ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0250.v1
Online: 21 February 2022 (10:09:18 CET)
Remote sensing technology, especially using satellite images, has become essential support in many aspects of decision-making, particularly in disaster risk management. It requires a shorter period of data updates and less cost compared to conventional field observations and surveys. Yet, the intensive processing and high-powered computing resources are necessary to analyze satellite imagery data through Geographic Information System (GIS). In this paper, we introduce the identification and mapping of natural disaster impact in Indonesia using the open-source collaborative tool of Google Earth Engine (GEE) application which analyzes the relative temporal difference of Earth surface from three major satellite images: Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2, and Landsat-8. Taking the advantage of the geographical, geological, and demographic conditions of Indonesia's disaster-prone areas, we analyze relative difference from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) out of months before and after natural disaster occurrence to measure the impact of natural disaster in focus study areas. Given the high-vegetation nature of three main natural disaster impacted areas in Indonesia: Aceh, Palu, and Yogyakarta, we are able to simplify the analysis by highlighting areas with vegetative loss or gain after the event. Using an open-source GEE application, namely HazMapper, we identify and visualize the aftermath of the tsunami disaster in Aceh and Palu as well as the earthquake in Yogyakarta. Our study is potentially beneficial for government and decision-makers to utilize publicly available satellite images for disaster recovery and mitigation policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0382.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: living conditions; crime prevention; crime-exposed areas; strategic mapping; GIS; Police
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:04:19 CEST)
This paper presents a theoretically and methodologically grounded GIS-based model for the measurement and mapping of an index of living conditions in urban residential areas across Sweden. Further, the model is compared and evaluated using the Swedish Police’s assessment of crime-exposed areas. The results indicate that geographically measured vulnerable living conditions overlap to a large extent with the areas assessed to be crime-exposed by the Swedish Police. Over 61% of the police-defined crime-exposed areas are characterized by vulnerable living conditions. The results also show that the overlap is not perfect and that there are vulnerable areas that are not included in the police’s assessment of crime-exposed areas, but which are nonetheless characterized by vulnerable living conditions that could negatively affect the development of crime. It is also proposed that the model and the mapped index of living conditions provide a more well-grounded scientific basis for the police's assessment work. As a first step, the Swedish police have implemented the model and the mapped index in the work process employed in their annual identification of crime-exposed or at-risk areas. In addition to assisting the police, the model and the mapped index could also be used to support other societal actors working with vulnerable areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0058.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: GIS; image classification; LiDAR; remote sensing; wetland indicator; global wetland inventory; wetland mapping
Online: 14 September 2017 (17:25:27 CEST)
Wetlands are recognized as one of the world’s most valuable natural resources. With the increasing world population, human demands on wetland resources for agricultural expansion and urban development continue to increase. In addition, global climate change has pronounced impacts on wetland ecosystems through alterations in hydrological regimes. To better manage and conserve wetland resources, we need to know the distribution and extent of wetlands and monitor their dynamic changes. Wetland maps and inventories can provide crucial information for wetland conservation, restoration, and management. Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing technologies have proven to be useful for mapping and monitoring wetland resources. Recent advances in geospatial technologies have greatly increased the availability of remotely sensed imagery with better and finer spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. This chapter presents an introduction to the uses of GIS and remote sensing technologies for wetland mapping and monitoring. A case study is presented to demonstrate the use of high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and aerial photographs for mapping prairie potholes and surface hydrologic flow pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0534.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: syndemic; El Niño; infectious disease; diarrhea; malaria; respiratory; cholera; spatial cluster; GIS
Online: 27 September 2018 (06:04:08 CEST)
El Niño is a quasi-periodic pattern of climate variability and extremes often associated with hazards and disease. While El Niño links to individual diseases have been examined, less is known about the cluster of multi-disease risk referred to as an ecosyndemic, which emerges during extreme events. The objective of this study was to explore a mapping approach to represent the spatial distribution of ecosyndemics in Piura, Peru at the district-level during the first few months of 1998. Using geographic information systems and multivariate analysis, two methodologies were employed to map disease overlap of 7 climate-sensitive diseases and construct an ecosyndemic index, which was then mapped and applied to another El Niño period as proof of concept. The main findings showed that many districts across Piura faced multi-disease risk over several weeks in the austral summer of 1998. The distribution of ecosyndemics were spatially clustered in western Piura among 11 districts. Furthermore, the ecosydemic index in 1998 when compared to 1983 showed a strong positive correlation, demonstrating the utility of the index. The study supports PAHO efforts to develop multi-disease based and interprogrammatic approaches to control and prevention, particularly for climate and poverty-related infections in Latin America and the Caribbean.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0453.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Antiquities; Monuments; Cultural Routes; Greece; Kynouria; GIS; Websites; Story maps.
Online: 27 June 2018 (16:00:03 CEST)
On the occasion of Kynouria and in order to achieve the protection and projection of antiquities, a web-based model is proposed for highlighting individual monuments and archaeological sites, having in mind the historical and archaeological evidence of the region, the topography, the demographic profile and the tourist infrastructure, and combining them with the development programs for cultural routes. Therefore, creating suitable databases and mapping the monuments in the area are key prerequisites of the process, as they contribute to an objective assessment of the current situation and then to make rational decisions. In this frame, modern technology provides some important planning tools (GIS, GPS, and OMS) which allow recording and mapping of data, viewing the relationships between them in the area where they appear and managing their projection. The complete study of Kynouria’s archaeological routes contains the implementation of a website using free or open-source software, which should include all the necessary procedures and the historical and archaeological information material (text, maps, and photographs).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: GIS and Remote sensing; Hazard; Risk; Vulnerable; Gedio Zone
Online: 12 May 2022 (08:50:27 CEST)
Abstract Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing played an important role in analyzing environmental and socio-economic drivers that created favorable condition for malaria breeding as well as in identifying hazard and risk areas. This study gives great emphasis on mapping malaria hazard and risk areas in Gedio zone of SNNPs using geospatial technology. The study identifies two major drivers like Environmental (physical) factors: which provide for the endurance of mosquitoes and Socio-economic factors. The above data were presented and analyzed quantitatively. The content analysis shows that Malaria hazard prevalence areas were mapped based on the environmental factors which are potential of providing good environmental conditions for mosquito breeding. The hazard map was produced using elevation, slope, proximity to breeding sites, and soil type as the factors for breeding mosquitoes. The malaria hazard analysis of the Gedio zone revealed that from the total area, 9.83%, 35.29% is mapped as a very high and high-risk area, whereas, the remaining 38.73%, a 16.14%, and 0.01% were mapped as moderate, low, very low level of malaria hazard respectively. The total area of the study area more than 1/3rd of the area is identified as a very high and high malaria risk area while the rest 2/3rd of an area is considered as a moderate to very low hazard risk zone. Accordingly, very high malaria risk area is found around towns because of population density. Finally, I recommend that the concerned body should have to expand health center, creating awareness of society, especially around populated areas where the risk is high and environmental and individual sanitation can reduce the risk of malaria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0422.v1
Online: 19 July 2021 (15:59:12 CEST)
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a crop of nutritional and economic importance worldwide, cultivated in more than 100 tropical and subtropical countries including Ecuador, traditionally cultivated in its three continental regions: the Amazon, the Coast and in the valleys of the Sierra. The purpose of this study was to characterize 195 accessions from INIAP's Ecuadorian cassava collection through 1) morphological characterization with qualitative and quantitative descriptors; and 2) ecogeographic characterization to know the climatic, geophysical and edaphic conditions in which cassava grows and which environments are frequent or marginal for its cultivation. For the morphological characterization, 27 morphological descriptors were used (18 qualitative and nine quantitative), and for the ecogeographic characterization, 55 variables (41 climatic, two geophysical and 12 edaphic). As a result, four morphological groups and three ecogeographic groups were identified. In the research, morphological variability was evidenced, mainly in descriptors related to the leaf, stems and inflorescences. In addition, it was possible to identify accessions that can adapt to extreme conditions of drought and poor soils, which could be used for improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0165.v2
Online: 18 June 2019 (11:15:56 CEST)
Background: As the opioid epidemic continues, understanding the geospatial, temporal and demand patterns is important for policymakers to assign resources and interdict individual, organization, and country-level bad actors. Methods: GIS geospatial-temporal analysis and extreme-gradient boosted random forests evaluate ICD-10 F11 opioid-related admissions and admission rates using geospatial analysis, demand analysis, and explanatory models, respectively. The period of analysis was January 2016 through September 2018. Results: The analysis shows existing high opioid admissions in Chicago and New Jersey with emerging areas in Atlanta, Salt Lake City, Phoenix, and Las Vegas. High rates of admission (claims per 10,000 population) exist in the Appalachian area and on the Northeastern seaboard. Explanatory models suggest that hospital overall workload and financial variables might be used for allocating opioid-related treatment funds effectively. Gradient-boosted random forest models accounted for 87.8% of the variability of claims on blinded 20% test data. Conclusions: Based on the GIS analysis, opioid admissions appear to have spread geographically, while higher frequency rates are still found in some regions. Interdiction efforts require demand-analysis such as that provided in this study to allocate scarce resources for supply-side and demand-side interdiction: prevention, treatment, and enforcement. Based on GIS analysis, the opioid epidemic is likely to spread or diffuse through the country, and interdiction efforts require demand-analysis such as that provided in this study to allocate scarce resources for supply-side and demand-side interdiction: prevention, treatment, and enforcement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0268.v1
Online: 29 January 2018 (05:29:38 CET)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0022.v1
Online: 2 February 2019 (13:01:47 CET)
Highway alignment is an essential part of the highway planning and design phase. Highways are impacted by existing projects and surrounding context. The isolation of geo-technical analysis from highway planning and design also delays the planning process. This study therefore proposes a model that integrates building information modelling (BIM) and geographic information science (GIS) capabilities to facilitate the planning and design process. Semantic web technologies are used to integrate BIM and GIS data on a semantic level. The proposed model also helps to identify geohazards by providing geological analysis. The visualization of the proposed project can help reduce design errors and miscommunication, which, in turn, reduces project risk. In addition, the model facilitates highway alignment optimization by incorporating visualization, simulation, and analysis into the planning and design phase. The proposed model provides future opportunities for project professionals to have organized, reliable and dynamic ways to manage the project during construction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0407.v1
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:27:50 CEST)
A number of research projects and a rich literature have dealt with the theme of abandoned medieval villages in Sardinia since the end of the 60s of the last century. Some more or less precise catalogues and reviews of villages in limited territories have been published. Only recently, however, this subject is being addressed in an interdisciplinary manner, combining traditional historical research with the results of archaeological surveys and excavation campaigns, geo-archaeology, toponymy, paleoclimatology. This allows us to have a picture of the landscape and human settlement evolution with its historical changes, conditioned not only by institutional superstructures but also by human and natural traumatic events. Particular attention will be given to the sudden changes that occurred between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. To carry out this survey, it is possible to use some very powerful IT tools which, through the aggregation, organization, correlation and management of information, allow the geo-localization of abandoned villages as proven by the documentary evidence. Thus, on this documentation, existing and acquired in the future, is founded the construction of the related information system. The most easy and suitable tools for this purpose are the CMSs (Content Management Systems) which, in association with GIS (Geographic Information Systems) engines, allow spatial and contextual analysis of the settlements, as they were inserted in their territory. This type of tools aggregates different peculiarities of the object of study, supporting a multidisciplinary reading on the argument. The computerized tools, integrated as a system, offer the possibility to implement it, feeding it and correcting it continuously, basing on new acquisitions. In this study, we will examine a historical areal, for which we have a sufficient number of sources available: Sarrabus, Colostrai and Quirra, adding to the geographical visual information, the temporal visual evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0045.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: Siberian traps; petrology; morphotectonics; GIS technologies
Online: 2 March 2022 (10:58:52 CET)
The article reports morphotectonic and petrological characteristics of magmatic systems of Permo-Triassic traps in the sedimentary cover of the Siberian Craton, Taimyr, as well as in the crystalline basement of the Mesozoic cover of the West Siberian Plate and the Kara sedimentary basin based on the relief analysis, seismotomography data, magnetic and gravitational anomalies. Four development sectors of magma-permeable zones were distinguished along the perimeter of the craton of the Anabar Shield. The western sector is characterized by an extensive stretching area, on which the lava region of volcanic ridges junction of the Tunguska syncline formed. A striking feature of subaerial volcanism is the meridional petrochemical trend of increasing the silica of basic magmas in intrusive rocks of the Siberian Craton while the volumes of embedded melts are reduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0560.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: SEBAL, Remote Sensing, GIS, Groundwater Irrigation
Online: 23 June 2021 (10:15:05 CEST)
Irrigation water management components evaluation is mandatory for sustainable irrigated agriculture production in the era of water scarcity. In this research spatio-temporal distribution of irrigation water components were evaluated at canal command area in Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS) using remote sensing based geo-informatics approach. Satellite derived MODIS product-based Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was used for the estimation of the Actual Evapotranspiration (ETa). Satellite derived SEBAL based ETa was calibrated and validated using the ground data-based advection aridity method (AA). Statistical analysis of the SEBAL based ETa and AA shows the mean 87.1 mm and 47.9 mm and, 100 mm and 77 mm, Standard deviation of 27.7 mm and 15.9 mm and, 34.9 mm and 16.1 mm, R of 0.93 and 0.94, NSE of 0.72 and 0.85, PBIASE -12.9 and -4.4, RMSE 34.9 and 5.76 for the Kharif and Rabi season, respectively. Rainfall data was acquired from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). TRMM based rainfall was calibrated with the point observatory data of the Pakistan Metrological Department Stations. Canal water data was collected from the Punjab Irrigation department for the assessment of canal water availability. Water The water balance approach was applied in the unsaturated zone for the quantification of the gross and net Groundwater irrigation. Mmonthly variation of ETa with the minimum average value of 63.3 mm in January and the maximum average value of 110.6 mm in August was found. While, the average annual of four cropping years (2011-12 to 2014-15) ETa was found 899 mm. Average of the sum of Net Canal Water Use (NCWU) and Rainfall during the study period of four years was only 548 mm (36% of ETa) and this resulted the 739.6 mm of groundwater extraction. While the annual based variation in groundwater extraction of 632 mm and 780 mm was found. Seasonal analysis revealed 39% and 61% of groundwater extraction proportion during Rabi and Kharif season, respectively. The variation in four cropping year’s monthly groundwater extraction was found 28.7 mm to 120.3 mm. This variation was high in the 2011-12 to 2012-13 cropping year (0 mm to 148.7 mm), dependent upon the occurrence of rainfall and crop phenology. Net groundwater irrigation, estimated after incorporating the efficiencies was 503 mm year-1 on average for the four cropping years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0577.v1
