ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1146.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Groundwater; Irrigation water quality; GIS; Arid land
Online: 15 June 2023 (12:42:28 CEST)
Aquifer water is the key staple to develop successful sustainable agricultural activity in newly reclaimed areas in Egypt. Monitoring irrigation water quality is necessary for a proper planning of this exhaustible resources. This work aims to evaluate the groundwater quality in the western newly reclaimed areas of Beni-Suef governorate. Fifty aquifer water sample were collected from wells scattered in the arid western Beni-Suef fringes during May of 2022. Water chemical analyses were conducted to estimate the parameters of Irrigation Water Quality Index (IWQI) namely the Electrical Conductivity (EC), Sodium (Na+), Chloride (Cl-), Bicarbonate (HCO3-) and the Adjusted percentage of Absorbed Sodium (SARo). The Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) technique used to map the spatial distribution of aquifer water chemical characteristics and IWQI. The results showed that EC values were high in the south of the study area and decreased at its north and east borders. The results showed that the average of dissolved cations and anions were 236.4, 102, 77.5, 106.2, 309.6, 148.1 and 113 meq/l for Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, SO42-, HCO3-, and Cl-, respectively. Regarding to IWQI, its' values ranged from 28 to 81. Two-thirds of the study area classified as having moderate limitations for sustainable irrigation purposes. Furthermore, one-thirds of the area classified as having high restrictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0800.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: naturalness; greenway; trail assessment; peri-urban forests; GIS; fieldwork
Online: 11 May 2023 (05:30:44 CEST)
Peri-urban forests often have extensive networks of greenways that allow for outdoor recreation. However, information associated with these greenways often does not include their degree of naturalness, which is usually reduced to descriptions of flora and fauna and often overlook the factors that reduce naturalness. Therefore, in some cases, the naturalness of these greenways is not as high as expected. Having a quantification of their naturalness would be useful, especially for hikers interested in appreciating and enjoying nature. Additionally, this information would help outdoor recreation managers to design trails or decide which ones to promote as "greenways". The objectives of this study are (1) to design a method to calculate and map the naturalness of greenways using two approaches, one based on perceptual fieldwork and the other on Geographic Information Systems (GIS); (2) to apply the designed method to a specific greenway; and (3) to compare both methodological approaches. The results show that, for the greenway studied, the naturalness scores obtained are low in all three types of analyses used. Around 70% of the greenway sections in the GIS visibility analysis and 80% in the GIS proximity analysis have a low naturalness index, while this value is reduced to 40% with the fieldwork analysis. Although the results of the GIS approach (proximity and visibility) generate naturalness indices and spatial patterns that are very similar, they differ significantly from those derived from the fieldwork analysis. The discussion of the results suggests that the three methodologies used are valid for analysing the degree of naturalness of the trails, but if used together, it would be possible to add flexibility to the type of variables incorporated in the analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0250.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: satellite images; disaster mapping; GIS
Online: 21 February 2022 (10:09:18 CET)
Remote sensing technology, especially using satellite images, has become essential support in many aspects of decision-making, particularly in disaster risk management. It requires a shorter period of data updates and less cost compared to conventional field observations and surveys. Yet, the intensive processing and high-powered computing resources are necessary to analyze satellite imagery data through Geographic Information System (GIS). In this paper, we introduce the identification and mapping of natural disaster impact in Indonesia using the open-source collaborative tool of Google Earth Engine (GEE) application which analyzes the relative temporal difference of Earth surface from three major satellite images: Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2, and Landsat-8. Taking the advantage of the geographical, geological, and demographic conditions of Indonesia's disaster-prone areas, we analyze relative difference from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) out of months before and after natural disaster occurrence to measure the impact of natural disaster in focus study areas. Given the high-vegetation nature of three main natural disaster impacted areas in Indonesia: Aceh, Palu, and Yogyakarta, we are able to simplify the analysis by highlighting areas with vegetative loss or gain after the event. Using an open-source GEE application, namely HazMapper, we identify and visualize the aftermath of the tsunami disaster in Aceh and Palu as well as the earthquake in Yogyakarta. Our study is potentially beneficial for government and decision-makers to utilize publicly available satellite images for disaster recovery and mitigation policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0382.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: living conditions; crime prevention; crime-exposed areas; strategic mapping; GIS; Police
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:04:19 CEST)
This paper presents a theoretically and methodologically grounded GIS-based model for the measurement and mapping of an index of living conditions in urban residential areas across Sweden. Further, the model is compared and evaluated using the Swedish Police’s assessment of crime-exposed areas. The results indicate that geographically measured vulnerable living conditions overlap to a large extent with the areas assessed to be crime-exposed by the Swedish Police. Over 61% of the police-defined crime-exposed areas are characterized by vulnerable living conditions. The results also show that the overlap is not perfect and that there are vulnerable areas that are not included in the police’s assessment of crime-exposed areas, but which are nonetheless characterized by vulnerable living conditions that could negatively affect the development of crime. It is also proposed that the model and the mapped index of living conditions provide a more well-grounded scientific basis for the police's assessment work. As a first step, the Swedish police have implemented the model and the mapped index in the work process employed in their annual identification of crime-exposed or at-risk areas. In addition to assisting the police, the model and the mapped index could also be used to support other societal actors working with vulnerable areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0058.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: GIS; image classification; LiDAR; remote sensing; wetland indicator; global wetland inventory; wetland mapping
Online: 14 September 2017 (17:25:27 CEST)
Wetlands are recognized as one of the world’s most valuable natural resources. With the increasing world population, human demands on wetland resources for agricultural expansion and urban development continue to increase. In addition, global climate change has pronounced impacts on wetland ecosystems through alterations in hydrological regimes. To better manage and conserve wetland resources, we need to know the distribution and extent of wetlands and monitor their dynamic changes. Wetland maps and inventories can provide crucial information for wetland conservation, restoration, and management. Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing technologies have proven to be useful for mapping and monitoring wetland resources. Recent advances in geospatial technologies have greatly increased the availability of remotely sensed imagery with better and finer spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. This chapter presents an introduction to the uses of GIS and remote sensing technologies for wetland mapping and monitoring. A case study is presented to demonstrate the use of high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and aerial photographs for mapping prairie potholes and surface hydrologic flow pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0534.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: syndemic; El Niño; infectious disease; diarrhea; malaria; respiratory; cholera; spatial cluster; GIS
Online: 27 September 2018 (06:04:08 CEST)
El Niño is a quasi-periodic pattern of climate variability and extremes often associated with hazards and disease. While El Niño links to individual diseases have been examined, less is known about the cluster of multi-disease risk referred to as an ecosyndemic, which emerges during extreme events. The objective of this study was to explore a mapping approach to represent the spatial distribution of ecosyndemics in Piura, Peru at the district-level during the first few months of 1998. Using geographic information systems and multivariate analysis, two methodologies were employed to map disease overlap of 7 climate-sensitive diseases and construct an ecosyndemic index, which was then mapped and applied to another El Niño period as proof of concept. The main findings showed that many districts across Piura faced multi-disease risk over several weeks in the austral summer of 1998. The distribution of ecosyndemics were spatially clustered in western Piura among 11 districts. Furthermore, the ecosydemic index in 1998 when compared to 1983 showed a strong positive correlation, demonstrating the utility of the index. The study supports PAHO efforts to develop multi-disease based and interprogrammatic approaches to control and prevention, particularly for climate and poverty-related infections in Latin America and the Caribbean.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0453.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Antiquities; Monuments; Cultural Routes; Greece; Kynouria; GIS; Websites; Story maps.
Online: 27 June 2018 (16:00:03 CEST)
On the occasion of Kynouria and in order to achieve the protection and projection of antiquities, a web-based model is proposed for highlighting individual monuments and archaeological sites, having in mind the historical and archaeological evidence of the region, the topography, the demographic profile and the tourist infrastructure, and combining them with the development programs for cultural routes. Therefore, creating suitable databases and mapping the monuments in the area are key prerequisites of the process, as they contribute to an objective assessment of the current situation and then to make rational decisions. In this frame, modern technology provides some important planning tools (GIS, GPS, and OMS) which allow recording and mapping of data, viewing the relationships between them in the area where they appear and managing their projection. The complete study of Kynouria’s archaeological routes contains the implementation of a website using free or open-source software, which should include all the necessary procedures and the historical and archaeological information material (text, maps, and photographs).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: GIS and Remote sensing; Hazard; Risk; Vulnerable; Gedio Zone
Online: 12 May 2022 (08:50:27 CEST)
Abstract Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing played an important role in analyzing environmental and socio-economic drivers that created favorable condition for malaria breeding as well as in identifying hazard and risk areas. This study gives great emphasis on mapping malaria hazard and risk areas in Gedio zone of SNNPs using geospatial technology. The study identifies two major drivers like Environmental (physical) factors: which provide for the endurance of mosquitoes and Socio-economic factors. The above data were presented and analyzed quantitatively. The content analysis shows that Malaria hazard prevalence areas were mapped based on the environmental factors which are potential of providing good environmental conditions for mosquito breeding. The hazard map was produced using elevation, slope, proximity to breeding sites, and soil type as the factors for breeding mosquitoes. The malaria hazard analysis of the Gedio zone revealed that from the total area, 9.83%, 35.29% is mapped as a very high and high-risk area, whereas, the remaining 38.73%, a 16.14%, and 0.01% were mapped as moderate, low, very low level of malaria hazard respectively. The total area of the study area more than 1/3rd of the area is identified as a very high and high malaria risk area while the rest 2/3rd of an area is considered as a moderate to very low hazard risk zone. Accordingly, very high malaria risk area is found around towns because of population density. Finally, I recommend that the concerned body should have to expand health center, creating awareness of society, especially around populated areas where the risk is high and environmental and individual sanitation can reduce the risk of malaria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0132.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Forest Fire 1; Pauri-Gharwal 2; Surface and Subsurface Hydrology 3; Remote Sensing and GIS 4; Support Vector Machine 5
Online: 4 July 2023 (03:52:21 CEST)
Forests, integral to human civilization, hold immense value and play a vital role in maintaining ecological harmony. Despite India's goal of extensive forest coverage, significant progress is still needed. Uncontrolled forest fires pose a severe threat, particularly in Uttarakhand's Pauri Garhwal district. To address this challenge, a comprehensive study examined surface and subsurface hydrological factors influencing the forest fire occurrences, such as elevation, aspect, slope, vegetation, proximity to human settlements, proximity to waterbodies, Active faults and lineament density. A total of 15 such factors were integrated with advanced techniques of remote sensing and GIS and coupled with historical fire data to create a precise forest fire risk map using the support vector machine algorithm. Forest fire risk map was classified into 5 distinct risk zones, Very High Risk (47.38 Km2), High Risk (275.98 km2, Moderate Risk (985.49 km2), Low Risk (1741.17 km2) and Very Low Risk (2374.11 km2) aiding in proactive fire management. By embracing this innovative tool, decision-makers can protect forests, preserve biodiversity, and ensure a sustainable future for generations to come.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0461.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Digital Geological Survey; Mobile GIS; Relational database; Geopackage; Landslide Inventory; Post-disaster management
Online: 25 November 2022 (02:25:21 CET)
Over the last few decades, the approach to geological and geomorphological surveys has changed remarkably. The advent of digital tools has allowed significant advances in the acquisition and management of survey data. In this paper, we demonstrate the development and testing of a new and effective digital survey method that allows for the fast acquisition and collaborative storage and management of data and information. This method was tested in collaboration with five universities for the mapping and classification of landslides in 249 survey areas in Central Italy and, more precisely, in the municipalities affected by the 2016 Central Italy Earthquake. Geological and geomorphological surveys were carried out in the field with tablet PCs, GPS, and cameras. The survey project for collecting field data was based on the structure of the Italian Landslide Inventory (IFFI) and the Territorial Resilience Central Apennines Earthquake Reconstruction (ReSTART) projects. The structure of the database and input forms were implemented for these aims. Moreover, the data and information were retrieved and organised in detailed records useful to the administrative entities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0422.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Variability; adaptation; GIS
Online: 19 July 2021 (15:59:12 CEST)
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a crop of nutritional and economic importance worldwide, cultivated in more than 100 tropical and subtropical countries including Ecuador, traditionally cultivated in its three continental regions: the Amazon, the Coast and in the valleys of the Sierra. The purpose of this study was to characterize 195 accessions from INIAP's Ecuadorian cassava collection through 1) morphological characterization with qualitative and quantitative descriptors; and 2) ecogeographic characterization to know the climatic, geophysical and edaphic conditions in which cassava grows and which environments are frequent or marginal for its cultivation. For the morphological characterization, 27 morphological descriptors were used (18 qualitative and nine quantitative), and for the ecogeographic characterization, 55 variables (41 climatic, two geophysical and 12 edaphic). As a result, four morphological groups and three ecogeographic groups were identified. In the research, morphological variability was evidenced, mainly in descriptors related to the leaf, stems and inflorescences. In addition, it was possible to identify accessions that can adapt to extreme conditions of drought and poor soils, which could be used for improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0165.v2
Online: 18 June 2019 (11:15:56 CEST)
Background: As the opioid epidemic continues, understanding the geospatial, temporal and demand patterns is important for policymakers to assign resources and interdict individual, organization, and country-level bad actors. Methods: GIS geospatial-temporal analysis and extreme-gradient boosted random forests evaluate ICD-10 F11 opioid-related admissions and admission rates using geospatial analysis, demand analysis, and explanatory models, respectively. The period of analysis was January 2016 through September 2018. Results: The analysis shows existing high opioid admissions in Chicago and New Jersey with emerging areas in Atlanta, Salt Lake City, Phoenix, and Las Vegas. High rates of admission (claims per 10,000 population) exist in the Appalachian area and on the Northeastern seaboard. Explanatory models suggest that hospital overall workload and financial variables might be used for allocating opioid-related treatment funds effectively. Gradient-boosted random forest models accounted for 87.8% of the variability of claims on blinded 20% test data. Conclusions: Based on the GIS analysis, opioid admissions appear to have spread geographically, while higher frequency rates are still found in some regions. Interdiction efforts require demand-analysis such as that provided in this study to allocate scarce resources for supply-side and demand-side interdiction: prevention, treatment, and enforcement. Based on GIS analysis, the opioid epidemic is likely to spread or diffuse through the country, and interdiction efforts require demand-analysis such as that provided in this study to allocate scarce resources for supply-side and demand-side interdiction: prevention, treatment, and enforcement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0268.v1
Online: 29 January 2018 (05:29:38 CET)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1472.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: Water management; Flood simulation; Geographic information system (GIS); Web GIS platform; RiverCure Portal.
