-based recurrent neural network (RNN) classifiers including a gated recurrent unit (GRU), long short-term memory (LSTM), and bidirectional (BiLSTM). The EEG dataset obtained from the Neurology Clinic at the Ibn-Rushd Training Hospital. In this regard, detailed explanations and research from the time domain and entropy characteristics show that using GRU, LSTM, and BiLSTM RNN deep learning classifiers on the All−time−entropy fusion feature improves the final classification results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0177.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Overweight, obesity, deep learning, Convolutional layer, GRU, COVID-19, lifestyle.
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:22:56 CEST)
Obesity and overweight is a foremost concern around the globe for each group of age. This can be accelerated by the current imposed lockdown. However, excessive weight gain may result in other chronic diseases. This study has been considering the age group of 25 to 55 years as the sample populations and monitoring them from July, 2020 to November, 2020. The lifestyle of this population, food habit, mental health conditions are explored using deep learning based framework. All these parameters need to be monitored as these have close relation with currently imposed constraints due to COVID-19. A predictive model is constructed using deep learning techniques to predict the risk of gaining weight. The predictive model hybridizes the convolutional layer and gated recurrent neural networks as a unified entity for achieving the objective of early weight gain prediction. The result obtained by this model exhibits an encouraging predictive efficiency of 93.7%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0323.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; CNN; DLNN; GRU; mental anxiety; hybrid approach
Online: 15 September 2020 (02:56:33 CEST)
COVID-19 and new concept, lockdown, change social life of all classes of humans. Children partially feel the changes of daily life and this situation has been children’s free mind. Children are under a new type of restriction imposed on them by their parents. Normally they prefer play with their their friends than study and always waiting for holidays. They heard a new jargon i.e. lockdown where everything stands still. Very often they see peoples in the roads and few vehicles are moving in the roads. However, a peculiar thing happens now that they sit in front of computer to hear the virtual classes that are taken by the teachers. This also happens when there is no lockdown since COVID-19 still affects people. The environment is totally changed and they do not find any proper answers from the parents about the scenario.This study has been made an attempt to carry out the mental affairs of children in West Bengal, India. Several families are surveyed for collecting responses mostly from rural areas as well as urban areas for the time-period from April, 2020 to July, 2020. An effort has been given in this paper to predict the stress, depression and anxiety faced by children during the COVID-19. A Deep Learning Neural Network (DLNN) based method is applied to understand the stress level, depression level and anxiety level amongst the children. A hybrid DLNN has been presented in this research that combines both Convolutional Layer and Gated-Recurrent Unit (GRU) for obtaining the prediction of the mental health of children. The model obtains an accuracy of 89.57% for defeminizing mental anxiety of children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1957.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: machine learning; hybrid models; svm; LSTM; GRU; Stock market; CNN; Tensorflow
Online: 31 October 2023 (02:59:40 CET)
Stock market prediction is a challenging task to perform, as we know the fluctuations that take place in the market makes it versatile and hard to predict the prices. In this research, we have explored the power of usage of hybrid ensemble algorithms to improve the predictive accuracy in the stock market forecasting. Our research comprises construction and evaluation of diverse hybrid models using different algorithms. The methodology presented in the paper involves comprehensive data preparation, feature engineering, and model normalization. Evaluating the different hybrid models, one stands out distinctly: LSTM (long short-term memory networks) + GRU (Gated recurrent units) + Conv1D (one-dimensional convolutional layer) hybrid. It illustrated its potential to revolutionize decision-making tools for investors and financial analysts in stock market analytics. The harmonious integration of algorithms not only underscores the effectiveness of hybrid modeling but also beckons for further exploration within the ever-evolving domain of predictive modeling, driven by the pursuit of precision and accuracy. This model shows a remarkable accuracy metrics including a Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 0.95, a Mean Squared Error (MSE) of 2.1222, a Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) of 1.52, and a R-squared (R2) score of 0.9982.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1994.v1
Subject: Engineering, Aerospace Engineering Keywords: GNSS; visual inertial odometry; failure modes; GRU-aided ESKF; complex environments
Online: 28 September 2023 (10:28:57 CEST)
To enhance system reliability and mitigate vulnerabilities of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), it is common to fuse the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and visual sensors with the GNSS receiver in the navigation system design, effectively enabling compensations with absolute position and reducing data gaps. To address shortcomings of traditional Kalman Filter (KF) such as sensor error, imperfect nonlinear system model, and KF estimation error, a GRU-aided ESKF architecture is proposed to enhance positioning performance. This study conducts Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) to priories and identify the potential faults in the urban environment facilitating the design of improved fault-tolerant system architecture. The identified primary fault events are data association error and navigation environment error during fault conditions of feature mismatch, especially in the presence of multiple failure modes. A hybrid federated navigation system architecture is employed using a Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) to predict state increments for updating the state vector in the Error Estate Kalman Filter (ESKF) measurement step. The proposed algorithm’s performance is evaluated in a simulation environment in MATLAB under multiple visually degraded conditions. Comparative results provide evidence that the GRU-aided ESKF outperforms standard ESKF and state-of-the-art solutions like VINS-Mono, End-to-End VIO, and Self-Supervised VIO, exhibiting higher efficiency in complex environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1431.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Low frequencies; acoustic impedance; deep learning; GRU; seismic attributes; seismic inversion