Online: 23 December 2020 (09:41:08 CET)
Here we introduce Literature Mapper, a Python QGIS plugin that provides a method for creating a spatial bibliography manager as well as a specification for storing spatial data in a bibliography manager. Literature Mapper uses QGIS’ spatial capabilities to allow users to add location information to a Zotero library, a free and open source bibliography manager. Literature Mapper enhances the citations in a user’s online Zotero database with geo-locations by storing spatial coordinates as part of traditional citation entries. Literature Mapper receives data from and sends data to the user’s online database via Zotero’s web API. By using Zotero as the backend data storage, Literature Mapper benefits from all of its features including shared citation Collections, public sharing, and an open web API usable by additional applications, such as web mapping libraries. We evaluate Literature Mapper’s ability to provide insights into the spatial distribution of published literature by mapping the study sites described in academic publications related to California’s coastal strand vegetation. The results of this exercise are presented in static and web map form.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0058.v1
Online: 3 August 2020 (00:37:42 CEST)
House is the haven that keeps people from natural and human conditions, it gives them trust, safety, and steadiness. It is one of the most basic human needs this became a serious function which cities offer, and became one of the most important aspects which caught urban researchers interest, they take into consideration a wide range of architectural, social, and economic indicators. The study aims to provide an overall conception of Rwandz residential functions, using a collection of parameters and some GIS and statistical techniques, to help establish plans and future projects to improve the growth of this city and other towns and cities in that area. The study found that the old parts of Rwandz city which are located in the core, differ from the outer parts which are relatively newer in many properties, generally, the core is more densely populated than the outer, bigger family size, more illiteracy, and unemployment, few incomes, older houses, smaller houses, in the opposite of the outer parts. Besides, the study tested the correlation coefficient between the criteria; it found some strong statistical relationships between them, which reflected some real-life properties of the residential function. Lastly, the study designed a regression model to predict the main residential function criteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0285.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: climate change; gis; geostatistic; raster math
Online: 16 July 2018 (12:26:24 CEST)
The province of Macerata, Italy, is a topographically complex region which has been little studied in terms of its temperature and precipitation climatology. Temperature data from 81 weather stations and precipitation data from 55 rain gauges were obtained, and, following quality control procedures, were investigated on the basis of 3 standard periods: 1931-1960, 1961-1990 and 1991-2014. Spatial and temporal variations in precipitation and temperature were analysed on the basis of six topographic variable (altitude, distance from the sea, latitude, distance from the closest river, aspect, and distance from the crest line). Of these, the relationship with altitude showed the strongest correlation. Use of GIS software allowed investigation of the most accurate way to present interpolations of these data and assessment of the differences between the 3 investigated periods. The results of the analyses permit a thorough evaluation of climate change spatially over the last 60 years. Generally, the amount of precipitation is diminished while the temperature is increased across the whole study area, but with significant variations within it. Temperature increased by 2 to 3°C in the central part of the study area, while near the coast and in the mountains the change is between about 0 and 1°C, with small decreases focused in the Appennine and foothill belt (-1 to 0°C). For precipitation, the decrease is fairly uniform across the study area (between about 0-200 mm), but with some isolated areas of strong increase (200-300 mm) and only few parts of territory in which there is an increase of 0-200 mm, mainly in the southern part of the coast, to the south-west and inland immediately behind the coast. The monthly temperature trend is characterized by a constant growth, while for precipitation there is a strong decrease in the amount measured in January, February and October (between 25 and 35 mm on average).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0126.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: GIS, Groundwater, Physico- chemical parameters, Statistics
Online: 15 January 2018 (16:48:32 CET)
Groundwater is an important role of the environment in natural resources. The major sources of groundwater contamination in this study were open discharges of domestic sewage, inadequate sewerage system, open defecation, septic tanks, soak pits, contaminated water pools, unorganized solid waste dumping and use of fertilizers, pesticides for agriculture deteriorated the condition. In this present study revealed that the physical and chemical characteristics of ground water in different areas of Kannur district in Kerala have been determined different seasons with respect to its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. For this study the groundwater samples were collected during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons from 70 wells representing the entire the study area. The groundwater samples were analyzed for Physico-chemical characteristics using standard techniques in laboratory and compared with standards. The samples were analyzed with reference to the WHO and BIS standards. The groundwater quality information of the entire study area have been prepared using statistical and GIS technique for all the parameters. This paper proved in GIS will be helpful for measuring, monitoring and managing the groundwater pollution in the study area and suggested to protect groundwater resources in the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0005.v1
Online: 1 December 2017 (10:33:45 CET)
Cloudburst is one of the most devastating and frequently occurring natural hazardous events in Indian Himalayan region. Localized deep cumulus convective clouds have a capability of giving enormous amount of rainfall over a limited horizontal area, within a short span of time. Whenever, such events occur, lead to flash floods causing landslides, house collapses, dislocation of traffic, and human casualties on a large scale. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the cloudburst inundation zones accurately to avoid damage associated with them. For this, high resolution Digital Elevation Model generated from CartoSat-1 (Stereo pair) were integrated in MIKE 11 Hydrodynamic 1D model to generate longitudinal profile of the study area and to find water level, peak discharge, flow velocity, flow width at different reaches along the Asi ganga and Bhagirathi river, to know the Cloudburst flood inundation scenario. On 3rd August 2012 one of the major Cloudburst event occurred in Asi Ganga Valley in Indian Himalayan region which was considered for simulation of hydrodynamic model. For a Cloudburst event, 100 mm/hr rainfall was considered for the simulation of the hydrodynamic model. It is observed that the discharge rise from 50 m3/s to 549.164 m3/s (an abrupt increase of about 10 times) within 1 hr at Sangamchetty in Asiganga river and at Joshiyara area rise from 600 m3/s to 3378.69 m3/s (an abrupt increase of about 5 times) within 4 hr in Bhagirathi river. Similarly the water level rises around 3 m and 6m in Asi Ganga and Bhagirathi rivers respectively. Flash Flood inundation areas due to Cloudburst on 3rd August 2012 were demarcated from the simulation results in GIS environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0173.v1
Online: 18 August 2016 (06:07:05 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0288.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: MV/LV network; GIS planning; Spatial network analysis; 3D virtual city; Web and 3D Web GIS applications
Online: 20 January 2022 (08:32:37 CET)
Electric energy has become essential nowadays not only for the daily life of each of us but also for the economy of different countries. The dissemination of geographic information plays an important role in national development as it facilitates communication between managers, investors, and consumers in this sector. Since the management of electricity network data was previously done in Tunisia based on paper maps and plans, the purpose of this article is to present a case of planning based on GIS, Web, and 3D Web GIS, which would have significant positive consequences on this sector from a technical and financial sides with an improvement in customer satisfaction and the creation of an intelligent electricity network which will be a real decision-making tool. This work draws up an inventory of the network MV (Medium Voltage)/LV (Low Voltage) of the region of Medjez El Bab which routes electricity to the big centers of consumption with access to MV/LV subscribers. The analysis of the network's impedance allowed carrying out different scenarios to optimize performance and obtain more realistic routes. Many thematic maps were produced as part of this project (Slope map, Land use map, map of the MV voltage domains, map of the MV/LV transformer stations power, etc.). A three-dimensional virtual city has been developed to visualize the graphical and attribute data for the study area. A Web and 3D Web GIS applications that allows the publication of the interactive maps on the Web as well as the database information have been developed to offer users the possibility of consulting the produced products by internet. Finally, a website related to the study was developed.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: spatial village planning; coastal areas; local community; indicators of village planning; GIS application; GIS layers; territorial development
Online: 12 January 2020 (13:38:08 CET)
Spatial planning processes generally consider three levels of planning, which are applied to three types of territory: state, county and city. As the coastal areas are of a significant natural, cultural, economic and social value, as well as are characterized by a diverse range of involved society with specific interests and needs, there is a necessity for an innovative and new approach to sustainable development planning in accordance with the modern age of growth, as well as to work with local communities in specific areas. Planning of a small populated area like village territory is more diverse and subject to the wishes and needs of the population. Small territory planning involves a very narrow circle of individuals or communities that identify spatial development needs for the future, including socio-economic, cultural, and environmental and climate change scenarios. In order to assess the development opportunities and needs of the area, it is necessary to monitor the area by regularly updating data. As it is well known, methodically derived data (facts) provide objectivity and transparency. Nowadays, when information about the present and the past is circulating very fast, it is possible to analyze the current situation, to forecast the future using databases, and to show several constructed realities (scenarios) using the geographic information system (GIS). Therefore, it is crucial to explore and find out the local needs-based planning approach to the development of village in coastal areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0762.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Naturtejo Geopark; Groundwater; Vulnerability; DRASTIC; DRASTICAI; GIS
Online: 31 March 2021 (12:04:28 CEST)
Groundwater vulnerability assessment has become a useful tool for groundwater pollution pre-vention. Groundwater vulnerability maps provide useful data to protect groundwater resources. The identification of agricultural patterns is an important issue for optimized land management. The Tagus river watershed is the backbone of this survey. Naturtejo UNESCO Global Geopark, in central inland Portugal, corresponds to a rural territory. Intensive agricultural practices showed a rising tendency in the last decades. The most internationally used method for vulnerability evaluation is the DRASTIC index. In this survey, the DRASTICAI index is introduced. A new at-tribute - Anthropogenic Influence - is here added. Five levels of growing vulnerability, from low to high, can be here acknowledged. Idanha-a-Nova municipality is the most affected by intensive farming activities. A robust assessment of groundwater quality has a key role. Climate change scenarios and water scarcity are important issues in years to come. Therefore, optimized groundwater management is essential to consider in policy-making strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0082.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Shoreline Evolution; Open-Source Software; GIS; Modeling
Online: 19 February 2021 (09:46:48 CET)
This paper presents the validation of the End Point Rate (EPR) tool for QGIS (EPR4Q), a tool built-in QGIS Graphical Modeler to calculate the shoreline change by End Point Rate method. The EPR4Q tries to fill the gap of user-friendly and free open-source tool for shoreline analysis in Geographic Information System environment, since the most used software - Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) - although is a free extension, is suited for commercial software. Besides, the best free open-source option to calculate EPR called Analyzing Moving Boundaries Using R (AMBUR), since it is a robust and powerful tool, the complexity and heavy processes can restrict the accessibility and simple usage. The validation methodology consists of applying the EPR4Q, DSAS, and AMBUR on different examples of shorelines found in nature, extracted from the U.S. Geological Survey Open-File. The obtained results of each tool were compared with Pearson correlation coefficient. The validation results indicate that the EPR4Q tool created acquired high correlation values with DSAS and AMBUR, reaching a coefficient of 0.98 to 1.00 on linear, extensive, and non-extensive shorelines, guarantying that the EPR4Q tool is ready to be freely used by the academic, scientific, engineering, and coastal managers communities worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0572.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: waterlogging; vulnerability; risk; participatory survey; GIS; Chattogram
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:48:08 CET)
In recent years, rainfall-induced waterlogging has become a common hazard in the highly urbanized coastal city of Chattogram, Bangladesh resulting in high magnitude of property damage and economic loss. Therefore, the primary objective of this research is to prepare a waterlogging inventory map and understand the spatial variation of the risk by means of hazard intensity, exposure, and vulnerability of waterlogging. In this research, the inventory map and factors influencing waterlogging hazard were determined from a participatory survey and other spatial data including land elevation, population, and structural data were collected from secondary sources. Analytical Hierarchy Process was applied to measure the hazard intensity and the exposure and vulnerability were estimated by overlaying the spatial data onto the hazard intensity map. A total of 58 locations in 22 wards have been identified as waterlogging affected, which covers ~8.42% of the city area. Obtained waterlogging vulnerability index map suggests that ward no. 5, 6, 16, 17, and 33 are greatly vulnerable to waterlogging in terms of their social, infrastructure, critical facilities, economic and environmental vulnerability. We show that ~2.71% of the study area is at very high risk, while the risk score is considerably higher for ward no. 5, 8, 17, 19, and 33.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0287.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Urban growth; cellular automata; Benslimane; GIS; Landsat
Online: 9 November 2020 (22:56:32 CET)
In this study, our goal was to research land-use change by combining spatio–temporal land use/land cover monitoring (LULC (1989–2019) and urban growth modeling (1999–2039) in Benslimane, Morocco, to determine the effect of urban growth on different groups based on cellular automata (CA) and geospatial methods. A further goal was to test the reliability of the AC algorithm for urban expansion modeling. To do this, four years of satellite data were used at the same time as population density, downtown distance, slope, and ground road distance. The LULC satellite reported a rise of 3.8 km2 (318% variation) during 1989–2019. Spatial transformation analysis reveals a good classification similarity ranging from 89% to 91% with the main component analysis (PCA) technique. The statistical accuracy between the satellite scale and the replicated built region of 2019 gave 97.23 %t of the confusion matrix overall accuracy, and the region under the receiver operational characteristics (ROC) curve to 0.94, suggesting the model's high accuracy. Although the constructed area remains low relative to the total area of the municipality's territory, the LULC project shows that the urban area will extend to 5,044 km2 in 2019, principally in the western and southwestern sections. In 2019–2039, urban development is expected to lead to a transformation of the other class (loss of 1,364 km2), followed by vegetation cover (loss of 0.345 km2). In spatial modeling and statistical calculations, the GDAL and NumPy Python 3.8 libraries were successful.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0249.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Geoarchaeology; Urban Geomorphology; Failaka Island; GIS; RS.
