REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0124.v2
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: anthocyanins; proanthocyanidins; flavonols; flavones; flavonoid transport; flavonoid biosynthesis; flavonoid accumulation; ligandin; MATE; ABCC
Online: 28 March 2022 (17:03:39 CEST)
Flavonoids are a biochemically diverse group of specialized metabolites in plants that are derived from phenylalanine. While the biosynthesis of the flavonoid aglycone is highly conserved across species and well characterized, numerous species-specific decoration steps and their relevance remained largely unexplored. The flavonoid biosynthesis takes place at the cytosolic site of the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER), but accumulation of various flavonoids was observed in the central vacuole. A universal explanation for the subcellular transport of flavonoids has eluded researchers for decades. Current knowledge suggests that a glutathione S-transferase-like protein (ligandin) protects anthocyanins and potentially proanthocyanidin precursors during the transport to the central vacuole. ABCC transporters and to a lower extend MATE transporters sequester anthocyanins into the vacuole. Glycosides of specific proanthocyanidin precursors are sequestered through MATE transporters. A P-ATPase in the tonoplast and potentially other proteins generate the proton gradient that is required for the MATE-mediated antiport. Vesicle-mediated transport of flavonoids from the ER to the vacuole is considered as an alternative or additional route.
Online: 29 March 2019 (09:13:02 CET)
Astragalus is a very interesting plant genus well-known for content of flavonoids, triterpenes and polysaccharides. Its secondary metabolites are described as biologically active compounds showing a number of activities, like immunomodulating, antibacterial, antiviral and hepatoprotective. This inspired us to analyze the Bulgarian endemic A. aitosensis (Ivanisch.) to obtain deeper information about its phenolic components. We used extensive chromatographic separation of A. aitosensis extract to obtain seven phenolic compounds (1–7), which were identified using combined LC-MS and NMR spectral studies. The 1D and 2D NMR analysis and HR-MS allowed us to resolve the structures of known compounds 5–7 as isorhamnetin-3-O-robinobioside, isorhamnetin-3-O-(2,6-di-O-α-rhamno-pyranosyl-β-galactopyranoside), and alangiflavoside, respectively, and further comparison of these spectral data with available literature helped us with structural analysis of newly described flavonoid glycosides 1–4. These were described in plant source for the first time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0341.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: flavonoid; polyphenols; orange extract; performance; endurance; aerobic; anaerobic; nutrigenomic; sport nutrition
Online: 16 September 2020 (03:10:12 CEST)
2S-hesperidin is a flavanone (flavonoid) found in high concentrations in citrus fruits. It has an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect, improving performance in animals. This study investigated the effects of chronic intake of an orange extract (2S-hesperidin) or placebo on aerobic-anaerobic and metabolic performance markers in amateur cyclists. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was carried out between late September and December 2018. Forty amateur cyclists were randomized into two groups: one taking 500mg/day 2S-hesperidin and other taking 500 mg/day placebo (microcellulose) for 8 weeks. All participants completed the study. Performance and metabolic aerobic-anaerobic markers were measured using incremental and rectangular tests by indirect calorimetry. The anaerobic power was determined using Wingate tests. After 8 weeks supplementation, there was a significant increase in the incremental test in estimated functional threshold power (FTP) (3.23%; p≤0.05) and maximum power (2.68%; p≤0.05) with 2S-Hesperdin compared to placebo. In the rectangular test, there was a significant decrease in VO2 (-8.26%; p≤0.01) and VO2R (-8.88%; p≤0.01) at VT2 in placebo; however, there were no significant differences between groups. In the Wingate test, there was a significant increase (p≤0.05) in peak and relative power in both groups, but without significant differences between groups. Supplementation with an orange extract (2S-hesperdin) 500mg/day improves estimated FTP and maximum power performance in amateur cyclists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Transcriptionally controlled tumor protein (TCTP); Tryptophan; Florescence; Flavonoid; Native gel electrophoresis
Online: 7 July 2020 (09:49:17 CEST)
Transcriptionally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a highly conserved protein performing a large number of cellular functions by binding with various partner proteins. The importance of its roles in many diseases requires an assay method to find regulatory compounds. However, the molecular characteristics of TCTP made it difficult to search for chemicals interacting with it. In this study, a tryptophan-based assay method was designed and Y151W mutant TCTP was constructed to search binding chemicals. Since there is no tryptophan in the native sequence of TCTP, the incorporation of tryptophan in the Y151W mutant was very effective to establish the method. A flavonoid library was employed to the assay with the method. With the native and Y151W mutant TCTPs, three flavonoids such as morin, myricetin and isobavachalcone have been found to interact with TCTP. Combined with native gel electrophoresis, the binding region of isobavachalcone was suggested to be the flexible loop of TCTP. This approach can be easily applicable to find binding compounds of proteins with similar molecular characteristics of TCTP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0177.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Propolis Flavonoid; UPLC-Q/TOF-MS/MS; immunological enhancement; Ferulic acid; Anti-PPV
