REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: breakfast skipping; overweight; obesity; weight gain; BMI change; systematic review; meta-analysis; observational longitudinal studies
Online: 17 December 2020 (11:05:41 CET)
Globally, increasing rates of obesity are one of the most important health issues. The association between breakfast skipping and body weight is contradictory between cross-sectional and interventional studies. The systematic review and meta-analyses aim to summarize this association based on observational longitudinal studies. We included prospective studies on breakfast skipping and overweight/obesity or weight change in adults. Literature was searched until September 2020 in PubMed and Web of Science. Summary RRs with a 95% CI were estimated in pairwise meta-analyses by applying a random-effects model. In total, 9 studies were included in the systematic review and 6 of them were included in the meta-analyses. The meta-analysis indicated an 13% increased RR for overweight/obesity when breakfast was skipped on ≥ 3 days per week compared to ≤ 2 days per week (95% CI: 1.06, 1.21, n=3 studies). The meta-analysis on weight change displays a 21% increased RR for weight gain for breakfast skippers compared to breakfast eaters (95% CI: 1.05, 1.40, n=2 studies). The meta-analysis on BMI change displayed no difference between breakfast skipping and eating (RR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.05, n=2 studies). This study provides low meta-evidence for an increased risk for overweight/obesity and weight gain for breakfast skipping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: anaesthesia; workforce challenges; qualitative research; Pakistan
Online: 5 September 2022 (04:30:46 CEST)
Global anaesthesia workforce limitations contribute to emigration of skilled anaesthesiologists from lower- to higher-income countries, jeopardizing workforce balance and patient outcomes in Pakistan. This study aims to explore challenges experienced by anaesthesiologists in Punjab, Pakistan’s most populous province, and necessary changes to encourage their retention. We conducted a qualitative study to examine perspectives of anaesthesiologists who chose to serve in Pakistan. We drew data from semi-structured interviews conducted with 25 purposively-sampled consultant anaesthesiologists. We analysed data thematically and distinguished the practice hurdles faced by anaesthesiologists in public and private hospitals of Punjab. The main reasons to work abroad could be broadly categorized under two inductive themes, i.e. practice hurdles in public and private sector. Both had distinct issues which compromised the number and quality of anaesthesia workforce in the country. The key outcomes were workplace security, promotion/incentive issues and gender inequalities in the government sector. The private sector had improper salaries and facilities, anaesthesiologist’s dependency on surgeons for getting work and lack of out-of-theatre practice which minimise the scope and earnings of anaesthesiologist within the country. There is a need to overcome surgeon dependency and hospital manipulation by fixing salary percentages for each surgical case and encouraging direct patient-anaesthesiologist relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0035.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: public health; epidemiology; SARS-CoV-2; employment; education; training
Online: 2 August 2022 (04:33:55 CEST)
Although previous studies have focused on the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on various professional groups (particularly in the health and nursing care sector), this study aims to close a research gap by assessing perspectives of students and young professionals in epidemiology and public health in Germany in terms of shifts in workload, work content, and related challenges caused by the pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional survey between mid-February and mid-March 2022. Quantitative data were analyzed via standardized mean differences. Qualitative data based on answers to open-ended questions were analyzed via a qualitative content analysis. Overall, 172 individuals participated in this survey. Results indicate that students felt burdened the most by lack of exchange with other students and lecturers. Study participants employed in public health experienced changes in their employment, because they had changes in their work content- and administration-wise, which was accompanied with a high burden due to the workload. Multiple demands that can have an impact on both acquired skills and mental health during the professional qualification phase were mentioned by the participants. Therefore, more in-depth analyses are needed for investigating the impact the pandemic will have on the (future) public health workforce in the long run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0288.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: eHealth Literacy; digital health literacy; sense of coherence; COVID-19; COVID-HL-Q; Pakistan.
Online: 10 March 2021 (15:07:22 CET)
Amid to the COVID-19 pandemic, digital health literacy (DHL) has become a significant public health concern. This research aims to assess information seeking behavior, as well as the ability to find relevant information and deal with DHL among university students in Pakistan. An online-based cross-sectional survey, using a web-based interviewing technique, was conducted to collect data on DHL. Simple bivariate and multivariate linear regression was performed to assess the association of key characteristics with DHL. The results show a high DHL related to COVID-19 in 54.3% of students. Most of the Pakistani students demonstrated ~50% DHL in all dimensions, except of reliability. Multivariate findings showed that gender, sense of coherence and importance of information were found to be significantly associated with DHL. However, a negative association was observed with students’ satisfaction with information. This led to the conclusion that critical operational and navigations skills are essential to achieve COVID-19 DHL and cope with stress, particularly to promote both personal and community health. Focused interventions and strategies should be designed to enhance DHL amongst university students to combat the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0467.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Corona; SARS-CoV-2; vaccine; mass media; cues-to-action; health status
Online: 29 August 2022 (05:11:18 CEST)
One of the models that could be used to understand the adoption of vaccine uptake is the Health Belief Model (HBM). The aim of this study is to assess the role of HBM constructs and perceived health status (PHS) on vaccination status of individuals and to understand the role of socio-demographic variables on HBM scoring. A comparative cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted among 1,325 vaccinated (60.0%) and non-vaccinated (40.0%) vaccinated individuals aged 40 years and above in July 2021 in Punjab province, Pakistan. A higher level of education was the strongest predictor of positive HBM. All constructs of HBM, PHS and cues-to-action were significant predictors of COVID-19 vaccination uptake with perceived benefits as the strongest predictor. In order to expand the vaccination coverage, doubled pronged interventions utilizing both ICT and human resources should be designed that address each barrier perceived by individuals and understandably communicate the benefits of COVID-19 vaccine to the broader population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0360.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: RUTF; prebiotics; SAM; CMAM; malnourishment
Online: 21 March 2023 (01:32:08 CET)
Prevalence of malnutrition among children under five is alarmingly high in Pakistan. However, there are ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) available which may be used to treat children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). This study aims to assess the efficacy of prebiotics as a synergistic additive to RUTF to enhance blood parameters and anthropometric measurements in children with uncomplicated SAM living in Southern Punjab, Pakistan. A double-blind parallel treatment randomized controlled trial was conducted on 204 children aged between 6-59 months. Participants were randomized and allocated to the placebo (n=102) and experimental arms (n=102) at a 1:1 ratio. One group of children were provided RUTF and 4 g prebiotics, while the other group were given RUTF and starch as a placebo. Participants recruited for both arms were given treatment for eight weeks, and then their biochemical and anthropometric outcomes were evaluated. A substantial difference between the mean weight, mid upper arm circumference, haemoglobin, haematocrit, platelet count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and albumin was revealed. Conclusively, supplementation with RUTF and prebiotics has proven to be an efficient, effective and safe therapy for children suffering from SAM to improve their growth and development indicators and reduce the dangers of malnutrition in comparison to RUTF alone.