Online: 22 May 2023 (08:22:13 CEST)
Flood events are becoming more severe, causing significant problems to human communities, including physical, psychological, and material damage. For both flood forecasting in emergency response situations and flood mapping, georeferencing and data curation are paramount in the context of prevention or preparedness. Hence, data display, data management, and articulation with numerical simulation results must occur on GIS platforms. Our research is motivated by recent advances in Web and GIS technologies, social sensing and high-performance computing, and an envisaged wider availability of remote sensing data. This paper presents and discusses an innovative Web GIS platform named "RiverCure Portal" or "RCP" for short. This platform combines observations and hydrodynamic modelling tools to support various stages of the flood risk management cycle, including operational response, emergency preparedness, and risk assessment. RCP is a multi-organisation, multi-context digital platform with flexible configuration features to define and support multiple sensor types and modelling options, satisfying the various needs of different organisations and stakeholders. In addition, this paper discusses the RiverCure Approach, which encompasses the following tasks directly supported by the RCP platform: defining the context and involved geometries, associating sensors to the context, pre-processing and generating the context mesh, defining the simulation event, running the simulation event, and analysing the results from the simulation event. Thus, the RCP streamlines and simplifies data analysis and simulation procedures to meet decision-makers' needs. The novelties discussed in this paper include the design and discussion of a Web GIS platform that allows (i) to manage flood data and results of simulations at several contextual levels by different stakeholders such as domain experts, decision-makers, researchers, or students; (ii) to process and curate sensed data obtained from physical and social sensors; and (iii) update the state and values of the parameters of simulation tools through continuous data assimilation techniques for forecasting purposes. Finally, this paper supports the explanation and discussion with a running example, "Águeda 2016 flood" event, which dataset is publicly available for further study and experimentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0252.v1
Online: 18 October 2022 (05:54:22 CEST)
Wind energy is one of the most attractive renewable energy sources because of its low operating, maintenance, and production costs as well as its low environmental impact. The goal of this study is to discover the best locations in Bangladesh where wind farms can be built and operated efficiently. This study applied the GIS and AHP methodologies to examine the eight important parameters upon which the suitability of locations is highly dependent. This analysis finds that Bangladesh has large regions appropriate for wind farm installation, with 3718.76 km2 and 16631.14 km2 classified as "very high" and "high" suitability, respectively. It was also observed that wind speed, land slope, and elevation each had a height-weighted criterion of 32 %, 27 %, and 12 %, respectively, when picking suitable locations. However, the viability of this study in identifying suitable sites has been evaluated based on ROC and AUC techniques and found satisfactory as per AUC value. The knowledge gained from this study will help the sustainable and renewable energy development authority (SREDA), Bangladesh to expedite the renewable energy investment process and will ensure the great certainty. The findings of this research can be considered as baseline information in the wind energy sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0022.v1
Online: 2 February 2019 (13:01:47 CET)
Highway alignment is an essential part of the highway planning and design phase. Highways are impacted by existing projects and surrounding context. The isolation of geo-technical analysis from highway planning and design also delays the planning process. This study therefore proposes a model that integrates building information modelling (BIM) and geographic information science (GIS) capabilities to facilitate the planning and design process. Semantic web technologies are used to integrate BIM and GIS data on a semantic level. The proposed model also helps to identify geohazards by providing geological analysis. The visualization of the proposed project can help reduce design errors and miscommunication, which, in turn, reduces project risk. In addition, the model facilitates highway alignment optimization by incorporating visualization, simulation, and analysis into the planning and design phase. The proposed model provides future opportunities for project professionals to have organized, reliable and dynamic ways to manage the project during construction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1499.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Facility Management (FM); Building Information Modelling (BIM); Geographic Information System (GIS); BIM-GIS integration
Online: 23 November 2023 (10:44:06 CET)
Building Information Modelling (BIM) is increasingly adopted in supporting Facility Management (FM). However, in the future perspective of efficiently encouraging the management of building estates, e.g. owned by public authorities or institutions, providing an effective integration between Building Information Models and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) becomes also essential. This contribution is therefore aimed at presenting a methodological framework integrating BIM and GIS environments by mainly taking advantage of open-source tools (e.g. QGIS and Dynamo) and non-proprietary data exchange formats like the COBie (Construction-Operations Building Information Exchange) international standard. Unlike what has been mainly proposed in the literature concerning BIM-GIS integration so far, the methodology presented in this paper does not provide for an integral transfer of BIM data to the GIS platform. The work led instead to the development of an effective bidirectional integration between the two informative systems, by properly relating them and allowing for an easy switch from one system database to the other. This integrated framework is intended to enable facility managers to easily visualize in the GIS platform, through queryable 2D and 3D maps, some relevant information from BIM to efficiently manage workspaces. At the same time, this hybrid informative system allows BIM practitioners to access and manage more detailed information stored in Building Information Models. The findings of experimental applications of the proposed methodological approach to the ex-Macciotta pediatric hospital, a healthcare building owned by the University of Cagliari, are finally presented and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0298.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Soil erosion; GIS; RUSLE model; Iraq
Online: 16 November 2022 (08:17:28 CET)
Abstract: The empirical soil loss model, RUSLE, was used with a conjunction of remotely sensed data and geographic information system technology to delineate the soil erosion and watershed priorities in terms of conservation practices at seven boundary sub-watersheds (labeled as SW-00, SW-01, …, SW-06) between Iraq and Iran at Ali Al-Gharbi area, southern Iraq. The six factors of the RUSLE model, ie. the rainfall erosivity, the soil erodibility, the slope steepness length, the crop management, and management practice, were calculated or estimated using information from different data sources such as remotely sensed data and previous studies. The finding showed that the annual soil erosion loss ranges from 0 - 1890 (tons h-1 y-1) with an average of 0.66 (tons h-1 y-1). Values of soil erosion were classified into five classes: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. The potential soil loss in the high and very high classes ranges from 14.84 to 1890 (tons h-1 y-1), and these classes occupy only 27 km2 of the study area, indicating that the soil loss is very low in the area being examined. In terms of the spatial distribution of soil loss, the northern and northeastern parts (mountains and hills) of the sub-watersheds where the slope is steeper are more likely to erode than the plain area in the southern and southeastern portions, indicating that slope, in addition to rainfall erosivity, has a dominant effect on the soil erosion rate. The study of soil erosion in the watersheds under consideration reveals that only the northern portions of the SW-00, SW-02, and SW-04 watersheds require high priority conservation plans; however, these portions are primarily located in mountain regions, making conservation plans implementation in these areas impractical. Due to low soil loss, other sub-watersheds, particularly SW-01, SW-03, SW-05, and SW-06, are given low priority.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0407.v1
Online: 27 September 2022 (03:27:50 CEST)
A number of research projects and a rich literature have dealt with the theme of abandoned medieval villages in Sardinia since the end of the 60s of the last century. Some more or less precise catalogues and reviews of villages in limited territories have been published. Only recently, however, this subject is being addressed in an interdisciplinary manner, combining traditional historical research with the results of archaeological surveys and excavation campaigns, geo-archaeology, toponymy, paleoclimatology. This allows us to have a picture of the landscape and human settlement evolution with its historical changes, conditioned not only by institutional superstructures but also by human and natural traumatic events. Particular attention will be given to the sudden changes that occurred between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. To carry out this survey, it is possible to use some very powerful IT tools which, through the aggregation, organization, correlation and management of information, allow the geo-localization of abandoned villages as proven by the documentary evidence. Thus, on this documentation, existing and acquired in the future, is founded the construction of the related information system. The most easy and suitable tools for this purpose are the CMSs (Content Management Systems) which, in association with GIS (Geographic Information Systems) engines, allow spatial and contextual analysis of the settlements, as they were inserted in their territory. This type of tools aggregates different peculiarities of the object of study, supporting a multidisciplinary reading on the argument. The computerized tools, integrated as a system, offer the possibility to implement it, feeding it and correcting it continuously, basing on new acquisitions. In this study, we will examine a historical areal, for which we have a sufficient number of sources available: Sarrabus, Colostrai and Quirra, adding to the geographical visual information, the temporal visual evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0045.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: Siberian traps; petrology; morphotectonics; GIS technologies
Online: 2 March 2022 (10:58:52 CET)
The article reports morphotectonic and petrological characteristics of magmatic systems of Permo-Triassic traps in the sedimentary cover of the Siberian Craton, Taimyr, as well as in the crystalline basement of the Mesozoic cover of the West Siberian Plate and the Kara sedimentary basin based on the relief analysis, seismotomography data, magnetic and gravitational anomalies. Four development sectors of magma-permeable zones were distinguished along the perimeter of the craton of the Anabar Shield. The western sector is characterized by an extensive stretching area, on which the lava region of volcanic ridges junction of the Tunguska syncline formed. A striking feature of subaerial volcanism is the meridional petrochemical trend of increasing the silica of basic magmas in intrusive rocks of the Siberian Craton while the volumes of embedded melts are reduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0560.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: SEBAL, Remote Sensing, GIS, Groundwater Irrigation
Online: 23 June 2021 (10:15:05 CEST)
Irrigation water management components evaluation is mandatory for sustainable irrigated agriculture production in the era of water scarcity. In this research spatio-temporal distribution of irrigation water components were evaluated at canal command area in Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS) using remote sensing based geo-informatics approach. Satellite derived MODIS product-based Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was used for the estimation of the Actual Evapotranspiration (ETa). Satellite derived SEBAL based ETa was calibrated and validated using the ground data-based advection aridity method (AA). Statistical analysis of the SEBAL based ETa and AA shows the mean 87.1 mm and 47.9 mm and, 100 mm and 77 mm, Standard deviation of 27.7 mm and 15.9 mm and, 34.9 mm and 16.1 mm, R of 0.93 and 0.94, NSE of 0.72 and 0.85, PBIASE -12.9 and -4.4, RMSE 34.9 and 5.76 for the Kharif and Rabi season, respectively. Rainfall data was acquired from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). TRMM based rainfall was calibrated with the point observatory data of the Pakistan Metrological Department Stations. Canal water data was collected from the Punjab Irrigation department for the assessment of canal water availability. Water The water balance approach was applied in the unsaturated zone for the quantification of the gross and net Groundwater irrigation. Mmonthly variation of ETa with the minimum average value of 63.3 mm in January and the maximum average value of 110.6 mm in August was found. While, the average annual of four cropping years (2011-12 to 2014-15) ETa was found 899 mm. Average of the sum of Net Canal Water Use (NCWU) and Rainfall during the study period of four years was only 548 mm (36% of ETa) and this resulted the 739.6 mm of groundwater extraction. While the annual based variation in groundwater extraction of 632 mm and 780 mm was found. Seasonal analysis revealed 39% and 61% of groundwater extraction proportion during Rabi and Kharif season, respectively. The variation in four cropping year’s monthly groundwater extraction was found 28.7 mm to 120.3 mm. This variation was high in the 2011-12 to 2012-13 cropping year (0 mm to 148.7 mm), dependent upon the occurrence of rainfall and crop phenology. Net groundwater irrigation, estimated after incorporating the efficiencies was 503 mm year-1 on average for the four cropping years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0577.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: GIS; QGIS; Zotero; Python; Georeference; Citations
Online: 23 December 2020 (09:41:08 CET)
Here we introduce Literature Mapper, a Python QGIS plugin that provides a method for creating a spatial bibliography manager as well as a specification for storing spatial data in a bibliography manager. Literature Mapper uses QGIS’ spatial capabilities to allow users to add location information to a Zotero library, a free and open source bibliography manager. Literature Mapper enhances the citations in a user’s online Zotero database with geo-locations by storing spatial coordinates as part of traditional citation entries. Literature Mapper receives data from and sends data to the user’s online database via Zotero’s web API. By using Zotero as the backend data storage, Literature Mapper benefits from all of its features including shared citation Collections, public sharing, and an open web API usable by additional applications, such as web mapping libraries. We evaluate Literature Mapper’s ability to provide insights into the spatial distribution of published literature by mapping the study sites described in academic publications related to California’s coastal strand vegetation. The results of this exercise are presented in static and web map form.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0058.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: Rwandz; residential function; GIS; correlation; regression
Online: 3 August 2020 (00:37:42 CEST)
House is the haven that keeps people from natural and human conditions, it gives them trust, safety, and steadiness. It is one of the most basic human needs this became a serious function which cities offer, and became one of the most important aspects which caught urban researchers interest, they take into consideration a wide range of architectural, social, and economic indicators. The study aims to provide an overall conception of Rwandz residential functions, using a collection of parameters and some GIS and statistical techniques, to help establish plans and future projects to improve the growth of this city and other towns and cities in that area. The study found that the old parts of Rwandz city which are located in the core, differ from the outer parts which are relatively newer in many properties, generally, the core is more densely populated than the outer, bigger family size, more illiteracy, and unemployment, few incomes, older houses, smaller houses, in the opposite of the outer parts. Besides, the study tested the correlation coefficient between the criteria; it found some strong statistical relationships between them, which reflected some real-life properties of the residential function. Lastly, the study designed a regression model to predict the main residential function criteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0285.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate change; gis; geostatistic; raster math
Online: 16 July 2018 (12:26:24 CEST)