Online: 11 August 2020 (04:13:37 CEST)
Failaka Island is located 20 kilometers east of the Kuwait mainland. The island includes archaeological sites dating back to the Bronze, Hellenistic, Christian, and Islamic ages. To develop the island as a tourist attraction the state is pursuing a new urban plan based on the island's environmental potential. This study is the basis of the urban plan depends on environmental criteria from the view of Geoarchaeology. The study analysis the land-use and land-cover changes of Failaka Island between 1958- 2018. It provides a topographic survey of the island's coastline and a classification of its geomorphological features and a state of the art identification of its archaeological sites by using a drone to make a terrain model. The study used a medium to high-resolution image analysis of the land-use and land-cover changes: WorldView2-50cm 2010 and 2018; Landsat 8; aerial photography; Drone images and a digital elevation model (DEM), to analysis the expected sea level changes by the end of this century. This study also created a geodatabase of the island that can be adapted for future studies. The results emphasize the importance of preserving the historical and ecological features of the island while developing its infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0028.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: rockfall; susceptibility; GIS; rainfall; earthquake; fault; inventory
Online: 2 April 2019 (07:54:57 CEST)
The assessment of rockfall risks on human activities and infrastructure is of great importance. Rock falls pose a significant risk to a) transportation infrastructure b) inhabited areas and c) Cultural Heritage sites. The paper presents a method to assess rockfall susceptibility at national scale in Greece, using a simple rating approach and GIS techniques. An extensive inventory of rockfalls for the entire country was compiled for the period between 1935 and 2019. The rockfall events that were recorded are those, which have mainly occurred as distinct rockfall episodes in natural slopes and have impacted human activities, such as roads, inhabited areas and archaeological sites. Through a detailed analysis of the recorded data, it was possible to define the factors which determine the occurrence of rockfalls. Based on this analysis, the susceptibility zoning against rockfalls at national scale was prepared, using a simple rating approach and GIS techniques. The rockfall susceptibility zoning takes into account the following parameters: (a) the slope gradient, (b) the lithology, (c) the annual rainfall intensity, (d) the earthquake intensity and (e) the active fault presence. Emphasis was given on the study of the earthquake effect as a triggering mechanism of rockfalls. Finally, the temporal and spatial frequency of the recorded events and the impact of rockfalls on infrastructure assets and human activities in Greece were evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0048.v2
Online: 27 December 2018 (11:42:03 CET)
Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) can provide a great environment for using machine learning algorithm for spatial data such as satellite images. Integrating this functionality with artificial intelligence algorithms for analyzing spatial data enables us to predict challenging disasters such as deforestation. Deforestation as an environmental problems has been recorded the most serious threat to environmental diversity and one of the main components of land-use change. In this paper, we investigate spatial distribution of deforestation using artificial neural networks and satellite imagery. We modeled deforestation process using various factors in determining the relationship between deforestation and environmental and socioeconomic factors. Hence, for this purpose, the proximity to roads and habitats, fragmentation of the forest, height from sea level, slope, and soil type are considered in the model. In this research, we modeled land cover changes (forests) to predict deforestation using an artificial neural network due to its significant potential for the development of nonlinear complex models. The procedure involves image registration and error correction, image classification, preparing deforestation maps, determining layers, and designing a multi-layer neural network to predict deforestation. The satellite images for this study are of a region in Hong Kong which are captured from 2012 to 2016. The results of the study demonstrate that neural networks approach for predicting deforestation can be utilized and its outcomes show the areas that destroyed during the research period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0488.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: gis; bim; ifc; citygml; integration; interoperability; geometry
Online: 29 June 2018 (15:15:57 CEST)
It is widely acknowledged that the integration of BIM and GIS data is a crucial step forward for future 3D city modelling, but most of the research conducted so far has covered only the semantic aspects of GIS-BIM integration. We present here the results of the GeoBIM project, in which we tackled three integration problems focussing instead on aspects involving geometry processing: (i) the automated processing of complex architectural IFC models, (ii) the integration of existing GIS subsoil data in BIM, and (iii) the georeferencing of BIM models for their use in GIS software. All the problems have been studied using real world models and existing datasets made and used by practitioners in the Netherlands. For each problem, we expose in detail the issues we faced, our proposed solutions, and our recommendations for a more successful integration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0047.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Biogenic emissions; Greece; Geographic Information System (GIS)
Online: 7 December 2017 (15:44:08 CET)
Biogenic emissions affect the urban air quality as they are ozone and SOA precursors and should be taken into account when applying photochemical pollution models. The present study presents an estimation of the magnitude of Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds emissions (NMVOCs) emitted by vegetation over Greece. The methodology is based on computation performed with the aid of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and theoretical equations in order to develop an emission inventory on a 6x6 spatial resolution, in a temporal resolution of 1hr covering one year (2016). For this purpose, a variety of input data was used: improved satellite land-use data, land-use specific emission potentials, foliar biomass densities, temperature and solar radiation data. Hourly, daily and annual isoprene, monoterpenes and other volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) were estimated. In the area under study, the annual biogenic emissions were estimated up to 472 kt, consisting of 46.6% isoprene, 28% monoterpenes and 25.4% OVOCs. Results delineate an annual cycle with increasing values from March to April, while maximum emissions were observed from May to September, followed by a decrease from October to January.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0244.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Soil Erosion; Floods; LULC; KINEROS2; GIS; Remote Sensing
Online: 16 September 2022 (09:23:13 CEST)
The Kashmir valley is prone to flooding due to its peculiar geomorphic setup compounded by the rapid anthropogenic land system changes and climate change. The study assesses the impact of land use and land cover (LULC) changes between 1980 and 2020 and extreme rainfall on peak discharge and sediment yield in the Upper Jhelum Basin (UJB), Kashmir Himalaya, India using KINEROS2 model. Analysis of LULC change revealed a notable shift from natural LULC to more intensive human-modified LULC, including a decrease in vegetative cover, deforestation, urbanization, and improper farming practices. The findings revealed a strong influence of the LULC changes on peak discharge, and sediment yield relative to the 2014 timeframe, which coincided with the catastrophic September 2014 flood event. The model predicted a peak discharge of 115101 cubic feet per second (cfs) and a sediment yield of 56.59 tons/ha during the September 2014 flooding, which is very close to the observed peak discharge of 115218 cfs indicating that the model is reliable for discharge prediction. The model predicted a peak discharge of 98965 cfs and a sediment yield of 49.11 tons/ha in 1980, which increased to 118366 cfs and, 58.92 tons/ha respectively in 2020, showing an increase in basin’s flood risk over time. In the future, it is anticipated that the ongoing LULC changes will make flood vulnerability worse, which could lead to another major flooding in the event of an extreme rainfall as predicted under climate change and, in turn compromise achievement of sustainable development goals (SDG). Therefore, regulating LULC in order to modulate various hydrological and land surface processes would ensure stability of runoff and reduction in sediment yield in the UJB, which is critical for achieving many SDGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0011.v1
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:07:40 CEST)
Flash flooding is one of the most devastating natural events that leads to enormous and recurring loss of life. Kuwait was subjected to severe rainstorms in the winter of 2018 and 2020 followed by an extreme violent flood that had not been known in Kuwait since 1976. It resulted in several geomorphological and environmental impacts in urban and desert areas. This produced some positive results, such as geomorphological activity in landforms, the flow of some valleys and the prosperity of wildlife in the Kuwaiti desert. Negative results included some problems in the metropolitan area and destruction of some road networks that intersect the main valleys, and which were not equipped with crossings for avoiding floods. There was also the emergence of some problems in the infrastructure. Study of flash floods requires the involvement of all scientific and executive bodies to avoid environmental risk. The study aims to: 1- Monitor geomorphological and environmental changes. 2- Assess the impact of floods in the urban areas and on infrastructure. 3- Modeling the impact. 4- Creating solutions and adaptions to the flash flood. The study uses several methods such as remote sensing (RS), geographic information systems (GIS), hydrologic modeling and fieldwork to evaluate the impact of flash flood hazards on the sustainable urban development of Kuwait state. This approach is rarely used in Kuwait. We propose a novel method that could help decision-makers and planners in determining inundated flood zones before planning future urban developments in Kuwait, and help them to manage flood water, by identifying the most appropriate places for storage to exploit water in agriculture and drinking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0574.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Environmental geomorphology; Urban Geomorphology; GIS- Suitability modeling; RS
Online: 23 March 2021 (16:53:17 CET)
Choosing the optimal location for a city based on sound environmental geomorphology planning is of the utmost importance to achieving environmental sustainability, as it can spare the State and other decision-making entities a great deal of stress in the long run. GIS offers great potential for environmental planners to choose the most appropriate places for the cities of the future, especially when coupled with environmental geomorphological analyses. The State of Kuwait seeks sustainable development through the implementation of clear and specific urban plans, some of which suffer from a severe lack of geomorphological and spatially based environmental planning. This study aims to: 1) Conduct suitability modelling for establishing new cities in Kuwait, 2) Assess the current 2005-2030 urban plan, and 3) Propose possible recommendations and solutions for potential urban problems. The study relies on integrating several methods to devise a framework that will aid researchers and decision-makers in selecting optimal locations for built structures based on analysis and modelling (e.g., digital elevation model, geologic mapping, geomorphology, natural hazards, heritage/archaeological sites, military areas, oil fields, soils). Using this methodology in choosing city sites contributes to achieving sustainable development, reducing city problems, saving countries’ budgets, and saving lives. Results from this study enhance understanding of how environmental geomorphology, when combined with GIS, can be harnessed to achieve sustainable urban development in the Arabian Gulf countries and other desert countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0513.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Sea-Level Rise; GIS; Open-Source Software; Modeling
Online: 23 February 2021 (12:39:09 CET)
Sea-level rise is a problem increasingly affecting coastal areas worldwide. The existence of Free and Open-Source Models to estimate the sea-level impact can contribute to better coastal man-agement. This study aims to develop and to validate two different models to predict the sea-level rise impact supported by Google Earth Engine (GEE) – a cloud-based platform for planetary-scale environmental data analysis. The first model is a Bathtub Model based on the uncertainty of projections of the Sea-level Rise Impact Module of TerrSet - Geospatial Monitoring and Modeling System software. The validation process performed in the Rio Grande do Sul coastal plain (S Brazil) resulted in correlations from 0.75 to 1.00. The second model uses Bruun Rule formula implemented in GEE and is capable to determine the coastline retreat of a profile through the creation of a simple vector line from topo-bathymetric data. The model shows a very high cor-relation (0.97) with a classical Bruun Rule study performed in Aveiro coast (NW Portugal). The GEE platform seems to be an important tool for coastal management. The models developed have been openly shared, enabling the continuous improvement of the code by the scientific commu-nity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0480.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: GIS; RUSLE; Sediment Yield; Spatial Variation; Temporal Variation
Online: 22 February 2021 (14:57:30 CET)
Sediment accumulation in a dam reservoir is a common happening environmental problem throughout the world. Topographic conditions, land use land cover change, the intensity of rainfall, and the soil characteristics are the major driving factors for sedimentation to occur. The effect of sedimentation in a dam reservoir is very visible in the watershed as a result of hilly topographic conditions, high rainfall intensity, thin land cover, and less soil infiltration capacity. In this paper, an integrated RUSLE and GIS technique was implemented to estimate a mean annual sediment yield based on spatial and temporal variations in Nashe dam reservoir situated in Fincha catchment, Abaya River basin, Ethiopia. Spatial and temporal estimation of mean annual sediment yield was estimated using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model and GIS. Historical 6-year (2014-2019) rainfall for the temporal variations and other physical factors such as soil erodibility, slope and length steepness, management and land used land cover, and support practice for spatial variations were used as sediment driving factors. The mean annual sediment yield ranges from 0 to 2712.65 t ha-1 year-1 was seen. Spatially, Very high, high, moderate, low, and very low sediment yield severity with total area coverage with 25%, 10%, 30%, 15%, and 20% in 2017, 2015, 2019, 2014, and 2018 respectively. The information about the spatial and temporal variations of the severity of sediment yield in RUSLE model has a paramount role to control the entry of sediment into the dam reservoir in this watershed. The results of the RUSLE model can also be further considered along with the watershed for planning strategies for dam reservoirs in the catchment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0421.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Sea-Level Rise; GIS; Open-Source Software; Modeling
Online: 18 February 2021 (13:52:49 CET)
Sea-level rise is a problem increasingly affecting coastal areas worldwide. The existence 15 of Free and Open-Source Models to estimate the sea-level impact can contribute to better coastal 16 management. This study aims to develop and to validate two different models to predict the 17 sea-level rise impact supported by Google Earth Engine (GEE) – a cloud-based platform for plan-18 etary-scale environmental data analysis. The first model is a Bathtub Model based on the uncer-19 tainty of projections of the Sea-level Rise Impact Module of TerrSet - Geospatial Monitoring and 20 Modeling System software. The validation process performed in the Rio Grande do Sul coastal 21 plain (S Brazil) resulted in correlations from 0.75 to 1.00. The second model uses Bruun Rule for-22 mula implemented in GEE and is capable to determine the coastline retreat of a profile through the 23 creation of a simple vector line from topo-bathymetric data. The model shows a very high correla-24 tion (0.97) with a classical Bruun Rule study performed in Aveiro coast (NW Portugal). The GEE 25 platform seems to be an important tool for coastal management. The models developed have been 26 openly shared, enabling the continuous improvement of the code by the scientific community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0151.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Environmental geomorphology; Urban Geomorphology; GIS- Suitability modeling; RS
Online: 5 February 2021 (09:54:43 CET)
The State of Kuwait seeks sustainable development through implementation of clear and specific urban plans, some of which suffer from a severe lack of geomorphological and spatially-based environmental planning, such as the use of geographic information systems (GIS). Choosing the optimal location for a city based on sound environmental planning is of the utmost importance to achieving environmental sustainability, as it can spare the State and other decision-making entities a great deal of stress in the long run. GIS, in particular, offers great potential for the environmental planner and decision-maker to choose the most appropriate places for the cities of the future, especially when coupled with geomorphological analyses. To achieve the Vision of Kuwait 2035, one of the State’s planning objectives focuses on Urban Planning for the Establishment of Environmental Cities that Achieve (UPEECA) environmental sustainability criteria. To gain a more holistic analysis related to the Vision, this study aims to: 1) Conduct suitability modelling for establishing new cities in Kuwait, 2) Assess the current 2005-2030 urban plan, and 3) Propose possible recommendations and solutions for potential urban problems. The study relies on integrating several methods to devise a framework that will aid researchers and decision-makers in selecting optimal locations for built structures based on analysis and modelling (e.g., digital elevation model, geologic mapping, geomorphology, natural hazards, heritage/archaeological sites, military areas, oil fields, soils)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0035.v1
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:01:36 CET)
