Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: World Trading signals; Fruits; WTO; Foreign Trade Research; Policies
Online: 13 September 2020 (15:53:54 CEST)
Fruits play an important role in human diet and to maintain better health. Globally, India ranks second in fruits production after China. Grapes, mangoes, bananas and oranges were the selected fruit crops for study purpose. The study period is from 1990 to 2018. The present study analyzed the growth rates, instability and elasticity of export quantity, prices of selected fruit crops from major producing countries in the world and also dealt with the major export destinations of Indian fruits. The results showed that an exporting countries should export grapes to Peru, Spain and Chile; bananas to the Panama, Philippines and Ecuador; mangoes to Italy, Egypt and Australia; and, oranges to Thailand, Philippines and Mexico for generating higher revenue because in global market those countries were associated with highest export price with the stability. Globally, the export price elasticity was inelastic in all countries of grapes, oranges and bananas except Italy in oranges and panama in bananas. The study found that export price elasticity of mangoes was marginally higher in the Spain and the Netherlands. The study showed that the major destinations for Indian fruits are; USA, Germany and Netherlands for grapes; USA, Belgium and Germany for bananas; USA, the Netherlands and Viet Nam for mangoes; and, Germany, France and Netherlands for oranges. Globally, the current study gave useful data to comprehend competition of prices for fruits to importing countries. This study may assist in preparing major price strategies and policies on fruits and also assisted in foreign earnings for all nations.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: emergy analysis; foreign trade; sustainable development; Shenzhen City
Online: 21 March 2019 (07:01:35 CET)
The foreign trade sustainable development index system of Shenzhen City, including the three subsystems of environment, economy, and society, was constructed based on the theory of emergy analysis.The sustainable development of foreign trade in Shenzhen City from 2009 to 2016 was evaluated, and a detailed analysis of changes in the emergy of light and heavy industries was performed. The results showed that the scale of economy has been expanding, and the total volume of imports and exports has turned from a rise to a decline in 2013. The status of sustainable development is not optimistic. The transaction volume of energy is reduced, and the quality of people's living environment is declining. The sustainable development of Shenzhen City is not perfect, but it is in a phase of gradual optimization. Moreover, the proportion of heavy industry in import and export trade is significantly higher than that of light industry, which has caused the outflow of energy to a certain extent. Therefore, to improve the level of foreign trade sustainable development, we must improve the efficiency of resource utilization, increase the import of energy products, strengthen the ability to cope with external interference and adjust the foreign trade industrial structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0344.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: SNA; Foreign Trade; Social network analysis; Electronic integrated circuits; UCINET; COVID-19
Online: 22 September 2022 (11:26:03 CEST)
Social network analysis (SNA) is an effective method for characterizing networks from various specific perspectives. Global trade contracted sharply in 2020 owing to the COVID-19 pandemic, and growth is expected to be lower than the pre-pandemic trends. This study takes countries worldwide as the primary unit of analysis and uses different procedures of social network analysis (SNA), including network density, centrality, and core-periphery structure, and applies them to the field of trade in electronic integrated circuit products (ICPT). In addition to static and descriptive analysis, this study also uses of tools such as Ucinet 6.732 for visual analysis, visual analysis, and more convenient and precise display of the network structure of ICPT. The important countries play a central role in determining the overall structural features. The core-periphery structure in the network from both spatial and temporal perspectives, data on electronic integrated circuit products for the period 2015-2021 were used in SNA. This study found that the ICPT network became denser from 2015 to 2021 but declined and picked up in 2018 and 2020. Moreover, the core-peripheral structure exists in the ICPT network. The main core network countries are Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, mainland China, Malaysia, Japan, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, and other Asian countries, including the United States and Germany.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0240.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Foreign exchange rate, economy, inflation
Online: 8 June 2021 (15:59:19 CEST)
The Foreign Exchange rate is very much crucial for determining the economic health level of the country. The foreign exchange rate provides financial stability, enhances purchasing power and allows global trades. This rate usually fluctuates due to the market forces which control the supply and demand of the currency. Nominal and relative inflation and income level have a substantial effect on determining the exchange rates. Government measures, international situations, natural disasters or any unexpected situation like Covid-19, Rohingya crisis etc. can affect the exchange rates. Besides this, the interaction between the factors can create different reasoning to affect the market. This study tries to identify some factors with relevant examples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0273.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: foreign direct investment; economic growth; economies
Online: 29 March 2019 (08:01:17 CET)
This paper aims to research whether there is link between FDI inflows and Economic growth in the Republic of Seychelles Island. The ordinary least square results obtained shows that in the impact of FDI inflows on economic growth is low. Small Island Developing States attracts less FDI inflow because they are limited to few resources that attracts overseas firms which results in retarded development. The research lighted that impact of foreign direct investment on host countries does not only depend on the quality and quantity of the FDI inflows but some other variables such as the internal policies and the management skills, market structures, economic trends among others.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Foreign direct investment; technological innovation; ARDL approach
Online: 20 May 2021 (11:04:28 CEST)