Online: 4 November 2020 (08:50:29 CET)
Propolis was widely used in health preservation and disease healing, it contains many ingredients. The previous study had been revealed that the propolis has a wide range of efficacy, such as antiviral, immune enhancement, anti-inflammatory and so on, but its antiviral components and underlying mechanism of action remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition, and anti-PPV and immunological enhancement of Propolis Flavonoid(PF). Chemical composition of PF was distinguished by UPLC-Q/TOF-MS/MS analysis.The presence and characterized of 26 major components was distinguished in negative ionization modes.To evaluate the effects of PF used as adjuvant on the immune response porcine parvovirus (PPV). Thirty Landrace-Yorkshire hybrid sows were randomly assigned to 3 groups, and the sows in adjuvant groups were intramuscular injected PPV vaccine with 2.0 mL PF adjuvant (PA), oilemulsion adjuvant (OA), respectively. After that, serum hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers, IgM and IgG subclasses, eripheral lymphocyte proliferation activity, and concentrations of cytokines were measured. Results indicated an enhancing effect of PA on IgM, IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and the IgG subclass responses. These findings suggested that PA could significantly enhance the immune responses. Furthermore, we screened the chemical components the effective of anti-PPV, Ferulic acid have an excellently anti-PPV effective.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: food allergy; PUFA; flavonoid; vitamin A; vitamin D; vitamin E; immune response; anti-inflammatory
Online: 15 October 2018 (08:38:59 CEST)
Specific nutrients including n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), flavonoids, vitamin A, D and E are considered to possess protective properties on human health by impacting on immunological reactions. An ‘inflammation-suppressive’ effect appears to be the common denominator of the beneficial effects of most of these dietary components which may protect against the development of chronic immune disorders such as allergy. However, the majority of these promising data are from preclinical studies such as animal disease models, as the majority of clinical studies only indicate associations. PUFAs, especially n-3 LCPUFAs, have been shown to interact with both the sensitization as well as the effector phase in food allergy. However, it should be noted and realised that PUFAs are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation. Flavonoids and fat-soluble vitamins both contain anti-inflammatory properties and are able to act as anti-oxidants as well. Here, we explore the anti-allergic properties of PUFAs, flavonoids and fat-soluble vitamins in order to create an overview and, more importantly, suggest a strategy to target food allergies using these components and combinations thereof. Dietary n-3 LCPUFAs and the above mentioned micronutrients are promising anti‐allergy agents capable of influencing the allergic immune response through multiple and different biological pathways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0103.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Monochoria angustifolia; Monochoria hastata; Flavonoid; Antioxidant mechanism; Natural populations; Phytochemical profile; Traditional herbal medicine; Phytopharmaceutical
Online: 12 April 2022 (04:08:17 CEST)
Plants of the genus Monochoria have long been utilized in food, cosmetics, and traditional herbal treatment. Thailand has the highest species diversity of this genus and a new member, Monochoria angustifolia (G. X. Wang) Boonkerd & Tungmunnithum has been recently described. This plant is called “Siam Violet Pearl” as a common name or “ไข่มุกสีม่วงแห่งสยาม” as its vernacular name in the same meaning in Thai language. Despite their importance, few researches on Monochoria species have been conducted. This study, thus, provided the results to fill in this gap by: i) determining flavonoids phytochemical profiles of 25 natural populations of M. angustifolia covering the whole floristic regions in Thailand, and ii) determining antioxidant activity using various antioxidant assays to investigate the probable mechanism. The results revealed that M. angustifolia presented a higher flavonoid content than the outgroup, M. hastata. Our results also revealed that flavonoids might be used to investigate Monochoria evolutionary connections and for botanical authentication. The various antioxidant assays revealed that M. angustifolia extracts preferentially act through a hydrogen atom transfer antioxidant mechanism. Pearson correlation analysis indicated significant correlations emphasizing that the antioxidant capacity is most probably the result of a complex phytochemical combinations rather than of a single molecule. Altogether, these results showed that this new species provide an attractive alternative starting material with phytochemical variety and antioxidant potential for the phytopharmaceutical industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0305.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Leucophyllum frutescens; Total Phenolic Contents (TPC); Total Flavonoid Content (TFC); Total Antioxidant Activity (TAA); DPPH; CUPRAC; FRAP; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)
Online: 10 November 2020 (12:00:06 CET)