The aim of this paper is to analyze the five grand parks in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and provide a geoprocessing approach to different aspects such as sport, health, leisure, recreation, and public wellbeing. The study uses a hybrid of qualitative and quantitative approach as methodology. Sustainability offerings, accessibility for people of determination and special needs, typology and the geolocations of the grand parks plays crucial role in residents’ wellbeing. The paper concludes with recommendations for Dubai government to design new and innovative approaches to manage wellbeing of urban public places into the leisure environment for residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0387.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: environmental diversity; eco-tourism; Asir region; GIS; RS
Online: 17 September 2020 (08:06:50 CEST)
This is study follows environmental diversity assessment for geotourism development in Asir region. Geotourism seeks to supporting the tourism landscape in its interaction with the historical and archaeological, architectural or immaterial heritage, and requires diversification in terms of product, market and geographical potential. The study is based on various tourist facades and environmental diversity in Asir. As tourism development is a comprehensive undertaking involving many sectors, and these are the challenges to which the country’s tourism industry should respond to promote domestic tourism. quality and spatial pattern of tourism resources, climate comfort, and natural disaster possibility. Based on analyze multi-source datasets collected, geomorphological features of this area, we created a GIS database comprising geologic and topographic maps, and satellite images using these datasets. The findings of the study provided valuable insights into the role of environmental diversity in achieving tourism. The study examined the interrelationship between tourism and environmental diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0018.v1
Online: 3 July 2020 (08:27:23 CEST)
Abstract Background: The highest incidence rate of covid-19 in Iran was reported from Shahroud County. This study was conducted by geographic information systems (GIS) to determine the geographical distribution of Covid-19 in 60 days. Study design: A cross-sectional study Methods: This study was conducted in counties covered by Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, namely Shahroud and Mayami, from February 20, 2020 to April 18, 2020. The GIS can better show the spread of epidemics. This software indicates geographical distribution of disease spread and is very helpful in controlling the epidemics. Therefore, maps of spatial distribution and risk of infection to COVID-19 were prepared in different regions of Shahroud county using Arc-GIS software to better implement health policies. Results: During this sixty-day period, 529 confirmed cases were detected, of which 51% were men and the average age was 55 years. The maps showed high-risk to risk-free regions. Shahroud and Bastam cities were known as the coronavirus hot spots. The eastern region of Shahroud has the highest number of cases but some high risk areas are spread throughout the Shahroud city due to high infectivity of virus. Risk-based time maps indicated a reduction in the risk of infection at the end of the research period due to some mitigation and suppression strategies. Conclusions: Shahroud and Bastam are the most dangerous cities that, the number of patients and dissemination has decreased over time because of tracking definite patients and people in contact with them and implementation of preventive care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0050.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: potato cultivation soil suitability; agricultural landscape categorisation; GIS
Online: 5 February 2020 (02:52:46 CET)
Growing potato demands considerable external inputs of pesticides due to its susceptibility to various pests and pathogens. Here we present an attempt to differentiate the Slovak rural landscape with respect to the possibility of effective potato cultivation and to characterise soil parameters of current potato cultivation areas with the aim to increase the sustainability of the potato production. The selection was based on soil climatic, production and economic parameters. By using the GIS tools and existing databases on soil characteristics in Slovakia, maps of soil suitability categories for potato cultivation were generated. In Slovakia, it was found that 12.3% of farmland is very suitable for potato cultivation and that as much as 43.1% is not suitable. Later the specified categories were characterised in detail and specified with respect to geographic, soil, climatic, production and economic parameters. Currently, most potato crops are cultivated on Eutric Cambisols (27%), Chernozems (20%) and Mollic Fluvisols (18%). Loamy soils (65%), soils without gravel (62%), deep soils (74%) and soil situated on plains (55%) are dominant in these regions. We suggest that potato cultivation should be concentrated on the most suitable areas, thereby increasing the economic profitability, improving the ecological stability of the country and supporting the sustainability of the agriculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0068.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: sustainability; urban planning; parametric model; informal settlements; GIS
Online: 5 June 2018 (12:56:11 CEST)
The non-existence of a land ownership database in most of the developing countries moves the inhabitants to the occupation of public lands. Some of this situation are the origin to areas of informal housing, commerce and agriculture and in the end into new informal settlements. Informal settlements become a serious problem in developing countries. The most common typology of informal settlements is that they are the population settled in public lands without any infrastructures and against the administrator's will. Thought this action the result in an uncontrolled land occupation process that promotes new informal areas without any proper built-up utilities, located in risk areas on the territory, barely ensuring the minimum requirements for a heaty living of the population and in various cases incentives to an informal economy. The process of build a cadastral map in informal settlement areas is a fundamental base to support the future transformation of illegal areas and to regulate the occupation of new subdivision planning and into the creation of new expansion areas. In this paper, it is presented a methodology developed to be applied to support a new register of land and to management. The transformation of informal settlement areas. The model to register the land tenure has been associated with allows the process application to multiple typology of informal settlements. The model to register land tenure has developed on a series of qualitative and quantitative data that determine the identification and classification of the buildings and its physical and functional description. The model was developed using Geographic Information System and with an initial survey of existing land titles of possession and public proposals to develop new expansion areas. A case study of the method is presented, where the land management model was implemented - Chã da Caldeiras in Ilha do Fogo an informal settlement in Cape Verde. The results are a great acceptance of the proposal by the population and local authorities and the starting of the implementation phase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0056.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Space Science Keywords: environmental risks; satellite data; GIS techniques; Egyptian temples
Online: 9 November 2017 (03:10:49 CET)
Over the years, the Egyptian temples at Luxor city have been intensely investigated, but most of these studies just focused on the classical sides of the archaeological and historical descriptions. Many of the environmental problems are inevitable results of the unplanned urban crawling around the monuments temples. This paper aims at assessing the environmental changes around some temples of Luxor City using Remote sensing and GIS techniques. In particular, a historical database made up of Corona and Landsat TM data have been investigated along with the new acquisitions of Quickbird2 and Sentinel2. Results from our investigation highlighted rapid changes in urban and agricultural areas, which adversely affected the Egyptian monumental temples causing serious degradation phenomena. Using the information obtained from our RS&GIS based analysis, mitigation strategies have been also identified for supporting the preservation of the archaeological area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0263.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: response; dropout; older adults; physical activity interventions; OSM; GIS
Online: 22 February 2022 (03:47:38 CET)
Research is still lacking regarding the question as to how programs to promote healthy aging should be organized in order to increase acceptance and thus effectiveness. For older adults, ecological factors, such as physical distance to program sites, might predict participation and retention. Thus, the key aim of this analysis was to examine these factors in a physical activity intervention trial. Adults (N=8,299) aged 65 to 75 years were invited to participate and n=589 participants were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups with 10 weeks of physical activity home practice and exercise classes or a wait-list control group. Response, participation, and dropout data were compared regarding ecological, individual, and study-related variables. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models were used to determine predictors of dropout. In total, 405 participants completed the study. Weekly class attendance rates were examined regarding significant weather conditions and holiday periods. The highest rates of nonresponse were observed in districts with very high neighborhood levels of socioeconomic status. In this study, ecological factors did not appear to be significant predictors of dropout, whereas certain individual and study-related variables were predictive. Future studies should consider these factors during program planning to mobilize and keep subjects in the program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0435.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Soil Erosion Estimation; Quantitative Calculation; RUSLE; Remote Sensing; GIS
Online: 16 November 2020 (16:19:22 CET)
The accurate assessment and monitoring of soil erosion is of great significance for guiding food production and ensuring ecological security, and it is a current research hotspot. In this paper, remote sensing and geographic information systems (GISs) are combined with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model) to carry out research on soil erosion monitoring and make a quantitative evaluation. According to five factors, including rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, topography, vegetation cover, crop management and water and soil conservation measures, the distribution of the soil erosion rate in Jilin Province in 2019 was mapped, and the soil erosion rate was divided into 5 levels according to the degree of erosion, including very slight, slight, moderate, severe and extremely severe erosion. Based on the segmented S-slope factor model and the unique topographical features of the study area, the relationships among the soil erosion rate, erosion risk level, erosion area, erosion amount and slope angle (θ) were systematically analysed, and a slope angle of 15° was identified as the threshold for soil erosion on sloped farmland in Jilin Province. The total soil erosion in Jilin Province was 402.14×106 t in 2019, the average soil erosion rate was 21.6 t·ha-1·a-1, and the average soil loss thickness was 1.6 mm·a-1; these values were far greater than the soil erosion rate risk threshold of 10 t ·Ha-1·a-1. Thus, the province has a strong level of soil erosion. We conclude that soil degradation is accelerating, and food production and the ecological environment will face severe challenges. It is suggested that soil erosion control should be carried out according to different types and slopes of land, with an emphasis on the management of forestland and farmland because forestland and farmland are currently the first types of land to be managed in Jilin Province. This paper aims to explore a timely, fast, efficient and convenient soil erosion monitoring and evaluation method and provide effective monitoring tools for agricultural water and soil conservation, ecological safety management and stable food production in Jilin Province and similar black soil areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Port State Control; AHP; Paris MOU; GIS; Maritime Regulations
Online: 17 January 2020 (10:27:40 CET)
Merchant marine fleet is under inspections by several parties to ensure maritime regulation compliance. One of the major effects on implementation of regulations by International Maritime Organization (IMO) is indeed Port State Control. This article aims to analyze Paris Memoranda of Understanding (MOU) all detention remarks from 2013 to 2019 for EU15 countries (except Luxemburg and Austria) through an approach based on Analytical Hierarchy Process and demonstrate the results on Geographic Information System (GIS) to guide marine industry on detainable Port State Control remarks and country risk profile. While Analytical Hierarchy Process Approach has been used to indicate the ranking of basic maritime regulations from the perspective of the port state control , GIS help us to demonstrate the regional dispersion amongst EU15. The data of the detained vessel taken from the public website of Paris MOU and each report considered as a professional judgement that causes detention. It has been shown that almost all countries top priorities for regulation are Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and Fire Safety Systems (FSS). Consequently, the results of the study can assist Port State Officers, ship crew, ship owners and managers presenting the facts of their inspection and able to improve themselves. The spatial analysis also expected to guide ship owners and managers to focus their vessel’s deficiencies to prevent sub-standardization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0447.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: socio-environmental vulnerability; Barcelona; spatial analysis; qualitative methodology; GIS
Online: 19 October 2018 (11:33:48 CEST)
The city of Barcelona, like other cities in the world, suffers strong internal socio-economic inequalities. Numerous works have sought to detect, quantify, characterize and / or map existing intra-urban differences, almost always based on quantitative methodologies. With this contribution, we intend to illuminate the complementary role that qualitative methodologies can play in studies on urban socio-environmental vulnerability. We consider aspects that are not quantifiable but that may be inherent to many such vulnerable spaces, both in the constructed environment and in the social ambit. These questions are considered through selected neighborhoods of Barcelona which have been shown (in prior works, mainly studies of quantitative manufacturing) to possess elements of vulnerability including a high presence of immigrants from less-developed countries, low per capita income, aging populations, or low educational levels. The results reveal the multidimensionality of vulnerability in the neighborhoods analyzed, as well as the essential complementarity among methodologies that detect and support possible public actions aimed at reducing or eliminating intra-urban inequalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0213.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: GIS; Himalayan region; SRM model; simulation; snowmelt runoff; climate change
Online: 13 December 2021 (16:06:43 CET)
The current study was planned to simulate runoff due to the snowmelt in the Lidder River catchment of Himalayan region under climate change scenarios. A basic degree-day model, Snowmelt-Runoff Model (SRM) was utilized to assess the hydrological consequences of change in climate. The SRM model performance during the calibration and validation was assessed using volume difference (Dv) and coefficient of determination (R2). The Dv was found as 11.7, -10.1, -11.8, 1.96, and 8.6 during 2009-2014, respectively, while the R2 is 0.96, 0.92, 0.95, 0.90, and 0.94, respectively. The Dv and R2 values indicating that the simulated snowmelt runoff has a close agreement with the observed value. The simulated findings were also assessed under the different scenarios of climate change: a) increases in precipitation by +20 %, b) temperature rise of +2 °C, and c) temperature rise of +2 °C with a 20 % increase in snow cover. In scenario "b", the simulated results showed that runoff increased by 53 % in summer (April–September). In contrast, the projected increased discharge for scenarios "a" and "c" was 37 % and 67 %, respectively. In high elevation data-scarce mountain environments, the SRM is efficient in forecasting future water supplies due to the snowmelt runoff.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0392.v2
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Digital building permit; BIM; GIS; GeoBIM; Compliance checking; Rule checking
Online: 23 November 2021 (15:28:57 CET)
Growing interest is awarded to the digitalization of the building permitting use case and many works are developed about the topic. However, the subject is very complex and many aspects are usually tackled separately, making it very hard for traditional literature reviews to grasp the actual progress in the overall topic. This paper unveils the detailed state of the art in Digital Building Permitting (DBP) by critically analyzing the literature by means of a set of coding tags (research progress, implementation, affected DBP workflow steps, ambitions addressed) assigned by a multidisciplinary team. The mainly addressed aspects of the digitalization of building permits resulted to be the technologies to check the compliance of design proposals against regulations, followed by the digitalization of regulations. Lacking aspects are instead the involvement of officers, scalability of solutions and interoperability of data, intended both as data validation and as integration of geoinformation with building models.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: river valley bottom; GIS; cost distance accumulation; groundwater dependent ecosystems
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:50:04 CET)