Fostering innovation is considered one of the key policy priorities in most governments' agendas in developing countries, and foreign direct investment (FDI) is considered a principal resource for financing sustainable development, corresponding to 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs). This study analyzes the extent to which inward FDI affects innovation (proxied with patent applications) in Sri Lanka using secondary data from 1990 to 2019. We used the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) cointegration procedure to examine the long-run relationships between variables. As per the study results, the coefficient of inward FDI is a negative sign while the coefficients of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and high technology exports (HEX) show positive signs 2.142 and 0.414, respectively, and statistically significant in the long run. It is demonstrated that per capita GDP and high technology exports are an important variable in explaining technological innovation, and inward FDI and education expenditure (EDU) did not contribute towards widening technological innovation in Sri Lanka. Shaping the future of FDI in Sri Lanka is essential to foster innovation capability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1975.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: foreign language learning; language learning strategies; iconic gestures
Online: 31 October 2023 (03:02:46 CET)
This review paper investigates the influence of gestures on foreign language (FL) vocabulary learning through a series of experiments conducted in our laboratory. The manipulation of the gesture-word relationship was a consistent factor across the studies. Firstly, we examined the impact of gestures on noun and verb learning. The results revealed that participants exhibited better learning outcomes when FL words were accompanied by congruent gestures compared to a no gesture condition. This suggests that gestures have a positive effect on FL learning when there is a meaningful connection between the words and the accompanying gestures. However, in general, the recall of words in conditions where gestures were incongruent or lacked meaning was lower than in the no gesture condition. This indicates that under certain circumstances, gestures may have a detrimental impact on FL learning. We analyzed these findings in terms of their implications for facilitating or interfering with FL acquisition. Secondly, we addressed the question of whether individuals need to physically perform the gestures themselves to observe the effects of gestures on vocabulary learning. To explore this, participants were divided into two experimental groups. In one group, participants learned the words by actively performing the gestures ("do" learning group), while the other group simply observed the gestures performed by others ("see" learning group). The processing of congruent gestures facilitated the recall of FL words in both the "see" and "do" learning groups. However, the interference effect associated with processing incongruent gestures was more pronounced in the "see" learning group than in the "do" learning group. Thus, the performance of gestures appears to mitigate the negative impact that gestures may have on the acquisition of FL vocabulary. In conclusion, our findings suggest that iconic gestures can serve as an effective tool for learning vocabulary in a FL, particularly when the gestures align with the meaning of the words. Furthermore, the active performance of gestures helps counteract the negative effects associated with inconsistencies between gestures and word meanings. Consequently, if a choice must be made, a FL learning strategy in which learners acquire words while making gestures congruent with their meaning would be highly desirable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0395.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Corporate social responsibility; Women directors; Foreign background; China
Online: 6 May 2023 (08:46:00 CEST)
This article investigates the impact of the foreign background of women directors on a firm’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure and performance. Using a dataset on listed firms on Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchange from 2010 to 2019, we find that corporate boards with a higher proportion of women directors with foreign education experience tend to disclose more CSR information. CSR performance is also improved when there is a greater proportion of women directors with foreign education and work experience on a board. This study provides new insights into integrating stakeholder, social role, and neo-institutional theories to advance the understanding of CSR engagement in emerging economies.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0111.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: migrant remittances; foreign capital; consumption; investment; economic growth
Online: 7 May 2020 (08:26:35 CEST)
Economic globalization has increased interdependence, particularly among the developing economies. This has increased the potential of migration across the national borders. In a similar context, the Indian economy has witnessed a rapid growth in the number of migrants after the phase of globalization. The rise in the migrant stock has led to a massive increase in the income generated through international borders in the form of remittances. India has become one of the top recipients of remittances with 79$ billion inflows in 2018. The major factor driving the growth of migrant remittances has been the monetary incentives that raise the standard of living of the recipient’s households. The rise in the income level of these households also affects other economic parameters including consumption and investment. Apart from this, the pattern of migration has also changed since the past few years with skilled workers migrating to the developed economies and unskilled ones migrating to the Gulf economies. In this context, the present study examines the trend and pattern of remittance inflows in India for the period of 1975-2017. Additionally, the study explores how remittance inflows affect the level of household consumption and investments. This relationship was examined using a two-stage least squares method by framing a set of simultaneous equations. The findings of the two-stage least square estimates indicate that though personal remittances do not impact the gross domestic product of the economy directly. But, an increase in the inflow of personal remittances leads to a rise in consumption and investment which in turn plays an important role in determining the Gross Domestic Product of the economy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0340.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: cognitive improvement; cognitive benefits; foreign language learning; second language
Online: 5 July 2023 (13:59:25 CEST)
This systematic review examines the potential of digital language learning in contributing to students' cognitive gains. The study reviews existing research on the relationship between digital language learning and cognitive benefits, with a focus on enhanced problem-solving skills, memory, and multitasking ability. The findings indicate that higher levels of digital competences correlate positively with language proficiency outcomes, suggesting that participants with greater digital skills achieve better language learning outcomes. Digital technologies offer interactive and engaging methods of learning, which can positively impact retention and understanding. However, the study also acknowledges the limitations of digital foreign language learning, such as the lack of face-to-face interaction and the need for high motivation and discipline. The research questions explored in this study are: (1) Does digital language learning contribute to cognitive gains in foreign language education? and (2) What are the pedagogical implications for cognitive improvement in digital foreign language education? The study employs the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) methodology to identify and analyze relevant research articles. The results of the review suggest that working with printed texts may be more effective for cognitive gains compared to electronic texts. Additionally, implementing more senses through digital language education appears to be beneficial for cognitive gains. The article concludes by discussing the implications of these findings and the need for further research in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0090.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Economic growth; Foreign aid; Natural resources; Rent-seeking; Volatility
