ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0118.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Adult Population; Economic Growth; Financial Exclusion; Financial Inclusion; Financial Institutions; Financial Inclusion Strategy
Online: 10 October 2022 (10:07:47 CEST)
It has been observed that most adult citizens, globally, are not enjoying financial services. They are financially excluded, especially rural dwellers. Monetary authorities initiated financial inclusion, with the aim of including all adult population who are excluded from financial services into the financial system at an affordable cost to meet their basic needs. Studies have shown that it encourages household savings and affects growth positively. Central Bank of Nigeria initiated financial inclusion in 2012 and commenced implementation in 2014. Given the short period of its implementation, this study ascertained the effect on economic growth in Nigeria. The study used time series data ranging from 2004 to 2021. The study covered the pre-inclusion period, through its implementation period. Ordinary Least Square technique was adopted for data estimation. Preliminary and post-estimation tests were also conducted. Despite the short period of the implementation of financial inclusion strategy, the OLS result affirmed that it positively affects economic growth. It was concluded that financial inclusion is a growth driver. It was recommended that Central Bank of Nigeria, in collaboration with commercial banks and microfinance banks, continue to enforce inclusion exercise in all rural communities, ensuring that women, youths, farmers, traders in the informal sector, are captured by the financial system. Also, Central Bank Nigeria should set up financial inclusion compliance committee at the Local Government levels, with a State Monitoring unit to ensure compliance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0167.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Market risk, Financial performance, Non-financial firms, Morocco
Online: 16 January 2019 (13:10:11 CET)
This study examines the effect of market risk on the financial performance of 31 non-financial companies listed on the Casablanca Stock Exchange (CSE) over the period 2000-2016. We utilize three alternative variables to assess financial performance, namely return on assets, return on equity and profit margin. Next, we use the degree of financial leverage, the book-to-market ratio, and the gearing ratio as market risk variables. Besides, we employ the pooled OLS model, the fixed effects model, the random-effects model, the difference GMM and the system GMM models. The results show that market risk indicators have a negative and significant influence on the companies' financial performance. The elasticities are greater following the book-to-market ratio compared to the degree of financial leverage and the gearing ratio, respectively. In most cases, the firm size, the tangibility ratio, and the cash holdings ratio have a positive effect on financial performance, whereas the firms' age, the debt-to-income ratio, stock turnover, and leverage hurt the performance of these non-financial companies. Therefore, decision-makers and managers should mitigate market risk through appropriate strategies of risk management, such as derivatives and insurance techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0658.v1
Online: 29 October 2018 (06:51:35 CET)
This study explores the impact of financial inclusions on financial resilience. In doing so, we utilize the World Bank’s data on global financial inclusions. Our study confirms that the respondents with financial accounts are more resilient than those without accounts. The chances of being financially resilient are around 1.4 times higher for the account holders than their counterparts. We find a significant relationship between gender and financial resilience; males are 1.4 times more resilient than females when other covariates are considered in the regression model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0259.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Financial constraints; corporate social responsibility; financial performance
Online: 15 September 2021 (12:43:05 CEST)
This study focuses on a sample of Chinese listed companies from 2019 to 2020 to explore the relationships among corporate social responsibility, financial constraints, and financial performance. In addition, we discuss five factors affecting financial constraints. We also analyze the types of enterprises that can improve their financial performance by implementing corporate social responsibility keeping in mind the factors that lead to a high degree of financial constraint. The results indicate that: 1. The degree of financial constraints has a negative and significant impact on financial performance; 2. There is a reverse relationship between the degree of financial constraints and the effectiveness of corporate social responsibility measures; 3. Enterprises with high financial constraints (due to lower financial slack and revenue growth rates) can significantly improve their financial performance through the implementation of effective corporate social responsibility programs. 4. Enterprises with high financial constraints, caused by financial slack and revenue growth rate, can significantly improve their financial performance by implementing corporate social responsibility programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0334.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: CSR; non-financial reporting; non-financial disclosures
Online: 14 July 2021 (12:53:02 CEST)
Reporting on CSR activities has become the essence of reporting for modern business entities. In this regard, particular attention is paid to public interest companies. Therefore, the following paper aims to answer the question of whether there are differences in the linguistic structure of the studied CSR reports in three selected industry indices on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE) in Poland, i.e. WIG-energy index, WIG-fuel index, WIG-mining index and their relationship with the performance of selected companies. The study was conducted on a purposely selected sample of companies between 2013 and 2018. A total of 138 CSR reports and 138 annual separate financial statements prepared in accordance with international balance sheet law were collected. The study was carried out based on a panel regression model. It was found that CSR reports contained similar average percentages of parts of speech such as nouns and adjectives. When linking the economic performance of companies, expressed with selected indices, to the information on the implementation of CSR concepts, it was revealed that the results are more likely to describe business performance when it is satisfactory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0305.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: financial literacy; financial knowledge; household finance; young people
Online: 23 December 2019 (12:30:54 CET)
Financial literacy is a path to sustainability and has an important role in ensuring the financial sustainability of individuals, families, enterprises and national economies. The level of these economic indicators such as debt, payment discipline, savings and financial management all translate into prosperity or insolvency and bankruptcy and result partially from financial literacy. The higher the level of financial literacy, especially of young people, the more favorable the level of economic indicators, which translates into the economy and sustainable development. However, despite many years of research, there is still a lack of a uniform and coherent definition of financial literacy, as well as methods for measuring it. This study offers a small step forward, presenting the authors’ own view of the concept of financial literacy, the conceptualizations of financial literacy and methods used for investigating. Moreover, they present the results of a survey conducted on the financial behaviour, financial attitudes, and financial knowledge of the Polish youth and compare this to a PISA study on 15-year-old students. Results demonstrate a good, and partially very good, level of financial literacy among young Poles, showing that they are rational in their financial decision making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0221.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: financial crisis; management information system; financial system; confidence level
Online: 19 July 2019 (07:59:58 CEST)
There has been rampant fold-ups, merger and acquisitions occurring in the Ghanaian banking industry. Then, the questions arise: Is the Ghanaian Financial System in Crisis? This study was conducted to find answers to these problems unsolved with prior literature. A sample of seventy customers of the Royal Bank, 8 employees of the Royal Bank and 2 managers of the Royal Bank were selected for a case-survey. The study also monitored the Trend of the Ghanaian Financial System through the reading and monitoring of daily news on the Financial System and reports of banks. The data from the field and the secondary data from news and reports were analysed symmetrically. The study drew on Minsky’s Financial Crisis Theory to explain the phenomenon in the Ghanaian economy and to draw predictions of what would happen in other developing economies. The study found out that: (1) The Ghanaian financial system is fragile and it holds true for most developing economies; (2) The financial system suffers greatly when the confidence level of customers falls significantly; (3) Management information systems raises the confidence level of customers (borrowers and lenders) such that there is a greater fall and impact in times of instability in the economy; (4) The higher the level of MIS adoption in an unstable economy, the more fragile the Financial System becomes and (5) A higher adoption of Management Information Systems in a Fragile Financial System indirectly contributes to Financial Crisis of the Financial System.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0004.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: financial analysis; coefficient of variation; sectoral ratios; financial ratios