River valley bottoms have hydrological, geomorphological, and ecological importance and are buffers for protecting the river from upland nutrient loading coming from agriculture and other sources. They are relatively flat, low-lying areas of the terrain that are adjacent to the river and bound by increasing slopes at the transition to the uplands. These areas have under natural conditions, a groundwater table close to the soil surface. The objective of this paper is to present a stepwise GIS approach for the delineation of river valley bottom within drainage basins and use it to perform a national delineation. We developed a tool that applies a concept called cost distance accumulation with spatial data inputs consisting a river network and slope derived from a digital elevation model. We then used wetlands adjacent to rivers as a guide finding the river valley bottom boundary from the cost distance accumulation. We present results from our tool for the whole country of Denmark carrying out a validation within three selected areas. The results reveal that the tool visually performs well and delineates both confined and unconfined river valleys within the same drainage basin. We use the most common forms of wetlands (meadow and marsh) in Denmark's river valleys known as Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems (GDE) to validate our river valley bottom delineated areas. Our delineation picks about half to two-thirds of these GDE. However, we expected this since farmers have reclaimed Denmark's low-lying areas during the last 200 years before the first map of GDE was created. Our tool can be used as a management tool, since it can delineate an area that has been the focus of management actions to protect waterways from upland nutrient pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0415.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: pandemic; covid-19; monitoring; GIS dashboard; emergency spatial support centre
Online: 19 August 2020 (11:48:55 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic event requires a rapid response from various organizations at the international and national levels. One important response is the provision of information sharing facilities and monitoring of the spread of cases around the world, JHU CSSE developed the Dashboard in January 2020 and followed by WHO the same month for the WHO COVID-19 dashboard. Both dashboards have distributed information as expected by the user with their respective pros and cons. JHU CSSE Dashboard provides faster information with good access to mobile device users even though the display and color selection are less attractive. Information on the WHO COVID-19 Dashboard is often late but more data appearances and variations and comparisons between countries can be made. In the Indonesian context, ESSC for COVID-19 Geoportal as Esri Indonesia initiative has been developed with the support of data and information from various parties and developed with the principles of big data management which are fully supported by adequate spatial portal developer software from Esri. Particularly in Indonesia, there is not yet an adequate system to support spatial based decision making at the local level, therefore the development of a GIS dashboard to support provincial and district governments is highly recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0008.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: GRASS GIS; g.citation; software citation; open science; OSGeo; credit; rewards
Online: 1 April 2019 (10:19:53 CEST)
The authors introduce the GRASS GIS add-on module g.citation as an initial implementation of a fine-grained software citation concept. The module extends the existing citation capabilities of GRASS GIS, which until now only provide for automated citation of the software project as a whole, authored by the GRASS Development Team, without reference to individual persons. The functionalities of the new module enable individual code citation for each of the over 500 implemented functionalities, including add-on modules. Three different classes of citation output are provided in a variety human- and machine-readable formats. The implications of this reference implementation of scientific software citation for both for the GRASS GIS project and the OSGeo foundation are outlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: dog theft; pet theft; dogs; pets, crime; animal geography; GIS
Online: 28 March 2019 (06:40:57 CET)
Dogs are considered property under UK law, while current discourses of pet ownership place canine companions as part of an extended family. This means sentences for those who steal dogs are not reflective of a dogs’ sentience and agency, rather reflecting the same charges for those who steal a laptop or wallet. This is particularly problematic as dog theft is currently on the rise in England and Wales and led to public calls to change the law. Recognizing that a more robust analysis of dog theft crime statistics is required, we gathered dog theft data for 2015, 2016 and 2017 from 37 of 44 police forces through FOI requests. This paper uses this data to examine how dog theft crime statistics are constructed; assesses the strengths and weaknesses of this data; and categorizes, maps and measures dog theft changes temporally per police force in England and Wales. Our findings reveal there has been an increase in dog theft crimes, 1,294 in 2015, 1,525 in 2016 (+17.85%), and 1,678 in 2017 (+10.03%); and a decrease in court charges related to dog theft crimes, 62 (4.7%) in 2015, 48 (3.14%) in 2016, 37 (2.2%) in 2017. There were police force inconsistencies in recording dog theft crime which meant some data was unusable or could not be accessed or analysed. There is a need for a qualitative study to understand dog theft crime in different areas, and standardised approach to recording the theft of a dog by all forces across England and Wales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0070.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Remote sensing; direct detection; GIS mapping; Caribbean Archaeology; landscape archaeology
Online: 11 October 2017 (16:23:29 CEST)
Satellite imagery has had limited application in the analysis of pre-colonial settlement archaeology in the Caribbean; visible evidence of wooden structures perishes quickly in tropical climates. Only slight topographic modifications remain, typically associated with middens. Nonetheless, surface scatters, as well as the soil characteristics they produce, can serve as quantifiable indicators of an archaeological site, which can be detected by analysis of remote sensing imagery. A variety of data sets were investigated, with the intention to combine multispectral bands to feed a direct detection algorithm, providing a semi-automatic process to cross-correlate the datasets. Sampling was done using locations of known sites, as well as areas with no archaeological evidence. The pre-processed very diverse remote sensing data sets have gone through a process of image registration. The algorithm was applied in the northwestern Dominican Republic on areas that included different types of environments, chosen for having sufficient imagery coverage, and a representative number of known locations of indigenous sites. The resulting maps present quantifiable statistical results of locations with similar pixel value combinations as the identified sites, indicating higher probability of archaeological evidence. The results show the variable potential of this method in diverse environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0035.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: landslide; classifier ensemble; instance based learning; Rotation Forest; GIS; Vietnam
Online: 4 May 2017 (08:25:12 CEST)
This study proposes a novel hybrid machine learning approach for modeling of rainfall-induced shallow landslides. The proposed approach is a combination of an instance-based learning algorithm (k-NN) and Rotation Forest (RF), state of the art machine techniques that have seldom explored for landslide modeling. The Lang Son city area (Vietnam) is selected as a case study. For this purpose, a spatial database for the study area was constructed, and then, was used to build and evaluate the hybrid model. Performance of the model was assessed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), area under the ROC curve (AUC), success rate and prediction rate, and several statistical evaluation metrics. The results showed that the model has high performance with both the training data (AUC = 0.948) and the validation data (AUC = 0.848). The results were compared with those obtained from soft computing techniques i.e. Random Forest, J48 Decision Trees, and Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks. Overall, the performance of the proposed model is better than those obtained from the above methods. Therefore, the proposed model is a promising tool for landslide modeling. The research result can be highly useful for land use planning and management in landslide prone areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0104.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Sustainable rural development; EAFRD; LEADER Approach; GIS; Principal Component Analysis
Online: 28 February 2017 (12:16:38 CET)
The European Commission has been striving to achieve sustainable development in its rural areas for more than 25 years through funds aimed at modernizing the agricultural and forestry sectors, protecting the environment and improving the quality of life. But is sustainable rural development really being accomplished? This study sets out to answer this question in the case of Extremadura, a Spanish territory with Low Demographic Density and a Gross Domestic Product still below 75 % of the European average. Both qualitative and quantitative methodology have been employed, using a Principal Component Analysis the result of which has provided us with a model which shows how various behaviors coexist in the region in view of the distribution of current funding from the EAFRD. The most dynamic areas have received the largest amounts of funding and these are linked to the agricultural sector and to the protection of the environment, leaving aside the more depressed areas and the implementation of the LEADER Approach as well. Therefore, we have come to the conclusion that the current rural development in Extremadura is not sustainable enough.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0465.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Spatial; Decision Support; Machine Learning; Automation; Framework; System; SDSS; AutoML; GIS
Online: 29 September 2022 (10:06:18 CEST)
Many spatial decision support systems suffer from user adoption issues in practice due to lack of trust, technical expertise, and resources. Automated machine learning has recently allowed non-experts to explore and apply machine learning models in the industry without requiring abundant expert knowledge and resources. This paper reviews recent literature from 136 papers, and proposes a general framework for integrating spatial decision support systems with automated machine learning to lower major user adoption barriers. Challenges of data quality, model interpretability, and practical usefulness were discussed as general considerations for system implementation. Research opportunities related to spatially explicit models in AutoML, and resource-aware, collaborative/connected, and human-centered systems were also discussed to address these challenges. This paper argues that integrating spatial decision support systems with automated machine learning can not only encourage user adoption, but also mutually benefit research in both fields — bridging human-related and technical advancements for fostering future developments in spatial decision support systems and automated machine learning.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0302.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: machine learning; artificial intelligence; pattern; models; classification; regression; GIS; remote sensing
Online: 20 July 2022 (10:58:15 CEST)
Machine learning (ML) is a subdivision of artificial intelligence in which the machine learns from machine-readable data and information. It uses data, learns the pattern and predicts the new outcomes. Its popularity is growing because it helps to understand the trend and provides a solution that can be either a model or a product. Applications of ML algorithms have increased drastically in G.I.S. and remote sensing in recent years. It has a broad range of applications, from developing energy-based models to assessing soil liquefaction to creating a relation between air quality and mortality. Here, in this paper, we discuss the most popular supervised ML models (classification and regression) in G.I.S. and remote sensing. The motivation for writing this paper is that ML models produce higher accuracy than traditional parametric classifiers, especially for complex data with many predictor variables. This paper provides a general overview of some popular supervised non-parametric ML models that can be used in most of the G.I.S. and remote sensing-based projects. We discuss classification (Naïve Bayes (NB), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest (RF), Decision Trees (DT)) and regression models (Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Linear and Non-Linear) here. Therefore, the article can be a guide to those interested in using ML models in their G.I.S. and remote sensing-based projects
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0275.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: web-GIS 3d; Seismic Analysis; Structural Analysis; FEA/FEM Analysis; OpenSees.
Online: 16 November 2021 (08:44:17 CET)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0206.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Remote sensing; GIS; AHP; Groundwater potential zone; Weighted overlay analysis; Kilinochchi
Online: 9 August 2021 (16:56:29 CEST)
The scarcity of surface water resources in the dry season in the Kilinochchi district increases the demand for freshwater. Therefore, the existing groundwater resources should be managed to overcome the situation. Several authors worldwide have published studies on the delineation of potential groundwater zone. However, only a few studies addressed the delineation of potential groundwater zones in the Kilinochchi district. This study aims to delineate potential groundwater zones in Kilinochchi, Sri Lanka using integrated Remote Sensing, Geographic Information Systems, and Analytic Hierarchy Process techniques. Groundwater potential zones are demarcated for the Kilinochchi district by overlaying thematic layers: geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, soil types, drainage density, slope, lineament, and rainfall. Saaty's scale was applied to the assigned weights of the chosen thematic layers and their features. The thematic layers were integrated into a Geographic Information System, and a weighted overlay analysis is carried out to delineate groundwater zones. Thus the resultant map is categorized into five different potential zones: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. It was found that the very high groundwater potential zone is mainly found in the north-eastern part of the study area covering 111.26 km2. The upper north-western, middle, and eastern parts of the study area fall within the high groundwater potential zone covering about 507.74 km2. The moderate groundwater potential zones (309.89 km2) mainly occurred in the western part, and the extreme west part of the study area falls under low (207.78 km2) and very low (59.12 km2) zones. The groundwater potential map was validated with the existing seventy-nine wells, which indicated a good prediction accuracy of 81.8%. This research will help policymakers better manage the Kilinochchi district's groundwater resources and gives scope for further research into groundwater exploration in the area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0175.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: carbon monoxide; COHb; air pollution; GIS interpolation; spatial analysis; respiratory diseases
Online: 27 November 2017 (09:13:06 CET)
This paper aims to investigate carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations on roadways of Karachi, potential blood levels carboxy-hemoglobin (COHb) in Karachi. Geographical information system (GIS) was used for spatial analysis of diseases potentiality while an interpolation technique has been applied for surface generation with town boundaries and later evaluates risk areas.The higher concentration of carbon monoxide in the ambient is mainly due to automobile emissions. The City center and CBD areas are more perilous.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0556.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Solar radiation; 3D city models; Urban environment; GRASS GIS r.sun; 3D extension
Online: 23 July 2020 (12:20:40 CEST)
Solar3D is an open-source software application designed to interactively calculate solar irradiation at three-dimensional (3D) surfaces in a virtual environment constructed with combinations of 3D city models, digital elevation models (DEMs), digital surface models (DSMs) and feature layers. The GRASS GIS r.sun solar radiation model computes solar irradiation based on two-dimensional (2D) raster maps for given day, latitude, surface and atmospheric conditions. With the increasing availability of 3D city models and demand for solar energy, there is an urgent need for better tools to computes solar radiation directly with 3D city models. Solar3D extends GRASS GIS r.sun from 2D to 3D by feeding the model with input, including surface slope, aspect and time-resolved shading, that is derived directly from the 3D scene using computer graphics techniques. To summarize, Solar3D offers several new features which, as a whole, distinguish itself from existing 3D solar irradiation tools: (1) the ability to consume massive heterogeneous 3D city models, including massive 3D city models such as oblique airborne photogrammetry-based 3D city models (OAP3Ds or integrated meshes); (2) the ability to perform near real-time pointwise calculation for duration from daily to annual; (3) the ability to integrate and interactively explore large-scale heterogeneous geospatial data. (4) the ability to calculate solar irradiation at arbitrary surface positions including at rooftops, facades and the ground. Solar3D is publicly available at https://github.com/jian9695/Solar3D.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0044.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Weather radar; rain gauge; rainfall; QPE; RADOLAN; RADKLIM; GIS; radar climatology; uncertainties
Online: 4 February 2020 (10:42:56 CET)
Precipitation is a crucial driver for many environmental processes and weather radars are capable of providing precipitation information with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) are also subject to various potential uncertainties. This study explores the development, uncertainties and potentials of the hourly operational German radar-based and gauge-adjusted QPE called RADOLAN and its reanalysed radar climatology dataset named RADKLIM in comparison to ground-truth rain gauge data. The precipitation datasets are statistically analysed across various time scales ranging from annual and seasonal aggregations to hourly rainfall intensities in regard to their capability to map long-term precipitation distribution, to detect low intensity rainfall and to capture heavy rainfall. Moreover, the impacts of season, orography and distance from the radar on long-term precipitation sums are examined in order to evaluate dataset performance and to describe inherent biases. Results revealed that both radar products tend to underestimate total precipitation sums and particularly high intensity rainfall. But our analyses also showed significant improvements throughout the RADOLAN time series as well as major advances through the climatologic reanalysis regarding the correction of typical radar artefacts, orographic and winter precipitation as well as range-dependent attenuation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0052.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: sea level rise; coastal flood hazard; storm surge; extreme tidal level; GIS