Online: 29 July 2016 (07:48:51 CEST)
An abundance of natural resources is both an opportunity and a challenge for developing countries. Several resource-rich, low-income countries receive amounts of foreign aid that are similar to or larger than their actual or potential revenues from natural resources. In such countries, the donors may have an opportunity to help a government to use its resource revenues productively and minimize the magnitude of risks created by resource rents. Development of aid instruments tailored for such purposes might be helped by model-based analysis of the effects of foreign aid on resource-rich, low-income economies and its interactions with the flows of natural resource revenues. This paper develops a growth model à la Barro in which the government receives windfalls (from natural resources and foreign aid) and rent-seeking agents contest for public funds. The key conclusion is that making aid countercyclical helps to achieve higher economic growth, and so does conditioning disbursements on enhancement of public capital. Introducing elements of insurance in the design of both aid products financing investments in infrastructure and social services and supporting policy and institutional reforms may help to achieve both of these objectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1534.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Belt conveyor; foreign object detection; YOLOX; image enhancement; rotation detection
Online: 21 July 2023 (13:52:38 CEST)
As one of the main equipment of coal transportation, the belt conveyor with detection system is an important direction for the development of intelligent mine. The occurrences of non-coal foreign objects making contact with belts are common phenomenon in complex production environments and improper human operations. In order to avoid major safety accidents caused by scratches, deviation and breakage of the belt, a foreign object detection method is proposed for belt conveyor in this work. Firstly, a foreign object image dataset is collected and established, and IAT image enhancement module and attention mechanism of CBAM are proposed to enhance image data sample. Moreover, to predict the angle information of foreign objects with large aspect ratios, a rotating decoupling head is designed, and a MO-YOLOX network structure is constructed. Some experiments are carried out with the belt conveyor in the mine intelligent mining equipment laboratory, and the detections of different foreign objects are analyzed. Experimental results show that the accuracy, recall, and mAP50 of the proposed rotating frame foreign object detection method reaches 93.87%, 93.69%, and 93.72%, and the average inference time of foreign object detection is 25 ms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0397.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: foreign aid; external debt; debt overhang; dependency theory; Ghana; VECM
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:21:57 CEST)
Over recent years, the Ghanaian economy has struggled to find its feet on the ground despite rising public debt and unending inflows of foreign aid. Against this backdrop, this study employs the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) estimation technique on data from 1970 to 2020 to test the usefulness of the debt overhang hypothesis and the dependency theory in the special case of Ghana. The results confirm evidence of the debt overhang hypothesis and the center-periphery wisdom of the dependency theory in Ghana. The findings depict that an increase in external debt stock and total debt service on external debt have both short and long-run growth-limiting effects on the Ghanaian economy. Similarly, foreign aid catalyzes growth only in the short run and later suppresses rather than stimulates economic growth in Ghana over the long run. The study recommends that harnessing domestic resources, maintaining fiscal discipline by cutting down unproductive expenditures, enhancing an effective tax system, and promoting institutional capabilities to counteract corruption and openness to trade are better ways to fast-track growth development in Ghana.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0611.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Time-series analysis; Foreign Direct Investment; economic growth; Bangladesh economy
Online: 24 December 2020 (09:30:19 CET)
This study investigates the impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on economic growth and examines the causality between FDI and economic growth in Bangladesh during 1972-2013. Gross Domestic Product (GDP), export performance (EXP), Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), and Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) are considered to capture the objective of the study. The study methodology includes some systematic steps. As the data used in the study is time-series in nature, the author employs unit root tests, and in this case, Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) tests are used. Then Johansen’s cointegration test, Granger causality test, regression with Newey-West Standard Error and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) are applied. By using the ADF and PP test the study reveals that the variables of four-time series are integrated of I (1) i.e. they are stationary at first difference. Regression analysis result demonstrates that FDI has a positive effect on economic growth. The Granger Causality test discloses that there is a unidirectional relationship between FDI and economic growth. But the VECM estimation finds that in the long run FDI negatively affects economic growth.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: foreign national prisoners; prison activities; multiculturalism; prison staff decision; motivation
Online: 26 October 2020 (08:45:11 CET)