The province of Macerata, Italy, is a topographically complex region which has been little studied in terms of its temperature and precipitation climatology. Temperature data from 81 weather stations and precipitation data from 55 rain gauges were obtained, and, following quality control procedures, were investigated on the basis of 3 standard periods: 1931-1960, 1961-1990 and 1991-2014. Spatial and temporal variations in precipitation and temperature were analysed on the basis of six topographic variable (altitude, distance from the sea, latitude, distance from the closest river, aspect, and distance from the crest line). Of these, the relationship with altitude showed the strongest correlation. Use of GIS software allowed investigation of the most accurate way to present interpolations of these data and assessment of the differences between the 3 investigated periods. The results of the analyses permit a thorough evaluation of climate change spatially over the last 60 years. Generally, the amount of precipitation is diminished while the temperature is increased across the whole study area, but with significant variations within it. Temperature increased by 2 to 3°C in the central part of the study area, while near the coast and in the mountains the change is between about 0 and 1°C, with small decreases focused in the Appennine and foothill belt (-1 to 0°C). For precipitation, the decrease is fairly uniform across the study area (between about 0-200 mm), but with some isolated areas of strong increase (200-300 mm) and only few parts of territory in which there is an increase of 0-200 mm, mainly in the southern part of the coast, to the south-west and inland immediately behind the coast. The monthly temperature trend is characterized by a constant growth, while for precipitation there is a strong decrease in the amount measured in January, February and October (between 25 and 35 mm on average).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0126.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: GIS, Groundwater, Physico- chemical parameters, Statistics
Online: 15 January 2018 (16:48:32 CET)
Groundwater is an important role of the environment in natural resources. The major sources of groundwater contamination in this study were open discharges of domestic sewage, inadequate sewerage system, open defecation, septic tanks, soak pits, contaminated water pools, unorganized solid waste dumping and use of fertilizers, pesticides for agriculture deteriorated the condition. In this present study revealed that the physical and chemical characteristics of ground water in different areas of Kannur district in Kerala have been determined different seasons with respect to its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. For this study the groundwater samples were collected during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons from 70 wells representing the entire the study area. The groundwater samples were analyzed for Physico-chemical characteristics using standard techniques in laboratory and compared with standards. The samples were analyzed with reference to the WHO and BIS standards. The groundwater quality information of the entire study area have been prepared using statistical and GIS technique for all the parameters. This paper proved in GIS will be helpful for measuring, monitoring and managing the groundwater pollution in the study area and suggested to protect groundwater resources in the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0005.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Cloudburst; GIS; MIKE11; DEM; Hydrodynamic model
Online: 1 December 2017 (10:33:45 CET)
Cloudburst is one of the most devastating and frequently occurring natural hazardous events in Indian Himalayan region. Localized deep cumulus convective clouds have a capability of giving enormous amount of rainfall over a limited horizontal area, within a short span of time. Whenever, such events occur, lead to flash floods causing landslides, house collapses, dislocation of traffic, and human casualties on a large scale. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the cloudburst inundation zones accurately to avoid damage associated with them. For this, high resolution Digital Elevation Model generated from CartoSat-1 (Stereo pair) were integrated in MIKE 11 Hydrodynamic 1D model to generate longitudinal profile of the study area and to find water level, peak discharge, flow velocity, flow width at different reaches along the Asi ganga and Bhagirathi river, to know the Cloudburst flood inundation scenario. On 3rd August 2012 one of the major Cloudburst event occurred in Asi Ganga Valley in Indian Himalayan region which was considered for simulation of hydrodynamic model. For a Cloudburst event, 100 mm/hr rainfall was considered for the simulation of the hydrodynamic model. It is observed that the discharge rise from 50 m3/s to 549.164 m3/s (an abrupt increase of about 10 times) within 1 hr at Sangamchetty in Asiganga river and at Joshiyara area rise from 600 m3/s to 3378.69 m3/s (an abrupt increase of about 5 times) within 4 hr in Bhagirathi river. Similarly the water level rises around 3 m and 6m in Asi Ganga and Bhagirathi rivers respectively. Flash Flood inundation areas due to Cloudburst on 3rd August 2012 were demarcated from the simulation results in GIS environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0173.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: web-based GIS; application; architectures; technology
Online: 18 August 2016 (06:07:05 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0288.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: MV/LV network; GIS planning; Spatial network analysis; 3D virtual city; Web and 3D Web GIS applications
Online: 20 January 2022 (08:32:37 CET)
Electric energy has become essential nowadays not only for the daily life of each of us but also for the economy of different countries. The dissemination of geographic information plays an important role in national development as it facilitates communication between managers, investors, and consumers in this sector. Since the management of electricity network data was previously done in Tunisia based on paper maps and plans, the purpose of this article is to present a case of planning based on GIS, Web, and 3D Web GIS, which would have significant positive consequences on this sector from a technical and financial sides with an improvement in customer satisfaction and the creation of an intelligent electricity network which will be a real decision-making tool. This work draws up an inventory of the network MV (Medium Voltage)/LV (Low Voltage) of the region of Medjez El Bab which routes electricity to the big centers of consumption with access to MV/LV subscribers. The analysis of the network's impedance allowed carrying out different scenarios to optimize performance and obtain more realistic routes. Many thematic maps were produced as part of this project (Slope map, Land use map, map of the MV voltage domains, map of the MV/LV transformer stations power, etc.). A three-dimensional virtual city has been developed to visualize the graphical and attribute data for the study area. A Web and 3D Web GIS applications that allows the publication of the interactive maps on the Web as well as the database information have been developed to offer users the possibility of consulting the produced products by internet. Finally, a website related to the study was developed.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: spatial village planning; coastal areas; local community; indicators of village planning; GIS application; GIS layers; territorial development
Online: 12 January 2020 (13:38:08 CET)
Spatial planning processes generally consider three levels of planning, which are applied to three types of territory: state, county and city. As the coastal areas are of a significant natural, cultural, economic and social value, as well as are characterized by a diverse range of involved society with specific interests and needs, there is a necessity for an innovative and new approach to sustainable development planning in accordance with the modern age of growth, as well as to work with local communities in specific areas. Planning of a small populated area like village territory is more diverse and subject to the wishes and needs of the population. Small territory planning involves a very narrow circle of individuals or communities that identify spatial development needs for the future, including socio-economic, cultural, and environmental and climate change scenarios. In order to assess the development opportunities and needs of the area, it is necessary to monitor the area by regularly updating data. As it is well known, methodically derived data (facts) provide objectivity and transparency. Nowadays, when information about the present and the past is circulating very fast, it is possible to analyze the current situation, to forecast the future using databases, and to show several constructed realities (scenarios) using the geographic information system (GIS). Therefore, it is crucial to explore and find out the local needs-based planning approach to the development of village in coastal areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1465.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: biomass; ecophysiology; GIS remote sensing; agroecology; Togo
Online: 21 June 2023 (03:02:46 CEST)
In the context of climate change, the need for stakeholders to contribute to achieving SDG2 is no longer in doubt especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study of the landscape within 10 km of the Donomadé model farm, southeastern Togo, we sought to assess vegetation health in ecosystems and agrosystems, including their capacity to produce biomass for agroecological practices. Sentinel-2 sensor data from 2015, 2017, 2020, and 2022 were preprocessed and used to calculate normalized vegetation fire ratio index (NBR), vegetation fire severity index (dNBR), and CASA-SEBAL models. From these different analyses, it was found that vegetation stress increased across the landscape depending on the year of the time series. We estimated that 9952.215 ha, 10,397.43 ha, and 9854.90 ha were highly stressed in 2015, 2017, and 2020, respectively. Analysis of the level of interannual severity revealed the existence of highly photosynthetic areas which had experienced stress. These areas, which were likely to have been subjected to agricultural practices, were estimated to be 8704.871 ha (dNBR2017–2015), 8253.17 ha (dNBR2020–2017), and 7513.93 ha (dNBR2022–2020). In 2022, the total available biomass estimated by remote sensing for was 3,741,715 ± 119.26 kgC/ha/y. The annual average was 3401.55 ± 119.26 kgC/ha/y. In contrast, the total area of healthy vegetation was estimated to be 4594.43 ha, 4301.30 ha, and 4320.85 ha, in 2015, 2017, and 2022, respectively. The acceptance threshold of the net primary productivity (NPP) of the study area was 96%. The coefficient of skewness (0.81 ± 0.073) indicated a mosaic landscape. Productive and functional ecosystem components were present, but these were highly dispersed. These findings suggest a great opportunity to promote agroecological practices. Mulching may be an excellent technique for enhancing overall ecosystem services as targeted by the SDGs, by means of reconversion of plant biomass consumed by vegetation fires or slash-and-burn agricultural practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0762.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Naturtejo Geopark; Groundwater; Vulnerability; DRASTIC; DRASTICAI; GIS
Online: 31 March 2021 (12:04:28 CEST)
Groundwater vulnerability assessment has become a useful tool for groundwater pollution pre-vention. Groundwater vulnerability maps provide useful data to protect groundwater resources. The identification of agricultural patterns is an important issue for optimized land management. The Tagus river watershed is the backbone of this survey. Naturtejo UNESCO Global Geopark, in central inland Portugal, corresponds to a rural territory. Intensive agricultural practices showed a rising tendency in the last decades. The most internationally used method for vulnerability evaluation is the DRASTIC index. In this survey, the DRASTICAI index is introduced. A new at-tribute - Anthropogenic Influence - is here added. Five levels of growing vulnerability, from low to high, can be here acknowledged. Idanha-a-Nova municipality is the most affected by intensive farming activities. A robust assessment of groundwater quality has a key role. Climate change scenarios and water scarcity are important issues in years to come. Therefore, optimized groundwater management is essential to consider in policy-making strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0082.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Shoreline Evolution; Open-Source Software; GIS; Modeling
Online: 19 February 2021 (09:46:48 CET)
This paper presents the validation of the End Point Rate (EPR) tool for QGIS (EPR4Q), a tool built-in QGIS Graphical Modeler to calculate the shoreline change by End Point Rate method. The EPR4Q tries to fill the gap of user-friendly and free open-source tool for shoreline analysis in Geographic Information System environment, since the most used software - Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) - although is a free extension, is suited for commercial software. Besides, the best free open-source option to calculate EPR called Analyzing Moving Boundaries Using R (AMBUR), since it is a robust and powerful tool, the complexity and heavy processes can restrict the accessibility and simple usage. The validation methodology consists of applying the EPR4Q, DSAS, and AMBUR on different examples of shorelines found in nature, extracted from the U.S. Geological Survey Open-File. The obtained results of each tool were compared with Pearson correlation coefficient. The validation results indicate that the EPR4Q tool created acquired high correlation values with DSAS and AMBUR, reaching a coefficient of 0.98 to 1.00 on linear, extensive, and non-extensive shorelines, guarantying that the EPR4Q tool is ready to be freely used by the academic, scientific, engineering, and coastal managers communities worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0572.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: waterlogging; vulnerability; risk; participatory survey; GIS; Chattogram
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:48:08 CET)
In recent years, rainfall-induced waterlogging has become a common hazard in the highly urbanized coastal city of Chattogram, Bangladesh resulting in high magnitude of property damage and economic loss. Therefore, the primary objective of this research is to prepare a waterlogging inventory map and understand the spatial variation of the risk by means of hazard intensity, exposure, and vulnerability of waterlogging. In this research, the inventory map and factors influencing waterlogging hazard were determined from a participatory survey and other spatial data including land elevation, population, and structural data were collected from secondary sources. Analytical Hierarchy Process was applied to measure the hazard intensity and the exposure and vulnerability were estimated by overlaying the spatial data onto the hazard intensity map. A total of 58 locations in 22 wards have been identified as waterlogging affected, which covers ~8.42% of the city area. Obtained waterlogging vulnerability index map suggests that ward no. 5, 6, 16, 17, and 33 are greatly vulnerable to waterlogging in terms of their social, infrastructure, critical facilities, economic and environmental vulnerability. We show that ~2.71% of the study area is at very high risk, while the risk score is considerably higher for ward no. 5, 8, 17, 19, and 33.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0287.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Urban growth; cellular automata; Benslimane; GIS; Landsat
Online: 9 November 2020 (22:56:32 CET)
In this study, our goal was to research land-use change by combining spatio–temporal land use/land cover monitoring (LULC (1989–2019) and urban growth modeling (1999–2039) in Benslimane, Morocco, to determine the effect of urban growth on different groups based on cellular automata (CA) and geospatial methods. A further goal was to test the reliability of the AC algorithm for urban expansion modeling. To do this, four years of satellite data were used at the same time as population density, downtown distance, slope, and ground road distance. The LULC satellite reported a rise of 3.8 km2 (318% variation) during 1989–2019. Spatial transformation analysis reveals a good classification similarity ranging from 89% to 91% with the main component analysis (PCA) technique. The statistical accuracy between the satellite scale and the replicated built region of 2019 gave 97.23 %t of the confusion matrix overall accuracy, and the region under the receiver operational characteristics (ROC) curve to 0.94, suggesting the model's high accuracy. Although the constructed area remains low relative to the total area of the municipality's territory, the LULC project shows that the urban area will extend to 5,044 km2 in 2019, principally in the western and southwestern sections. In 2019–2039, urban development is expected to lead to a transformation of the other class (loss of 1,364 km2), followed by vegetation cover (loss of 0.345 km2). In spatial modeling and statistical calculations, the GDAL and NumPy Python 3.8 libraries were successful.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0249.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Geoarchaeology; Urban Geomorphology; Failaka Island; GIS; RS.
