ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0199.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: digital forensic tool, mobile application forensics, geolocation, Upsight, Pokémon GO, Pokémon GO Plus
Online: 29 May 2017 (11:21:56 CEST)
As the geolocation capabilities of smartphones continue to improve, developers have continued to create more innovative applications that rely on this location information for their primary function. This can be seen with Niantic's release of Pokémon GO, which is a massively multiplayer online role playing and augmented reality game. This game became immensely popular within just a few days of its release. However, it also had the propensity to be a distraction to drivers resulting in numerous accidents, and was used to as a tool by armed robbers to lure unsuspecting users into secluded areas. This facilitates a need for forensic investigators to be able to analyze the data within the application in order to determine if it may have been involved in these incidents. Because this application is new, limited research has been conducted regarding the artifacts that can be recovered from the application. In this paper, we aim to fill the gaps within the current research by assessing what forensically relevant information may be recovered from the application, and understanding the circumstances behind the creation of this information. Our research focuses primarily on the artifacts generated by the Upsight analytics platform, those contained within the bundles directory, and the Pokémon Go Plus accessory. Moreover, we present our new application specific analysis tool that is capable of extracting forensic artifacts from a backup of the Android application, and presenting them to an investigator in an easily readable format. This analysis tool exceeds the capabilities of UFED Physical Analyzer in processing Pokémon GO application data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0397.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: food waste; web scraping; Too Good To Go; empirical analysis
Online: 23 August 2022 (08:53:11 CEST)
Food waste is one of the greatest challenge to sustainability in developed and developing countries. In the former, food waste is concentrated in the final part of the chain. Too Good To Go is a digital platform aimed to prevent food waste, where consumers can buy magic boxes from different outlets containing food products that are approaching their end-of-life. However, the mechanism of the platform enable the outlets to publish their offering much in advance of the pick-up time, raising the question whether the food sold on the platform is effectively a leftover or a planned production. Our empirical study gathers data from over 1200 outlets in Rome on the Too Good To Go platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0228.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: flax; Fusarium oxysporum; differential expression genes; GO enrichment analysis; KEGG enrichment analysis
Online: 15 October 2021 (14:32:42 CEST)
A plant’s early response to pathogen stress is a vital indicator of its disease resistance. In order to study the response mechanism of resistant and susceptible flax cultivars to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lini (Foln), we applied RNA-sequencing to analyze transcriptomes of flax with Foln 0.5, 2 and 8 hours post inoculation (hpi). We found a significant difference in the number of differential expression genes (DEGs) between resistant and susceptible flax clutivars. The number of DEGs in the Fusarium-resistant cultivar increased dramatically at 2 hpi, and a large number of DEGs participated in the Fusarium-susceptible cultivar response to Foln infection 0.5 hpi. GO enrichment analysis determined that the up-regulated DEGs of both flax cultivars were enriched such as oxidoreductase activity and oxidation-reduction process. At the same time, the genes involved in diterpenoid synthesis were up-regulated in resistant cultivar, while those involved in extracellular region, cell wall and organophosphate ester transport were down-regulated in susceptible cultivar. KEGG enrichment analysis showed the genes encoded WRKY 22 and WRKY33 which involved in MAPK signaling pathway were up-regulated expressed in S-29 and down-regulated expressed in R-7, negatively regulated the disease resistance of flax; The genes encoded Hsp 90 family which in involved in plant pathogen interaction pathway were up-regulated in R-7 and down-regulated in S-29, which positively regulated the disease resistance of flax; The genes encoded MYC2 transcription factor and TIFY proteins which involved in plant hormone signaling pathway were up-regulated in R-7, and regulated the jasmonic acid metabolism of flax and the signal transduction of plant hormones. Meanwhile seven regulatory genes with the most correlation were screened out, Among Lus10025000.g and Lus10026447.g regulated other genes expressed both in plant hormone signal transduction pathway and MAPK signal pathway. In conclusion, these findings will facilitate further studies on the function of these candidate genes in flax of response to Fusarium stress, and the breeding of disease-resistant flax cultivar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0178.v1
