ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0150.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: China; Electric vehicle; Development bottleneck; French Standardization; Enlightenment
Online: 8 November 2022 (09:18:21 CET)
The problems of operating range and costs are the two most critical bottlenecks restricting the extensive application of electric vehicles at home and abroad. There are also some prominent problems in China's electric vehicles, such as slow improvement of electric vehicle's operating range, difficulty in charging, slow charging, low utilization efficiency of charging resources, and high battery cost for electric vehicles, which lead to poor competitiveness of electric vehicles compared with traditional internal combustion engine (I.C.E.) vehicles. This paper analyzes the key factors restricting the development and popularization of electric vehicles in China from the aspects of strategic policy, sales situation and self problems. Through summarizing the experience and lessons of French standardization development strategy and electric vehicle development mode, this paper puts forward the hypothesis leading the development of electric vehicles through standardization to enhance their competitiveness, gives the specific suggestions, and briefly analyzes the feasibility from the aspects of product situation. The research content of this paper provides a certain basis and ideas for the future research work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Ciguatera; Ciguatoxin; Fish; French West Indies; Martinique; Poisoning
Online: 6 April 2022 (08:34:43 CEST)
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is one of the most common causes worldwide of marine poisoning associated with fish consumption from tropical areas. Its incidence is underreported. CFP cases seem to increase with grouped cases reported during summer. Exposure to ciguatoxin, the toxin responsible for CFP with sodium-channel agonistic, cholinergic, and adrenergic activities, may result in a large spectrum of manifestations. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics, management, and outcome of CFP in Martinique, French West Indies. We conducted an observational retrospective single-center study for six years (October 2012 to September 2018) including all CFP patients managed by the prehospital medical services, admitted to the university hospital emergency department, or declared to the regional health agency. One hundred and forty-nine CFP patients (81females/63males; median age, 46 years [interquartile range, 34-61]) were included. Acute features consisted of general (91%; mainly, myalgia pruritus, and asthenia), gastrointestinal (90%; mainly diarrhea, abdominal pain, and nausea), neurological (72%; mainly, paresthesia, dysgeusia, and impairment of hot/cold feeling), and cardiovascular manifestations (22%; bradycardia, hypotension, and heart conduction disorders). Management was supportive. No patient died but symptoms persisted in 40% of the 77 patients with follow-up on day 15. CFP was mainly attributed to the ingestion of trevallies (59%), snappers (13%), and king mackerels (8%) with collective contaminations (71%). Unusual fish (tuna, salmon, and spider conchs) were suspected in rare cases. Ingestion of trevallies was associated with significantly higher persistent symptoms (odds ratio, 3.00; 95% confidence interval, [1.20-8.00]; p=0.03). CFP incidence was 0.67 cases per 10,000 patient-years in Martinique over the study period. To conclude, CFP represents an increasing public health issue in Martinique like in other Caribbean islands. Patients present usual but possibly life-threatening features. The outcome is excellent despite frequently prolonged manifestations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0085.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: coast; erosion; urbanisation; airborne imagery; spaceborne imagery; French Polynesia
Online: 3 November 2021 (14:23:15 CET)
Coastal urbanisation is a widespread phenomenon throughout the world and is often linked to increased erosion. Small Pacific islands are not spared from this issue, which is of great importance in the context of climate change. The French Polynesian island of Bora Bora was used as a case study to investigate the historical evolution of its coastline classification and position from 1955 to 2019. A time series of very-high-resolution aerial imagery was processed to highlight the changes of the island’s coastline. The overall length of natural shores, including beaches, decreased by 46% from 1955 to 2019 while man-made shores such as seawalls increased by 476%, and as of 2019 represented 61% of the coastline. This evolution alters sedimentary processes: the time series of aerial images highlights increased erosion in the vicinity of seawalls and embankments, leading to the incremental need to construct additional walls. In addition, the gradual removal of natural shoreline types modifies landscapes and may negatively impact marine biodiversity. Through documenting coastal changes on Bora Bora through time, this study highlights the impacts of man-made structures on erosional processes and underscores the need for sustainable coastal management plans in French Polynesia.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Text summarization; Fine-tuning; Transformers; SMS; Gateway; French Wikipedia.