Online: 21 August 2023 (07:32:42 CEST)
The unreliable prediction of the low frequency components from inverted acoustic impedance causes uncertainty in quantitative seismic interpretation. To address this issue, we first calculate various seismic and geological attributes that contain low frequency information, such as relative geological age, interval velocity, and integrated instantaneous amplitude. Then, we develop a method to predict the low frequency content of seismic data using these attributes, their high frequency components, and recurrent neural networks. Next, we test how to predict the low frequency components using stacking velocity obtained from velocity analysis. Using all the attributes and seismic data, we propose a supervised deep learning method to predict the low frequency components of the inverted acoustic impedance. The results obtained in both synthetic and real data cases show that the proposed method can improve the prediction accuracy of the low frequency components of the inverted acoustic impedance, with the best improvement in a real data example of 57.7% compared with the impedance predicted using well log interpolation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0265.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: GOES-R; GRU; Deep Learning; Wildfires; Active Fires; Early Detection; Monitoring
Online: 18 July 2022 (10:28:06 CEST)
Early detection of wildfires has been limited using the sun-synchronous orbit satellites due to their low temporal resolution and wildfires’ fast spread in the early stage. NOAA’s geostationary weather satellites GOES-R can acquire images every 15 minutes at 2km spatial resolution, and have been used for early fire detection. However, advanced processing algorithms are needed to provide timely and reliable detection of wildfires. In this research, a deep learning framework, based on Gated Recurrent Units (GRU), is proposed to detect wildfires at early stage using GOES-R dense time series data. GRU model maintains good performance on temporal modelling while keep a simple architecture, makes it suitable to efficiently process time-series data. 36 different wildfires in North and South America under the coverage of GOES-R satellites are selected to assess the effectiveness of the GRU method. The detection times based on GOES-R are compared with VIIRS active fire products at 375m resolution in NASA’s Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS). The results show that GRU-based GOES-R detections of the wildfires are earlier than that of the VIIRS active fire products in most of the study areas. Also, results from proposed method offer more precise location on the active fire at early stage than GOES-R Active Fire Product in mid-latitude and low-latitude regions.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: motion capture; neural networks; reconstruction; gap filling; FFNN; LSTM; BILSTM; GRU
Online: 3 August 2021 (11:52:46 CEST)
Optical motion capture is a mature contemporary technique for the acquisition of motion data, alas it is non-error-free. Due to technical limitations and occlusions of markers, gaps might occur in such recordings. The article reviews various neural network architectures applied for gap filling problem in motion capture sequences within FBM framework providing the representation for body kinematic structure. The results are compared with interpolation and matrix completion methods. We found out, that for longer sequences simple linear feedforward neural networks can outperform the other, sophisticated architectures. We were also able to identify, that acceleration and monotonicity of input sequence are the parameters that have a notable impact on the obtained results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1966.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: wind speed forecasting; deep learning; LSTM; GRU; wind energy; CEEMDAN; EMD; VMD
Online: 28 September 2023 (11:41:50 CEST)
Advancements in technology, policies, and cost reductions have led to rapid growth in wind power production. One of the major challenges in wind energy production is the instability of wind power generation due to weather changes. Efficient power grid management requires accurate power output forecasting. New wind energy forecasting methods based on deep learning are better than traditional methods, like numerical weather prediction, statistical models, and machine learning models. This is more true for short-term prediction. Since there is a relationship between methods, climates, and forecasting complexity, forecasting methods do not always perform the same depending on the climate and terrain of the data source. This paper proposes a novel model that combines the variational mode decomposition method with a long short-term memory model, developed for next-hour wind speed prediction in a hot desert climate, such as the climate in Saudi Arabia. We compared the proposed model performance to two other hybrid models, six deep learning models, and four machine learning models using different feature sets. Also, we tested the proposed model on data from different climates, Caracas and Toronto. The proposed model showed a forecast skill between 61% to 74% based on mean absolute error, 64% to 72% based on root mean square error, and 59% to 68% based on mean absolute percentage error for locations in Saudi Arabia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0101.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Term deposit subscription; Neural network; GRU; Convolutional layers; DT; MLP; k-NN
Online: 6 July 2020 (09:13:34 CEST)