Online: 11 August 2020 (04:13:37 CEST)
Failaka Island is located 20 kilometers east of the Kuwait mainland. The island includes archaeological sites dating back to the Bronze, Hellenistic, Christian, and Islamic ages. To develop the island as a tourist attraction the state is pursuing a new urban plan based on the island's environmental potential. This study is the basis of the urban plan depends on environmental criteria from the view of Geoarchaeology. The study analysis the land-use and land-cover changes of Failaka Island between 1958- 2018. It provides a topographic survey of the island's coastline and a classification of its geomorphological features and a state of the art identification of its archaeological sites by using a drone to make a terrain model. The study used a medium to high-resolution image analysis of the land-use and land-cover changes: WorldView2-50cm 2010 and 2018; Landsat 8; aerial photography; Drone images and a digital elevation model (DEM), to analysis the expected sea level changes by the end of this century. This study also created a geodatabase of the island that can be adapted for future studies. The results emphasize the importance of preserving the historical and ecological features of the island while developing its infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0028.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: rockfall; susceptibility; GIS; rainfall; earthquake; fault; inventory
Online: 2 April 2019 (07:54:57 CEST)
The assessment of rockfall risks on human activities and infrastructure is of great importance. Rock falls pose a significant risk to a) transportation infrastructure b) inhabited areas and c) Cultural Heritage sites. The paper presents a method to assess rockfall susceptibility at national scale in Greece, using a simple rating approach and GIS techniques. An extensive inventory of rockfalls for the entire country was compiled for the period between 1935 and 2019. The rockfall events that were recorded are those, which have mainly occurred as distinct rockfall episodes in natural slopes and have impacted human activities, such as roads, inhabited areas and archaeological sites. Through a detailed analysis of the recorded data, it was possible to define the factors which determine the occurrence of rockfalls. Based on this analysis, the susceptibility zoning against rockfalls at national scale was prepared, using a simple rating approach and GIS techniques. The rockfall susceptibility zoning takes into account the following parameters: (a) the slope gradient, (b) the lithology, (c) the annual rainfall intensity, (d) the earthquake intensity and (e) the active fault presence. Emphasis was given on the study of the earthquake effect as a triggering mechanism of rockfalls. Finally, the temporal and spatial frequency of the recorded events and the impact of rockfalls on infrastructure assets and human activities in Greece were evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0048.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: land-cover change; deforestation; neural network; GIS
Online: 27 December 2018 (11:42:03 CET)
Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) can provide a great environment for using machine learning algorithm for spatial data such as satellite images. Integrating this functionality with artificial intelligence algorithms for analyzing spatial data enables us to predict challenging disasters such as deforestation. Deforestation as an environmental problems has been recorded the most serious threat to environmental diversity and one of the main components of land-use change. In this paper, we investigate spatial distribution of deforestation using artificial neural networks and satellite imagery. We modeled deforestation process using various factors in determining the relationship between deforestation and environmental and socioeconomic factors. Hence, for this purpose, the proximity to roads and habitats, fragmentation of the forest, height from sea level, slope, and soil type are considered in the model. In this research, we modeled land cover changes (forests) to predict deforestation using an artificial neural network due to its significant potential for the development of nonlinear complex models. The procedure involves image registration and error correction, image classification, preparing deforestation maps, determining layers, and designing a multi-layer neural network to predict deforestation. The satellite images for this study are of a region in Hong Kong which are captured from 2012 to 2016. The results of the study demonstrate that neural networks approach for predicting deforestation can be utilized and its outcomes show the areas that destroyed during the research period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0488.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: gis; bim; ifc; citygml; integration; interoperability; geometry
Online: 29 June 2018 (15:15:57 CEST)
It is widely acknowledged that the integration of BIM and GIS data is a crucial step forward for future 3D city modelling, but most of the research conducted so far has covered only the semantic aspects of GIS-BIM integration. We present here the results of the GeoBIM project, in which we tackled three integration problems focussing instead on aspects involving geometry processing: (i) the automated processing of complex architectural IFC models, (ii) the integration of existing GIS subsoil data in BIM, and (iii) the georeferencing of BIM models for their use in GIS software. All the problems have been studied using real world models and existing datasets made and used by practitioners in the Netherlands. For each problem, we expose in detail the issues we faced, our proposed solutions, and our recommendations for a more successful integration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0047.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Biogenic emissions; Greece; Geographic Information System (GIS)
Online: 7 December 2017 (15:44:08 CET)
Biogenic emissions affect the urban air quality as they are ozone and SOA precursors and should be taken into account when applying photochemical pollution models. The present study presents an estimation of the magnitude of Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds emissions (NMVOCs) emitted by vegetation over Greece. The methodology is based on computation performed with the aid of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and theoretical equations in order to develop an emission inventory on a 6x6 spatial resolution, in a temporal resolution of 1hr covering one year (2016). For this purpose, a variety of input data was used: improved satellite land-use data, land-use specific emission potentials, foliar biomass densities, temperature and solar radiation data. Hourly, daily and annual isoprene, monoterpenes and other volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) were estimated. In the area under study, the annual biogenic emissions were estimated up to 472 kt, consisting of 46.6% isoprene, 28% monoterpenes and 25.4% OVOCs. Results delineate an annual cycle with increasing values from March to April, while maximum emissions were observed from May to September, followed by a decrease from October to January.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1271.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Agriculture, carbonisation, bushfire, GIS/remote sensing, landscape ecology
Online: 21 November 2023 (09:58:33 CET)
In the Lubumbashi charcoal production basin (LCPB) in south-eastern DR Congo, agricultural and charcoal production activities regularly give rise to fires that lead to considerable degradation of the miombo open forest. This study analyzes the drivers of the spatio-temporal distribution of active fires and burnt areas in the LCPB by processing MODIS and Landsat data. In addition, a Kernel density analysis method (KDE) was used to estimate fire risk, while the effect of the road network and dwellings on vegetation fires was highlighted in areas between 0-3000m radius. Obtained results revealed that fires in the LCPB generally occur between April and November mainly during the day, between 11am and 12pm. These fires are concentrated in the central and south-western part of the LCPB, more specifically in the savannahs and near roads. From 2002 to 2022, an average of 11,237 active fires and an average of 6,337 km2 of burnt areas were recorded in the LCPB. Each year, these fires peak in August, and despite their steady decline, the few fires that have affected the forests have caused more devastation (more than 2790 km2 / year) than those observed in the fields and savannah. These figures highlight the imperative need to put in place fire prevention and management measures in the LCPB, with particular emphasis on awareness, monitoring and fire-fighting measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1182.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: remote sensing; Geographic Information Systems (GIS); fish biodiversity
Online: 19 October 2023 (03:51:06 CEST)
The analysis of the land use dynamics of the Lac Télé Community Reserve (RCLT) using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and (Enhance Thematic Mapper) ETM+ images highlight significant changes in the vegetation cover from 1980 to 2000 and 2018. Thus, the rate of forest area decreased by 21.41% for the entire LTCR in favor of savannahs which increased by 15.23%. The conversion of this forest area to savannah due to the practice of slash and burn agriculture facilitates the opening up of the forest area and contributes to greatly degrading the spawning grounds of fish species from the Likouala aux herbes river. For the mapping of fishing activity in general and the ecological characterization of the 151 identified spawning grounds in particular; the respective mean values of the physical and chemical water parameters; temperature (28.13°C), pH (4.23) and depth (3.34) did not vary significantly from one selected village to another between July and September 2019. The fish diversity unregistered during the study, in the 07 pilot villages would be due to the diversity of the microhabitats noted in the villages of the LTCR, especially from the villages; Botongo, Mossengue and Bouanela where the indices of ichthyological diversity were the highest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1263.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Urban Areas; Medium Cities; Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
Online: 30 April 2023 (05:05:08 CEST)
In recent decades, particularly intense changes have occurred in Spanish urban areas. This is the result of demographic and urbanizing transformations that have led to a change in the city model. The predominance of compact forms has been replaced by the growing prominence of urban sprawl. Structures are now more extensive, characterized, in turn, by fragmentation and notable consumption of land in the peripheries. In medium-sized cities, the municipalities bordering the central cities have concentrated the processes of suburbanization and periurbanization. This paper addresses the process of change for 34 cities and their urban areas located in inland Spain. A proposal is made for the delimitation and characterization of urban areas, taking the municipality as the unit of analysis. At the methodological level, six variables are used, analyzed by means of multicriteria statistical techniques combined with the use of GIS tools. An Urban Transformation Index (ITU) has been developed that synthesizes urbanizing, demographic and socioeconomic dynamics. In the territorial area, the 20-minute isochrone is used as a reference. In the temporal domain, the period of analysis addresses the events of the first two decades of the twenty-first century.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0244.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Soil Erosion; Floods; LULC; KINEROS2; GIS; Remote Sensing
Online: 16 September 2022 (09:23:13 CEST)
The Kashmir valley is prone to flooding due to its peculiar geomorphic setup compounded by the rapid anthropogenic land system changes and climate change. The study assesses the impact of land use and land cover (LULC) changes between 1980 and 2020 and extreme rainfall on peak discharge and sediment yield in the Upper Jhelum Basin (UJB), Kashmir Himalaya, India using KINEROS2 model. Analysis of LULC change revealed a notable shift from natural LULC to more intensive human-modified LULC, including a decrease in vegetative cover, deforestation, urbanization, and improper farming practices. The findings revealed a strong influence of the LULC changes on peak discharge, and sediment yield relative to the 2014 timeframe, which coincided with the catastrophic September 2014 flood event. The model predicted a peak discharge of 115101 cubic feet per second (cfs) and a sediment yield of 56.59 tons/ha during the September 2014 flooding, which is very close to the observed peak discharge of 115218 cfs indicating that the model is reliable for discharge prediction. The model predicted a peak discharge of 98965 cfs and a sediment yield of 49.11 tons/ha in 1980, which increased to 118366 cfs and, 58.92 tons/ha respectively in 2020, showing an increase in basin’s flood risk over time. In the future, it is anticipated that the ongoing LULC changes will make flood vulnerability worse, which could lead to another major flooding in the event of an extreme rainfall as predicted under climate change and, in turn compromise achievement of sustainable development goals (SDG). Therefore, regulating LULC in order to modulate various hydrological and land surface processes would ensure stability of runoff and reduction in sediment yield in the UJB, which is critical for achieving many SDGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0011.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Flash floods; Hydro-Geomorphology; Rainstorms management; GIS; RS.
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:07:40 CEST)
Flash flooding is one of the most devastating natural events that leads to enormous and recurring loss of life. Kuwait was subjected to severe rainstorms in the winter of 2018 and 2020 followed by an extreme violent flood that had not been known in Kuwait since 1976. It resulted in several geomorphological and environmental impacts in urban and desert areas. This produced some positive results, such as geomorphological activity in landforms, the flow of some valleys and the prosperity of wildlife in the Kuwaiti desert. Negative results included some problems in the metropolitan area and destruction of some road networks that intersect the main valleys, and which were not equipped with crossings for avoiding floods. There was also the emergence of some problems in the infrastructure. Study of flash floods requires the involvement of all scientific and executive bodies to avoid environmental risk. The study aims to: 1- Monitor geomorphological and environmental changes. 2- Assess the impact of floods in the urban areas and on infrastructure. 3- Modeling the impact. 4- Creating solutions and adaptions to the flash flood. The study uses several methods such as remote sensing (RS), geographic information systems (GIS), hydrologic modeling and fieldwork to evaluate the impact of flash flood hazards on the sustainable urban development of Kuwait state. This approach is rarely used in Kuwait. We propose a novel method that could help decision-makers and planners in determining inundated flood zones before planning future urban developments in Kuwait, and help them to manage flood water, by identifying the most appropriate places for storage to exploit water in agriculture and drinking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0574.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Environmental geomorphology; Urban Geomorphology; GIS- Suitability modeling; RS
Online: 23 March 2021 (16:53:17 CET)
Choosing the optimal location for a city based on sound environmental geomorphology planning is of the utmost importance to achieving environmental sustainability, as it can spare the State and other decision-making entities a great deal of stress in the long run. GIS offers great potential for environmental planners to choose the most appropriate places for the cities of the future, especially when coupled with environmental geomorphological analyses. The State of Kuwait seeks sustainable development through the implementation of clear and specific urban plans, some of which suffer from a severe lack of geomorphological and spatially based environmental planning. This study aims to: 1) Conduct suitability modelling for establishing new cities in Kuwait, 2) Assess the current 2005-2030 urban plan, and 3) Propose possible recommendations and solutions for potential urban problems. The study relies on integrating several methods to devise a framework that will aid researchers and decision-makers in selecting optimal locations for built structures based on analysis and modelling (e.g., digital elevation model, geologic mapping, geomorphology, natural hazards, heritage/archaeological sites, military areas, oil fields, soils). Using this methodology in choosing city sites contributes to achieving sustainable development, reducing city problems, saving countries’ budgets, and saving lives. Results from this study enhance understanding of how environmental geomorphology, when combined with GIS, can be harnessed to achieve sustainable urban development in the Arabian Gulf countries and other desert countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0513.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Sea-Level Rise; GIS; Open-Source Software; Modeling
Online: 23 February 2021 (12:39:09 CET)
Sea-level rise is a problem increasingly affecting coastal areas worldwide. The existence of Free and Open-Source Models to estimate the sea-level impact can contribute to better coastal man-agement. This study aims to develop and to validate two different models to predict the sea-level rise impact supported by Google Earth Engine (GEE) – a cloud-based platform for planetary-scale environmental data analysis. The first model is a Bathtub Model based on the uncertainty of projections of the Sea-level Rise Impact Module of TerrSet - Geospatial Monitoring and Modeling System software. The validation process performed in the Rio Grande do Sul coastal plain (S Brazil) resulted in correlations from 0.75 to 1.00. The second model uses Bruun Rule formula implemented in GEE and is capable to determine the coastline retreat of a profile through the creation of a simple vector line from topo-bathymetric data. The model shows a very high cor-relation (0.97) with a classical Bruun Rule study performed in Aveiro coast (NW Portugal). The GEE platform seems to be an important tool for coastal management. The models developed have been openly shared, enabling the continuous improvement of the code by the scientific commu-nity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0480.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: GIS; RUSLE; Sediment Yield; Spatial Variation; Temporal Variation
Online: 22 February 2021 (14:57:30 CET)
Sediment accumulation in a dam reservoir is a common happening environmental problem throughout the world. Topographic conditions, land use land cover change, the intensity of rainfall, and the soil characteristics are the major driving factors for sedimentation to occur. The effect of sedimentation in a dam reservoir is very visible in the watershed as a result of hilly topographic conditions, high rainfall intensity, thin land cover, and less soil infiltration capacity. In this paper, an integrated RUSLE and GIS technique was implemented to estimate a mean annual sediment yield based on spatial and temporal variations in Nashe dam reservoir situated in Fincha catchment, Abaya River basin, Ethiopia. Spatial and temporal estimation of mean annual sediment yield was estimated using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model and GIS. Historical 6-year (2014-2019) rainfall for the temporal variations and other physical factors such as soil erodibility, slope and length steepness, management and land used land cover, and support practice for spatial variations were used as sediment driving factors. The mean annual sediment yield ranges from 0 to 2712.65 t ha-1 year-1 was seen. Spatially, Very high, high, moderate, low, and very low sediment yield severity with total area coverage with 25%, 10%, 30%, 15%, and 20% in 2017, 2015, 2019, 2014, and 2018 respectively. The information about the spatial and temporal variations of the severity of sediment yield in RUSLE model has a paramount role to control the entry of sediment into the dam reservoir in this watershed. The results of the RUSLE model can also be further considered along with the watershed for planning strategies for dam reservoirs in the catchment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0421.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Sea-Level Rise; GIS; Open-Source Software; Modeling
Online: 18 February 2021 (13:52:49 CET)