Online: 6 May 2019 (10:57:09 CEST)
Portugal Mainland has hundreds of thousands of people living in the Atlantic coastal zone, with numerous high economic value activities and a high number of infrastructures that must be protected from natural coastal hazard, namely extreme storms and sea level rise (SLR). In the context of climate change adaptation strategies, a reliable and accurate assessment of the physical vulnerability to SLR is crucial. This study is a contribution to the implementation of flooding standards imposed by the European Directive 2007/60/EC, which requires each member state to assess the risk associated to SLR and floods caused by extreme events. Therefore, coastal hazard in the Continental Atlantic coast of Portugal Mainland was evaluated for 2025, 2050 and 2100 in the whole coastal extension with different sea level scenarios for different extreme event return periods and due to SLR. A coastal flooding probabilistic map was produced based on the developed methodology using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology. The Extreme Flood Hazard Index (EFHI) was determined on flood probabilistic bases through five probability intervals of 20% of amplitude. For a given SLR scenario, the EFHI is expressed, on the probabilistic flooding maps for an extreme tidal maximum level, by five hazard classes ranging from 1 (Very Low) to 5 (Extreme).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0087.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Noise mapping; END directive; GIS; open source; standards, road traffic; population exposure
Online: 11 February 2019 (09:48:53 CET)
The urbanisation phenomenon and related cities expansion and transport networks entail preventing the increase of population exposed to environmental pollution. Regarding noise exposure, the Environmental Noise Directive demands on main metropolis to produce noise maps. While based on standard methods, these latter are usually generated by proprietary software and require numerous input data concerning, for example, the buildings, land use, transportation network and traffic. The present work describes an open source implementation of a noise mapping tool fully implemented in a Geographic Information System compliant with the Open Geospatial Consortium standards. This integration makes easier at once the formatting and harvesting of noise model input data, cartographic rendering and output data linkage with population data. An application is given for a French city, which consists in estimating the impact of road traffic-related scenarios in terms of population exposure to noise levels both in relation to a threshold value and level classes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0610.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: land price map; land use development; GIS; spatio-temporal changes; sustainability; Olomouc
Online: 25 October 2018 (14:23:11 CEST)
Land price sustainability issues have been addressed by many authors in the past. Most of these researchers used land prices (from land price maps) as the primary data source in their studies. Only a few papers analysed official land price maps, which are available very rarely. For this reason, we studied the spatial and temporal changes of land prices in the city of Olomouc based on an analysis of official land price maps from 1993 to 2017. We proposed several research hypotheses to confirm some general statements about land price development. We concluded that some macroeconomic indicators had a significant impact on changes in land prices. In the residential and commercial areas and historical centre, land prices are significantly higher than in other monitored aspects (land-use types). We also concluded that no link existed between land-use stability and land price stability. Surprisingly, no long-term stable areas were found in the area of interest. The analysis also confirmed that land price and its change over time varied in different spatial aspects. Surprisingly, the smallest influence was reflected in the economic aspect. Regarding natural events in recent decades, we observed a significant drop in land prices in the vicinity of watercourses threatened by flooding. These findings can assist in better understanding local development and changes in land price.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0024.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: by-products; biogas; Biogasdoneright; citrus pulp; olive pomace; GIS; indicators; biomass availability
Online: 2 March 2018 (13:11:14 CET)
The necessity to investigate suitable alternatives to conventional fossil fuels has developed the interests in many renewable energy alternatives, especially biomass resources which are widely available and allow to reach both environmental and socio-economic improvements. Among the bioenergy solutions the anaerobic digestion technology makes it possible to produce biogas by reusing and valorising agricultural residues and by-products. In Southern Italy, to date, the development of biogas sector is still very limited, despite the importance of the agricultural sector, especially of citrus and olive cultivation. For this reason, in previous studies the availability of two by-products, i.e., citrus pulp and olive pomace, was analysed in order to choose the most suitable area for a sustainable development of new biogas plants according to the new Biogasdoneright concept. In this paper, after a resume of the multi-step methodology which allowed the computation of biogas production, it was demonstrated that 15.9 GWh-e electricity and 24.5 GWh-e heat per year could be generate by reusing only these two kind of by-products, and could satisfy approximate 17% of the total electricity demand of the agricultural sector (90.2 GWh-e/year) in Catania.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0095.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: : Crop Water Requirements; Irrigation Requirements; crop coefficient; web-GIS; Earth Observation; evapotranspiration
Online: 17 November 2016 (15:41:52 CET)
The experiences gathered during the past 30 years support the operational use of irrigation scheduling based on frequent multi-spectral image data. Currently, the operational use of dense time series of multispectral imagery at high spatial resolution makes monitoring of crop biophysical parameters feasible, capturing crop water use across the growing season, with suitable temporal and spatial resolutions. These achievements, and the availability of accurate forecasting of meteorological data, allow for precise predictions of crop water requirements with unprecedented spatial resolution. This information is greatly appreciated by the end users, i.e. professional farmers or decision-makers, and can be provided in an easy-to-use manner and in near-real-time by using the improvements achieved in web-GIS methodologies. This paper reviews the most operational and explored methods based on optical remote sensing for the assessment of crop water requirements, identifying strengths and weaknesses and proposing alternatives to advance towards full operational application of this methodology. In addition, we provide a general overview of the tools which facilitates co-creation and collaboration with stakeholders, paying special attention to these approaches based on web-GIS tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0579.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: SAHP (Spatial Analytical Hierarchy Process); Moringa Oleifera; multicriteria evaluation; GIS (Geographic Information System)
Online: 26 August 2020 (10:35:37 CEST)
Land suitability analysis is a basic premise for allocating specific land for specific purpose. The objective of this study was to predict the suitable sites for cultivating Moringa oleifera tree in Ethiopia using Spatial Analytic Hierarchy Process. Findings of this study will have paramount significance in supporting decision making in the agroforestry development sector. This study employs Spatial Analytic Hierarchy Process and Geographic Information System to generate valuable information in land allocation for moringa oleifera tree production. Climate, topography, soil type and land use parameters were evaluated for suitability analysis. The results of the study revealed that most of the central part of the country are categorized as moderately suitable for the production of moringa oleifera tree. Areas classified as highly suitable are distributed along the borders of southern and western part of the country. However, some of the central part was classified as not suitable for Moringa oleifera tree production. This paper tried to investigate analysis of spatial data to predict suitable site for moringa tree production at national level. At national level, highly suitable, moderately suitable, and not suitable class covers an area of 308,508.2, 1,628,930.8 and 59891.3 Square Kilometer respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0107.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Urban Geomorphology; geoarchaeology; suitability Model-GIS; Environmental Analytical Hierarchical process (EAHP); Failaka Island
Online: 5 August 2020 (04:24:17 CEST)
Failaka Island, located in the far east of Kuwait Bay, is about 20 km from the State of Kuwait’s coast, and represents a focal point for regional geography and history, with pristine beaches and archaeological sites dating to the Bronze, Iron, Hellenistic, Christian and Islamic periods. According to environmental data and in coordination with local authorities to develop an urban plan, the island is set to become the first tourist destination for the State of Kuwait. To achieve the Vision of Kuwait 2035, one of the planning objectives focuses around Urban Planning for the Establishment of Environmental Cities that Achieve (UPEECA) environmental sustainability criteria. The paper then, aims to propose the environmental urban plan for Failaka Island. Based around Environmental Analytical Hierarchical Processes (EAHP), and using the Field Calculator and ModelBuilder functions in ArcGIS, this research centres on the feasibility of carrying out an urban plan using suitability modelling that includes four factors and 13 criteria covering the island’s ecological and human composition. This study utilizes both remote sensing (UAVs for 3D imaging) and field study (ground truthing) to identify changes in land use and land cover – such as using sample analysis of the historical sites and soils for tracing evidence and creating/updating a soil map – and create the first GIS database for the island that can lead to generating a suitability model.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0325.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: GIS; health Infrastructure; National Portal; COVID-19; Hot-Spot mapping; Accessibility to services
Online: 28 June 2020 (09:00:04 CEST)
This short note proposes a national Geographic Information System (GIS) - based health infrastructure to deal with epidemics and pandemics. Currently, there is no pan-India health infrastructure available that can compile, update, and report the spread of epidemic diseases. It not only curtails the opportunity of finding the real-time data on the spatial distribution of a disease but prevents one to inquire into the causes of the disease through epidemiological analysis. The proposed infrastructure in this study is a pan-India one and can broadly be divided into two parts, hotspot mapping and accessibility to services. In the first part, hospitals are proposed to act as nodes of data collection, sending data to a national GIS portal. This portal shall have the capabilities of plotting the data using map rendering services such as Google and Bing Maps. This way, hotspots can be visualized in no time, benefitting the government and common citizenry alike. The second part deals with the accessibility of citizenry to a wide range of services, i.e., healthcare services, grocery outlets, emergency services, baby food, and many other essential services of the day to day life. In order to implement this, we propose that the government need to enforce a mandatory submission of locational coordinates of all Goods and Services Tax (GST) enrolled service providers. Once the coordinates are submitted, the government can effectively control the opening and closing of services and inform the citizenry at the same time. The proposed infrastructure is going to help deal with the extraordinary situations during epidemic and pandemics similar to what the world is currently facing in the form of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Furthermore, the infrastructure can be scaled up or down as per the spread of a disease. The health-GIS platform proposed in this concept paper, shall help India in controlling and managing the epidemic more efficiently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0098.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: community food environment; nutrition environment; geographical information systems (GIS); Facility List Coder; Python
Online: 7 August 2019 (16:53:36 CEST)
A community food environment plays an essential role in explaining the healthy life-style patterns of its community members. However, there is a lack of compelling quantitative approaches to evaluate these environments. This study introduces and validates a new tool named the Facility List Coder (FLC), whose purpose is to assess food environments based on data sources and classification algorithms. Using the case of Mataró (Spain), we randomly selected 301 grids areas (100 m2) where we conducted street audits in order to physically identify all the facilities by name, address and type. Then, audit-identified facilities were matched with those automatically-identified and were classified using the FLC in order to determine its quality. Our results suggest that automatically-identified and audit-identified food environments have a high level of agreement. The ICC estimates and their respective 95% confidence intervals for the overall sample, yield the result “excellent” (ICC ≥ 0.9) for the level of reliability of the FLC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0020.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: PDSI; Z-index; receiver operating characteristic (ROC); SPI; SPEI; GIS; food security; droughts
Online: 2 August 2019 (08:54:40 CEST)
Meteorological drought indicators are commonly used for agricultural drought contingency planning in Ethiopia. Agricultural droughts arise due to soil moisture deficits. While these deficits may be caused by meteorological droughts, the timing and duration of agricultural droughts need not coincide with the onset of meteorological droughts due to soil moisture buffering. Similarly, agricultural droughts can persist even after the cessation of meteorological droughts due to delayed hydrologic processes. Understanding the relationship between meteorological and agricultural droughts is therefore crucial. An evaluation framework was developed to compare meteorological and agricultural droughts using a suite of exploratory and confirmatory tools. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) was used to understand the covariation of meteorological and agricultural droughts. Comparisons were carried out between SPI-2, SPEI-2 and Palmer Z-index to assess intra-seasonal droughts and between SPI-6, SPEI-6 and PDSI for full-season evaluations. SPI was seen to correlate well with selected agricultural drought indicators but did not explain all the variability noted in agricultural droughts. The relationships between meteorological and agricultural droughts exhibited spatial variability which varied across indicators. SPI is better suited to predict non-agricultural drought states more so than agricultural drought states. Differences between agricultural and meteorological droughts must be accounted for better drought-preparedness planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0133.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Radiation risk analysis, GIS based model, thermal power plant, surface radiation, remedial measures
Online: 11 December 2018 (13:57:09 CET)
Coal combustion in thermal power plants releases ash. Ash is reported to cause different adverse health hazards in humans and other organisms. Owing to the presence of radionuclides, it is also considered as a potential radiation hazard. In this study, based on the surface radiation measurements and relevant ancillary data, expected radiation risk zones were identified with regard to the human population residing near the Thermal Power Plant. With population density as the risk determining criteria, about 20% of the study area was at ‘High’ risk and another 20% of the study area was at ‘Low’ risk zone. The remaining 60% was under medium risk zone. Based on the findings remedial measures which may be adopted have been suggested.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0005.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: systematic review; greenness; GIS; physical health; buffers; green space; park; health outcomes; NDVI
Online: 1 June 2017 (07:54:16 CEST)
Is the amount of “greenness” within a 250-meter, 500-meter, 1000-meter or a 2000-meter buffer surrounding a person’s home a good predictor of their physical health? The evidence is inconclusive. We reviewed Web of Science articles that used geographic information systems buffer analyses to identify trends between physical health, greenness, and distance within which greenness is measured. Our inclusion criteria were: (1) use of buffers to estimate residential greenness; (2) statistical analyses that calculated significance of the greenness-physical health relationship; and (3) peer-reviewed articles published in English between 2007 and 2017. To capture multiple findings from a single article, we selected our unit of inquiry as the analysis, not the article. Our final sample included 260 analyses in 47 articles. All aspects of the review were in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Analyses were independently judged as more, less, or least likely to be biased based on the inclusion of objective health measures and income/education controls. We found evidence that larger buffer sizes, up to 2,000m, better predicted physical health than smaller ones. We recommend that future analyses use nested rather than overlapping buffers to evaluate to what extent greenness not immediately around a person’s home (i.e., within 1,000-2,000m) predicts physical health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0381.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Physico-chemical parameters; water quality index; land use land cover; GIS integration; special correlation
Online: 26 October 2021 (12:24:29 CEST)