Online: 1 March 2019 (08:02:20 CET)
Aim: The aim of the paper is to assess the usefulness of sectoral means in financial analyses of enterprises. Research methods: The article uses an inductive-deductive approach to assess the suitability of sectoral means used in analyses of financial standings of enterprises. The method of analysis and logical construction was used for literature review. The methods of descriptive statistics such as, arithmetic means, standard deviation and coefficient of variation were used in order to analyze the data and draw conclusions based on the results. Contribution: The assessment of the usefulness of sectoral means in the context of their variability seems to be a crucial aspect for the analysis of a company’s financial situation. When assessing the financial standing of an enterprise, it is necessary to use a comparative analysis method, based on, inter alia, a comparison in space. This type of comparison requires the use of sectoral means, whose assessment is extremely important to drawing reliable and correct conclusions of the financial situation of a company.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0157.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Financial Literacy; Financial Behaviour; Consumer Behavior; Sustainable Consumer Behavior; Social Media; Natural Language Processing; Social Network
Online: 6 July 2021 (13:42:31 CEST)
A more sustainable society and economy also implies a more sustainable behavior in the consumption of financial products. A possible change in focus can come from the demand side, so that more sustainable consumption of financial products have to go hand to hand with financial literacy. However, financial literacy, potential favoring of this sustainable behavior, is far from reaching an international consensus about its definition, object and scope. Two objectives are analyzed; the different interpretations of financial literacy in the academic literature, as well as its evolution and how, in what context and with what other concepts the term is used in social networks. Scientometric techniques and content analysis have been used to carry out a systematic review of literature and also NLP to analyze the comments on Social Networks. Critical moments are identified in the definition of financial literacy. Also ten sentiments are analyzed in social networks in wich positivity, trust, and anticipation predominate. Greater attention to this issue is necessary both from the private initiative and from public policies, so that financial literacy is an effective tool for a more sustainable behavior by consumers. Finally, a new definition is proposed based on our findings.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Foreign Exchange Market, Volatility Spillover, Return Spillover, VAR Framework, Variance Decomposition, Financial Crisis, Financial Interdependence
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:03:39 CEST)
In this paper, we investigate the “statics and dynamics” return and volatility spillovers transmission across developed and developing countries. Quoted against the U.S. dollar, we study twenty-three global currencies over 2005 – 2016. Focusing on the spillover index methodology, the generalised VAR framework is employed. Our findings indicate no evidence of bi-directional return and volatility spillovers between developed and developing countries. However, a unidirectional volatility spillover from developed to developing countries is highlighted. Furthermore, our findings document significant bi-directional volatility spillovers within the European region (Eurozone and non-Eurozone currencies) with the British Pound (GBP) and the Euro (EUR) as the most significant transmitters of volatility. The findings reiterate the prominence of volatility spillovers to financial regulators.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: education; neuroscience; nano-robots; financial markets; financial options; security; computation; optimization
Online: 25 September 2020 (03:03:07 CEST)
Of course, now we know that quantum mechanics has been a fundamental structure of our world since our universe came into being. However, it has been only a century since the experimental and theoretical discovery of quantum mechanics and its extensions into many implications and applications. In particular, there are implications across many disciplines that most likely will affect education, health, security, etc. Examples are given of the need for starting education as early as possible in schools, the use of nano-robots to deliver drugs targeted to specific molecular sites, to developing new cryptographic systems to safeguard our privacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0795.v2
Online: 14 May 2021 (16:27:12 CEST)
The authors propose in this study to evaluate financial performance applications for stock prices of the Indonesian Stock Exchange in manufacturing companies. The method of research used here is a quantitative descriptive method. In that statement, Indonesian Stock Exchange manufacturing companies between 2016 and 2018 are the population use in this research, using the sampling technique Purpose Sampling. This research uses secondary data from 2016 to 2018, the financial reports of Indonesian Stock Exchange manufacturing companies. The Indonesian stock exchange web site has been provided with all data sources at https://www.idx.co.id, and searching for www.google.id. Our analysis shows that book value prices and the net profit margin affect stock prices. The value of financial performance at the Indonesian Stock Bourses manufacturing companies' cost amounts to 64.5 percent, while other factors not listed in this study account for 35.4 percent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0265.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: FinTech; Financial markets; PEST analysis; Survey analysis
Online: 11 August 2021 (15:32:52 CEST)
FinTech has been in the focus of the discussion for quite some time. However, the market share of FinTech companies is still relatively small in compared to more traditional financial services. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the status quo, current developments and challenges ahead for the Latvian FinTech sector. We combine three analyses: the political and legal, the economic, the social and the technological environment (PEST) analysis, an analysis of the size and performance of FinTech companies during the last 10 years, and a survey among FinTech companies. We find that the current status of regulation is one of the main obstacles to FinTech development, because it does not sufficiently consider FinTech-specific aspects. Problems in attracting skilled workforce, and an environment that is not very supportive of new developments in finance are further challenges and might explain at least part of the growth and performance difficulties. A revision, modernization and harmonization of regulation is essential to create a level playing field for all market participants: FinTech companies, traditional financial service providers and those originally traditional players that are integrating FinTech solutions in their business model. Further efforts are also required to foster the Latvia’s attractiveness for skilled workforce. We hope that this study helps increase the visibility of Latvian FinTech and contributes to the development of the new Latvian FinTech strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0585.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: consumption; financial wealth; housing wealth; wealth effects
Online: 25 October 2018 (04:46:24 CEST)
Based on the seminal paper of Case, Quigley and Shiller (2013), we investigate the effects of financial and housing wealth on consumption. Using quarterly data from 1975 to 2016, for all States of U.S. economy, and a different methodology in measuring wealth, we report relatively greater financial effects than housing effects on consumption. Specifically, in our basic utilized model, the calculated elasticity for financial wealth is 0.060, while for housing is 0.045. The results are not in agreement with the ones obtained by Case, Quigley and Shiller. In an attempt to investigate the disparity we proceed by incorporating the introduction of the Tax Reform Act in 1986, which increased incentives for owner-occupied housing investments. Finally, due to distributional factors at work, and taking into account the pronounced uneven distribution of wealth we investigate the effects of wealth for 8 states that include the Metropolitan areas comprising of the well known Case-Shiller 10-City Composite Index. Now the housing effect on consumption is much stronger and larger than the financial effect. Additionally, we forecast the consumption changes at the time of the high rise and large drops in house prices for these states. Forecasts showed a recession from the fall of Lehman Brothers until the fourth quarter of 2011. These forecasts were not verified. Probably, the new techniques used by politics played an important role. We also find that extreme behaviors cannot be predicted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0445.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Microeconomics And Decision Sciences Keywords: borrowing; economic growth; financial inclusion; saving; UAE; USA