Online: 14 February 2022 (15:50:54 CET)
(1) Background: The goal of our study was to identify SNPs, metabolic pathways (KEGG), and gene ontology (GO) terms significantly associated with calving and workability; (2) Methods: Based on the EuroGenomics reference data set, we analyzed direct (DCE) and maternal (MCE) calving ease, direct (DSB), and maternal (MSB) stillbirth, milking speed (MSP), and temperament (TEM). We estimated SNP effects using a multi-SNP mixed-model. Further, SNP positions were mapped to genes, and GO terms/KEGG pathways of the corresponding genes were assigned. The estimation of GO term/KEGG pathway effects was based on a mixed-model using SNP effects as dependent variables; (3) Results: The number of significant SNPs comprised 59 for DCE, 25 for DSB and MSP, 17 for MCE and MSB, and 7 for TEM. Significant KEGG pathways were found for MSB (2), TEM (2), and MSP (1), while 11 GO terms were significant for MSP, 10 for DCE, 8 for DSB and TEM, 5 for MCE, and 3 for MSB.; (4) Conclusions: From the perspective of a better understanding of the genomic background of the phenotypes, traits with low heritabilities suggest that the focus should be moved from single genes to metabolic pathways or gene ontologies significant for the phenotype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0267.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: response inhibition; behavioral inhibition; psychopathy traits; Go/NoGo task; smokers
Online: 11 February 2021 (13:32:51 CET)
Aims: Adolescence is a critical period because the brain is involved in the process of maturation that entails cognitive functions. On the way of maturation, an individual’s inhibitory control undergoes many changes and becomes vulnerable to different thrill-seeking like smoking, drinking, and so on. Smoking is highly prevalent among teenagers that are trying to take control of their behaviors in order to join society. They experience antisocial behavior too which is a trait that can lead adolescents to addiction. This trait is an inevitable part of psychopathy. Inhibitory deficits and psychopathy have been widely reported in addiction studies. The current study tried to investigate the relationship between psychopathic traits and behavioral inhibition between male smokers and non-smoker teenage students.Materials & Methods: Statistical sample of this research is 62 teenage students aged 17 years that are divided into smoker and non-smoker groups. The participants have been chosen through random sampling from the population of 10 high schools. The data have been gathered in Kordkoy and Gorgan in Golestan province. Behavioral bias has been measured by Go/NoGo task and psychopathic traits through youth psychopathic traits inventory. Also, the short form of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale test has been executed and used as a control variable.Findings: A meaningful difference has been found between the performance of smoker and non-smoker groups in Go/No Go task and psychopathic traits that are smokers performed weaker in comparison with non-smokers and psychopathic traits of smokers were meaningfully higher than non-smokers. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between these two groups in their Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale scores.Conclusion: The results have shown that smokers have higher psychopathic traits and lower behavioral inhibition when compared with their non-smoker peers. According to the results of current research, smoking can decline the cognitive functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0438.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: poly-ether-ether ketone; graphene oxide (GO); MoS2; tribological behaviours; mechanism
Online: 18 September 2020 (12:11:15 CEST)
Poly-ether-ether ketone (PEEK) is a great potential thermoplastic in industry and medical treatment and health. In this work, the PEEK/GO and PEEK/MoS2 composites were prepared by a novel hot isostatic pressing method. The addition of GO alters the tribological behaviours mechanism, fatigue wear mechanism is predominant to PEEK/GO composites. However, the combination of abrasive and adhesive wear mechanisms is observed for PEEK/MoS2 composites and PEEK. The reason is the hardness and tensile strength of composites are increased with the appropriate addition of GO. The response time to stable friction state of PEEK/GO and PEEK/MoS2 composites reduces in compared with PEEK, which conduce to shorten running-in time, reduce energy consumption and improve the tribological performances of composites. The addition of GO and MoS2 can effectively decrease the friction coefficient and wear rate, and the optimal content of GO and MoS2 was 0.7 wt.% and 15 wt.%, respectively. The results indicate that PEEK/GO and PEEK/MoS2 are impressive composites that possess super tribological properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0138.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: natural rubber; GO-NH-MCM-41; graphene oxide; mesoporous; intumescent flame retardants