The article presents the trends in penitentiary work with convicts of different cultures, focuses on their activation, individualisation of work, and organizational difficulties. The purpose of the research has been to discover the ways in which prison staff react to situations requiring flexibility justified by cultural differences of the inmates. The research questions have included: How does prison staff respond to the needs of culturally different inmates? How do the respondents’ reactions correlate with professional experience? Based on the literature, a hypothesis has been established that prison staff avoids individualized treatment of convicted foreigners. Despite the perceived differences in culture, religion, and their different mentality, prison procedures aim at uniformity. Tendencies towards resistance and stiffness to the needs of culturally different people become prevailing. The research method used has included a diagnostic survey (n = 232, F: 40, M: 192) conducted in prison officers in Poland. The written interview technique has been used, where the respondents has reacted to 3 situations of convicts, reflecting their national, religious, and cultural distinctiveness. In their responses, the respondents have decided on the way of action in the situation, as well as their motivation. The operationalization of the source material has been performed in two ways. There has been applied the content analysis method according to the grounded theory (B.G. Glaser, A.L. Strauss), resulting in the creation of categories marking actions and motives. A multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) of the built categories has been carried out using the Statistica program, as well as the correlation analysis of variables with the Cramer's V coefficient. The results of the analysis show statistically created, indicated manners of reacting that have occurred in the studied sample. Additionally, they point out an independent variable - seniority, which has correlated with the quality of the response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0430.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: foreign language teaching; teacher expectation; expectancy strategies; attitude; academic achievement
Online: 19 November 2018 (07:38:50 CET)
The aim of the existing study is to investigate the influence of teacher expectation on students’ achievement and their attitudes towards English lesson and to increase the students’ academic success and positive attitudes towards this issue. In the study, a process which defined the existing situtation and which provided the educational processes to improve by changing the existing situation could be seen. For this reason, emancipatory/improving/critical action research model was used. The study was carried out on a sample group consisting of 87 students; 43 6th graders and 44 8th graders attending a school located in the city center of Düzce during the 2015-2016 academic year. In order to collect the data, “Teacher Expectancy Scale” developed by the researchers, “Attitude Scale towards English Course” and 7 test exams prepared by Turkish Ministry of National Education (MoNE) were used. The study was conducted for a total 48 hours in 12 weeks, 4 hours a week. As the result of the study, it was revealed that teacher expectation influenced the attitudes of the students towards the English lesson in a positive way and increased their academic achievements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0080.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Foreign Language effect; decision-making; native language; second language; risk-taking
Online: 6 September 2021 (09:47:03 CEST)
Decision-making is a complex process of selecting an option from the given choices by analyzing the background information like risk, loss, and gain within the alternative options presented. It has been observed in earlier studies that people are prompt to make less rational decisions when choices are given in a language less known to them. Therefore, to understand the effect of languages on decision-making, we have questioned native Hindi speakers in French and English. French being the foreign language, and English as their second language. Thus, this effect of a non-native language brings to light the important role that the native language plays routinely in judgment and decision-making. In this paper, we developed a Neuropsychological assessment to decipher the effects on decision-making between choices when given in foreign language and second language in comparison with the native language of an individual, which is termed as foreign language effect(Fle). We have explored various possible situations to understand the foreign language effect(Fle) in decision-making and does this change translates when the decision is to be made in the second language. Our study concludes that the Foreign language is least affected by the intuitive biases, followed by the second language, and the native language is most affected by it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1877.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Economic growth; Foreign Direct Investment; Import and Export; Influence Analysis; Labor Force
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:04:57 CEST)
This study aims to explore predictors of the foreign investment from China coming into Rwanda. One of the components of Rwanda’s economy is the investment it receives from other countries. In order to achieve these objectives, the study gathers econometric secondary data from 2007 to 2020 quarterly which were availably provided by National Statistics of China, World Bank, UNCTAD, National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda, and the National bank of Rwanda. From literature and based on the availability of data, market size, trade openness, infrastructure, and human capital were measured as predictors of Chinese FDI. The data is analyzed using linear regression in Stata. The finding of the study showed that variables have a positive effect on FDI from China, and it found that though FDI had an effect on overall economy of Rwanda, the effect was not statistically significant. The study suggested that Rwanda’s policy on foreign investment should aim to attract and encourage Chinese investment to increase the economy of Rwanda. To encourage more FDI, the Rwandan government can offer Chinese investors greater ownership, locational, and internalization benefits. It also should continue to strengthen economic policy transparency since it lowers transaction costs and hence improves incentives for foreign investment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1646.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: low-carbon emission; low-carbon measures; logistics service providers; foreign invested; Vietnam
Online: 24 August 2023 (03:23:57 CEST)
Logistics industry has been found to be among the key sources of carbon emission. In Vietnam logistics industry, there is a considerable difference between the number of foreign and Vietnamese firms as well as the proportion of markets that they are taking. This study is to research the low-carbon emission measures conducted by domestic and foreign invested logistics service providers (LSPs) and compare the results of the two groups. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches are applied. Literatures in relevant fields are reviewed and expert opinions are taken for structuring a questionnaire which was later distributed to 279 LSPs, with 166 returned and 159 being valid for data calculation. The results imply that there are differences in extension of applications of low-carbon practices between foreign and domestic firms. Except for transport mode switch and energy-saving lighting, the other practices witness that adoption levels of foreign LSPs are higher than their counterparts, which is possibly thanks to their global operation, more comfortable capital resources and awareness level of green initiative necessity. In conclusion, a comparison between the application conducted by foreign-invested firms and domestic ones, which has not been investigated before, was made.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0190.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Economic Geography; Free Economic Zone; Foreign Direct Investment; Industrial Location; Spatial Patterns
Online: 4 July 2023 (11:20:33 CEST)