Online: 24 July 2018 (06:13:38 CEST)
This paper highlights the impact of financial inclusion on individuals’ borrowing and saving decisions in the United States and the United Arab Emirates. It does so, using data from the 2014 Global Financial Inclusion database, and an empirical strategy consisting of first testing the significance of the joint bivariate model over its binary conterparts using the Lagrange multiplier test, followed by a contrast between the fully-parametric and semi-parametric specifications of the saving and borrowing equations. Based on model performance measures, the semi-parametric bivariate probit specification is identified as a better framework for describing the two processes of saving and borrowing, with a correlation coefficient of 12.3%. Although no significant difference exists between UAE and US residents in borrowing behavior, we find that US residents are 31.4% more likely to save than their UAE counterparts. In addition, and in line with the Permanent Income Hypothesis, the results reveal the absence of an income based saving or borrowing gradient in the two countries. Conversely, we found the prevalence of a gender based saving (12.4%) and borrowing (13.8%) inequality in favor of the male gender. Furthermore, access to a bank account and a debit card, companies policy of direct wage and salary transfer, and government transfer programs with direct deposit options are all financial inclusion strategies that are found to significantly raise the likelihood of saving and borrowing. As such, companies with payroll practices based on cash or physical paycheck issuing, especially in the US, should revise such policy to create more financial inclusion, and thereby more saving potential which in turn would contribute to further borrowing, investment and growth of the national economy.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0385.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: path integral; importance sampling; financial options; combat analysis; COVID-19
Online: 12 October 2020 (15:15:40 CEST)
Background: Forecasting nonlinear stochastic systems most often is quite difficult, without giving in to temptations to simply simplify models for the sake of permitting simple computations. Objective: Here, two basic algorithms, Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) and path-integral codes PATHINT/PATHTREE (and their quantum generalizations qPATHINT/qPATHTREE) are offered to detail such systems. Method: ASA and PATHINT/PATHTREE have been effective to forecast properties in three disparate disciplines in neuroscience, financial markets, and combat analysis. Applications are described for COVID-19. Results: Results of detailed calculations have led to new results and insights not previously obtained. Conclusion: These 3 applications give strong support to a quite generic application of these tools to stochastic nonlinear systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0088.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: innovation; proactivity; financial literacy; economy business performance
Online: 5 October 2021 (15:06:35 CEST)
This study aims to determine the Implication of innovation, proactivity, risk-taking, artistic orientation, and financial literacy on creative economy businesses during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was conducted on 120 creative economy businessmen in Bandar Lampung City, which is a miniature of Indonesia with multiethnic cultures. The results showed innovation is not significant, but proactive attitude, artistic orientation, and financial literacy have a significant implication on the performance of creative economic businesses during the Covid-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: religion; atheist; standard of living; financial situation
Online: 14 November 2017 (06:51:22 CET)
Considering the impact of religiosity on the perceptions regarding life quality, in this paper we focus on the effects of the appurtenance to a religion on the standard of living in several economically developing countries (Turkey, Ukraine, Senegal and Morocco). The data have been collected using a survey carried out in 2012 and the empirical analysis was based on non-parametric tests and multinomial logistic regression. The results indicate there are differences between religious persons and atheists regarding gender, marital status, perceptions of daily life and standards of living. Females and officially married people or single people tend to be more religious. A person claiming to belong to a religion has 2-4-fold more chances to achieve a considerable improvement in the standards of living as compared to an atheist. Moreover, religious people from the analyzed countries are more optimistic about their life overall. Taking into account the sample’s characteristics and the countries chosen, we can claim that the results obtained are truly cross-cultural in nature. Moreover, most of the conclusions reached would be to some extent relevant to other developing economies of Eastern Europe, North Africa and Middle East.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0712.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: path integral; importance sampling; financial options; combat analysis
Online: 4 January 2021 (13:29:01 CET)
Background: Forecasting nonlinear stochastic systems most often is quite difficult, without giving in to temptations to simply simplify models for the sake of permitting simple computations. Objective: Here, two basic algorithms, Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) and path-integral codes PATHINT/PATHTREE (and their quantum generalizations qPATHINT/qPATHTREE) are offered to detail such systems. Method: ASA and PATHINT/PATHTREE have been effective to forecast properties in three disparate disciplines in neuroscience, financial markets, and combat analysis. Applications are described for COVID-19. Results: Results of detailed calculations have led to new results and insights not previously obtained. Conclusion: These 3 applications give strong support to a quite generic application of these tools to stochastic nonlinear systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0353.v1
Online: 22 December 2021 (11:44:00 CET)
This study aims to determine the cash sales accounting information system that is suitable for online store applications. Using qualitative methods with the object of research, namely the online stores. Sources of data obtained from several online stores. Data collection methods used are semi-structured interviews, observation, and document analysis. From the analysis and design of the buying and selling cycle information system in online business development, it was found that the development of information systems is a very important stage in the efficiency and effectiveness of the buying and selling cycle. By implementing a good and correct accounting information system design on an online store, it can facilitate the recording and minimize the occurrence of errors/loss of data. In addition, with a good information system design, the division of tasks between various sections becomes clear.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0145.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: banking; financial performance; sustainability performance
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:23:42 CET)
Banking sector is generally taken out of sample while the sustainability performance, and the financial performance are compared with each other. The core aim of this study is to analyze the effect of the declarations made in the cope of sustainability reports on the financial performance in the banking sector. Seven banks were included in the study which were placed at least one time in BIST Sustainability Index in between 2010-2017 years. Environment, human resources, product liability and community involvement were determined as sustainability criteria and return on assets, return on equity and net interest margin were determined as financial performance criteria. Non-Parametric Statistic Tests and Panel Data Analysis were used for analysis and types, and the sizes of banks were selected as dummy variables. As a result, it is found that the declarations of sustainability reports have a significant effect only on return on assets and have no significant effect on return on equity and net interest margin. And also, when we analyzed the relationship of sustainability criteria and return on assets, we found that the declarations about environment and human resources have negative effects on return on assets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0120.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Homepage words; Financial ratio; Text-mining; Balanced scorecard
Online: 3 February 2021 (15:07:40 CET)