Sea-level rise is a problem increasingly affecting coastal areas worldwide. The existence 15 of Free and Open-Source Models to estimate the sea-level impact can contribute to better coastal 16 management. This study aims to develop and to validate two different models to predict the 17 sea-level rise impact supported by Google Earth Engine (GEE) – a cloud-based platform for plan-18 etary-scale environmental data analysis. The first model is a Bathtub Model based on the uncer-19 tainty of projections of the Sea-level Rise Impact Module of TerrSet - Geospatial Monitoring and 20 Modeling System software. The validation process performed in the Rio Grande do Sul coastal 21 plain (S Brazil) resulted in correlations from 0.75 to 1.00. The second model uses Bruun Rule for-22 mula implemented in GEE and is capable to determine the coastline retreat of a profile through the 23 creation of a simple vector line from topo-bathymetric data. The model shows a very high correla-24 tion (0.97) with a classical Bruun Rule study performed in Aveiro coast (NW Portugal). The GEE 25 platform seems to be an important tool for coastal management. The models developed have been 26 openly shared, enabling the continuous improvement of the code by the scientific community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0151.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Environmental geomorphology; Urban Geomorphology; GIS- Suitability modeling; RS
Online: 5 February 2021 (09:54:43 CET)
The State of Kuwait seeks sustainable development through implementation of clear and specific urban plans, some of which suffer from a severe lack of geomorphological and spatially-based environmental planning, such as the use of geographic information systems (GIS). Choosing the optimal location for a city based on sound environmental planning is of the utmost importance to achieving environmental sustainability, as it can spare the State and other decision-making entities a great deal of stress in the long run. GIS, in particular, offers great potential for the environmental planner and decision-maker to choose the most appropriate places for the cities of the future, especially when coupled with geomorphological analyses. To achieve the Vision of Kuwait 2035, one of the State’s planning objectives focuses on Urban Planning for the Establishment of Environmental Cities that Achieve (UPEECA) environmental sustainability criteria. To gain a more holistic analysis related to the Vision, this study aims to: 1) Conduct suitability modelling for establishing new cities in Kuwait, 2) Assess the current 2005-2030 urban plan, and 3) Propose possible recommendations and solutions for potential urban problems. The study relies on integrating several methods to devise a framework that will aid researchers and decision-makers in selecting optimal locations for built structures based on analysis and modelling (e.g., digital elevation model, geologic mapping, geomorphology, natural hazards, heritage/archaeological sites, military areas, oil fields, soils)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0035.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: GIS; urban design; Dubai; public health; sport management
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:01:36 CET)
The aim of this paper is to analyze the five grand parks in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and provide a geoprocessing approach to different aspects such as sport, health, leisure, recreation, and public wellbeing. The study uses a hybrid of qualitative and quantitative approach as methodology. Sustainability offerings, accessibility for people of determination and special needs, typology and the geolocations of the grand parks plays crucial role in residents’ wellbeing. The paper concludes with recommendations for Dubai government to design new and innovative approaches to manage wellbeing of urban public places into the leisure environment for residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0387.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: environmental diversity; eco-tourism; Asir region; GIS; RS
Online: 17 September 2020 (08:06:50 CEST)
This is study follows environmental diversity assessment for geotourism development in Asir region. Geotourism seeks to supporting the tourism landscape in its interaction with the historical and archaeological, architectural or immaterial heritage, and requires diversification in terms of product, market and geographical potential. The study is based on various tourist facades and environmental diversity in Asir. As tourism development is a comprehensive undertaking involving many sectors, and these are the challenges to which the country’s tourism industry should respond to promote domestic tourism. quality and spatial pattern of tourism resources, climate comfort, and natural disaster possibility. Based on analyze multi-source datasets collected, geomorphological features of this area, we created a GIS database comprising geologic and topographic maps, and satellite images using these datasets. The findings of the study provided valuable insights into the role of environmental diversity in achieving tourism. The study examined the interrelationship between tourism and environmental diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; geographic information systems (GIS); Shahroud; Iran
Online: 3 July 2020 (08:27:23 CEST)
Abstract Background: The highest incidence rate of covid-19 in Iran was reported from Shahroud County. This study was conducted by geographic information systems (GIS) to determine the geographical distribution of Covid-19 in 60 days. Study design: A cross-sectional study Methods: This study was conducted in counties covered by Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, namely Shahroud and Mayami, from February 20, 2020 to April 18, 2020. The GIS can better show the spread of epidemics. This software indicates geographical distribution of disease spread and is very helpful in controlling the epidemics. Therefore, maps of spatial distribution and risk of infection to COVID-19 were prepared in different regions of Shahroud county using Arc-GIS software to better implement health policies. Results: During this sixty-day period, 529 confirmed cases were detected, of which 51% were men and the average age was 55 years. The maps showed high-risk to risk-free regions. Shahroud and Bastam cities were known as the coronavirus hot spots. The eastern region of Shahroud has the highest number of cases but some high risk areas are spread throughout the Shahroud city due to high infectivity of virus. Risk-based time maps indicated a reduction in the risk of infection at the end of the research period due to some mitigation and suppression strategies. Conclusions: Shahroud and Bastam are the most dangerous cities that, the number of patients and dissemination has decreased over time because of tracking definite patients and people in contact with them and implementation of preventive care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0050.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: potato cultivation soil suitability; agricultural landscape categorisation; GIS
Online: 5 February 2020 (02:52:46 CET)
Growing potato demands considerable external inputs of pesticides due to its susceptibility to various pests and pathogens. Here we present an attempt to differentiate the Slovak rural landscape with respect to the possibility of effective potato cultivation and to characterise soil parameters of current potato cultivation areas with the aim to increase the sustainability of the potato production. The selection was based on soil climatic, production and economic parameters. By using the GIS tools and existing databases on soil characteristics in Slovakia, maps of soil suitability categories for potato cultivation were generated. In Slovakia, it was found that 12.3% of farmland is very suitable for potato cultivation and that as much as 43.1% is not suitable. Later the specified categories were characterised in detail and specified with respect to geographic, soil, climatic, production and economic parameters. Currently, most potato crops are cultivated on Eutric Cambisols (27%), Chernozems (20%) and Mollic Fluvisols (18%). Loamy soils (65%), soils without gravel (62%), deep soils (74%) and soil situated on plains (55%) are dominant in these regions. We suggest that potato cultivation should be concentrated on the most suitable areas, thereby increasing the economic profitability, improving the ecological stability of the country and supporting the sustainability of the agriculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0068.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: sustainability; urban planning; parametric model; informal settlements; GIS
Online: 5 June 2018 (12:56:11 CEST)
The non-existence of a land ownership database in most of the developing countries moves the inhabitants to the occupation of public lands. Some of this situation are the origin to areas of informal housing, commerce and agriculture and in the end into new informal settlements. Informal settlements become a serious problem in developing countries. The most common typology of informal settlements is that they are the population settled in public lands without any infrastructures and against the administrator's will. Thought this action the result in an uncontrolled land occupation process that promotes new informal areas without any proper built-up utilities, located in risk areas on the territory, barely ensuring the minimum requirements for a heaty living of the population and in various cases incentives to an informal economy. The process of build a cadastral map in informal settlement areas is a fundamental base to support the future transformation of illegal areas and to regulate the occupation of new subdivision planning and into the creation of new expansion areas. In this paper, it is presented a methodology developed to be applied to support a new register of land and to management. The transformation of informal settlement areas. The model to register the land tenure has been associated with allows the process application to multiple typology of informal settlements. The model to register land tenure has developed on a series of qualitative and quantitative data that determine the identification and classification of the buildings and its physical and functional description. The model was developed using Geographic Information System and with an initial survey of existing land titles of possession and public proposals to develop new expansion areas. A case study of the method is presented, where the land management model was implemented - Chã da Caldeiras in Ilha do Fogo an informal settlement in Cape Verde. The results are a great acceptance of the proposal by the population and local authorities and the starting of the implementation phase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0056.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Space And Planetary Science Keywords: environmental risks; satellite data; GIS techniques; Egyptian temples
Online: 9 November 2017 (03:10:49 CET)
Over the years, the Egyptian temples at Luxor city have been intensely investigated, but most of these studies just focused on the classical sides of the archaeological and historical descriptions. Many of the environmental problems are inevitable results of the unplanned urban crawling around the monuments temples. This paper aims at assessing the environmental changes around some temples of Luxor City using Remote sensing and GIS techniques. In particular, a historical database made up of Corona and Landsat TM data have been investigated along with the new acquisitions of Quickbird2 and Sentinel2. Results from our investigation highlighted rapid changes in urban and agricultural areas, which adversely affected the Egyptian monumental temples causing serious degradation phenomena. Using the information obtained from our RS&GIS based analysis, mitigation strategies have been also identified for supporting the preservation of the archaeological area.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0241.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Google Earth Engine; R coding; GIS, Restoration, Decision-Making
Online: 14 November 2022 (06:29:30 CET)
Land degradation and climate change are among the main threats to the sustainability of ecosystems worldwide. Therefore, the restoration of degraded landscapes is essential to maintain the functionality of ecosystems, especially those with greater social, economic and environmental vulnerability. Nevertheless, policy-makers are frequently challenged by deciding on where to prioritize restoration actions, which usually includes to deal with multiple and complex needs under an always short budget. If these decisions are not taken based on proper data and processes, restoration implementation can easily fail. To help decision-makers taking informed decisions on where to implement restoration activities, we have developed a semiautomatic geospatial platform to prioritize areas for restoration activities based on ecological, social and economic variables. This platform takes advantage of the potential to integrate R coding, Google Earth Engine cloud computing and GIS visualization services to generate an interactive geospatial decision-maker tool for restoration. Here, we present a prototype version called "RePlant alpha" which was tested with data from the Central Zone of Chile. This exercise proved that integrating R and GEE was feasible, and that the analysis, with at least six indicators and for a specific region was also feasible to implement even from a personal computer. Therefore, the use of a virtual machine in the cloud with a large number of indicators over large areas is both possible and practical.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0263.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: response; dropout; older adults; physical activity interventions; OSM; GIS
Online: 22 February 2022 (03:47:38 CET)
Research is still lacking regarding the question as to how programs to promote healthy aging should be organized in order to increase acceptance and thus effectiveness. For older adults, ecological factors, such as physical distance to program sites, might predict participation and retention. Thus, the key aim of this analysis was to examine these factors in a physical activity intervention trial. Adults (N=8,299) aged 65 to 75 years were invited to participate and n=589 participants were randomly assigned to one of two intervention groups with 10 weeks of physical activity home practice and exercise classes or a wait-list control group. Response, participation, and dropout data were compared regarding ecological, individual, and study-related variables. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression models were used to determine predictors of dropout. In total, 405 participants completed the study. Weekly class attendance rates were examined regarding significant weather conditions and holiday periods. The highest rates of nonresponse were observed in districts with very high neighborhood levels of socioeconomic status. In this study, ecological factors did not appear to be significant predictors of dropout, whereas certain individual and study-related variables were predictive. Future studies should consider these factors during program planning to mobilize and keep subjects in the program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0435.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Soil Erosion Estimation; Quantitative Calculation; RUSLE; Remote Sensing; GIS
Online: 16 November 2020 (16:19:22 CET)
The accurate assessment and monitoring of soil erosion is of great significance for guiding food production and ensuring ecological security, and it is a current research hotspot. In this paper, remote sensing and geographic information systems (GISs) are combined with the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model) to carry out research on soil erosion monitoring and make a quantitative evaluation. According to five factors, including rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, topography, vegetation cover, crop management and water and soil conservation measures, the distribution of the soil erosion rate in Jilin Province in 2019 was mapped, and the soil erosion rate was divided into 5 levels according to the degree of erosion, including very slight, slight, moderate, severe and extremely severe erosion. Based on the segmented S-slope factor model and the unique topographical features of the study area, the relationships among the soil erosion rate, erosion risk level, erosion area, erosion amount and slope angle (θ) were systematically analysed, and a slope angle of 15° was identified as the threshold for soil erosion on sloped farmland in Jilin Province. The total soil erosion in Jilin Province was 402.14×106 t in 2019, the average soil erosion rate was 21.6 t·ha-1·a-1, and the average soil loss thickness was 1.6 mm·a-1; these values were far greater than the soil erosion rate risk threshold of 10 t ·Ha-1·a-1. Thus, the province has a strong level of soil erosion. We conclude that soil degradation is accelerating, and food production and the ecological environment will face severe challenges. It is suggested that soil erosion control should be carried out according to different types and slopes of land, with an emphasis on the management of forestland and farmland because forestland and farmland are currently the first types of land to be managed in Jilin Province. This paper aims to explore a timely, fast, efficient and convenient soil erosion monitoring and evaluation method and provide effective monitoring tools for agricultural water and soil conservation, ecological safety management and stable food production in Jilin Province and similar black soil areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Port State Control; AHP; Paris MOU; GIS; Maritime Regulations
Online: 17 January 2020 (10:27:40 CET)
Merchant marine fleet is under inspections by several parties to ensure maritime regulation compliance. One of the major effects on implementation of regulations by International Maritime Organization (IMO) is indeed Port State Control. This article aims to analyze Paris Memoranda of Understanding (MOU) all detention remarks from 2013 to 2019 for EU15 countries (except Luxemburg and Austria) through an approach based on Analytical Hierarchy Process and demonstrate the results on Geographic Information System (GIS) to guide marine industry on detainable Port State Control remarks and country risk profile. While Analytical Hierarchy Process Approach has been used to indicate the ranking of basic maritime regulations from the perspective of the port state control , GIS help us to demonstrate the regional dispersion amongst EU15. The data of the detained vessel taken from the public website of Paris MOU and each report considered as a professional judgement that causes detention. It has been shown that almost all countries top priorities for regulation are Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and Fire Safety Systems (FSS). Consequently, the results of the study can assist Port State Officers, ship crew, ship owners and managers presenting the facts of their inspection and able to improve themselves. The spatial analysis also expected to guide ship owners and managers to focus their vessel’s deficiencies to prevent sub-standardization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0447.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: socio-environmental vulnerability; Barcelona; spatial analysis; qualitative methodology; GIS
Online: 19 October 2018 (11:33:48 CEST)
The city of Barcelona, like other cities in the world, suffers strong internal socio-economic inequalities. Numerous works have sought to detect, quantify, characterize and / or map existing intra-urban differences, almost always based on quantitative methodologies. With this contribution, we intend to illuminate the complementary role that qualitative methodologies can play in studies on urban socio-environmental vulnerability. We consider aspects that are not quantifiable but that may be inherent to many such vulnerable spaces, both in the constructed environment and in the social ambit. These questions are considered through selected neighborhoods of Barcelona which have been shown (in prior works, mainly studies of quantitative manufacturing) to possess elements of vulnerability including a high presence of immigrants from less-developed countries, low per capita income, aging populations, or low educational levels. The results reveal the multidimensionality of vulnerability in the neighborhoods analyzed, as well as the essential complementarity among methodologies that detect and support possible public actions aimed at reducing or eliminating intra-urban inequalities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0458.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: biological control; Cyrtobagous salviniae; giant salvinia; gis; limnology; water quality
Online: 9 October 2023 (04:39:37 CEST)