Uzbekistan, as an emerging national economy, aims to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) to foster the development of its free economic zones (FEZs). While recent policy reforms have enhanced the country's appeal to investors and facilitated the inflow of international capital, challenges persist in attracting investment. This study employs an economic geographical approach to analyze and propose solutions to these obstacles. By examining the spatial patterns of FEZs and FDI through a comprehensive geographical lens, this research utilizes document analysis as an alternative to empirical analysis, considering the broader context rather than focusing on a specific FEZ. The findings reveal that the insufficiency of an innovation-driven environment, logistical systems, energy resource-related issues, among others, negatively impact the inflow of FDI into FEZs. Moreover, the study underscores the significance of economic geography in understanding these factors. Finally, relevant insights and recommendations are provided from an economic geographical perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0358.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Energy sector; Foreign direct investment; Belt and Road Initiative; Benefit and Risk
Online: 5 May 2023 (10:54:02 CEST)
China's gradually increasing assertiveness at the international level marked the beginning of several influential geopolitical projects. The biggest of these is the Belt and Road Initiative, which will be the subject of this post. The Chinese government initiated the BRI in 2013 to revive the historic Silk Road. The name of the new initiative was chosen based on well-known historical parallels, emphasizing the ideological component of China's current position. At the same time, neo-mercantilism prevails in China, and we can say that all roads lead to China, which means that the current nature of Chinese strategic planning corresponds to the increasingly important role of the state in international relations and strengthens its position in the world economy. The aim of the paper is to use the methods of analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, comparison, and explanation to analyse Chinese investments that flow into various sectors worldwide, but especially into the countries participating in the Belt and Road Initiative from 2013 to the present. The largest such sector is the energy sector, which we will look at in more detail in the post. Finally, the contribution will be focused on predicting the development of further investments based on the available information as well as our own suggestions and recommendations to make them more efficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0120.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: innovation (IN); technology revolution (TR); foreign direct investment (FDI); economic growth (EG)
Online: 7 April 2023 (09:01:00 CEST)
Changing climate conditions and rapidly increasing carbon dioxide emissions have severely affected the global ecosystem and world economy. Governments around the world have paid attention to these resulting challenges and enacted many policies to reduce environmental pollution and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. This study aimed to determine and understand the relationship between innovation, foreign direct investment, economic growth, renewable consumption and CO2 emission in Vietnam. Information was collected annually based on the annual data of the General Statistics Office of Vietnam and World Bank from 2000 to 2022. Data processing was conducted using the STATA 17.0 software. The innovation affects Vietnam’s environmental pollution. Innovation positively affect environmental pollution in Vietnam; if Vietnam’s innovation were to increase by 1%, CO2 emissions would increase by 0.68%. The empirical research results of this study also show that renewable energy consumption has a negative effect on environmental pollution in Vietnam; if renewable energy were consumed at a 1% increase, CO2 emission would decrease by 0.51%. In addition, FDI inflows and economic growth have strongly positive affecting to environmental pollution; if Vietnam’s FDI inflows were to increase 1%, CO2 emissions would increase 1.39%; if Vietnam’s GDP increase 1% then CO2 emission would increase 1.26%. This paper also provides some recommendations that can assist Vietnam in developing a green and sustainable economy in the technology revolution 4.0 to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) over a long-term period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0330.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Female Participation in Labor Force (FPLF); Foreign Direct Investment (FDI); System GMM
Online: 21 January 2022 (13:39:27 CET)
This study assesses the impact of globalization on female participation in the labor force (FPLF). The increased globalization in the last several decades has created various economic opportunities for enterprises and individuals worldwide at an unprecedented rate. As a result, it has helped improve the quality of life for many men and women. In this process, the issue of women’s economic participation has been a critical topic for discussion worldwide. In that context, the objective of the paper is to determine if FPLF is influenced by a country’s participation in foreign markets through foreign direct investment (FDI) – a proxy for globalization. The paper uses a panel dataset obtained from the World Bank’s World Development Indicators database for 99 countries from 2001 to 2018. We then use system Generalized Method of Moments (system GMM) to estimate a dynamic panel model with appropriate specification tests. The results show that the positive effects of FDI on FPLF are more robust for low- and middle-income countries than high-income countries. We also find that results may be sensitive to outlier observations. Our results explain the seemingly inconclusive results within existing literatures and suggest that low- and middle-income countries should particularly focus on sectors that generate FDI as they stand to yield the greatest benefits with regards to female economic empowerment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0420.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: development of foreign language professional skills; motivation; communicative competence; efficiency; CLIL technology
Online: 15 June 2021 (16:15:58 CEST)
Currently the integration of Kazakhstan into the world community requires the training of highly qualified specialists fluently speaking and having a good command of foreign language. The study is devoted to the problem of development of foreign language professional skills of students of non-linguistic specialty. The aim of the research is to identify the efficiency of integrated approach use for shaping foreign language communicative skills of non-linguistic specialty students. The methodological basis of the research was communicative approach to foreign language teaching. In the framework of the research scientific and theoretical literary sources on the problem of the development of foreign language professional skills of non-linguistic specialty students were studied and summarized; the analysis of the empirical material obtained in the questioning and testing of students. To determine the level of formation of foreign language professional competence of international relations specialty students we have developed the following components: linguistic, cognitive, pragmatic. In the course of the experimental study, the authors revealed that the use of problem-based methods such as discussion, project and case technologies, debates in the framework of integrated approach to professional foreign language teaching promote students’ motivation increase and contribute to the improvement of their foreign language professional skills. The results of the study can be used in application of CLIL technology for the formation of foreign language professional competence of non-linguistic specialty students at the university.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1566.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: immunohistochemistry; foreign body reaction; bone defect; scaffold-guided bone regeneration; polycaprolactone; in vivo; sheep