Online: 14 September 2021 (10:48:55 CEST)
Text summarization remains a challenging task in the Natural Language Processing field despite the plethora of applications in enterprises and daily life. One of the common use cases is the summarization of web pages which has the potential to provide an overview of web pages to devices with limited features. In fact, despite the increasing penetration rate of mobile devices in rural areas, the bulk of those devices offer limited features in addition to the fact that these areas are covered with limited connectivity such as the GSM network. Summarizing web pages into SMS becomes, therefore, an important task to provide information to limited devices. This work introduces WATS-SMS, a T5-based French Wikipedia Abstractive Text Summarizer for SMS. It is built through a transfer learning approach. The T5 English pre-trained model is used to generate a French text summarization model by retraining the model on 25,000 Wikipedia pages then compared with different approaches in the literature. The objective is twofold: (1) to check the assumption made in the literature that abstractive models provide better results compared to extractive ones; and (2) to evaluate the performance of our model compared to other existing abstractive models. A score based on ROUGE metrics gave us a value of 52% for articles with length up to 500 characters against 34.2% for transformer-ED and 12.7% for seq-2seq-attention; and a value of 77% for articles with larger size against 37% for transformers-DMCA. Moreover, an architecture including a software SMS-gateway has been developed to allow owners of mobile devices with limited features to send requests and to receive summaries through the GSM network.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0016.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: abiotic stress; biotic stress; biofortification; breeding; French bean; QTLs
Online: 3 June 2020 (09:43:01 CEST)
French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) a member of family Leguminosae is a useful source of protein (∼22%), minerals (folate), vitamins and fibre. Abiotic and biotic stresses are the constraints to high yield and production of French bean. Varieties reluctant to diseases as well as abiotic stresses is among the top breeding objectives for the French bean. Mendelian ratios could know the genetically reliable forms of resistance, whereas it's more robust to understand the intricate kinds, often referred to as quantitative trait loci (QTL). Here, we review and compile the information from the studies related to the identification of QTLs for critical biofortification traits, biotic and abiotic stresses in French bean. Successful map-based cloning requires QTLs represent single genes which could be isolated in near-isogenic lines, and also the genotypes could be unambiguously inferred by progeny testing. Overall, this information will be useful for directing the French bean breeders to select a suitable method for the inheritance evaluation of quantitative traits and determining the novel genes in germplasm resources to ensure that much more potential of genetic information may be uncovered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0249.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, History Keywords: Jesuits; French protectorate; female orders; Zi-ka-wei; Roman question
Online: 14 August 2018 (06:10:07 CEST)
In a global context, the story of the Jesuit compound in Shanghai, since its establishment by French Jesuits in 1847, reflected not only conflicts between rival powers in Europe but also the fight for their interests in the Eastern world. The Pope, who was stuck without legal status in the Vatican after 1861, was also seeking the chance to save the authority of the Church in the face of questions regarding the extent of his temporal power and the status of Rome in the context of Italian unification. As in the Reformation, a break-through in the east seemed to offer a solution for losses in Europe. However, the Jesuits to the East in the late 19th century were not only troops working and fighting on behalf of the Pope; their identities under the French Protectorate added complexity to an already complicated story involving not just the Church, but the course of world history.The female Catholic orders at the east bank of Zi-ka-wei compound became a unique window to approach the complexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0063.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire; French translation; France; Canada; psychometrics
Online: 14 June 2017 (06:36:48 CEST)
This study presents a French translation and validation of the Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ), an instrument for assessing adaptive traits known to correlate with the psychopathic personality. Bilingual (French and English) individuals from France and Canada (N = 141, 52% in France, Mage = 29.73, SD = 9.09) completed both versions of the DAPTQ (French and English), alongside measurements of perceived stress, trait anxiety, authentic leadership and creativity. Correlation between the DAPTQ total and subscales across versions showed strong associations (r = .84 to .96). The DAPTQ – French version also demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .87), convergent validity, and concurrent validity. These findings support the cross-cultural equivalence of the DAPTQ and therefore its effectiveness as a valid assessment method of adaptive traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: French regional airports; technical efficiency; data envelopment and principle component analysis; Malmquist Productivity Index; low-cost carrier terminals; high-speed train
Online: 5 September 2019 (03:42:32 CEST)
In France, the regional airport’s demand for services is facing challenges due to the continuous expansion of the high-speed train, high-speed line, and highway networks. This study focuses on the viability of regional airports in France through technical efficiency using data envelopment, principle component analysis, Malmquist productivity index, and regression analysis using bootstrapping. To face the current competitive environment, the regional airports in France adopted strategies, such as the construction of low-cost carrier (LCC) dedicated terminals (LCCTs) with lower expenses to attract more LCCs, increasing non-aeronautical revenue, and hosting regional hubs of LCCs. This is the first study that analyzes all of the French regional airports. The findings indicate that the existence of LCCTs positively affects technical efficiency on the airport’s performance, and share of LCCs at a regional airport leads to neither the efficiency nor the profit level.