The anthropogenic deterioration of aquatic ecosystems affects water resources due to agricultural malpractices, pollution from domestic septic tanks, recreational activities, and poor watershed management, among others. This study examines the management of Las Curias Reservoir (176,974 m2), San Juan, Puerto Rico, post the 2016 arrival of the invasive aquatic fern Salvinia molesta. In December 2019, a community-led initiative introduced the Cyrtobagous salviniae weevil, an effective biological control agent for S. molesta, and commenced a mechanical removal campaign using an aquatic harvester. Limnological sampling (September 2019 to March 2022) and drone flights were employed to measure physicochemical and floating plant cover changes, respectively, in the reservoir. Monitoring of weevils in the reservoir demonstrated a rapid establishment and dispersal, which resulted in visible damage including browning of plants and eventually sinking of entire mats. By January 29, 2021, 71% (125,652 m2) of the reservoir surface was covered by salvinia. In 2022, the reservoir recorded an average dissolved oxygen concentration of 2.38 mg/L -1 (± 0.021, n = 144), the highest in the study period and indicative of ecosystem recovery. After three years of control efforts, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance returned to levels recorded prior to Salvinia molesta introduction. This ecosystem recovery, a first in Puerto Rico, could be attributed to an early use of mechanical control and a long-term impact of biological control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1946.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Sustainable planning; sustainable monitoring; remote sensing; GIS; lineaments; fault; fracture
Online: 29 August 2023 (10:05:14 CEST)
The construction of sustainable road and highway networks in the world, despite numerous feasibility, pre-feasibility and execution studies, are always confronted with the demands and vagaries of foreseeable and unforeseeable natural disasters. Studying cyclones, earthquakes, fracturing and landslide zones along roads is therefore a challenge for the sustainability of these infrastructures. In many countries around the world, the methods generally used for these studies are not only expensive and time-consuming, but the results obtained are not always efficient. This work examines whether Landsat 8 (with a high cloud level) and SRTM data can be used in both equatorial and coastal Central Africa zones to produce relevant mapping, locating fracture and landslide zones, in order to contribute not only to better road layout at lower cost and in a relatively short time, but also to better prevention of geological disasters that may occur on its network. To this end, a map of the main road network was produced and validated with field data, as well as the maps of the main unstable slopes, faults and fractures zones intersecting the road or highway network. These approaches are useful for sustainable planning, management, monitoring and extension of roads worldwide especially, in Central Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0109.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Abomey-Calavi; GIS; Green spaces; Multicriteria analysis; Suitable site; Urbanisation
Online: 3 July 2023 (14:20:08 CEST)
Background. Green spaces contribute to a significant life quality and maintain the sustainability of cities. In Benin, despite the political greening willingness, municipalities are experiencing technical issues in finding suitable spaces to achieve this goal. This study should serve many other towns. It aims at identifying suitable areas for green spaces to integrate landscaping into urban planning in Abomey-Calavi district. Methods. The multi-criteria analysis combining GIS and the hierarchical classification approach were performed. Six factors (land use, altitude, slope, distance from main roads, proximity to urban centres and distance from flood zones, water bodies) were combined using the ArcGIS "Spatial Analysis" extension to generate a map of green space suitability. Results. large areas of land, of which 23.27% are very suitable and 26.06% are suitable for landscaping in this municipality. The ranking of the factors revealed altitude, proximity to road networks, large conurbations and distance from wetlands accounting for 18%, compared with 14% for the other factors regarding the study environment. However, the use of these results must take into account the existing inhabited areas for a good site selection. Conclusion. These outputs guidance to decision-makers in choosing suitable sites for green spaces there and integrating them into sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0136.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: SAR; Climate Change; GIS; Archaeological Chart; Risk Assessment; Digital Humanities.; Magaña
Online: 9 March 2023 (10:52:16 CET)
The province of Jaén (Andalusia, Spain), despite being declared the European territory with the largest number of defensive constructions (castles and fortifications), has few conservation plans, with many remains included on the Red List of Spanish Heritage lying abandoned. This presents a problem for the conservation of the landscape and the optimal use of the province’s tourism potential. Through the study case of Magaña hamlet two actions are proposed to alleviate this situation: The creation of an archaeological and environmental risk chart with which to answer such questions as “How have climate change, anthropic alterations and environmental charac-teristics affected the state of conservation of certain heritage sites?” and to put forward proposals for improving their protection using as a basis digital and technological tools, such as remote sensing (SAR), taking advantage of data from the Sentinel 2A and 2B satellites, HBIM, RPAS and GIS. To foster the promotion of smart tourism by digitalising and virtualising tourist routes and archaeological remains by building a Smart Tourism App for mobile devices. Finally, public administrations will be apprised of the need to implement a conservation policy for cultural as-sets and their surroundings in a simple, quick and cost-effective manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0213.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: GIS; Himalayan region; SRM model; simulation; snowmelt runoff; climate change
Online: 13 December 2021 (16:06:43 CET)
The current study was planned to simulate runoff due to the snowmelt in the Lidder River catchment of Himalayan region under climate change scenarios. A basic degree-day model, Snowmelt-Runoff Model (SRM) was utilized to assess the hydrological consequences of change in climate. The SRM model performance during the calibration and validation was assessed using volume difference (Dv) and coefficient of determination (R2). The Dv was found as 11.7, -10.1, -11.8, 1.96, and 8.6 during 2009-2014, respectively, while the R2 is 0.96, 0.92, 0.95, 0.90, and 0.94, respectively. The Dv and R2 values indicating that the simulated snowmelt runoff has a close agreement with the observed value. The simulated findings were also assessed under the different scenarios of climate change: a) increases in precipitation by +20 %, b) temperature rise of +2 °C, and c) temperature rise of +2 °C with a 20 % increase in snow cover. In scenario "b", the simulated results showed that runoff increased by 53 % in summer (April–September). In contrast, the projected increased discharge for scenarios "a" and "c" was 37 % and 67 %, respectively. In high elevation data-scarce mountain environments, the SRM is efficient in forecasting future water supplies due to the snowmelt runoff.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0392.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Digital building permit; BIM; GIS; GeoBIM; Compliance checking; Rule checking
Online: 23 November 2021 (15:28:57 CET)
Growing interest is awarded to the digitalization of the building permitting use case and many works are developed about the topic. However, the subject is very complex and many aspects are usually tackled separately, making it very hard for traditional literature reviews to grasp the actual progress in the overall topic. This paper unveils the detailed state of the art in Digital Building Permitting (DBP) by critically analyzing the literature by means of a set of coding tags (research progress, implementation, affected DBP workflow steps, ambitions addressed) assigned by a multidisciplinary team. The mainly addressed aspects of the digitalization of building permits resulted to be the technologies to check the compliance of design proposals against regulations, followed by the digitalization of regulations. Lacking aspects are instead the involvement of officers, scalability of solutions and interoperability of data, intended both as data validation and as integration of geoinformation with building models.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: river valley bottom; GIS; cost distance accumulation; groundwater dependent ecosystems
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:50:04 CET)
River valley bottoms have hydrological, geomorphological, and ecological importance and are buffers for protecting the river from upland nutrient loading coming from agriculture and other sources. They are relatively flat, low-lying areas of the terrain that are adjacent to the river and bound by increasing slopes at the transition to the uplands. These areas have under natural conditions, a groundwater table close to the soil surface. The objective of this paper is to present a stepwise GIS approach for the delineation of river valley bottom within drainage basins and use it to perform a national delineation. We developed a tool that applies a concept called cost distance accumulation with spatial data inputs consisting a river network and slope derived from a digital elevation model. We then used wetlands adjacent to rivers as a guide finding the river valley bottom boundary from the cost distance accumulation. We present results from our tool for the whole country of Denmark carrying out a validation within three selected areas. The results reveal that the tool visually performs well and delineates both confined and unconfined river valleys within the same drainage basin. We use the most common forms of wetlands (meadow and marsh) in Denmark's river valleys known as Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems (GDE) to validate our river valley bottom delineated areas. Our delineation picks about half to two-thirds of these GDE. However, we expected this since farmers have reclaimed Denmark's low-lying areas during the last 200 years before the first map of GDE was created. Our tool can be used as a management tool, since it can delineate an area that has been the focus of management actions to protect waterways from upland nutrient pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0415.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: pandemic; covid-19; monitoring; GIS dashboard; emergency spatial support centre
Online: 19 August 2020 (11:48:55 CEST)
COVID-19 pandemic event requires a rapid response from various organizations at the international and national levels. One important response is the provision of information sharing facilities and monitoring of the spread of cases around the world, JHU CSSE developed the Dashboard in January 2020 and followed by WHO the same month for the WHO COVID-19 dashboard. Both dashboards have distributed information as expected by the user with their respective pros and cons. JHU CSSE Dashboard provides faster information with good access to mobile device users even though the display and color selection are less attractive. Information on the WHO COVID-19 Dashboard is often late but more data appearances and variations and comparisons between countries can be made. In the Indonesian context, ESSC for COVID-19 Geoportal as Esri Indonesia initiative has been developed with the support of data and information from various parties and developed with the principles of big data management which are fully supported by adequate spatial portal developer software from Esri. Particularly in Indonesia, there is not yet an adequate system to support spatial based decision making at the local level, therefore the development of a GIS dashboard to support provincial and district governments is highly recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0008.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: GRASS GIS; g.citation; software citation; open science; OSGeo; credit; rewards
Online: 1 April 2019 (10:19:53 CEST)
The authors introduce the GRASS GIS add-on module g.citation as an initial implementation of a fine-grained software citation concept. The module extends the existing citation capabilities of GRASS GIS, which until now only provide for automated citation of the software project as a whole, authored by the GRASS Development Team, without reference to individual persons. The functionalities of the new module enable individual code citation for each of the over 500 implemented functionalities, including add-on modules. Three different classes of citation output are provided in a variety human- and machine-readable formats. The implications of this reference implementation of scientific software citation for both for the GRASS GIS project and the OSGeo foundation are outlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: dog theft; pet theft; dogs; pets, crime; animal geography; GIS
Online: 28 March 2019 (06:40:57 CET)
Dogs are considered property under UK law, while current discourses of pet ownership place canine companions as part of an extended family. This means sentences for those who steal dogs are not reflective of a dogs’ sentience and agency, rather reflecting the same charges for those who steal a laptop or wallet. This is particularly problematic as dog theft is currently on the rise in England and Wales and led to public calls to change the law. Recognizing that a more robust analysis of dog theft crime statistics is required, we gathered dog theft data for 2015, 2016 and 2017 from 37 of 44 police forces through FOI requests. This paper uses this data to examine how dog theft crime statistics are constructed; assesses the strengths and weaknesses of this data; and categorizes, maps and measures dog theft changes temporally per police force in England and Wales. Our findings reveal there has been an increase in dog theft crimes, 1,294 in 2015, 1,525 in 2016 (+17.85%), and 1,678 in 2017 (+10.03%); and a decrease in court charges related to dog theft crimes, 62 (4.7%) in 2015, 48 (3.14%) in 2016, 37 (2.2%) in 2017. There were police force inconsistencies in recording dog theft crime which meant some data was unusable or could not be accessed or analysed. There is a need for a qualitative study to understand dog theft crime in different areas, and standardised approach to recording the theft of a dog by all forces across England and Wales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0070.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Remote sensing; direct detection; GIS mapping; Caribbean Archaeology; landscape archaeology
Online: 11 October 2017 (16:23:29 CEST)
Satellite imagery has had limited application in the analysis of pre-colonial settlement archaeology in the Caribbean; visible evidence of wooden structures perishes quickly in tropical climates. Only slight topographic modifications remain, typically associated with middens. Nonetheless, surface scatters, as well as the soil characteristics they produce, can serve as quantifiable indicators of an archaeological site, which can be detected by analysis of remote sensing imagery. A variety of data sets were investigated, with the intention to combine multispectral bands to feed a direct detection algorithm, providing a semi-automatic process to cross-correlate the datasets. Sampling was done using locations of known sites, as well as areas with no archaeological evidence. The pre-processed very diverse remote sensing data sets have gone through a process of image registration. The algorithm was applied in the northwestern Dominican Republic on areas that included different types of environments, chosen for having sufficient imagery coverage, and a representative number of known locations of indigenous sites. The resulting maps present quantifiable statistical results of locations with similar pixel value combinations as the identified sites, indicating higher probability of archaeological evidence. The results show the variable potential of this method in diverse environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0035.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: landslide; classifier ensemble; instance based learning; Rotation Forest; GIS; Vietnam
Online: 4 May 2017 (08:25:12 CEST)
This study proposes a novel hybrid machine learning approach for modeling of rainfall-induced shallow landslides. The proposed approach is a combination of an instance-based learning algorithm (k-NN) and Rotation Forest (RF), state of the art machine techniques that have seldom explored for landslide modeling. The Lang Son city area (Vietnam) is selected as a case study. For this purpose, a spatial database for the study area was constructed, and then, was used to build and evaluate the hybrid model. Performance of the model was assessed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), area under the ROC curve (AUC), success rate and prediction rate, and several statistical evaluation metrics. The results showed that the model has high performance with both the training data (AUC = 0.948) and the validation data (AUC = 0.848). The results were compared with those obtained from soft computing techniques i.e. Random Forest, J48 Decision Trees, and Multilayer Perceptron Neural Networks. Overall, the performance of the proposed model is better than those obtained from the above methods. Therefore, the proposed model is a promising tool for landslide modeling. The research result can be highly useful for land use planning and management in landslide prone areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0104.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Sustainable rural development; EAFRD; LEADER Approach; GIS; Principal Component Analysis
Online: 28 February 2017 (12:16:38 CET)
The European Commission has been striving to achieve sustainable development in its rural areas for more than 25 years through funds aimed at modernizing the agricultural and forestry sectors, protecting the environment and improving the quality of life. But is sustainable rural development really being accomplished? This study sets out to answer this question in the case of Extremadura, a Spanish territory with Low Demographic Density and a Gross Domestic Product still below 75 % of the European average. Both qualitative and quantitative methodology have been employed, using a Principal Component Analysis the result of which has provided us with a model which shows how various behaviors coexist in the region in view of the distribution of current funding from the EAFRD. The most dynamic areas have received the largest amounts of funding and these are linked to the agricultural sector and to the protection of the environment, leaving aside the more depressed areas and the implementation of the LEADER Approach as well. Therefore, we have come to the conclusion that the current rural development in Extremadura is not sustainable enough.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1381.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: immunization; Lot Quality Assurance Sampling; GIS Mapping; methodology; barriers; innovative strategies
Online: 22 November 2023 (14:55:44 CET)
(1) Background: Childhood immunization is vital for preventing morbidities and mortalities globally. However, rural Pakistan is facing persistent challenges, particularly after recent global health crises in gauging accurate vaccination coverage estimates. This study aimed to apply a novel Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) methodology due to its rapid and reliable estimates of the routine immunization rates among children aged 12-23 months old in Shikarpur, Sindh, and to identify priority areas for future interventions. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional household survey design was adopted for an in-depth assessment of vaccination coverage in a previously under-studied rural context. (3) Results: Data were collected from 1,402 children aged 12-23 months across 47/49 Union Councils in Shikarpur within 141 randomly identified clusters. LQAS was innovatively employed along with GIS Mapping which provided a spatial analysis of the distribution of immunization coverage and the spot map of clusters. The weighted average for fully immunized children was 42.4% after applying Direct Adjustment Method. A steep decline in coverage for each successive vaccine dose was observed, and 39 key priority areas were identified on GIS-based plotting for intensive health interventions. Multivariate Logistic Regression Model further revealed informational gaps and fear of side effects as major barriers to achieving complete immunization. (4) Conclusions: The innovative application of LQAS and GIS Mapping in this study has provided a comprehensive glimpse of its utility in future follow-ups and similar assessments. The findings stress the critical need to tackle the foundational reasons behind the vaccination gaps, with a special focus on enhancing awareness and information dissemination in the key priority areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1645.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: recreational and leisure areas; land and building register; GWR; Poland; GIS