Online: 9 May 2018 (05:50:26 CEST)
Aiming to improve the flame retardancy performance of natural rubber (NR), we developed a novel flame retardant synergistic agent through grafting of MCM-41 to graphene oxide (GO)，named as GO-NH-MCM-41，as an assistant of intumescent flame retardants (IFR). The structure of GO-NH-MCM-41 was characterized by FTIR, TEM and SEM tests, which confirmed that a fine grafting had been applied between GO and MCM-41. The flame retardancy of NR/IFR/GO-NH-MCM-41 composites was evaluated by limited oxygen index (LOI), UL-94 and cone calorimeter test. The LOI value of NR/IFR/GO-NH-MCM-41 reached to 26.3%; the UL-94 ratings improved to V-0 rating. Moreover, the addition of GO-NH-MCM-41 obviously decreased the peak heat release rate (PHRR) and the total heat release (THR) of the natural rubber composites. And the addition of GO-NH-MCM-41 increased the thickness of char residue. The images of SEM indicated the char residue were more compact and continuous. The degradation of GO-NH-MCM-41 based NR composites completed with a mass loss of 35.57% at 600 ℃. The tensile strength and the elongation at break of NR/IFR/GO-NH-MCM-41 composites were 13.9 MPa and 496.7%, respectively. The results of rubber process analyzer (RPA) reached the maximum value, probably due to a better network of the fillers in the matrix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0159.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Diseases; electrocardiography; electroencephalography; Timed-Up and Go test; sensors; mobile devices; feature detection; diseases; older adults
Online: 6 August 2020 (10:46:57 CEST)
The use of smartphones, coupled with different sensors, makes it an attractive solution for measuring different physical and physiological features, allowing for the monitoring of various parameters and even identifying some diseases. The BITalino device allows the use of different sensors, including Electroencephalography (EEG) and Electrocardiography (ECG) sensors, to study different health parameters. With these devices, the acquisition of signals is straightforward, and it is possible to connect them using a Bluetooth connection. With the acquired data, it is possible to measure parameters such as calculating the QRS complex and its variation with ECG data to control the individual's heartbeat. Similarly, by using the EEG sensor one could analyze the individual's brain activity and frequency. The purpose of this paper is to present a method for recognition of the diseases related to ECG and EEG data, with sensors available in off-the-shelf mobile devices and sensors connected to a BITalino device. The data were collected during the elderly's experiences, performing the Timed-Up and Go test, and the different diseases found in the sample in the study. The data were analyzed, and the following features were extracted from the ECG, including heart rate, heart rate variability, the average QRS interval, the average R-R interval, and the average R-S interval, and the EEG, including frequency and variability. Finally, the diseases are correlated with different parameters, proving that there are relations between the individuals and the different health conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0378.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: viral entry; viral glycoproteins; virus receptors; UL148; US16; UL128-131; gB; gO; PDGFRα; integrins; Nrp2; gH/gL; cytomegalovirus; herpesviruses; HCMV; CMV; pentamer; trimer; glycoprotein H; glycoprotein L; glycoprotein O; glycoprotein B; UL128; UL130; UL131A; UL131
Online: 16 November 2018 (06:52:54 CET)
The past few years have brought substantial progress toward understanding how human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) enters the remarkably wide spectrum of cell types and tissues that the virus is observed to infect. Neuropilin-2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) were identified as receptors, respectively, for the trimeric and pentameric glycoprotein H / glycoprotein L (gH/gL) complexes that in large part govern HCMV cell tropism, while CD90 and CD147 were also found to play roles during entry. X-ray crystal structures for the proximal viral fusogen, glycoprotein B (gB), and for the pentameric gH/gL complex (pentamer) were solved. A novel virion gH complex consisting of gH bound to UL116 instead of gL was described, and findings supporting the existence of a stable complex between gH/gL and gB were reported. Additional work indicates that the pentamer promotes a mode of cell-associated spread that resists antibody neutralization, as opposed to the trimeric gH/gL complex (trimer), which appears to be broadly required for the infectivity of cell-free virions. Finally, viral factors such as UL148 and US16 were identified that can influence the incorporation of the alternative gH/gL complexes into virions. We will review these advances and their implications for understanding HCMV entry and cell tropism.