Online: 23 August 2023 (05:29:15 CEST)
Large volume bone defect regeneration is complex and demands time to complete. Several regeneration phases with unique characteristics including immune responses follow, overlap, and interdepend on each other and, if successful, lead to the regeneration of the organ bone's form and function. However, during traumatic, infectious, or neoplastic clinical cases, the intrinsic bone regeneration capacity may exceed, and surgical intervention is indicated. Scaffold-guided bone regeneration (SGBR) has recently shown efficacy in preclinical and clinical studies. To investigate different SGBR strategies over periods of up to 3 years we have established a well characterized large segmental tibial bone defect ovine model, for which we have developed and optimized immunohistochemistry (IHC) protocols. We present an overview of the immunohistochemical characterization of different experimental groups in which all ovine segmental defects were treated with a bone grafting technique combined with a three-dimensionally printed medical-grade polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate (mPCL-TCP) scaffold. The qualitative data set is based on osteoimmunological findings gained from IHC analyses of over >350 sheep surgeries over the past two decades. Our systematic and standardized IHC protocols enabled us to gain further insight into the complex and long-drawn-out bone regeneration processes, which ultimately proved to be a critical element for successful translational research.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0076.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Foreign Body Reaction; deshydroxy-(18F) fluorocholine; Positron Emission Tomography; Low-grade glioma; Haemostatic material
Online: 8 April 2022 (08:48:36 CEST)
A right frontoparietal neoplastic lesion was found in a young-aged patient with analgesic refractory headache. Surgical resection was performed, and the pathologist analysis turned out a cellular ependymoma with signs of anaplasia. In the follow-up, a MRI showed a suspicious lesion, so a [18F]Fluorocholine PET/CT was performed. An increased uptake was described in the right parietal region on the margin of residual cystic lesion. The patient got a complete resection which was confirmed later by MR. In the pathology analysis, a focally congestive cerebral parenchyma with a central histiocytic reaction to foreign body area was described. Foreign body reaction in brain tissue is a very rare immune response that has not been well studied. Haemostatic material has been reported as a possible trigger of this response in other organs and could be detected by [18F]FDG PET/CT. Following the experience of the current case report, [18F]Fluorocholine PET/CT could also show a false positive related to foreign body reaction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0556.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: National Security Strategy; Defense Policy; Arms Sales; Defense Cooperation Security Agency; Foreign Military Sales
Online: 23 March 2021 (09:11:17 CET)
The aim of the study is to characterize the U.S. and Lithuanian defense cooperation from 1990–2020 including arms procurements. Findings suggest close defense cooperation between countries at Presidential, Congressional, and Defense Ministry/Secretary levels. The most developed cooperation areas are joint participation in international operations, improvements of the Lithuanian Armed Forces’ capabilities, and an increase of the U.S. military presence in the Baltic region. An analysis of Lithuanian defense procurements between 1990–2020 indicates that the majority of defense armaments were acquired from the U.S. using the Foreign Military Sales venue while other options to obtain armaments were not used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0104.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: renewable energy; education expenditure; environmental degradation; health expenditure; carbon emissions; and foreign direct investments
Online: 11 January 2019 (07:06:47 CET)
This panel study investigates the relationship between green logistics indices, economic, environmental, and social factors in the perspective of Asian emerging economies. This study adopted FMOLS and DOLS methods to test research hypothesis, catering the problem of endogenity and serial correlation. The results suggest that logistics operations, particularly LPI2 (efficiency of customs clearance processes), LPI4 (quality of logistics services) and LPI5 (trade and transport-related infrastructure), are positively and significantly correlated with per capita income, manufacturing value added and trade openness. While, greater logistics operations are negatively associated with social and environmental problems including, climate change, global warming, carbon emissions, and poisoning atmosphere. In addition, human health is badly affected by heavy smog, acid rainfall, and water pollution. The findings further extend and reveal that political instability, natural disaster and terrorism are also a primary cause of poor economic growth and environmental sustainability with poor trade and logistics infrastructure. Further, the application of renewable energy resources and green practices can mitigate negative effects on social and environmental sustainability without compromising the performance of economic growth. There is very limited empirical work presented in literature using renewable energy and green ideology to solve macro-level social and environmental problems, while this study will assist the policymakers and researchers to understand the importance of green concept in improving countries’ social, economic and environmental performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2101.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Virtual Reality; Foreign Language Learning; Constructivism; Cognitive Load Theory; VR-CCL Framework; Technology-Assisted Learning
Online: 29 September 2023 (11:54:59 CEST)
With the widespread Application of Virtual Reality (VR) in education, optimizing foreign language learning in VR has become a focal point of research. This paper introduces a comprehensive theoretical framework (VR-CCL) based on constructivism and cognitive load theory to enhance foreign language learning in VR. Through a literature review, we explore the applications of VR in education, foreign language learning theories, and prior works on technology-assisted language learning. We further detail the three main components of the VR-CCL framework and validate its effectiveness through two case studies: Duolingo VR and Rosetta Stone VR. Finally, we discuss the strengths and limitations of the framework and its implications for educators and developers.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Foreign Exchange Market, Volatility Spillover, Return Spillover, VAR Framework, Variance Decomposition, Financial Crisis, Financial Interdependence