The water quality of the river is becoming deteriorated due to human interference. It is essential to understand the relationship between human activities and land-use types to assess the water quality of a region. GIS has the latest tool for analyzing the spatial correlation. Land use land cover and change detection is the best illustration to show the human interactions on land features. The study assessed water quality index of upper Ganga River near Haridwar, Uttarakhand and spatially correlated them with changing land use to reach a logical conclusion. At the upper course of Ganga along 78 Km long from Kaudiyala to Bhogpur, water samples were collected from five stations. For water quality index the physicochemical parameters like pH, EC, DO, TDS, CaCO3-, CaCO3, Cl¯, Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, F-, Fe2+ were considered. The result of the spatial analysis was evaluated through error estimation and spatial correlation. The root mean square error between spatial land use and water quality index of selected sampling sites was estimated as 0.1443. The spatial correlation between land-use change and site-wise differences in water quality index has also shown a high positive correlation with R² = 0.8455. The degree of positive correlation and root mean square error has strongly indicated that the water quality of the river at the upper course of Ganga is highly impacted through human activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0512.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: OpenStreetMap; cities; slums; network analysis; remote sensing; human development; urban planning; GIS; cloud computing
Online: 22 September 2020 (08:58:35 CEST)
The recent growth of high-resolution spatial data, especially in developing urban environments, is enabling new approaches to civic activism, urban planning and the provision of services necessary for sustainable development. A special area of great potential and urgent need deals with urban expansion through informal settlements (slums). These neighborhoods are too often characterized by a lack of connections, both physical and socioeconomic, with detrimental effects to residents and their cities. Here, we show how a scalable computational approach based on the topological properties of digital maps can identify local infrastructural deficits and propose context-appropriate minimal solutions. We analyze 1 terabyte of OpenStreetMap (OSM) crowdsourced data to create worldwide indices of street block accessibility and local cadastral maps and propose infrastructure extensions with a focus on 120 Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC) in the Global South. We illustrate how the lack of physical accessibility can be identified in detail, how the complexity and costs of solutions can be assessed and how detailed spatial proposals are generated. We discuss how these diagnostics and solutions provide a multiscalar set of new capabilities – from individual neighborhoods to global regions – that can coordinate local community knowledge with political agency, technical capability, and further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0650.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: TRMM; HEC-HMS; HEC-RAS; GIS; hydrological model; hydraulic model; flood; Chitral River Basin
Online: 29 October 2018 (04:28:08 CET)
Flash flooding, a hazard which is triggered by heavy rainfall is a major concern in many regions of the world often with devastating results in mountainous elevated regions. We adapted remote sensing modelling methods to analyse one flood in July 2015, and believe the process can be applicable to other regions in the world. The isolated thunderstorm rainfall occurred in the Chitral River Basin (CRB), which is fed by melting glaciers and snow from the highly elevated Hindu Kush Mountains (Tirick Mir peak’s elevation is 7708 m). The devastating cascade, or domino effect, resulted in a flash flood which destroyed many houses, roads, and bridges and washed out agricultural land. CRB had experienced devastating flood events in the past, but there was no hydraulic modelling and mapping zones available for the entire CRB region. That is why modelling analyses and predictions are important for disaster mitigation activities. For this flash flood event, we developed an integrated methodology for a regional scale flood model that integrates the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, Geographic Information System (GIS), hydrological (HEC-HMS) and hydraulic (HEC-RAS) modelling tools. We collected and use driver discharge and flood depth observation data for five river sub-stream areas, which were acquired in cooperation with the Aga Khan Rural Support Program (AKRSP) organization. This data was used for the model’s calibration and verification. This modelling methodology is applicable for other regional studies especially for rough mountainous areas which lack local observations and river discharge gauges. The results of flood modelling are useful for the development of a regional early flood warning system and flood mitigation in hazardous flood risk areas. The flood simulations and prepared connected video visualization can be used for local communities. This approach is applicable for flood mitigation strategies in other regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0069.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: urban system; urban context; microzone, fuzzy rule set; Mamdani fuzzy system; spatial database, GIS
Online: 4 October 2018 (11:55:09 CEST)
We present a new unsupervised method aimed to obtain a partition of a complex urban system in homogenous urban areas, called urban contexts. The area of study is initially partitioned in microzones, homogeneous portion of the urban system, that are the atomic reference elements for the census data. With the contribution of domain experts, we identify the physical, morphological, environmental and socio-economic indicators need to identify synthetic characteristics of urban contexts and create the fuzzy rule set necessary to determine the type of urban context. We implement the set of spatial analysis processes necessary to calculate the indicators for microzone and apply a Mamdani fuzzy rule system to classify the microzones. Finally, the partition of the area of study in urban contexts is obtained by dissolving continuous microzones belonging to the same type of urban context. Tests are performed on the Municipality of Pozzuoli (Naples - Italy); the reliability of out model is measured by comparing the results with the ones obtained by detailed analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0366.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: European Directive 2007/60/EC; sea level rise; coastal vulnerability; GIS; Portugal Coast; WMS; WebViewer
Online: 27 December 2019 (10:58:21 CET)
The sea level rise, a consequence of climate change, is one of the biggest challenges that countries and regions with coastal lowland areas will face in the medium term. This study proposes a methodology for assessing the vulnerability to sea level rise (SLR) on the Atlantic coast of Portugal mainland. Some scenarios of extreme sea level for different return periods and extreme flooding events were estimated for 2050 and 2100, as proposed by the European Union Directive 2007/60/EC. A set of physical parameters are considered for the multi-attribute analysis technique implemented by the Analytic Hierarchy Process, in order to define a Physical Vulnerability Index fundamental to assess coastal vulnerability. For each SLR scenario, coastal vulnerability maps, with spatial resolution of 20 m, are produced at national scale to identify areas most at risk of SLR, constituting key documents for triggering adaptation plans for such vulnerable regions. For 2050 and 2100, it is estimated 903 km2 and 1146 km2 of vulnerable area, respectively, being the district of Lisbon the most vulnerable district in both scenarios. Results are available through a Web Map Service, for Portuguese public entities, and through a web map viewer for public and communities in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Dengue virus (DENV); geographical information systems (GIS); public health; travelers; arboviruses; infectious diseases epidemiology; Honduras
Online: 29 July 2019 (04:36:31 CEST)
Background: After serious epidemics of chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) in the Americas, dengue (DENV) have reemerged in most countries. We analyzed the incidence, incidence rates, and evolution of DENV cases in Honduras from 2015-2018 and the ongoing 2019 epidemic. Methods: Using epidemiological weeks (EW) surveillance data on the DENV in Honduras, we estimated incidence rates (cases/100,000 population), and developed maps at national, departmental, and municipal levels. Results: From 1 January 2016 to 21 July 2019, a total of 109,557 cases of DENV were reported, 28,603 in 2019, for an incidence rate of 312.32 cases/100,000 pop this year; 0.13% laboratory-confirmed. The highest peak was reached on the EW 28°, 2019 (5,299 cases; 57.89 cases/100,000 pop). The department with the highest number of cases and incidence rate was Cortes (8,404 cases, 479.68 cases/100,000 pop in 2019). Discussion: The pattern and evolution of DENV epidemic in 2019 in Honduras has been similar to that which occurred for in 2015. As previously reported, this epidemic involved the north and central areas of the country predominantly, reaching municipality incidences there >1,000 cases/100,000 pop (1%). Studies using geographical information systems linked with clinical disease characteristics are necessary to attain accurate epidemiological data for public health systems. Such information is also useful for assessment of risk for travelers who visit specific areas in a destination country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0118.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: noise disturbances; residents complaints; logistic regression; spatio-temporal effects; socio-demographic and environmental effects; GIS
Online: 8 July 2019 (12:42:05 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to explore the presence of spatial and temporal effects on the calls for noise disturbance service reported to the Local Police of València (Spain) in the time period from 2014 to 2015, and investigate how some socio-demographic and environmental variables affect the noise phenomenon. The analysis is performed at the level of València's boroughs. It has been carried out using a logistic model after dichotomization of the noise incidents variable. The spatial effects consider first and second order neighbours. The temporal effects are included in the model by means of one and two weeks temporal lags. Our model confirms the presence of strong spatio-temporal effects. We also find significant associations between noise incidence and specific age groups, socio-economic status, land uses and recreational activities, among other variables. The results suggest that there is a problem of ``social'' noise in València that is not exclusively a consequence of coexistence between local residents. External factors such as the increasing number of people on the streets during weekend nights or during summer months increase severely the chances of expecting a noise incident.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0621.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Zika virus (ZIKV); geographical information systems (GIS); public health; travelers; arboviruses; infectious diseases epidemiology; Honduras
Online: 1 February 2019 (09:44:12 CET)
Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has significantly affected Latin America in 2015–2017. Most studies have been reported from Brazil and Colombia, and only a few from Central America. For these reasons we analyzed the incidence, incidence rates and evolution of cases in Honduras from 2016–2017. Methods: Using epidemiological weeks (EW) surveillance data on the ZIKV epidemics in Honduras, we estimated incidence rates (cases/100,000 population), and developed maps at national, departmental and municipal levels. Results: From 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2017, a total of 32,607 cases of ZIKV were reported (98.5% in 2016 for an incidence rate of 36.85 cases/100,000 pop; 1% confirmed by RT-PCR). The highest peak was reached on the EW 6°, 2016 (2,559 cases; 29.34 cases/100,000 pop). The department with the highest number of cases and incidence rate was Cortés (13,128 cases, 791.08 cases/100,000 pop in 2016). Discussion: The pattern and evolution of ZIKV infection in Honduras has been similar to that which occurred for chikungunya in 2015. As previously reported, infection with chikungunya involved predominantly the central and capital area of the country, reaching incidences there >750 cases/100,000 pop. Studies using geographical information systems linked with clinical disease characteristics are necessary to attain accurate epidemiological data for public health systems. Such information is also useful for assessment of risk for travelers who visit specific areas in a destination country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0063.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Space Science Keywords: regional group interaction; similar hotspot flow patterns; spatial interaction; visual analytics; Geo-Information-Tupo; GIS
Online: 4 July 2018 (09:26:18 CEST)
The interaction between different regions normally is reflected by the form of the stream. For example, the interaction of the flow of people and flow of information between different regions can reflect the structure of cities’ network, and also can reflect how the cities function and connect to each other. Since big data has become increasingly popular, it is much easier to acquire flow data for various types of individuals. Currently, it is a hot research topic to apply the regional interaction model, which is based on the summary level of individual flow data mining. So far, previous research on spatial interaction methods focused on point-to-point and area-to-area interaction patterns. However, there are a few scholars who study the hotspot interaction pattern between two regional groups with some predefined neighborhood relationship by starting with two regions. In this paper, a method for identifying a similar hotspot interaction pattern between two regional groups has been proposed, and the Geo-Information-Tupu methods are applied to visualize the interaction patterns. For an example of an empirical analysis, we discuss China’s air traffic flow data, so this method can be used to find and analyze any hotspot interaction patterns between regional groups with adjoining relationships across China. Our research results indicate that this method is efficient in identifying hotspot interaction flow patterns between regional groups. Moreover, it can be applied to any analysis of flow space that is used to excavate regional group hotspot interaction patterns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0088.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, History Keywords: historical dataset; geocoding; localisation; geohistorical objects; database; GIS; collaborative; citizen science; crowd-sourced; digital humanities
Online: 8 April 2018 (09:13:10 CEST)
The latest developments in digital humanities have increasingly enabled the construction of large data sets which can easily be accessed and used. These data sets often contain indirect localisation information, such as historical addresses. Historical geocoding is the process of transforming the indirect localisation information to direct localisation that can be placed on a map, which enables spatial analysis and cross-referencing. Many efficient geocoders exist for current addresses, but they do not deal with temporal information and are usually based on a strict hierarchy (country, city, street, house number, etc.) that is hard, if not impossible, to use with historical data. Indeed, historical data are full of uncertainties (temporal, textual, positional accuracy, confidence in historical sources) that can not be ignored or entirely resolved. We propose an open source, open data, extensible solution for geocoding that is based on gazetteers composed of geohistorical objects extracted from historical topographical maps. Once the gazetteers are available, geocoding an historical address is a matter of finding the geohistorical object in the gazetteers that is the best match to the historical address searched by the user. The matching criteria are customisable and include several dimensions (fuzzy string, fuzzy temporal, level of detail, positional accuracy). As the goal is to facilitate historical work, we also propose web-based user interfaces that help geocode (one address or batch mode) and display over current or historical topographical maps, so that geocoding results can be checked and collaboratively edited. The system has been tested on the city of Paris, France, for the 19th and the 20th centuries. It shows high response rates and is fast enough to be used interactively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0219.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: archaeological landscapes; Iron Age; Medieval period; agriculture; pastoralism; vertical zonation, Issyk-Kul Lake; archaeobotany; GIS mapping
Online: 17 May 2022 (03:29:22 CEST)
The main goal of this paper is to present results of preliminary archaeological research on the south side of Lake Issyk-Kul in Kyrgyzstan. We test the hypothesis that agropastoral land use changed over four millennia from the Bronze Age through the ethnographic Kirghiz period due to economic, socio-political, and religious changes in the prehistoric and historic societies of this region. Our research objectives are to: (1) describe and analyze survey results from Lower Kizil Suu Valley; (2) discuss the results of radiometric and archaeobotanical samples taken from three stratigraphic profiles from three settlements from the Juuku Valley, including these chronological periods: the Wusun period (200 to 400 CE), the Qarakhanid period (1100 to 1200 CE), and the ethnographic Kirghiz period (1700 to 1900 CE); and (3) conduct preliminary GIS spatial analyses on the Iron Age mortuary remains (Saka and Wusun period). This research emerges out of the first archaeological surveys conducted in 2019 - 2021 and includes the Lower Kizil Suu alluvial fan; it is an initial step toward developing a model for agropastoral land use for upland valleys of the Inner Tian Shan Mountains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0011.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Spatial Landscape Patterns; Spatial Composite Indicators; Landscape Functions; Landscape Resilience; ANP method; Geographic Information System (GIS
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:18:46 CET)
The concept of transformative resilience emerges from complex recent literature and represents a way to interpret the potential opportunities to change in vulnerable territories, where a socio-economic change is required. This article extends the perspective of transformative resilience to assessing of the landscape multi-functionality of inland areas, exploring the potentials to identify a network of synergies among the different municipalities able to trigger a process of territorial resilience. A Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) for multi-functionality landscape assessment aims to support the local actors to understand local resources and multi-functional values of the Partenio Regional Park (PRP) and surrounding municipalities, in the South of Italy, stimulating their cooperation to the management of environmental and cultural sites and the co-design of new strategies of enhancement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; geographical information systems (GIS); coronavirus; epidemiology of infectious diseases; public health.