Banks are normally offered two kinds of deposit accounts. It consists of deposits like current/saving account and term deposits like fixed or recurring deposits. For enhancing the maximized profit from bank as well as customer perspective, term deposit can accelerate uplifting of finance fields. This paper focuses on likelihood of term deposit subscription taken by the customers. Bank campaign efforts and customer detail analysis can influence term deposit subscription chances. An automated system is approached in this paper that works towards prediction of term deposit investment possibilities in advance. This paper proposes deep learning based hybrid model that stacks Convolutional layers and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) layers as predictive model. For RNN, Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) is employed. The proposed predictive model is later compared with other benchmark classifiers such as k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN), Decision tree classifier (DT), and Multi-layer perceptron classifier (MLP). Experimental study concludes that proposed model attains an accuracy of 89.59% and MSE of 0.1041 which outperform well other baseline models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1329.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Epilepsy; seizure detection; EEG signals; LSTM; GRU; Convolutional Neural Networks; Deep Learning; Machine Learning
Online: 19 June 2023 (08:51:52 CEST)
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by abnormal electrical activity in the brain, often leading to recurrent seizures. With approximately 50 million people worldwide affected by epilepsy, there is a pressing need for efficient and accurate methods to detect and diagnose seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, which record the brain’s electrical activity, have emerged as a valuable tool in detecting epilepsy and other neurological disorders. Traditionally, the process of analyzing EEG signals for seizure detection has relied on manual inspection by experts, which is time-consuming, labor-intensive, and susceptible to human error. To address these limitations, researchers have turned to machine learning and deep learning techniques to automate the seizure detection process. In this work, we propose a novel method for epileptic seizure detection, leveraging the power of 1-D Convolutional layers in combination with Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) and Average pooling Layer as a unit. The performance of the proposed model is verified on the Bonn dataset. Our proposed model offers significant advancements over existing approaches for the detection of epileptic seizures, particularly for 2, 3, 4, and 5-class classification tasks. To assess the robustness and generalizability of our proposed architecture, we employ 5-fold cross-validation. By dividing the dataset into five subsets and iteratively training and testing the model on different combinations of these subsets, we obtain robust performance measures, including accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed architecture in accurately detecting epileptic seizures from EEG signals by using EEG signals of varying lengths. The results indicate its potential as a reliable and efficient tool for automated seizure detection, paving the way for improved diagnosis and management of epilepsy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2052.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Link quality estimation; reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS); gated recurrent unit (GRU); unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV).
Online: 30 August 2023 (11:39:45 CEST)
In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become a valuable platform for many applications, including communication networks. UAV-enabled wireless communication faces challenges in complex urban and dynamic environments. UAVs can suffer from power limitations and path losses caused by non-line-of-sight connections, which may hamper better communication performance. To address these issues, reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) have been proposed as a helpful tool to enhance UAV communication networks. However, due to the high mobility of UAV, complex channel environments, and dynamic RIS configurations, it is challenging to estimate the link quality of ground users. In this paper, we propose a link quality estimation model using a gated recurrent unit (GRU) to assess the link quality of ground users for a multi-user RIS-assisted UAV-enabled wireless communication system. Our proposed framework uses a time series of user channel data and RIS phase shift information to estimate the quality of the link for each ground user. Simulation results showed that the proposed GRU model effectively and accurately estimates the link quality of the ground users in the RIS-assisted UAV-enabled wireless communication network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0113.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: software defined networking; random forest; gain ratio; gru-lstm; anova f-rfe; open flow controller; machine learning
Online: 10 November 2019 (14:27:32 CET)
Recent advancements in Software Defined Networking (SDN) makes it possible to overcome the management challenges of traditional network by logically centralizing control plane and decoupling it from forwarding plane. Through centralized controllers, SDN can prevent security breach, but it also brings in new threats and vulnerabilities. Central controller can be a single point of failure. Hence, flow-based anomaly detection system in OpenFlow Controller can secure SDN to a great extent. In this paper, we investigated two different approaches of flow-based intrusion detection system in OpenFlow Controller. The first of which is based on machine-learning algorithm where NSL-KDD dataset with feature selection ensures the accuracy of 82% with Random Forest classifier using Gain Ratio feature selection evaluator. In the later phase, the second approach is combined with Gated Recurrent Unit Long Short-Term Memory based intrusion detection model based on Deep Neural Network (DNN) where we applied an appropriate ANOVA F-Test and Recursive Feature Elimination feature selection method to improve the classifier performance and achieved an accuracy of 88%. Substantial experiments with comparative analysis clearly show that, deep learning would be a better choice for intrusion detection in OpenFlow Controller.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0491.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Short term load forecasting; STLF; deep learning; RNN; LSTM; GRU; machine learning; SVR; random forest; KNN; energy consumption; energy-intensive manufacturing; time series prediction; industry