(1) Background: The CEO message of hospital homepage contain various contents such as the hospital's future vision, promises with customers, upgraded services and public activities. The CEO’s message of the homepage includes non-financial information as well as financial information of corporates. Also, it provides useful information for not only company's goals and vision but also firm performance and strategies for the future. This study aims to investigate associations between CEO’s message of hospitals homepages and financial status. We used the balanced scorecard frame to analyze what content on the hospital's homepage is related to the hospital's various financial ratios. (2) Methods: We adopt a text mining method to extract significantly repeated keywords from the CEO’s message of hospital website. And we classify these keywords by a balanced scorecard frame. To examine the relationship between keywords of CEO’s message of the hospital homepage and hospital’s financial ratio, T-test is conducted for the difference in the TF-IDF (Term Frequency is Divided by Inverse Document Frequency) mean of the home page contents and its relationship with the views of the balanced scorecard framework. (3) Results: According to empirical results on 65 samples collected from local hospitals, there are some significant relationship between the qualitative content of the hospital's homepage and the quantitative financial ratio that indicates profitability, activity, leverage, liquidity, and transfer to essential business fund (EBF) income. (4) Conclusions: The introduction section of a homepage is most accessible to customers, containing the aims and ideals of hospitals and reflecting their values and visions . In addition, in view of financial status, they can either emphasize financial strength or focus on other areas to mask weakness of financial information. This study reminds us of the importance of hospital website’s disclosure, and it can be inferred from the financial status of the hospital. It also highlights the need for harmonization between quantitative data, financial statements, and qualitative data, CEO’s messages. (5) Implications: To our best knowledge, this paper is the first research attempting to investigate the relation between text of hospital homepage and financial ratio of hospital through text mining technique and balanced scorecard frame. Hospitals take a crucial part in a country’s welfare and healthcare backbone industry. Nevertheless, in many countries, hospital organization sectors tend to remain a source of critical fiscal deficits due to its ineffective and sloppy management. We expect that the result of this paper can provide hospital managers to useful information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0012.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: financial anxiety; insurance behavior; economic security of the person; financial confidence after COVID-19
Online: 2 August 2020 (11:01:34 CEST)
In the context of the economic and political uncertainty associated with the 2019-nCoV pandemic, it is necessary to determine the socio-psychological factors involved in the transformation of the behavior of insurance consumers under the influence of a biogenic threat. This study measures financial anxiety and its impact on the insurance behavior of Russian citizens. The correlation, comparative, and regression analyses of the financial anxiety of Russian citizens cover three stages of observation: before the start of the 2019 nCoV pandemic (“FA up to 19 nCoV; N = 766), during the period of quarantine measures announced in Russia in March 2020 (“FA 19-nCoV-1”; N = 856), and after the relaxation of quarantine measures at the end of April 2020 (“FA 19-nCoV-2”; N = 963).Psychological analysis data were obtained from the online survey “Financial anxiety (in the context of insurance)”. The questionnaire is psychometrically reliable and easy to use. It includes five measurement scales: MR1—Physical manifestations of financial incentive anxiety, MR2—With money shortages and financial uncertainty, MR3—The value of insurance coverage, MP4—Financial Confidence, and MR5—Perception of insurance and investment risks. It was found that Russian citizens consider it important to have insurance coverage for a “rainy day”, and they showed confidence in the insurance market during the biogenic crisis. However, unfortunately, during the 19-nCoV-1 and 19-nCoV-2 periods, Russian citizens did not feel financially secure, unlike in the period before 19-nCoV. Women showed high scores for physical manifestations of financial anxiety and low financial confidence in the future, in contrast to men, regardless of the observation period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0617.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: financial anxiety; insurance behavior; economic security of the person; financial confidence after COVID-19
Online: 25 July 2020 (17:39:46 CEST)
In the context of economic and political uncertainty associated with the 2019-nCoV pandemic, it is necessary to determine the socio-psychological factors in the transformation of the behavior of insurance consumers under the influence of the biogenic threat. This study is devoted to measuring financial anxiety and its impact on the insurance behavior of Russian citizens. Correlation, comparative and regression analyzes of financial anxiety of Russian citizens cover three stages of observation: before the start of the 2019 nCoV pandemic (“FA up to 19 nCoV; N = 766), during the period of quarantine measures announced in Russia in March 2020 (“ FA 19- nCoV-1 "; N = 856) and after the relaxation of quarantine measures at the end of April 2020 (" FA 19-nCoV-2 "; N = 963). Psychological analysis data were obtained from the online survey "Financial anxiety (in the context of insurance)". The questionnaire is psychometrically reliable and easy to use, including 5 measurement scales: MR1. Physical manifestations of financial incentive anxiety, MR2. With money shortages and financial uncertainty, MR3. The value of insurance coverage, MP4. Financial Confidence, MR5. Perception of insurance and investment risks. Russian citizens considered it important to have insurance coverage on a “rainy day” and showed confidence in the insurance market during the biogenic crisis. But, unfortunately, Russian citizens during the 19-nCoV-1 and 19-nCoV-2 periods did not feel financially secure in the future, unlike the period before 19-nCoV. ”Women showed high scores for physical manifestations of financial anxiety and low financial confidence in the future, in contrast to men, regardless of the observation period.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0690.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: pandemic; monetary theory; financial sustainability; Wellbeing Economics; Political Economy.
Online: 29 March 2021 (12:43:54 CEST)
This paper analyses the COVID-19 crisis and its management, under the Austrian Economics. The attention is focused in the States’ coercive intervention, to evaluate the positive or negative effects of pandemic, according to the Principles of Political Economy and the theory of capital and economic cycles. The paper examines the specific case of massive intervention by governments and, especially, central banks in monetary and financial markets to deal with the pandemic by seeking to lessen its effects. Also, it is offered a critical analysis on simultaneous government policies involving taxes and an increase in public spending which are presented as the panacea and universal remedy for the evils that afflict the society, instead of promoting the transit to Wellbeing Economics. To conclude the review, there is a proposal of paradigm review, in the way to offer a sustainable model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0542.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Cash holding; firm value; managerial optimism; financial constrained
Online: 22 June 2021 (14:03:51 CEST)
Cash holding is important for Chinese manufacturing firms coping with the increasing cost of financing and stiff market conditions. This study examines the impact of cash holding on the firm value of Chinese manufacturing firms. We find evidence that a non-linear relationship exists between cash holding and firm value in manufacturing firms of China. The study reveals that financially constrained firms having a higher level of cash holding negatively affects the firm value, while the unconstrained firms having a lower level of cash holding positively influences the firm value. Finally, this research is enriched by adopting the novel measure of managerial op-timism and reveals the interactive role of cash holding and optimism on firm value. The study concludes that managerial optimism influences the firm’s cash holding decisions and this is more costly for unconstrained firms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0318.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: HIV; routine screening; financial benefits; Opt-out approach
Online: 21 October 2022 (03:45:01 CEST)
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends everyone between 13-64 years be tested for HIV at least once as a routine procedure. HIV routine screening is reimbursable by Medicare, Medicaid, expanded Medicaid, and most commercial insurance plans. Yet, scaling-up HIV routine screening remains a challenge. We conducted a scoping review for studies on financial benefits and barriers associated with HIV screening in clinical settings in the U.S. to inform an evidence-based strategy to scale-up HIV routine screening. We searched Ovid MEDLINE®, Cochrane, and Scopus for studies published between 2006 - 2020 in English. The search identified 383 Citations; we screened 220 and excluded 163 (outside the time limit, irrelevant, or outside the U.S.). Of the 220 screened articles, we included 35 and disqualified 155 (did not meet the eligibility criteria). We organized eligible articles under two themes: financial benefits/barriers in healthcare settings (9 articles); and Cost-effectiveness in healthcare settings (26 articles). The review concluded recommendations in three areas: (1) Finance: Incentivize healthcare providers/systems for implementing HIV routine screening and/or separate its reimbursement from bundle payments; (2) Personnel: Encourage nurse-initiated HIV screening programs in primary care settings and educate providers on CDC recommendations; and (3) Approach: Use opt-out approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: corporate social responsibility; environment; employment; R&D; annual reports; financial and non-financial statements; competition.