Online: 25 October 2023 (11:00:18 CEST)
Recreational and leisure areas play a special role. These areas mitigate or eliminate the disadvantages of living in large cities, and they enhance the quality of life in small towns. The aim of this study was to analyze the share of recreational and leisure areas in Polish counties in 2022. In Poland, recreational and leisure areas constitute a separate land-use category in cadastral registers. Annual cadastral data from the Land and Building Register at county level (in tabular form) were the main source of data for the study. The analysis revealed that the share of recreational and leisure areas was higher in counties situated in western and south-western Poland, as well as in cities. The spatially varied influence of socioeconomic factors on the share of recreational and leisure areas in Polish counties in 2002 was determined with the use of local Moran's I statistic and geographically weighted regression (GWR). The study confirmed that population density was significantly related to the share of recreational and leisure areas in Polish counties. The impact of the remaining socioeconomic factors associated with spatial and economic development varied across regions. The study also revealed that in addition to the current socioeconomic determinants, the share of recreational and leisure areas in Polish counties was also influenced by historical factors and the counties' development since their establishment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0986.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: water distribution network (WDN); leak detection; GIS; remote sensing; infrared (IR)
Online: 14 August 2023 (10:15:32 CEST)
Leakages in the water distribution networks (WDNs) are real problems for utilities and other governmental agencies. Timely leak detection and location identification has been a challenge. In this paper, an integrated approach to geospatial and infrared image processing method was used for robust leak detection. The method combines drops in flow, pressure, and chlorine residuals to determine potential water leakage locations in the WDN using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. GIS layers were created from the hourly values of these three parameters for the city of Sharjah provided by Sharjah Electricity, Water and Gas Authority (SEWA). These layers are then analyzed for locations with dropped values of each of the parameters and are overlaid with each other. In the case where there were no overlaying locations between flow and pressure, further water quality analysis was avoided, assuming no potential leak. In the case where there are locations with drops in flow and pressure layers, these overlaying locations are then examined for drops in chlorine values. If overlaying locations are found, then these regions are considered potential leak locations. Once potential leak locations are identified, a specialized remote sensing technique can be used for precise leak location. This study also demonstrated the suitability of using an infrared camera for leak detection in a laboratory-based setup. This paper concludes that the following methodology can help water utility companies in the timely detection of leaks, saving money, time, and effort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1545.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: SAR; Climate Change; GIS; Archaeological Chart; Risk Assessment; Digital Humanities.; Magaña
Online: 23 May 2023 (03:36:41 CEST)
The province of Jaén (Andalusia, Spain), despite being declared the European territory with the largest number of defensive constructions (castles, fortifications, etc.), has few conservation plans, with many remains included on the Red List of Spanish Heritage ly-ing abandoned. This poses a challenge for landscape conservation and the optimal use of the province’s tourism potential. In this paper we present the early implementation of an ongoing methodological approach designed to alleviate this situation. It takes advantage of data from the Sentinel 2A and 2B satellites, HBIM, RPAS, GIS and fieldwork that will be applied across five archaeological case studies. It has been tested for the first time in the village of Magaña. Three main objectives and phases of this methodological approach have been designed: 1. Preparation of an Environmental Risk Chart with which to answer such ques-tions as “How have climate change, anthropic alterations and environmental characteris-tics affected the state of conservation of certain heritage sites?” 2. Preparation of HBIM models to foster monitorisation and conservation policies for the main archaeological remains and improving their protection based on digital and technological tools. 3. Building a Smart Tourism App for mobile devices aimed at promoting smart tourism by digitalising and virtualising tourist itineraries and archaeological remains. Finally, public administrations will be apprised of the need to implement a conservation policy for cultural assets and their surroundings in a simple, quick and cost-effective man-ner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1358.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Landslide Susceptibility; Information Value; Logistic regression; Machine learning; Deep learning; GIS
Online: 19 May 2023 (02:28:10 CEST)
Shallow landslides pose serious threats to human existence and economic development, especially in the Himalayan areas. Landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) is a proven way for minimizing the hazard and risk of landslides. Modeling as an essential step, various algorithms have been applied to LSM. In this study, information value (IV) and logistic regression (LR) were selected as representatives of the conventional algorithms, categorical boosting (CatBoost) and conventional neural networks (CNN) as the advanced algorithms, for LSM in Yadong county, and their performance was compared. To begin with, 496 historical landslide events were compiled into a landslide inventory map, followed by a list of 11 conditioning factors, forming a data set. Secondly, the data set was randomly divided into two parts, 80% of which was used for modeling and 20% for validation. Finally, the area under the curve (AUC) and statistical metrics were applied to validate and compare the performance of the models. The results showed that the CNN model performed the best (AUC 0.974 and accuracy=93.3%), while the LR model performed the worst (AUC 0.974 and accuracy=93.3%) and CatBoost model performed better (AUC 0.974 and accuracy=93.3%). Besides, the LSM constructed by the CNN model did a more reasonable prediction of the distribution of susceptible areas. As for feature selection, did a more detailed analysis of conditioning factors but the results were uncertain. The result analyzed by GI may be more reliable but fluctuates with the amount of data. The conclusion reveals that the accuracy of LSM can be further improved with the advancement of algorithms, by determining more representative features, which serve as a more effective guide for land use planning in the study area or other highlands where landslides are frequent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0828.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: Analytic hierarchy process; GIS; Landfill site; multicriteria decision analysis; Solid-waste
Online: 24 April 2023 (05:28:46 CEST)
Environmental degradation is one of the most visible problems in Hargeisa. Currently, solid waste is disposed of at two dumping sites within the city limits causing nuisance and unsanitary conditions. Moreover, the existing dumpsites are on the verge of closure, therefore necessitating a dire need to be addressed. This research paper is aimed to integrate multicriteria decision analysis and GIS for evaluating the site suitability for the landfill in Hargeisa, Somaliland. For this purpose, eleven significant parameters were selected: proximity from built-up areas, surface water, groundwater well points, sensitive sites (Airports), land use/land cover, geology, soil type, elevation, slopes, roads, and distance to existing dumpsites. These were then integrated using an analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Subsequently, restriction buffer analysis was performed on the seven parameters to obtain better and more accurate results, and restricted zones were omitted. Furthermore, the pair-wise comparison used to obtain priorities between the selected criteria showed that the land uses land cover is the most significant criterion in the model with a relative weight of 0.1829, followed by the habitations, 0.1506. The overall result reveals that about 68.96% (21060.9 ha) of the study area is unsuitable, while 24.36% (7441.53 ha) and 6.68% accounted for the less and highly appropriate zone, respectively. Following the results of this study, Hargeisa City's municipal council must reconsider the waste management and landfill sites to solve the problems observed in the area before it is overdue. Furthermore, this systematic research approach will assist regional and global researchers, policymakers, and municipal governments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0465.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Spatial; Decision Support; Machine Learning; Automation; Framework; System; SDSS; AutoML; GIS
Online: 29 September 2022 (10:06:18 CEST)
Many spatial decision support systems suffer from user adoption issues in practice due to lack of trust, technical expertise, and resources. Automated machine learning has recently allowed non-experts to explore and apply machine learning models in the industry without requiring abundant expert knowledge and resources. This paper reviews recent literature from 136 papers, and proposes a general framework for integrating spatial decision support systems with automated machine learning to lower major user adoption barriers. Challenges of data quality, model interpretability, and practical usefulness were discussed as general considerations for system implementation. Research opportunities related to spatially explicit models in AutoML, and resource-aware, collaborative/connected, and human-centered systems were also discussed to address these challenges. This paper argues that integrating spatial decision support systems with automated machine learning can not only encourage user adoption, but also mutually benefit research in both fields — bridging human-related and technical advancements for fostering future developments in spatial decision support systems and automated machine learning.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0302.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; artificial intelligence; pattern; models; classification; regression; GIS; remote sensing
Online: 20 July 2022 (10:58:15 CEST)
Machine learning (ML) is a subdivision of artificial intelligence in which the machine learns from machine-readable data and information. It uses data, learns the pattern and predicts the new outcomes. Its popularity is growing because it helps to understand the trend and provides a solution that can be either a model or a product. Applications of ML algorithms have increased drastically in G.I.S. and remote sensing in recent years. It has a broad range of applications, from developing energy-based models to assessing soil liquefaction to creating a relation between air quality and mortality. Here, in this paper, we discuss the most popular supervised ML models (classification and regression) in G.I.S. and remote sensing. The motivation for writing this paper is that ML models produce higher accuracy than traditional parametric classifiers, especially for complex data with many predictor variables. This paper provides a general overview of some popular supervised non-parametric ML models that can be used in most of the G.I.S. and remote sensing-based projects. We discuss classification (Naïve Bayes (NB), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest (RF), Decision Trees (DT)) and regression models (Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Linear and Non-Linear) here. Therefore, the article can be a guide to those interested in using ML models in their G.I.S. and remote sensing-based projects
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0275.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: web-GIS 3d; Seismic Analysis; Structural Analysis; FEA/FEM Analysis; OpenSees.
Online: 16 November 2021 (08:44:17 CET)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0206.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Remote sensing; GIS; AHP; Groundwater potential zone; Weighted overlay analysis; Kilinochchi
Online: 9 August 2021 (16:56:29 CEST)
The scarcity of surface water resources in the dry season in the Kilinochchi district increases the demand for freshwater. Therefore, the existing groundwater resources should be managed to overcome the situation. Several authors worldwide have published studies on the delineation of potential groundwater zone. However, only a few studies addressed the delineation of potential groundwater zones in the Kilinochchi district. This study aims to delineate potential groundwater zones in Kilinochchi, Sri Lanka using integrated Remote Sensing, Geographic Information Systems, and Analytic Hierarchy Process techniques. Groundwater potential zones are demarcated for the Kilinochchi district by overlaying thematic layers: geology, geomorphology, land use/land cover, soil types, drainage density, slope, lineament, and rainfall. Saaty's scale was applied to the assigned weights of the chosen thematic layers and their features. The thematic layers were integrated into a Geographic Information System, and a weighted overlay analysis is carried out to delineate groundwater zones. Thus the resultant map is categorized into five different potential zones: very low, low, moderate, high, and very high. It was found that the very high groundwater potential zone is mainly found in the north-eastern part of the study area covering 111.26 km2. The upper north-western, middle, and eastern parts of the study area fall within the high groundwater potential zone covering about 507.74 km2. The moderate groundwater potential zones (309.89 km2) mainly occurred in the western part, and the extreme west part of the study area falls under low (207.78 km2) and very low (59.12 km2) zones. The groundwater potential map was validated with the existing seventy-nine wells, which indicated a good prediction accuracy of 81.8%. This research will help policymakers better manage the Kilinochchi district's groundwater resources and gives scope for further research into groundwater exploration in the area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0175.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: carbon monoxide; COHb; air pollution; GIS interpolation; spatial analysis; respiratory diseases
Online: 27 November 2017 (09:13:06 CET)
This paper aims to investigate carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations on roadways of Karachi, potential blood levels carboxy-hemoglobin (COHb) in Karachi. Geographical information system (GIS) was used for spatial analysis of diseases potentiality while an interpolation technique has been applied for surface generation with town boundaries and later evaluates risk areas.The higher concentration of carbon monoxide in the ambient is mainly due to automobile emissions. The City center and CBD areas are more perilous.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1431.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: photogrammetry; unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV); 3D point cloud; geographic information systems (GIS)
Online: 21 September 2023 (03:39:09 CEST)
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have emerged as a solution to day to day survey tasks, allowing users to visualize phenomena in real-time. This paper explores the capabilities of UAV or drones in the collection of accurate, geo-tagged data quickly, including photogrammetry software processes to deliver standardized data output. In order to explore the capabilities of UAV, Gatu Township in Centenary, Muzabani District of Zimbabwe was chosen from the national mapping topographic series. This study demonstrates the efficiency of data collection using drones, generate 2D orthomosaics in real time, so that analysts can easily visualize land cover and identify any changes, map and model large areas to produce data for 2D and 3D models. The recent development of innovative optical image processing has further lowered the costs high resolution topographic surveys.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1621.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: geological exploration; UAV; LiDAR; radiometry; geophysics; remote sensing; Landsat 9; GIS; lithium
Online: 22 June 2023 (12:22:05 CEST)
Due to the energetic transition at course, new geological exploration technologies are needed to discover mineral deposits containing critical materials such as lithium (Li). The vast majority of European Li deposits are related to Li–Cs–Ta (LCT) pegmatites. Literature review indicates that conventional exploration campaigns are dominated by geochemical surveys and related exploration tools. However, other exploration techniques must be evaluated namely remote sensing (RS) and geophysics. This work presents the results of the INOVMINERAL4.0 project obtained through alternative approaches to traditional geochemistry that were gathered and integrated into a webGIS application. The specific objectives were to: (i) assess the potential of high-resolution elevation data; (ii) evaluate geophysical methods, particularly radiometry; (iii) establish a methodology for spectral data acquisition and build a spectral library; (iv) compare obtained spectra with Landsat 9 data for pegmatite identification; and (v) implement a user-friendly webGIS for data integration and visualization. Radiometric data acquisition using geophysical techniques effectively discriminated pegmatites from host rocks. The developed spectral library provided valuable insights for space-based exploration. Landsat 9 data accurately identified known LCT pegmatite targets, compared to Landsat 8. The user-friendly webGIS facilitated data integration, visualization, and sharing, supporting potential users in similar exploration approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2263.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: fire risk; wildland-urban interface; rural-urban interface; machine learning classification; GIS
Online: 31 May 2023 (14:29:50 CEST)
As in many parts of the world, rural-urban, forest-urban interface areas surrounding urban regions expose the natural areas they interact with to a threat of fire risk that can reach various sizes. This risk has been assessed for various regions of the world using many different methods and numerical models so far. Among these, it is seen that machine learning models have successful applications in risk assessment and risk prediction studies. For the fire risk prediction of Istanbul's yet unurbanized regions, but where the city is anticipated to potentially shift, data was collected using the opportunities provided by Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing technologies based on fires that occurred between 2000-2021, and the region was examined. Machine learning methods' Random Forest (RF), Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGB), and Light Gradient Boosting (LGB) models were applied for the classification of factors effective in fire. The best result was given by the RF model with 0.93 accuracy, 0.062 F1 score, and 0.753 Area Under Curve (AUC) value. In the classification of factors in the RF model, the grouping between fire-initiating factors and factors effective in spreading is evident, while this distinction is partially noticeable in the other two models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0784.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: urban vitality index; urban morphology parameters; comparative approach; Andean region; GIS tools
Online: 23 April 2023 (07:34:36 CEST)
Urban vitality, understood as a key factor for the achievement of cities’ sustainability, shows a strong relationship with urban morphology. The city theorist Jane Jacobs suggested morphologi-cal aspects to promote vital cities already in the 1960s, which remain valid in the present. How-ever, few studies in the Andean region quantitatively exemplify this. This paper aims to test the measurement of urban vitality in a neighborhood of Quito, Ecuador, called La Mariscal, inte-grating Jacobs’ approach. In particular, three urban vitality indexes are evaluated with the appli-cation of GIS software using cadastral data obtained from the municipality and field data col-lection. Results show that the context-based previous knowledge and the scale of analysis are es-sential factors in the configuration of dimensions, indicators, and spatial representation of any urban vitality index. In the study area land use mixture, contact opportunity, and accessibility dimensions are fundamental. Regarding indicators, the incorporation of the informal small-scale commerce, the quality of sidewalks, the street slope, and the good-conditioned street furniture is recommended. Finally, a hybrid representation (raster and vectorial) is suggested to precisely measure urban vitality at a block scale. Altogether, by providing a comparative approach, we in-tend to bring a useful framework for researchers and planners to study urban vitality in Andean cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0156.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Remote sensing (RS); Geographic Information system (GIS); geography; coastal geomorphology; Arabian Gulf