Online: 21 September 2020 (04:19:45 CEST)
To minimise environmental impact, avoid regulatory penalties, and improve competitiveness, energy-intensive manufacturing firms require accurate forecasts of their energy consumption so that precautionary and mitigation measures can be taken. Deep learning is widely touted as a superior analytical technique to traditional artificial neural networks, machine learning, and other classical time series models due to its high dimensionality and problem solving capabilities. Despite this, research on its application in demand-side energy forecasting is limited. We compare two benchmarks (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and an existing manual technique used at the case site) against three deep learning models (simple Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU)) and three machine learning models (Support Vector Regression (SVM), Random Forest, and K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN)) for short term load forecasting (STLF) using data from a Brazilian thermoplastic resin manufacturing plant. We use the grid search method to identify the best configurations for each model, and then use Diebold-Mariano testing to confirm the results. Results suggests that the legacy approach used at the case site is the worst performing, and that the GRU model outperformed all other models tested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Very short term load forecasting; VSTLF; Short term load forecasting; STLF; deep learning; RNN; LSTM; GRU; machine learning; SVR; random forest; extreme gradient boosting, energy consumption; ARIMA; time series prediction.
Online: 10 January 2022 (12:17:35 CET)
Commercial buildings are a significant consumer of energy worldwide. Logistics facilities, and specifically warehouses, are a common building type yet under-researched in the demand-side energy forecasting literature. Warehouses have an idiosyncratic profile when compared to other commercial and industrial buildings with a significant reliance on a small number of energy systems. As such, warehouse owners and operators are increasingly entering in to energy performance contracts with energy service companies (ESCOs) to minimise environmental impact, reduce costs, and improve competitiveness. ESCOs and warehouse owners and operators require accurate forecasts of their energy consumption so that precautionary and mitigation measures can be taken. This paper explores the performance of three machine learning models (Support Vector Regression (SVR), Random Forest, and Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost)), three deep learning models (Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU)), and a classical time series model, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) for predicting daily energy consumption. The dataset comprises 8,040 records generated over an 11-month period from January to November 2020 from a non-refrigerated logistics facility located in Ireland. The grid search method was used to identify the best configurations for each model. The proposed XGBoost models outperform other models for both very short load forecasting (VSTLF) and short term load forecasting (STLF); the ARIMA model performed the worst.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0345.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep learning; solar radiation forecasting; model prediction; solar energy; multi climates data; generalizability; sustainability; Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM); Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU); Convolutional Neural Network (CNN); Hybrid CNN-Bidirectional LSTM; LSTM Autoencoder
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:59:18 CEST)
The sustainability of the planet and its inhabitants is in dire danger and is among the highest priorities on global agendas such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations (UN). Solar energy -- among other clean, renewable, and sustainable energies -- is seen as essential for environmental, social, and economic sustainability. Predicting solar energy accurately is critical to increasing reliability and stability, and reducing the risks and costs of the energy systems and markets. Researchers have come a long way in developing cutting-edge solar energy forecasting methods. However, these methods are far from optimal in terms of their accuracies, generalizability, benchmarking, and other requirements. Particularly, no single method performs well across all climates and weathers due to the large variations in meteorological data. This paper proposes SENERGY (an acronym for Sustainable Energy), a novel deep learning-based auto-selective approach and tool that, instead of generalising a specific model for all climates, predicts the best performing deep learning model for GHI forecasting in terms of forecasting error. The approach is based on carefully devised deep learning methods and feature sets through an extensive analysis of deep learning forecasting and classification methods using ten meteorological datasets from three continents. We analyse the tool in great detail through a range of metrics and methods for performance analysis, visualization, and comparison of solar forecasting methods. SENERGY outperforms existing methods in all performance metrics including Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Forecast Skills (FS), Relative Forecasting Error, and the normalised versions of these metrics. The proposed auto-selective approach can be extended to other research problems such as wind energy forecasting and predict forecasting models based on different criteria (in addition to the minimum forecasting error used in this paper) such as the energy required or speed of model execution, different input features, different optimisations of the same models, or other user preferences.