Online: 8 November 2018 (12:06:32 CET)
The commitment of the EU to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is projected in the EU law about annual reporting by businesses. Since EU member states further develop this framework by their own domestic laws, annual reporting with CSR information is not unified and just partially mandatory in the EU. Do all European businesses report CSR information and what public declaration to society do they provide with it? The main dual purpose of this paper is identifying the parameters of this annual reporting duty and studying the CSR information provided by the ten largest Czech companies in their annual statements for 2013-2017. Based on legislative research and the teleological interpretation, the current EU legislative framework with Czech particularities is presented and, via a case study exploring 50 annual reports, the data about the type, extent and depth of the CSR is dynamically and comparatively assessed. It appears that, at a minimum, large Czech businesses satisfy their legal duty and e-report on CSR in a similar extent, but in dramatically different quality. Employee matters and adherence to international standards are used as a public declaration to society more than the data on environmental protection, while social matters and R&D are played down.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0319.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: CAHME; ACHE; program accreditation; professional affiliation; healthcare outcomes, financial performance
Online: 11 June 2021 (13:39:48 CEST)
The impact of organizational accreditation and professional certification and the evidence-based measurable impact of those for both academic programs and affiliates is one of specific interest to universities and individuals in the healthcare management field . The authors’ analysis examined the impact of hiring graduates from higher education programs that held external accreditation from the Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Management Education (CAHME). Graduates’ affiliation with the American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE) professional healthcare leadership organization was also assessed as an independent variable. Study outcomes focused on these graduates’ respective healthcare organization’s performance measures (cost, quality, and access) to assess the researchers’ inquiry into the perceived value of a CAHME-accredited graduate degree in healthcare administration and a professional ACHE affiliation . The results from this study found no effect of CAHME accreditation or ACHE affiliation on healthcare organization performance outcomes. The study findings support the need for future research surrounding healthcare administration professional graduate degree program characteristics and leader development affiliations, as perceived by various industry stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0491.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Financial Innovation; Economic Policy Uncertainty; ARDL; NARDL; Toda-Yamamoto
Online: 18 November 2020 (23:53:19 CET)
The study's motivation is to gauge the nexus between economic policy uncertainty and financial innovation for the period 2004M1 to 2018M12 in BRIC nations. For establishing a long-run cointegration study applied Autoregressive Distributed Lagged (ARDL) and asymmetry effects of economic policy uncertainty investigated following nonlinear framework known as NARDL. Furthermore, directional causality is established by performing a non-granger causality test. Cointegration test results of Fpss, Wpss, and tBDM confirmed the long-run association between EPU and financial innovation. On the other hand, the Wald test results proved asymmetry effects furring from EPU to financial innovation both in the long-run and short-run. Referring to asymmetry effects that positive and negative shocks in financial innovation, the study revealed that negative linkage between shocks in EPU and financial innovation in the long-run but short-run effects are insignificant. Furthermore, financial innovation measured by R&D investment exhibits positive linked with shocks in EPU, implying that uncertainty induces innovation in the economy. Refers to directional causality estimation, the study revealed evidence supporting the feedback hypothesis between EPU and financial innovation in all sample countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0294.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Financial Investment; Machine Learning; Artificial Intelligence.
Online: 20 September 2022 (05:45:26 CEST)
To support the decision making process of new investors, this paper aims to implement Machine Learning algorithms to generate investment indications. Three artificial intelligence techniques were implemented, namely: Multilayer Perceptron, Logistic Regression and Decision Tree, which performed the classification of investments. The results of the different algorithms were compared to each other using the metrics: accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score. The Decision Tree was the algorithm that obtained the best classification metrics and an accuracy of 77%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0455.v1
Online: 20 July 2020 (07:34:29 CEST)
According to its inner property, a crisis in the financial market can be considered as a collective behavior phenomenon. Through the prism of collective behavior, the crisis does not happen if the companies are independent of each other. In this work, cooperative movement processes in a stock market are investigated in a manner similar to that Vicsek first described collective behavior for self-propelled entities. To this end, a phase space is defined as the one in which the return of volume of transactions versus return of price is represented with each share in each day corresponding to a unique point in the space. The findings of the observation show that during times of crisis, the phase space is limited with the vector velocity of shares in the same direction. In contrast, on a regular day, the phase space is entirely accessible, with vector velocity aligned randomly. Moreover, in line with the Vicsek model, an order parameter is introduced, which evaluates the cooperative effects for the shares so that the higher the value of this parameter, the stronger the collective behavior of the shares.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0358.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: healthcare sector; financial performance; public hospitals
Online: 16 July 2020 (13:27:46 CEST)
Hospital indebtedness is a complex and very diverse phenomenon. Thus, the goal of this study is the comparison of the financial performance of public hospitals in accordance with their ownership and size. The results of the research lead to the conclusion that the vast majority of public hospitals are indebted, and their ownership structure does not affect their financial condition. What is more, the statistical analysis depicted that large Marshall hospitals are less indebted than poviat-commune ones. In the group of medium-size hospitals, the situation was the opposite. Moreover, the study did not confirm the significant relationship between the size or ownership and the financial status of the hospital. The analysis conducted in the article is aimed at filling in the gap in studies comparing the indebtedness between different types of public hospitals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0059.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Self-employment; household determinants; financial Crisis
Online: 7 June 2019 (12:48:50 CEST)
While some researchers have suggested that the self-employment (SE) sector is a haven during a financial Crisis, others believe that SE is not necessarily the desired outcome, but an indicator that the labor market is tightening for some groups. Few researchers have compared the SE sector before and after the occurrence of a significant financial Crisis, especially in developed countries. This paper analyzes the determinants of entry into self-employment during the 2008 Spanish Crisis. Using data from the Encuesta de Presupuesto Familiar (EPF), results show that although the rate of SE did not experience a significant change during this time the Crisis affected people differently based on gender, with being females more affected than males. Results also suggest differences between Comunidades Autonomas in how the self-employment sector behaved during the Crisis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0260.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Childhood cancer; financial costs; Africa; systematic review; meta-analysis
Online: 15 August 2022 (11:53:44 CEST)
The high costs of cancer treatment and lack of investment in health care are significant obstacles to public health on the African continent. The objective of this study was to estimate the financial cost of treating children suffering from cancer in Africa. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of expert opinions between March 2000 and March 2020. The key search terms included ‘cost’, ‘cancer’ and ‘child’; we selected articles that specifically addressed the financial costs of childhood cancer in African countries. Of the 103 articles found, 18 met the inclusion criteria. Cancer care was a heavy financial burden in most of the countries studied, although costs varied from country to country; the average expenditure on healthcare was US$1017.39 ± US$319.1 per year. In countries without a health insurance system, the highest proportion of cancer care costs, 46.6%, was indirect, whereas in countries with a cancer financing system, the direct cost of treatment was low, 53.4%. The cost of treating childhood cancer is high in Africa in relation to the standard of living of individuals residing in this region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0190.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: sustainable development; alliance; financial institution; banking sector; public finance
Online: 12 June 2018 (11:53:17 CEST)
The striving for sustainable development has become the goal of actions undertaken not only by representatives of public authorities and institutions representing this sector, but also representatives of private entities who are increasingly recognizing the benefits and sources of long-term development based on the principles and objectives of sustainable development. These are mainly based on the pursuit of synergy in the three basic areas of activities, i.e., in the economic, social, and environmental dimensions as well as in the maintenance of natural resources. The implementation of these activities is connected with the necessity of incurring financial expenditures, which the government (public sector) does not have in the required value. Therefore, in the process of sustainable development for which the government is responsible, the active participation of the financial sector (banks) is necessary. Achieving results within the alliance of the concept of sustainable development requires the setting of a kind of contract, the parties of which are the government, society, and financial institutions. The purpose of the conducted research is to indicate by which means the government and the financial sector can stimulate economic growth towards its sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0087.v1
Subject: Keywords: Nigeria; financial development; economic growth; threshold regression; time series