Online: 12 June 2020 (12:36:52 CEST)
The epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have affected all the regions of the world, nevertheless, in some countries there is a lack of studies on its main clinical and epidemiological features. We analyzed the incidence, incidence rates, and evolution of COVID-19 cases in Honduras from February 18-April 24, 2020.Methods: Using daily epidemiological data from surveillance about COVID-19 in Honduras, we calculated the rates of incidence (cases/100,000 population), and developed at national, departmental, and municipal levels GIS-based maps.Results: February 18 - April 24, 2020, a sum of 3,169 suspected COVID-19 cases have been assessed by RT-PCR, 533 (16.8%) of them were positive, for an incidence rate of 5.73 cases/100,000 pop. The highest peak was reached on March 31 (48 cases). The department with the highest number of cases and incidence rate was Cortes (383 cases, 71.9% of the total, 21.45 cases/100,000 pop). Discussion: The pattern and evolution of COVID-19 epidemic in Honduras has been particularly focused in the major urban areas, San Pedro Sula and Tegucigalpa, the capital city. Studies using geographical information systems linked with clinical disease characteristics are necessary to attain accurate epidemiological data for public health systems. Such information is also useful for assessment of the evolution of the pandemic and monitoring interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0159.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: GIScience; dialect geography; digital humanities; spatial modelling; historical GIS; geostatistics; linguistic variation; language change; language contact
Online: 16 August 2019 (06:12:58 CEST)
In this paper we analyse spatial variation in Japanese dialectal lexicon by assembling a set of methodologies using theories in variationist linguistics and GIScience, and tools used in historical GIS. Based on historical dialect atlas data, we calculate a linguistic distance matrix across survey localities. The linguistic variation expressed through this distance is contrasted with several measurements, based on spatial distance, utilised to estimate language contact potential across Japan, historically and at present. Further, administrative boundaries are tested for their separation effect. Measuring aggregate association within linguistic variation can contrast previous notions of dialect area formation by detecting continua. Depending on local geographies in spatial subsets, great circle distance, travel distance and travel times explain a similar proportion of the variance in linguistic distance despite the limitations of the latter two. While they explain the majority, two further measurements estimating contact have lower explanatory power: least cost paths modelling contact before the industrial revolution, based on DEM and seafaring, and a linguistic influence index based on settlement hierarchy. Historical domain boundaries and present day prefecture boundaries are found to have a statistically significant effect on dialectal variation. However, the interplay of boundaries and distance is yet to be identified. We claim that a similar methodology can address spatial variation in other digital humanities, given a similar spatial and attribute granularity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: GIS in solid waste collection; waste vehicle routing; ArcGIS Network Analyst; waste bin allocation; municipal solid waste management
Online: 1 April 2021 (11:04:58 CEST)
Vehicle routing is a critical factor in municipal solid waste (MSW) collection planning and operations. Poor routing can introduce inefficiencies and cause targeted levels of services or performance to be missed irrespective of the level of resource application. Trial and error approaches have been proven to be not the best in the planning and prediction of expected performance. This study explores various Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and analysis techniques, and how they can be applied to optimizing vehicle routes in light of challenging site conditions. Using Adentan West residential area, suburb of Accra Ghana as a case study, current performance of the trial and error method was measured and a GIS computer model was used to evaluate various optimization scenarios to determine the level of savings that can be made. Field measurements were taking with Global Positioning System (GPS) devices for waste collection activities in areas with varying characteristics and conditions, and data analysed for one selected vehicle operating four days per week. It was found that, for a scenario where only the bin collection order was optimized while route selection was restricted by the ArcGIS Network Analyst, 2.6% of travel distance and 2.21% of travel time were saved. For the second scenario where only the route selection was optimized while order of bin collection was restricted, 4.1% and 1.5% of travel distance and time respectively were saved. For a third scenario where both the order of collection and route selection were together optimized, 10.9% and 3.7% of travel distance and time respectively were saved. Lastly, by regrouping all the bins for daily collection, 4.5% and 1.2% of travel distance and time respectively were saved. The results demonstrated that there is always room for optimization of solid waste collection routing irrespective of site constraints and other challenges that the nature of bin distribution pose to drivers. In developing countries like Ghana, where there is high demand for services in the face of limited road network access, application of GIS in optimization of routes will guide providers in planning and subsequently make more savings in fuel consumption, vehicle maintenance and cost of man-hours.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0156.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), Haar-like features, real time, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), human detection, geolocation error, OpenCV
Online: 7 November 2018 (09:41:39 CET)
Human detection from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) is gaining popularity in the field of disaster management, crowd counting, people monitoring. Real time human detection from UAV is a challenging task, because of many constraints involved. This study proposes a system for real time detection of humans on videos captured from UAVs addressing three of these constraints namely, flying height, computation time and scale of viewing. The proposed method integrated an android application with a binary classifier based on Haar-features to automatically detect human / non-human class from UAV images. The video frames were parsed and detected humans from image frames were geo-localized and visualized on Google Earth. The performance was evaluated for geo-localization accuracy, computation time and detection accuracy, considering human coverage – pixel size relationship for various heights and scale factor. Based on flying height - human size relationship and tradeoff between detection accuracy vs computation time, the study came up with optimal parameters for OpenCV’s cv2.cascadeClassifier. detectMultiScale function. This paper establishes a strong ground for further research relating to real time human detection from UAV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0389.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI); Yelp; Natural Language Processing (NLP); machine learning; cultural boundaries; consumption behavior; urban computation; GIS; Word2Vec
Online: 25 June 2018 (12:50:46 CEST)
This study aims to put forth a new method to study the socio-spatial boundaries by using georeferenced community-authored reviews for restaurants. In this study, we show that food choice, drink choice, and restaurant ambience can be good indicators of socio-economic status of the ambient population in different neighborhoods. To this end, we use Yelp user reviews to distinguish different neighborhoods in terms of their food purchases and identify resultant boundaries in 10 North American metropolitan areas. This data-set includes restaurant reviews as well as a limited number of user check-ins and rating in those cities. We use Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques to select a set of potential features pertaining to food, drink and ambience from Yelp user comments for each geolocated restaurant. We then select those features which determine one’s choice of restaurant and the rating that he/she provides for that restaurant. After identifying these features, we identify neighborhoods where similar taste is practiced. We show that neighborhoods identified through our method show statistically significant differences based on demographic factors such as income, racial composition, and education. We suggest that this method helps urban planners to understand the social dynamics of contemporary cities in absence of information on service-oriented cultural characteristics of urban communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0474.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Offshore wind farm siting; Suitability maps; Geographical Information Systems (GIS); Multi-criteria; Analytic hierarchy process (AHP); Offshore wind energy potential.
Online: 18 December 2020 (14:54:47 CET)
Current global commitments to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases encourage national targets for renewable generation. Due to its small land mass, offshore wind could help Bahrain to fulfill its obligations. However, no scoping study has yet been carried out. The methodology presented here addresses this research need. It employs Analytical Hierarchy Process and pairwise comparison methods in a Geographical Information Systems environment. Publicly available land use, infrastructure and transport data are used to exclude areas unsuitable for development due to physical and safety constraints. Meteorological and oceanic opportunities are ranked, then competing uses are analyzed to deliver optimal sites for wind farms. The potential annual wind energy yield is calculated by dividing the sum of optimal areas by a suitable turbine footprint, to deliver maximum turbine number. Ten favourable wind farm areas were identified in Bahrain’s territorial waters, representing about 4% of the total maritime area, and capable of supplying 2.68 TWh/yr of wind energy or almost 10% of the Kingdom’s annual electricity consumption. Detailed maps of potential sites for offshore wind construction are provided in the paper, giving an initial plan for installation in these locations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0275.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Accuracy Assessment, Analysis Change, Detection analysis, Environmental change, GIS and Remote Sensing, Jarmet and others wetland change,LULC, change population growth
Online: 24 July 2019 (12:04:29 CEST)
Wetlands are one of the crucial natural resources. They provide invaluable biodiversity resources, aid in water quality improvement, support ground water recharge, help in moderating climate change and support flood control. Environment is in the other hand, where we live and something, we are very familiar with our day to day life. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing and Global Positioning System (GPS) were a useful tool for wetland and environmental change analysis and to improve on the classification accuracy. This study investigates population and environmental change of Jarmet wetland and its surrounding area change analysis over the period of 1972 to 2015. The purpose of this study was to show land use/ land cover change of Jarmet wetland and its surrounding environment over years as a response to population growth. For this purpose, multi-temporal satellite imageries (Landsat MSS 1972, TM1986, ETM+ 2000, 2005 and 2015 and SRTM 2000) were obtained and used for LULC change analysis, elevation analysis and change detection analysis. ERDAS Imagine 2015, ARC GIS 10.5.1, Global Mapper11, ENVI 5.0 and DNR Garmin softwares were used to process the image data and accuracy assessment analysis. The result of LULC showed that there is spatial reduction in wetland, forest, Shrubland and grassland in the period of 43 years (1972-2015) by -1,722.8 ha, -296.2 ha, -1,718.7 ha and -661.9 ha respectively, due to increase in the farmland and plantation area as a response to overpopulation, lack of environmental policy implementation and irresponsible for natural resource degradation. The accuracy assessment of LULC change are done for recent satellite image showed the overall accuracy of 84.06% with Kappa index 75.19% this means this classification is accurately classified and handle greater than 75% of error. Finally, this study suggests that create strictly natural resource conservation law, stopping illegal expansion of farmland, educating society about the value of natural resource especially wetland and create a source of income for society rather than farming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0186.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: proactive policies; land protection; inter-generational solidarity; land sustainability; economic valuation; imputed preferences; imputed expenses; gis; cost-benefit analysis, social discount rate
Online: 31 October 2017 (02:47:04 CET)
Although floods, as well as other natural disasters, can be considered relevant causes of intra-generational inequalities, the frequent catastrophes and the resulting damages to territory reflect the generalized indifference about inter-generational justice. Societal concerns, such as land protection, typically involve the administrative system performing proactive policies in the perspective of inter-generational solidarity, but subsidiarity has made more and more independent the local communities. As a consequence, the attention toward the long run effects – typically concerning the territorial system, as a whole, at the geographical scale – has been dispersed, and the proactive policies coming from the central government has became more ineffective. Regarding the case of the flood happened in 2009 in the Fiumedinisi-Capo Peloro hydraulic basin, in the northeastern part of Sicily, Italy, we propose an economic valuation – carried out by performing the method of the imputed preferences – in order to compare the expenses incurred by the public authorities responsible for protecting the territory to the costs of the rehabilitation of the damaged areas. Some considerations about the economic significance of the proactive policies for the arrangement of territory are addressed according to the role played by the social discount rate in the inter-temporal economic calculation.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Spatial Data Infrastructure; Social Determinants of Health; Healthcare; Health; Geospatial Data Analytics; Geocoding; GeoHealth; GIS; Open Standards; Population Health; Disaster Response; Emergency Response
Online: 23 October 2019 (10:27:16 CEST)
Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) support the harvesting, curating, storage, and sharing of data along with providing access to development, analytic, and visualization tools that enable the building of innovative applications to address broad or specific challenges. SDIs can be especially powerful in bringing together data and tools supporting a particular theme – and this paper discusses and demonstrates the value of an SDI focused on Health. Many potential benefits of a Health SDI are proposed, and the case of supporting emergency response efforts is developed in detail. Leveraging a Health SDI, a Health Risk Index was created that provides emergency response personnel (both Emergency Operations Managers and Emergency Medical Responders) key insights into the unique health risks the impacted population faces due to the disaster. In order to establish the Health Risk Index, datasets from multiple national and global sources representing health data and social data that influences health outcomes – typically called social determinants of health – are harvested, merged, and republished to support further efforts at advancing the Health Risk Index. Visualizations of the Health Risk Index at the global, national, and sub-national levels down to the address level are presented along with demonstrations of its use.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: geographic information fusion; data quality; data consistency checking; historic GIS; railway network; patrimonial data; crowdsourcing open data; volunteer geographic information VGI; wikipedia geo-spatial information extraction.
Online: 17 August 2020 (14:51:04 CEST)
Transportation of goods is as old as human civilizations : past networks and their evolution shed light on long term trends. Transportation impact on climate change is measured as major, as well as the impact on spreading a pandemic. These two reasons motivate the importance of providing relevant and reliable historical geographic datasets of these networks. This paper focuses on reconstructing the railway network in France at its maximal extent, a century ago. The active stations and lines are well documented by the French SNCF, in open public data. However, that information ignores past stations (ante 1980), which represent probably more than what is recorded in public data. Additional open data, individual or collaborative (eg. Wikipedia) are particularly valuable, but they are not always geo-coded, and two more sources are necessary to completing that geo-coding: ancient maps and aerial photography. Therefore, remote sensing and volunteer geographic information are the two pillars of past railway reconstruction. The methods developed are adapted to the extraction of information from these sources: automated parsing of Wikipedia Infoboxes, data extraction from simple tables, even from simple text. That series of sparse procedures can be merged into a comprehensive computer-assisted process. Beyond this, a huge effort in quality control is necessary when merging these data: automated wherever possible, or finally visually controlled by observation of remote sensing information. The main output is a reliable dataset, under ODbl, of more than 9100 stations, which can be combined with the information about the 35000 communes of France, for a large variety of studies. This work demonstrates two thesis: (a) it is possible to reconstruct transport network data from the past, and generic computer assisted methods can be developed; (b) the value of remote sensing and volunteered geo info is considerable (what archeologists already know).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0479.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Wearable Healthcare kit; Composite IoT sensors; Trauma Scoring; TRISS; Prediction of Survival PoS; NEWS; RTS; HL7 FHIR; SNOMED-CT; Location Aware Healthcare kit; GIS GPS Healthcare kit
Online: 28 June 2018 (15:44:00 CEST)
With the availability of wearable health monitoring sensor modules like 3-Lead Electrocardiogram (ECG), Pulse Oximeter (SpO2), Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), Hall effect sensor (for measuring Respiratory Rate), Blood Pressure and Temperature measuring and sensing elements, it has now become possible to device a composite health status monitoring kit that can measure vital signs and other physiological parameters pertaining to human health in real time. Traditionally, the physiological parameters along with vital signs related examination was possible only in a hospitalized or ambulatory environment, however due to advances in sensing and embedded system technology and miniaturization of data acquisition and processing elements health monitoring has become possible even when individuals remain engaged in their day to day activities at the convenience of space and location. The patients or individuals subject to monitoring may suffer from a traumatic experience due to their medical condition and may need emergent incidence response and the critical care team may have to prepare for the treatment only after the patient arrives, which often is too late, as in case of cardiac arrests or severe injuries. The research focused on real-time health status monitoring and trauma scoring using standard physiological parameters along with standard telemetry protocols to make the critical care team aware of an emergent situation and prepare for a medical emergency. Vital signs and physiological parameters (heart rate, temperature, respiratory rate, and blood pressure, SpO2) were measured in real time from human subjects non-invasively. In order to enable monitoring of the patients engaged in day to day activities, errors due to the motion were removed using stationary wavelet transform correction (correlation coefficient of 0.9 after correction) and signals from various sensors were denoised, filtered and were encoded in a format suitable for further data analysis. A composite sensor kit capable of monitoring vital signs and physiological parameters can be very useful in incident response when an individual undergoes a traumatic experience related to stroke, cardiac arrest, fits or even injury, as along with monitoring information the kit can calculate scores related to trauma like the Injury Severity Score (ISS), National Early Warning Signs (NEWS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS). Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS), Probability of Survival (Ps) score. An open access database of vital signs and physiological parameters from Physionet, MIMIC 2 Numerics (mimicdb/numerics) database was used to calculate NEWS and RTS and to generate correlation and regression models using the vital signs/physiological parameters for a clinical class of patients with respiratory failure and admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). NEWS and RTS scores showed no significant correlation (r = 0.25, p<0.001) amongst themselves, however together NEWS and RTS showed significant correlation with Ps (blunt) (r = 0.70, p<0.001). RTS and Ps (blunt) scores showed some correlation (r = 0.63, p<0.001) and NEWS score showed significant correlation (r = 0.79, p<0.001) with Ps (blunt) scores. Furthermore, since individuals have to be monitored regardless of location, these kits have to have a built-in capability to locate the individual so that the incident response team can locate the individual based on Global Positioning System coordinates (GPS). A Quantum GIS (Geographical Information System) application using real-time GPS coordinates (OpenStreetMap coordinates) was used to calculate the shortest path using QGIS Network Analysis tool to demonstrate the calculation of shortest path and direction to locate the nearest service provider in shortest time. Along with locating the nearest healthcare service provider, it would help if the critical care team could be made aware of the physiological parameters and trauma scores using standard protocols accepted across the globe. The physiological parameters from the sensors along with the calculated trauma scores were encoded according to a standard Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED-CT) coding system and International Code of Diseases (ICD) codes and the trauma information was logged to Electronic Health Records (EHR) using Fast Health Interoperability Resources (FHIR) servers. FHIR servers provided interoperable web services to log the event information in real time. It could be concluded that analytical models trained on existing datasets can help in analyzing a traumatic experience or an injury and the information can be logged using a standard telemetry protocol as a telemedicine initiative. These scores enable the healthcare service providers to estimate the extent of trauma and prepare for medical emergency procedures and find applications in general and military healthcare.