Online: 8 December 2022 (10:03:26 CET)
Researchers need to delineate the shoreline for different applications with no access to costly resources such as topographic maps and high-resolution satellite images. With the increase of open source data, this study aims to present a methodology to use open source data in the best possible way to map the shoreline. Several methods have been tested using open source remote sensing data (Landsat and Aster), such as supervised classification, unsupervised classification, manual mapping, and by applying some spectral indices, among others. The accuracy of the extracted shoreline data was verified using high-resolution open database images (such as Google Earth basemap). The results showed that the manually mapped shoreline through applying spectral index (green- near infrared/green+ near infrared) is the most accurate, although it remains important to modify it using high-resolution images of open databases. Open-source data showed acceptable accuracy in mapping the shoreline.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0556.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Solar radiation; 3D city models; Urban environment; GRASS GIS r.sun; 3D extension
Online: 23 July 2020 (12:20:40 CEST)
Solar3D is an open-source software application designed to interactively calculate solar irradiation at three-dimensional (3D) surfaces in a virtual environment constructed with combinations of 3D city models, digital elevation models (DEMs), digital surface models (DSMs) and feature layers. The GRASS GIS r.sun solar radiation model computes solar irradiation based on two-dimensional (2D) raster maps for given day, latitude, surface and atmospheric conditions. With the increasing availability of 3D city models and demand for solar energy, there is an urgent need for better tools to computes solar radiation directly with 3D city models. Solar3D extends GRASS GIS r.sun from 2D to 3D by feeding the model with input, including surface slope, aspect and time-resolved shading, that is derived directly from the 3D scene using computer graphics techniques. To summarize, Solar3D offers several new features which, as a whole, distinguish itself from existing 3D solar irradiation tools: (1) the ability to consume massive heterogeneous 3D city models, including massive 3D city models such as oblique airborne photogrammetry-based 3D city models (OAP3Ds or integrated meshes); (2) the ability to perform near real-time pointwise calculation for duration from daily to annual; (3) the ability to integrate and interactively explore large-scale heterogeneous geospatial data. (4) the ability to calculate solar irradiation at arbitrary surface positions including at rooftops, facades and the ground. Solar3D is publicly available at https://github.com/jian9695/Solar3D.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0044.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Weather radar; rain gauge; rainfall; QPE; RADOLAN; RADKLIM; GIS; radar climatology; uncertainties
Online: 4 February 2020 (10:42:56 CET)
Precipitation is a crucial driver for many environmental processes and weather radars are capable of providing precipitation information with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, radar-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) are also subject to various potential uncertainties. This study explores the development, uncertainties and potentials of the hourly operational German radar-based and gauge-adjusted QPE called RADOLAN and its reanalysed radar climatology dataset named RADKLIM in comparison to ground-truth rain gauge data. The precipitation datasets are statistically analysed across various time scales ranging from annual and seasonal aggregations to hourly rainfall intensities in regard to their capability to map long-term precipitation distribution, to detect low intensity rainfall and to capture heavy rainfall. Moreover, the impacts of season, orography and distance from the radar on long-term precipitation sums are examined in order to evaluate dataset performance and to describe inherent biases. Results revealed that both radar products tend to underestimate total precipitation sums and particularly high intensity rainfall. But our analyses also showed significant improvements throughout the RADOLAN time series as well as major advances through the climatologic reanalysis regarding the correction of typical radar artefacts, orographic and winter precipitation as well as range-dependent attenuation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0052.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: sea level rise; coastal flood hazard; storm surge; extreme tidal level; GIS
Online: 6 May 2019 (10:57:09 CEST)
Portugal Mainland has hundreds of thousands of people living in the Atlantic coastal zone, with numerous high economic value activities and a high number of infrastructures that must be protected from natural coastal hazard, namely extreme storms and sea level rise (SLR). In the context of climate change adaptation strategies, a reliable and accurate assessment of the physical vulnerability to SLR is crucial. This study is a contribution to the implementation of flooding standards imposed by the European Directive 2007/60/EC, which requires each member state to assess the risk associated to SLR and floods caused by extreme events. Therefore, coastal hazard in the Continental Atlantic coast of Portugal Mainland was evaluated for 2025, 2050 and 2100 in the whole coastal extension with different sea level scenarios for different extreme event return periods and due to SLR. A coastal flooding probabilistic map was produced based on the developed methodology using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology. The Extreme Flood Hazard Index (EFHI) was determined on flood probabilistic bases through five probability intervals of 20% of amplitude. For a given SLR scenario, the EFHI is expressed, on the probabilistic flooding maps for an extreme tidal maximum level, by five hazard classes ranging from 1 (Very Low) to 5 (Extreme).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0087.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Noise mapping; END directive; GIS; open source; standards, road traffic; population exposure
Online: 11 February 2019 (09:48:53 CET)
The urbanisation phenomenon and related cities expansion and transport networks entail preventing the increase of population exposed to environmental pollution. Regarding noise exposure, the Environmental Noise Directive demands on main metropolis to produce noise maps. While based on standard methods, these latter are usually generated by proprietary software and require numerous input data concerning, for example, the buildings, land use, transportation network and traffic. The present work describes an open source implementation of a noise mapping tool fully implemented in a Geographic Information System compliant with the Open Geospatial Consortium standards. This integration makes easier at once the formatting and harvesting of noise model input data, cartographic rendering and output data linkage with population data. An application is given for a French city, which consists in estimating the impact of road traffic-related scenarios in terms of population exposure to noise levels both in relation to a threshold value and level classes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0610.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: land price map; land use development; GIS; spatio-temporal changes; sustainability; Olomouc
Online: 25 October 2018 (14:23:11 CEST)
Land price sustainability issues have been addressed by many authors in the past. Most of these researchers used land prices (from land price maps) as the primary data source in their studies. Only a few papers analysed official land price maps, which are available very rarely. For this reason, we studied the spatial and temporal changes of land prices in the city of Olomouc based on an analysis of official land price maps from 1993 to 2017. We proposed several research hypotheses to confirm some general statements about land price development. We concluded that some macroeconomic indicators had a significant impact on changes in land prices. In the residential and commercial areas and historical centre, land prices are significantly higher than in other monitored aspects (land-use types). We also concluded that no link existed between land-use stability and land price stability. Surprisingly, no long-term stable areas were found in the area of interest. The analysis also confirmed that land price and its change over time varied in different spatial aspects. Surprisingly, the smallest influence was reflected in the economic aspect. Regarding natural events in recent decades, we observed a significant drop in land prices in the vicinity of watercourses threatened by flooding. These findings can assist in better understanding local development and changes in land price.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0024.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: by-products; biogas; Biogasdoneright; citrus pulp; olive pomace; GIS; indicators; biomass availability
Online: 2 March 2018 (13:11:14 CET)
The necessity to investigate suitable alternatives to conventional fossil fuels has developed the interests in many renewable energy alternatives, especially biomass resources which are widely available and allow to reach both environmental and socio-economic improvements. Among the bioenergy solutions the anaerobic digestion technology makes it possible to produce biogas by reusing and valorising agricultural residues and by-products. In Southern Italy, to date, the development of biogas sector is still very limited, despite the importance of the agricultural sector, especially of citrus and olive cultivation. For this reason, in previous studies the availability of two by-products, i.e., citrus pulp and olive pomace, was analysed in order to choose the most suitable area for a sustainable development of new biogas plants according to the new Biogasdoneright concept. In this paper, after a resume of the multi-step methodology which allowed the computation of biogas production, it was demonstrated that 15.9 GWh-e electricity and 24.5 GWh-e heat per year could be generate by reusing only these two kind of by-products, and could satisfy approximate 17% of the total electricity demand of the agricultural sector (90.2 GWh-e/year) in Catania.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0095.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: : Crop Water Requirements; Irrigation Requirements; crop coefficient; web-GIS; Earth Observation; evapotranspiration
Online: 17 November 2016 (15:41:52 CET)
The experiences gathered during the past 30 years support the operational use of irrigation scheduling based on frequent multi-spectral image data. Currently, the operational use of dense time series of multispectral imagery at high spatial resolution makes monitoring of crop biophysical parameters feasible, capturing crop water use across the growing season, with suitable temporal and spatial resolutions. These achievements, and the availability of accurate forecasting of meteorological data, allow for precise predictions of crop water requirements with unprecedented spatial resolution. This information is greatly appreciated by the end users, i.e. professional farmers or decision-makers, and can be provided in an easy-to-use manner and in near-real-time by using the improvements achieved in web-GIS methodologies. This paper reviews the most operational and explored methods based on optical remote sensing for the assessment of crop water requirements, identifying strengths and weaknesses and proposing alternatives to advance towards full operational application of this methodology. In addition, we provide a general overview of the tools which facilitates co-creation and collaboration with stakeholders, paying special attention to these approaches based on web-GIS tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0380.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: land valuation; land spatial structure; land consolidation; sustainable development of rural areas; GIS
Online: 6 December 2023 (12:44:38 CET)
Public funding of land consolidation projects is an instrument of the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (CAP). The execution of systematic land consolidation programmes focused on optimising the spatial structure of agricultural areas presents a possibility to improve agricultural production conditions and maximise the efficiency of agriculture on a local, regional, national and international level. However, due to limited access to financial resources, it is necessary to delimit the priority areas for land consolidation. A contemporary practice based on the assessment of the social support percentage of potential land consolidation projects in individual villages does not represent a real necessity for action. This problem leads to ineffective utilisation of financial resources and reduces the efficiency of the implemented programmes. We proposed a new algorithm for assessing real needs for land consolidation based on a detailed multi-faceted analysis of the spatial structure of agricultural areas. The research method involved factors describing the spatial structure defectiveness of farms as well as those determining land quality in correspondence to investment’s profitability. Another factor verifying the potential economic rationale of land consolidation was transaction prices mostly reflecting the agricultural value of the land. The analysis showed that land consolidation in areas with defective spatial structure and a relatively high market value should be a priority. This approach will contribute to maximising profits by increasing the productivity of areas featuring the highest agricultural suitability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0487.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: land use/land cover; remote sensing and GIS; water allocation; water resource management
Online: 7 November 2023 (16:22:20 CET)
Global croplands, pastures, plantations, and human settlement areas have expanded in recent decades, accompanied by large increases in energy, water, and fertilizer consumption, along with considerable losses of biodiversity. In sub-Saharan Africa, policies are implemented without critical consideration e.g., agricultural expansions impair ecosystem services of the several river basins. The current study has studied landuse/cover and associated rate of change for four-time epochs i.e., 1991, 2001, 2011 and 2021. This employed remote sensing and GIS techniques for LULC analysis while future projection was modelled using cellular automata and Markov chain. The Kappa coefficient statistics were used to assess the accuracy of final classified image while reference images for accuracy assessment were developed based on ground truthing. Overall change results between 1991 and 2021, showed that major percentage loss in area were experienced by water, forest, woodland and wetland which decreased by 8,222Ha (44.11%), 426,161Ha (35.72%), 399,584Ha (35.01%) and 105,186Ha (34.82%). On the other hand, percentage increase in area during the same period were experienced in cultivated land, built up areas and grasslands which increased by 659,346Ha (205.28%), 11,894Ha (159.93%) and 33,547Ha (98.47%). However, even with the expanding thirsty sectors water discharged out of the catchment is on increment at a rate of 498.6 m3/s/year. For dualistic benefits, agroforest practices are recommended along with participatory law enforcement and capacity building of local communities through their institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2021.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Aging-friendly city; Ahwaz; Spatial analysis; Hot spots indicator; Geographic information system (GIS)
Online: 29 June 2023 (03:30:54 CEST)
Objectives: The present study was conducted to evaluate the indicators of the aging-friendly using GIS software in the eight districts of Ahwaz, southwest Iran in 2022. Materials and methods: this descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 317 older adults by stratified random sampling method. Data collection tools were demographic characteristics and aging-friendly city indicators. GIS methods were used for the spatial analysis and SPSS version 28 software was used to analyze descriptive statistics. Results: The mean age of the participants was 66.21±6.99 years. Most of the participants in this study were male (53.9%), illiterate (34.7%), married (84.9%) and residents of district 7 (22.1%). The findings of the present study showed that all 8 districts follow spatial autocorrelation and cluster pattern in all components of the aging-friendly city (urban open spaces, intra-urban transportation system, public and religious places and buildings, safety and ease of traffic, social participation and communication, social respect, culture-recreation, health and treatment). Conclusion: According to the results, the city of Ahwaz is far from the ideal level among the components of an aging-friendly city; therefore, provincial and city officials should pay more attention to these indicators and take more effective steps to increase their quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0526.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Social survey; Mago National Park; Landsat; GIS; Remote sensing; land use land cover
Online: 30 March 2023 (10:38:58 CEST)
Land use land cover change analysis is one of the most particular techniques to understand how land was used in the past, what types of changes are to be expected in the future, as well as the forces and processes behind the changes. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the land use land cover changes and its driving forces in Mago National Park, southern Ethiopia. Satellite image of Landsat5 TM (1988, 1998 and 2008) and Landsat8 OLI/TIRS (2018) with a time span of 30 years were employed. In addition, field observation, and social survey were conducted to study the drivers of land use land cover changes. QGIS 3.2 and SPSS (for social data analysis) software’s’ were used for satellite image processing, accuracy assessment, map preparation and descriptively analyze the driving forces of LULCC respectively. Supervised classification with maximum likelihood algorithm was conducted for satellite image analysis and generation of information using Quantum GIS 3.2 Post classification change detection method was applied to quantify the land use/land cover change. The result of the study indicated riverine forest, woodland, grassland, water body, degraded land and bare land as a major land use land cover class in the park. The result of land use land cover classification showed that in 1988 most of the study area was covered by woodland and grass land. In the first period (1988-1998), woodland, riverine forest, water body and bare land decreased by 6.76%, 37.98%, 22.37% and 70.14% respectively, while grass land, and degraded land increased by 16.11% and 85.67% respectively. In the second period, (1998 -2008), woodland, riverine forest and degraded land were decreased by 5.44%, 4.61%, and 80.74% respectively, while grass land, water body and bare land is increased by 14.74%, 3.76% and 52.58% respectively. From 2008-2018 riverine forest, grassland, water body and bare land decreased by 1.33%, 15.16% and 4.82% and 25.02% respectively, while woodland increased by 11.84%, and degraded land increased by 85.49% respectively. Riverine forest, water body, grass land and bare land showed decrement and that of woodland, degraded land indicated increment during study period. From 1988-2018, woodland, riverine forest, water body and bare land indicated decrement and the remaining grass land and bare land cover types indicated increment during study period. The result of social survey indicated that expansion of agriculture, human induced fire, overgrazing and hunting are proximate driving forces of the change in Mago National Park. Population pressure from a different area, poverty, decreased farmlands productivity; education, weak law enforcement and cultural factors are the major underlying causes of the observed changes. Therefore, proper land use planning, legal support, and strong law enforcement are the key recommendations to sustain natural resources of the study area.