Online: 5 July 2018 (08:39:38 CEST)
The relationship between economic growth, growth volatility and financial sector development continues to attract attention in the theoretical and empirical literature. Over time, some studies hypothesize that finance has a causal linear relationship with growth. Recently several other authors contradict this claim and argue that the relationship that exists between finance and growth is nonlinear. We investigate these claims for Nigeria for the period between 1970 and 2015, using semi-parametric econometric methods, Hansen sample splitting techniques and threshold estimator. We observed no evidence of ‘Too much finance’ as claimed by many researchers in recent times. We show that the relationship between financial development and economic growth is U-shaped. This is equally true for the relationship between financial development and growth volatility. We also discuss policy implications of our findings and recommend financial innovations and decentralization of stock exchanges to boost access to financial services, in addition, improved regulation to enhance financial market efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: financial ratios; cross section; oil and gas trading industry
Online: 2 December 2022 (01:51:17 CET)
This research was conducted with the aim of knowing how to compare the financial performance of the oil and gas trading industry with cross-sectional analysis techniques. The type of research conducted in this research is qualitative research with research objects at several companies, namely PT Radiant Utama Interinsco Tbk, PT Elnusa Tbk, PT AKR Corporindo Tbk, and PT Aneka Gas Industri Tbk. The data used in this study comes from secondary data, namely the internet in the form of company financial reports for the 2019-2021 period obtained from the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The results of this study indicate that PT Radiant Utama Interinsco Tbk has the best financial performance on inventory turnover ratio and average age, PT Elnusa Tbk has good inventory performance on current ratio, quick ratio, DAR, and DER., PT AKR. Corporindo Tbk has performed well on the ratios of TIE, FCC, Dividend Payout, Dividend Yield, and PER. PT Aneka Gas Industri Tbk has performed well on the ratio of Receivables Turnover Ratio and Average Age of Receivables.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Reliability; Earthquake damageability; Structural evaluation; Safety; Financial risk; MC simulation
Online: 14 May 2021 (13:46:04 CEST)
Abstract: Seismic performance and loss assessments can have widely varying degrees of uncertainty. An essential issue is whether a particular assessed seismic loss or performance result has sufficient reliability to serve as the basis for risk management decisions and actions, including whether or not a code prescribed performance level is met, or if an assessed loss level is acceptable. A method is developed measuring the reliability of performance and loss assessments for individual buildings and for portfolios. Consideration is given to how well the building investigation and corresponding evaluation process have been performed, the qualifications of the person(s) doing the assessment, the thoroughness of the evaluation, and the technical validity of the assessment procedure or model. The approach characterizes the uncertainty of each component of the assessment procedure for each building in qualitative terms. The resulting reliability measure is likely to be most useful for the cases where an entity is determining whether/or not a building has acceptable life safety performance, or if a portfolio has an acceptably low risk of seismic damage loss over a given period of time. In both cases, the reliability must either be sufficient to warrant action, or serve to indicate need for improved assessment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0413.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: financial capacity instruments; Semi-Structured Clinical Interview for Financial Capacity; deci-sional capacity; mild cognitive impairment; gamification
Online: 31 May 2022 (07:37:21 CEST)
Financial capacity instruments are psychometric tools designed to evaluate individual decisional capacity based on financial decisions. As tests are complex and need special conditions for administration and evaluation, it is difficult to use them in daily geriatric clinics. Our scoping review objective was to evaluate existing financial capacity instruments from the perspective of simplicity and portability. We evaluated one English speaking knowledge database (Medline) using a dedicated MeSH terminology. The review yielded one independent instrument, The Semi-Structured Clinical Interview for Financial Capacity, that can be easy adapted for every-day clinical use. It is simple to understand and perform and do not need trained personnel for administration. It can be finalized in 15 minutes. Initially validated on 261 subjects (with different forms of cognitive impairment), it showed good accuracy and precision mainly in subjects with cognitive impairment. The test is less apt to detect early or fluctuating cognitive impairment. Simplicity, the main advantage of the test, allows gamification fact that increases portability. Familiar images (coins, money) that are used for performing simple tasks does not need complex translation and adaptation. In form of a game, the test is suitable for serial administration, increasing the chance for early capacity reduction detection. Results reflect a physician judgement related to the subjects’ capacity to understand and execute simple financial instructions and not financial proficiency scores. The main limitation of our review is that we investigated only one, English speaking, knowledge database. The scoping strategy generated a financial capacity instrument that can be used in geriatric clinics for early diagnostic of decisional capacity reduction. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the test in conditions of serial administration and in populations having various financial experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0113.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: bank reporting; country risk; financial stability; panel data modeling
Online: 15 March 2018 (04:46:05 CET)
This paper relies on accounting-based measures of country risk to investigate U.S. global banks' exposure to foreign country risk over the 2017 fiscal year as measured by the sum of cross-border risk, foreign office risk, and derivative risk claims. We achieve this using panel linear modeling methods with country level heterogeneity and time fixed effects, along with a constructed panel data of 284 observations on 71 countries distributed across 6 world regional blocks, and observed over 4 consecutive quarters starting from 4th quarter 2016 and ending with 3rd quarter 2017. The results show that on average, over the four quarters, a 1% increase in foreign banking sector's claims significantly increases U.S. global banks cross border risk exposure by 0.34%, while reducing derivative risk exposure by 0.22%, but have no significant impact on foreign office risk exposure. Similar results are observed with public sector claims which significantly increase banks' exposure to cross border risk by 0.21%, while reducing derivative risk exposure by 0.19%. Conversely however, non-bank financial sector claims are found to have no significant affect on cross-border risk exposure, but significantly reduce foreign office risk exposure by 0.09%, while increasing derivative risk exposure by 0.06%. These results indicate the presence of sectoral heterogeneities in U.S. banks' exposure to foreign counterparties' risk, and also that overall, over the course of 2017 the level of U.S. global banks' cross-border risk exposure increased, while their level of derivative risk exposure decreased, and the level of foreign office risk exposure remained relatively unchanged.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0201.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: cost estimation; cost deviation; financial crisis; promotor-contractor; statistical modelling
Online: 13 October 2021 (12:48:56 CEST)
For the majority of the contractual arrangements used in construction projects, the owner is not responsible for the cost deviations due to the variability of labor productivity or material price, amongst many other aspects. Consequently, the cost performance of a project may be entirely distinct for the owner and the contractor. Since the majority of the quantitative research on cost estimation and deviation found in the literature adopts the owners’ perspective, this research provides a contribution towards modelling costs and cost deviation from a contractors’ perspective. From an initial sample of 13 residential building and 10 office building projects, it was possible to develop models for cost estimation at the early stage of development including both endogenous and exogenous variables. Although the sample is relatively small, the authors were able to fully analyze all the cost data, using no secondary sources of data (very frequent in cost modelling studies). The statistically significant variables in the cost estimation models were the areas above and below ground and the years following the 2008 financial crisis, including the international bailout (2011-2014) period. For estimating the unit cost, a nonlinear model was obtained with the number of underground and total floor, the floor ratio and the years following the 2008 financial crisis, including the international bailout (2011-2014) period as predictors. For the office buildings, it was also found a statistically significant correlation between the cost deviation and the number of underground floors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0469.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: delayed feedback financial system; asymptotical stability; Lyapunov function; synchronization; impulse
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:25:24 CEST)
In real financial market, the delayed market feedback and the delayed effect of government macro-control are inevitable. And both the delay of market feedback and the delay of macro-control effect bring about the mathematical difficulties in studying stabilization and synchronization of the hyper-chaotic financial system. However, employing Lyapunov function method, differential mean value theorem, suitable bounded hypotheses and pulse control technology results in the globally asymptotical stabilization and synchronization criteria. It is the first paper to drive the stabilization and synchronization criteria under the assumptions of the double delays. Finally, numerical examples illuminate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0223.v1
Online: 13 September 2021 (16:18:55 CEST)