The four solvent extractives obtained from aerial parts of Leucophyllum frutescens were evaluated for their Total Antioxidant Activity (TAA) by ammonium molybdate method, scavenging potential by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox-Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assays, metal-reducing potential by Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (CUPRAC) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays, Total Phenolic Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) and their biological activities. The study concluded that BULE exhibited total antioxidant activity (226.235±1.222 mg AA.Eq.gm-1 DE±S.D) by molybdate method, CHLE exhibited more scavenging potential (DPPH 209.589±8.500 mg trolox Eq.gm-1 DE±S.D and TEAC 210.166±7.954 mg trolox Eq.gm-1 DE±S.D) and reducing potential (CUPRAC 646.889±16.889 mg trolox Eq.gm-1 DE±S.D & FRAP 472.981±15.625 mg trolox Eq.gm-1 DE±S.D). Phytochemical quantification concluded high TPC by BULE (189.369±1.393 mg GA.Eq.gm-1 DE±S.D) and high TFC by CHLE (232.458±1.589 mg Qu.Eq.gm-1 DE±S.D). Strong inhibition of α-glucosidase and urease enzymes was observed by HELE (IC50 0.3321±0.007 mg.ml-1±SD) and BULE (IC50 4.09±0.357 mg.ml-1±SD) extractives, respectively. The hemolytic effect shown by hexane extract (HELE) was higher with HA50 25.545±0.927 ug.ml-1±SD whereas methanol (MELE), chloroform (CHLE), and butanol (BULE) exhibited hemolytic effects at higher concentration with HA50 400.067±1.364, 321.394±1.332, and 332.957±0.465 µg.ml-1±SD, respectively. GC-MS profiling of HELE of L. frutescens was performed for qualitative analysis. The principal phytochemicals tentatively identified by GC-MS analysis of HELE accounts for fatty acids (60.221%), lignans (17.687%), ketones (3.358%), phenols (2.584%), sesquiterpenes (1.265%), and aldehydes (0.345%).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0095.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Phenolic compounds; organosolv extraction; spruce bark; Picea abies; GC-MS identification; Total phenolic content; Total flavonoid content; Total tannins content; Saccharide’s content; antiviral properties
Online: 6 October 2021 (09:05:17 CEST)
Enormous quantities of softwood and hardwood tree bark are generated yearly in the pulp and woodworking industry. Chemical compounds which can be found in bark extracts have important biological properties and therefore a high potential for using in the production of special formulations. In the present study, extraction of Picea abies bark with organosolv solvents was investigated to achieve a high yield of desirable compounds. For the extraction four different solvent ratios of ethanol and water were applied. The temperature range of extraction was set between 40 and 100 °C and stirring velocity of 400 rpm. Extractions were performed with a solid/liquid ratio of 1:20. Yields of phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were determined using gallic acid for total phenolic content (TPC), quercetin for total flavonoid content (TFC) and tannic acid for total tannins content (TTC) as calibration compounds. Qualitative analysis of phenolic constituents was performed after their derivatization, by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry identification. The total yield of bark extract of 14.75 wt.% was achieved by using an ethanol/water ratio of 50% (v/v) and a temperature of 100 °C. Gas chromatography results show 9 aromatic carboxylic acids as phenolic acids and quercetin and (+)-catechin as flavonoid compounds. Highest concentrations of TPC = 3.21 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, TCF = 0.62 mg quercetin equivalent/g and TTC = 0.84 tannic acid equivalent/g were determined at the same process conditions by photometric method. This study determined the conditions for organosolv extraction of useful compounds and suggests that some of extractives, e.g., taxifolin and rhamnetin presented in the spruce bark extracts, have antiviral (SARS-CoV-2) effects. Therefore, this warrants further evaluation of the antiviral properties of spruce bark constituents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0022.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Phaleria macrocarpa; extraction; free radical scavenging activity (DPPH); ferric ion reducing power assay (FRAP); total phenolic content (TPC); total flavonoid content (TFC); response surface methodology (RSM)
Online: 3 January 2018 (10:15:16 CET)
In this study, the optimal condition for the extraction of antioxidants from the fruit Buah Mahkota Dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa) was determined by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimization was applied using central composite design (CCD) to investigate the three independent variables, namely extraction temperature (oC), extraction time (minutes) and extraction solvent to-feed ratio (%v/v) on the responses of free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), ferric ion reducing power assay (FRAP), total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC).The optimal conditions for the antioxidants extraction were found to be extraction temperature (64oC), extraction time (66 minutes) and solvent to-feed ratio (75 %v/v) with the highest percentage yield of DPPH, FRAP, TPC and TFC were 86.85%, 7.47%, 292.86 mg/g and 3.22 mg/g respectively. Moreover, the data were subjected to response surface methodology (RSM) and the results showed that the polynomial equations for all models were significant, did not show lack of fit, and presented adjusted determination coefficients (R2) above 99%, proving the yield of phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidants activities obtained experimentally were close to the predicted values and the suitability of the model employed in RSM to optimize the extraction conditions. Hence, in this study, the fruit from P.macrocarpa could be considered to have the strong antioxidant ability and can be used in various cosmeceutical or medicinal applications.