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:03:39 CEST)
In this paper, we investigate the “statics and dynamics” return and volatility spillovers transmission across developed and developing countries. Quoted against the U.S. dollar, we study twenty-three global currencies over 2005 – 2016. Focusing on the spillover index methodology, the generalised VAR framework is employed. Our findings indicate no evidence of bi-directional return and volatility spillovers between developed and developing countries. However, a unidirectional volatility spillover from developed to developing countries is highlighted. Furthermore, our findings document significant bi-directional volatility spillovers within the European region (Eurozone and non-Eurozone currencies) with the British Pound (GBP) and the Euro (EUR) as the most significant transmitters of volatility. The findings reiterate the prominence of volatility spillovers to financial regulators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0594.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Value at Risk; over-the-counter foreign exhange (OTC FX) options; quantile regression; Machine Learning (ML)
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:08:24 CEST)
In this study we propose a semi-parametric, parsimonious Value at Risk forecasting model, based on quantile regression and machine learning methods, combined with readily available market prices of option contracts from the over-the-counter foreign exchange rate interbank market. We aim at improving existing methods for VaR prediction of currency investments using machine learning. We employ two different methods - ensemble methods and neural networks. Explanatory variables are implied volatilities with plausible economic interpretation. The forward-looking nature of the model, achieved by the application of implied volatilities as risk factors, ensures that new information is rapidly reflected in Value at Risk estimates. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to utilize information in the volatility surface, combined with machine learning and quantile regression, for VaR prediction of currency investments. The proposed ensemble models achieve good estimates across all quantiles. The light gra-dient-boosting machine model and the categorical boosting model both yield estimates which are better than, or equal to, those of the benchmark model. The neural network models are in general quite unstable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0131.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: foreign mental contents; human sclera; reception of pointing gestures; self-conscious emotions; Theory-of-Mind; vicarious expectations
Online: 5 May 2023 (11:54:13 CEST)
Abstract. Can we nowadays keep a qualitative difference between the primitive and advanced Theory-of-Mind? The old criteria have become blurry. In addition, it is clear that in ‘apes’ lifestyle’ it is not necessary to use the communicative-cognitive basic abilities which became indispensable in ‘the new lifestyle’. Thus, it is usual to conclude that apes would have to some degree such abilities. However, this article tries to reformulate and defend that qualitative difference. Thus, after underlining the contrast between two kinds of mental states (‘contents’ and ‘expectations’), I apply it to the detection of foreign mental states as well. Then, three points are proposed: First, ‘vicarious expectations’ sustain the primitive ToM; second, a subject can have no expectation of inner states which are intrinsically impossible for him; third, the state of interacting with ourselves as with a different person –e.g., the thinking what others think of us– cannot be a vicarious expectation of ours, but it requires the estimation of foreign contents. From this hypothesis, I deduce that vicarious expectations are unable to sustain self-conscious emotions or the really effective reception of pointing gestures. These abilities could appear only when ‘the estimation of foreign contents’ –i.e., the origin of the advanced ToM– arose.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0044.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: deep reinforcement learning; model-based RL; hierarchy; trading; cryptocurrency; foreign exchange; stock market; risk; prediction; reward shaping
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:57:23 CET)
Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has achieved significant results in many Machine Learning (ML) benchmarks. In this short survey we provide an overview of DRL applied to trading on financial markets, including a short meta-analysis using Google Scholar, with an emphasis on using hierarchy for dividing the problem space as well as using model-based RL to learn a world model of the trading environment which can be used for prediction. In addition, multiple risk measures are defined and discussed, which not only provide a way of quantifying the performance of various algorithms, but they can also act as (dense) reward-shaping mechanisms for the agent. We discuss in detail the various state representations used for financial markets, which we consider critical for the success and efficiency of such DRL agents. The market in focus for this survey is the cryptocurrency market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0450.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Credit to Private Sector; Foreign Direct Investment; Government Consumption Expenditure; Public Investment; Error Correction Model and South Africa
Online: 31 January 2022 (11:15:23 CET)
This study aims to explore the link between public investment and private investment in South Africa, using time series data spanning 40 years (1980–2020). Private investment is subdivided into credit to private sector (CPS) and foreign direct investment (FDI). Several econometric methodologies were used in the study, including the unit root test, cointegration test, and Error Correction Method (ECM). The Phillips-Perron (PP) test results point out that all the variables are stationary at levels with the exception of public investment (PI) which is stationary at first difference. The co-integration test reveals that the variables have a long-run equilibrium relationship. According to the findings of the ECM, public investment has a negative relationship with private investment (as measured by credit to private sector and foreign direct investment). The conclusion implies that in South Africa, public investment crowds out private investment. Other results revealed that, RGDP crowds in credit to private sector while crowding out foreign direct investment. Finally, the ECM findings show that government consumption expenditure crowds out credit to private sector and foreign direct investment. The residuals are homoskedastic and show no serial correlation, indicating that the model is adequate, according to the test for adequacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0230.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Poverty; Foreign direct investment inflows; Human capital; Trade openness; Export product diversification; Economic growth; Labour productivity; Financial development; Infrastructure development.