Distortion of financial statements is recognized as one of the most important issues in the field of accounting and auditing, which is also one of the most common issues today. In this regard, the present research was conducted, in which stock exchange information was used to investigate, predict, and model accounting distortions. For this purpose, financial performance, non-financial metrics, market-based metrics and commitment, or selection items were reviewed over a 6-year period. For collecting data of distorting companies, database of the Society of Certified Public Accountants in Iran was used and the information was analyzed using data mining methods (decision tree, neural networks, and Bayesian method). The results showed that analysis of financial statements҆ information has a high accuracy in determining and identifying the distorted financial statements. Using this information, it is possible to get better acquainted with the methods of document distortion and to take necessary measures in order to control and prevent administrative violations at national and international levels. Given frequent occurrence of these violations, artificial intelligence models can be used to identify these papers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0126.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: path integral; financial markets; high-frequency trading
Online: 8 May 2019 (08:47:44 CEST)
Methods of path integrals are used to develop multi-factor probabilities of bid-ask variables for use in high-frequency trading (HFT). Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) is used to fit the nonlinear forms so developed to a day of BitMEX tick data. Maxima algebraic code is used to develop the path integral codes into C codes, and sampling code is used for the fitting process. After these fits, the resultant C code is very fast and useful for forecasting upcoming ask, bid, midprice, etc., when narrow and wide windows of incoming data are used. A bonus is the availability of canonical momenta indicators (CMI) useful to forecast direction and strengths of these variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0501.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Crude oil; Global financial crisis; COVID-19; Stock; Returns; Persistence
Online: 31 May 2020 (20:15:29 CEST)
This study investigates the impact of global financial crisis and the present COVID-19 pandemic on daily and weekly Crude oil futures using four variants of ARMA-GARCH models: ARMA-sGARCH, ARMA-eGARCH, ARMA-TGARCH and ARMA- aPARCH with dummy variables We also investigated the persistence, half-life and backtesting of the models. This study therefore seeks to contribute to the body of literature on the impact of global financial crisis and the present COVID-19 pandemic on crude oil futures market. This investigation of the impact of global financial crisis and the COVID-19 on crude oil futures has not been much studied at present. We obtained and analyzed the daily and weekly crude oil futures from secondary sources. Daily crude oil futures used in this study covers the period from the 4th January 2000 to 27th April 2020 while the weekly crude oil futures covered from 2ndJanuary 2000 to 26th April 2020 . The global financial crisis period covered from 2nd July 2007 to 31st March 2009 and the current COVID-19 pandemic covered from 1st January 2020 to 27th April, 2020. The study used both student t and skewed student t innovations with AIC, goodness-of-test fit and backtesting to select the best model. Most of the estimated ARMA-GARCH models are supported by skewed student t distribution while most of the ARMA-GARCH models exhibited high persistence values in the presence of global financial crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic. In the overall, the estimated ARMA(1,0)-eGARCH(2,1) and ARMA(1,0)-eGARCH(2,2) model for daily crude oil futures and weekly crude oil futures respectively have been significantly impacted by the global financial crisis and the Present COVID-19 pandemic while the preferred estimated models also passed the goodness-of-test fit and backtesting.This study recommends shareholders and investors should think outside the box as crude oil futures tend to be affected by global financial crisis and COVID-19 pandemic while countries also that depend mostly on crude oil are encouraged to diversify their economy in other to survive and be sustained during financial and health crisis.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Financial Constraints; Agency Cost; Equity Concentration; Holding Heterogeneity; Real Estate Industry
Online: 19 October 2020 (14:32:53 CEST)
Real estate industry is related to the national economy and people's livelihood，characterized by a high degree of financial intensity. The enterprises in this industry need certain financial ability and large shareholder controlling ability to support their survival. However，due to the multiple adverse impacts of current state policies，banks and private capital，the credit crunch，the sudden decrease in withdrawn funds and the limitation of internal financing，the problem of capital restraint of real estate enterprises has become more and more serious. From the perspective of corporate governance，this paper studies the interaction among financial constraints，ownership concentration and corporate performance under different shareholding states by analyzing the quantitative characteristics of equity structure，and looks for the appropriate range of the largest shareholder holding ratio，which has considered the financial performance and risk. It is found that raising the ownership concentration can effectively ease the financing constraints and improve the performance of enterprises，both of which are significant under the state of high ownership concentration， while the financial constraints play a significant intermediary effect under the State of absolute holding， while in the decentralized state of ownership，there is a significant regulatory effect，and the interaction of the three will be different due to the size of the enterprise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0017.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: financial performance; flexible employment; labour productivity; teleworking; workplace employment relations survey
Online: 4 January 2017 (10:00:05 CET)
There is an increasing concern on the quality of jobs and productivity witnessed in the flexible employment arrangements. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between various employment arrangements and the workplace performance. Home-based working-teleworking, flexible timing and compressed hours are the main employment types examined using the Workplace Employee Relations Survey (WERS) in years 2004 and 2011. The workplace performance is measured by two outcomes- the financial performance and labour productivity. First, the determinants of those flexible employment types are explored. Second, the ordinary least squares (OLS) method is followed. Third, an instrumental variable (IV) approach is applied to account for plausible endogeneity and to estimate the causal effects. The findings reveal a significant and positive relationship between these types of flexible employment arrangements and the workplace performance. Education, age, wage, quality of relations between managers-employees, years of experience, the area of the market the workplace is operated and the competition are significant factors and are positively associated with the propensity of the flexible employment arrangements implementation. This can have various profound policy implications for employees, employers and the society overall, including family-work balance, coping with family demands, improving the firm performance, reducing traffic congestion and stress among others. It is the first study that explores the relationship between flexible employment types and workplace performance using an IV approach. This allows us to estimate the causal effects of flexible employment types and the possible associated social implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0554.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Islamic Banks; Financial technology; Artificial Intelligence; Murabaha; Musharaka; Zakat; Qardh Al Hasan
Online: 6 December 2022 (06:43:09 CET)
Recent years have seen dramatic growth in the number of scholarly scientific works dedicated to the topic of Artificial Intelligence (AI), banking, and finance. With the development of scientometric tools, it is now possible to map, visualize, analyze, and assess scientific activities in many fields of engineering and social sciences including Islamic banking and finance. Based on data retrieved from the Scopus database and using a qualitative method, this study investigates, evaluates, and identifies significant development, trends, and players in the application of AI in Islamic banking and finance using the Visualization Of Similarities Method (VOS) between objects in VOSviewer. From 2006 to 2022, 387 documents were retrieved from the Scopus database; Results revealed that the top five most active countries in terms of publications are Malaysia (117 documents), Indonesia (89 documents), the United Kingdom (36 documents), the USA (24 documents), and Saudi Arabia and Bahrain (24 documents each). The International Islamic University Malaysia and Universitas Indonesia came out on top of active institutions while the top funding source came from the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. The comprehensive findings and analysis reported in this study serve as a roadmap for future academics to create theory and practice for applying AI in Islamic banking and finance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0329.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Financial Behavior; Investor Attitudes; Traders and Investors Behavior; Experience; Investment Decision
Online: 13 April 2021 (09:14:10 CEST)
Pakistan is under developing country and it has an unpredictable market nature of shareholder-investors observe the company’s performance. This research could help to companies in understanding financial behavior, attitude and investors’ satisfaction in stock trade. Financial behavior is comparatively new subject in Pakistan therefore; this study has examined the financial behavior and attitude of investors. The behavioral finance that has been attempted to understand the positive experiences influences investors’ financial behavior. This study has find out that investor satisfaction is strongest in influence of positive financial behavior of investor and trader in stock trading; positive experience and brokers suggestions are strengthens the investment decision of investors and increases behavior loyalty to prefer over competitor. The main purpose of research to determine the effect of financial behavior on investors’ attitude and behavioral loyalty and investors’ satisfaction to preference over competitor. The research framework links with experiences in stock trade for positive (negative) experiences, attitude and financial behavior is developed. The research framework is measured data from sample of Karachi and Karachi Stock Exchange; the data is analyzed in smart PLS based on PLS-SEM. This study focused on trading experience with company’s active investors and traders in banking industry in Pakistan. The future research could be research in other sectors with inter-related issue of investors and traders (brokers) in stock trade. This is the first study in this research area; this study will be determine the experiences with positive (negative) financial behavior, attitude, satisfaction and behavioral loyalty of investors and traders in stock trade. Therefore, adding in this area of study which will help understanding the investors and traders attitude, preference and financial behavior in financial market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0288.v1
Subject: Keywords: Export product diversification; Services export diversification; Financial Openness; Developed and Developing countries.
