ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0306.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; osteoblast-like cells; internalization; inflammation; immune system; host-pathogen interaction; cytokines
Online: 10 November 2020 (12:06:04 CET)
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium causing a range of mild to life-threatening infections including bone infections such as osteomyelitis. S. aureus is able to invade and persist within non-professional phagocytic cells such as osteoblasts. In the present study four different S. aureus strains, 2SA-ST239-III, 5SA-ST5-II, 10SA-ST228-I, and 14SA-ST22-IVh were tested for their ability to modulate cell viability in MG-63 osteoblast-like cells following a successful invasion and persistence. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) ATCC-12598-ST30 was used as control. Despite the demonstrated similar abilities of internalization and persistence of ATCC-12598-ST30, 2SA-ST239-III, and 14SA-ST22-IVh strains in MG-63 osteoblast-like cells under our experimental conditions, we demonstrated that the decrease in cell viability was due to the different behavior of the considered strains, with the number of intracellular bacteria playing a limited role. We focused our attention on different cellular biochemical functions related to inflammation, cell metabolism, and oxidative stress during osteoblast infections. We were able to show that: 1) ATCC-12598-ST30 and 2SA-ST239-III were the only two clones able to persist and maintain their number into the cellular hostile environment during the entire period of infection; 2) 2SA-ST239-III was the only clone able to significantly increase the gene expression (3 and 24 h) and protein secretion (24 h) of both interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in MG-63 osteoblast-like cells; 3) the same clone determined a significant up-regulation of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and the metabolic marker glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNAs at 24 h post infection; 3) neither the MSSA nor the four MRSA strains induced oxidative stress phenomena in MG-63 cells, although a very different expression pattern towards nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream gene heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) activation was observed among the different clones. Our results can open a new way of considering therapies, going in the direction of an individualized therapeutic strategy that should take into account the difference existing between MSSA and MRSA as well as the distinctive features of the different clones. Not only, therefore, a different antibiotic approach but also a starting point for considering different host factors, i.e. the modulation of specific cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0175.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: ESKAPE; heteroaryl-ethylenes; clinical strains; antimicrobial activity
Online: 13 May 2022 (03:30:57 CEST)
The World Health Organization has identified antimicrobial resistance as a public health emergency and developed a global priority pathogens list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that can be summarized in the acronym ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacterales species), reminding us of their ability to escape the effect of antibacterial drugs. We previously tested new heteroaryl-ethylene compounds in order to define their spectrum of activity and antibacterial capability. Now, we focus our attention on PB4, a compound with promising MIC and MBC values in all conditions tested. In the present study, we evaluate the activity of PB4 on selected samples of ESKAPE isolates from nosocomial infections: 14 S. aureus, 6 E. faecalis, 7 E. faecium, 12 E. coli and 14 A. baumanii. Furthermore, an ATCC control strain was selected for all species tested. MICs were performed according to the standard method, with some modifications. PB4 MIC values were within very low ranges regardless of bacterial species and resistance profiles: from 0,12 to 2 mg/L for S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. faecium and A. baumannii. For E. coli, the MIC values obtained were slightly higher (4-64 mg/L), butstill promising. The PB4 heteroaryl-ethylenic compound was able to counteract the bacterial growth of both high-priority Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical strains. In the future, it would be interesting to evaluate the activity of PB4 in animal models to test for its toxicity.