Online: 6 November 2020 (09:03:02 CET)
The present paper investigates the effect of poverty on foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows in developing countries. It complements the important extant literature on the effect of FDI inflows on poverty by examining the issue the other way around. The analysis is conducted using a sample of 117 countries over the period 1980-2017, and the two-step system Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM) technique. It has relied on two indicators of poverty, namely poverty headcount ratio and poverty gap. Findings indicate that over the full sample, poverty influences negatively FDI inflows, including through its adverse effect on human capital (that is, both education and health). Unsurprisingly, low-income countries (considered as poorest countries in the full sample) experience a higher negative effect of poverty on FDI inflows than other countries. On another note, participation in international trade matters for the effect of poverty on FDI inflows. In fact, an increase in poverty levels results in lower FDI inflows in countries that experience low workers' productivity, a less developed financial sector, and a low level of infrastructure development. Furthermore, the effect of poverty on FDI inflows does not depend on the prevailing economic growth rate. Finally, the analysis has revealed the existence of a non-linear effect of poverty on FDI inflows for the poverty headcount indicator, but not for the poverty gap indicator. The non-linear effect of poverty headcount on FDI inflows is such that a rise in poverty headcount ratio results in lower FDI inflows, but an additional increase in poverty more than further discourages FDI inflows. The conclusion discusses the implications of these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0860.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Cultural Distance; Formal Institutional Distance; Institutional Environment; Foreign subsidiaries; Latin America; Formal Institutions; Psychic Distance; Moderation; Asymmetry; Asymmetry of Distance; Financial Performance
Online: 11 May 2023 (13:36:28 CEST)
We investigate how formal institutional distance (FID) moderates the relationship between cul-tural distance (CD) and the financial performance of foreign subsidiaries firms. Following recent research, we estimate the asymmetric effects of CD by considering its size and direction towards host countries on the opposite poles of each cultural dimension` scale. We propose that a limited understanding of the formal institutions in the host country, as measured by the magnitude and direction of the FID, can have a positive moderating effect, increasing the impact of CD on finan-cial performance. This is mainly because foreign subsidiary firms may be more reliant on their ca-pacity to navigate the less formal (and more implicit) aspects of the host country's institutional environment, such as their ability to cope with the CD. We use foreign subsidiary data from the Orbis database including 22 developed and 22 developing home countries and over 1400 foreign subsidiaries during a period of 3 consecutive years operating in 10 of the largest economies (host countries) in Latin America including: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Findings confirm the asymmetric effects of CD, howev-er, by considering the direction of FID, our findings reveal that the higher the FID towards less developed host countries, the more significant the effects of CD on the financial performance. These findings contribute to the knowledge of how formal and informal institutional distances in-teract by showing that the greater the FID towards less developed host countries, to higher the impact of CD on the financial performance of foreign subsidiary firms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SMI (silicone mammary implants); FBR (foreign body response); wound healing; wound infection; capsular fibrosis; implant encapsulation; early-stage fibrosis; surface adsorption; immunomics; biomarkers
Online: 1 December 2022 (02:02:11 CET)
The etiology of exaggerated fibrous capsule formation around silicone mammary implants (SMI) is multifactorial but primarily induced by immune mechanisms toward the foreign material silicone. The aim of this work was to enlighten the disease progression from implant insertion and immediate tissue damage response reflected in (a) the acute wound proteome, and (b) the adsorption of chronic inflammatory wound proteins at implant surfaces. An intra-individual absolute quantitation TMT-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach was applied to profile wound proteome formed around SMI the first five days post-implantation. Compared to plasma, the acute wound profile resembled a more complex composition comprising plasma-derived and locally differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). DEPs were subjected to functional enrichment analysis, which revealed the dysregulation of signaling pathways mainly involved in immediate inflammation response and ECM turnover. Moreover, we found time-course variations in protein enrichment immediately post-implantation and adsorbed to SMI surfaces after 6-8 months. Characterization of the expander-adhesive proteome by label-free approach uncovered a long-term adsorbed acute wound and the fibrosis-associated proteome. Our findings propose a wound biomarker panel for the early detection and diagnosis of excessive fibrosis that could potentially broaden insights into the characteristics of fibrotic implant encapsulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0687.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: automatic speech recognition (ASR); automatic assessment tools; foreign language pronunciation; pronunciation training; computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT); automatic pronunciation assessment; learning environments; minimal pairs
Online: 29 June 2021 (07:31:41 CEST)
General–purpose automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems have improved their quality and are being used for pronunciation assessment. However, the assessment of isolated short utterances, as words in minimal pairs for segmental approaches, remains an important challenge, even more for non-native speakers. In this work, we compare the performance of our own tailored ASR system (kASR) with the one of Google ASR (gASR) for the assessment of Spanish minimal pair words produced by 33 native Japanese speakers in a computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) scenario. Participants of a pre/post-test training experiment spanning four weeks were split into three groups: experimental, in-classroom, and placebo. Experimental group used the CAPT tool described in the paper, which we specially designed for autonomous pronunciation training. Statistically significant improvement for experimental and in-classroom groups is revealed, and moderate correlation values between gASR and kASR results were obtained, beside strong correlations between the post-test scores of both ASR systems with the CAPT application scores found at the final stages of application use. These results suggest that both ASR alternatives are valid for assessing minimal pairs in CAPT tools, in the current configuration. Discussion on possible ways to improve our system and possibilities for future research are included.