Online: 9 November 2020 (23:22:34 CET)
This paper investigates empirically the effect of export diversification (i.e., both export product diversification and services export diversification) on financial openness, using a sample of 119 countries (including both developed and developing countries) over the period 1985-2014. Based on the Blundell and Bond's two-step system Generalized Methods of Moments, the analysis has revealed that both export product diversification and services export diversification influence positively financial openness. However, this outcome hides differentiated effects across countries in the full sample. Specially, countries with a very high real per capita income experience a positive effect of export concentration on financial openness, while for countries with a relatively lower per capita income, it is rather export diversification that drives positively financial openness. Interestingly, the effect of export diversification on financial openness depends on the size of external shocks that affect domestic economies, as well as countries' economic growth performance. Overall, these findings add to the empirical literature on the effect of international trade on financial openness by showing that both export product diversification and services export diversification matter for financial openness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: environmental behavior; financial industry; employee survey; behavioral acceptance; intention-behavior-gap
Online: 19 May 2022 (11:39:40 CEST)
The financial sector, too, is developing innovative services and products that have the potential to make a more positive impact on global environmental goals. However, research sheds little light on environmental attitudes and behavioral patterns of employees in this sector. There are multiple factors promoting or inhibiting environmental behavior. Those factors may be rooted in individual or subjective norms, but also social influence and to some extent financial incentives and benefits. A survey concerning the intention to improve and actually show ‘green behavior’ was developed based on widely used acceptance models which differentiate between desirable behavior and the intention to show such behavior. Employees are predominately responsive towards environmental behavior: 20% are convinced of the need to act in a “green” and sustainable manner, only 5% are hard to win over or are not accessible at all. Financial loss or benefits combined with social motives contribute to sustainable living whereas financial benefits alone actually hinder such behavior. The study underlines the existence of a intention-behavior gap: The intention to behave sustainably is built somewhat separately from various influences. There are moderating factors like sex, age and family status that influence the decisions. This then leads to a gap between intention and actual behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0303.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: transparency; accounting; internal control system; financial management; disbursement; a student organization
Online: 13 December 2020 (21:36:22 CET)
: A strong financialtransaction is an important factor in organizational triumph and sustainability, and it is elucidated in the revised student handbook of the University that can be found on page 96 rules 1 to 5. This study assessed the registered students organizations' profile in terms of its type, registration, years of establishment, functions, and designations of student leaders and advisers. The financial practices or internal control system manages their organizational finances and the problems encountered by the student organizations and eventually proposed a manual of operation for students and youth organization's internal control system. This research used the descriptive design with the aid of questionnaire; data gathering through quota sampling from 57 student leaders and advisers of different student organizations of NEUST. Findings showed that most organizations had their constitution and by-laws but kept only as files and renewal requirements. Some provisions were not known to the officers, mostly were registered more than five years in operation; however, in terms of functions of officers and advisers, the results showed that some functions were not done by the officers who supposed to do it like the auditors who serve as treasurers also, the PRO as the record keeper and the presidents who handled finances and collections and as well as disbursements of funds. Generally, the organizations' financial activities were deemed to be "good", especially budgeting and cash receipt, due to the implementation of "no collection and no tuition fee policy". The researchers concluded that the absence of the proper internal control systems and manual of operation and lack of proper transfer of financial records from the previous sets of officers were the serious problems that should be addressed. Moreover, the student organizations' internal control system could still be improved if there is proper training and supervision in accounting operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0047.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: electricity markets; financial intermediation; money; institutions; business models
Online: 2 March 2022 (12:18:31 CET)
Responding to the influences of climate change, on the one hand, and selected benefits of digital technology, on the other hand, an energy transition of global scale appears to be underway. Many observers project that a significant element of the energy transition will be a growing dependence on electricity, a dependence possibly doubling by 2050. Such a transformation, however, would likely require re-configuring the architecture of complex, centralized electricity grids, an artifact of a context of more than a century ago. In concert with the energy transition, we argue to modify the objective of the electricity grid to enable efficient, pervasive optimization in local service areas that provides incentives for users to be efficient in their energy use. At the core of our argument is the presentation of economic incentives denominated in an electricity-backed commodity currency such that incumbent electricity generators could augment their economic purpose of electricity production and electricity distribution to include financial intermediation. A direct consequence of this institutional transformation is the opportunity for all users to generate wealth. There are others who have been inspired to conjure ways that energy could be a candidate currency. Our argument is distinctive, though, in exploiting how an institution (the power grid system) could be repositioned and how all agents in the system could benefit by the institutionalization of electricity as money.
Online: 19 April 2021 (09:09:32 CEST)
Hybrid Classical-Quantum computing has already arrived at several commercial quantum computers, offered to researchers and businesses. Here, applications are made to a model of financial options, Statistical Mechanics of Financial Markets (SMFM). These applications were published in many papers since the 1980's. This project only uses Classical (super-)computers to include quantum features of these models. Since 1989, an optimization code, Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA), has been to fit parameters in such models. Since 2015, a path-integral algorithm, PATHINT, used previously to accurately describe several systems in several disciplines, has been generalized from 1 dimension to N dimensions, and from classical to quantum systems, qPATHINT. Published papers have described the use of qPATHINT to neocortical interactions and financial options. The classical space by SMFM applies nonlinear nonequilibrium multivariate statistical mechanics to fit parameters in conditional short-time probability distributions, while the quantum space described by qPATHINT deals specifically with quantum systems, e.g., quantum money. This project thereby demonstrates how some hybrid classical-quantum systems may be calculated quite well using only classical (super-)computers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0682.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Business fluctuations; financial stability; output gap; weighted maturity
Online: 28 July 2020 (12:34:23 CEST)
Many countries have been facing the problem of bank insolvency across the globe. Asset deterioration is one of the main reasons for insolvency of banks. The objective of the paper is to ascertain the determinants of nonperforming loans (NPLs) in the banking sector of Pakistan for the period 2006-16. Other than the bank specific and macro variables proposed by the literature, the roles of weighted maturity and output gap are for the first time examined. We find significant impact of output gap on NPLs however weighted maturity has insignificant role in shaping the future NPLs. Bank specific drivers of NPLs include bank size and capital adequacy ratio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0201.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: corporate life-cycle; bankruptcy risk; financial sustainability; Pakistan
Online: 21 January 2019 (09:10:39 CET)
In this paper we analyze the relationship between bankruptcy risk and the corporate life cycle in Pakistan from 2005 to 2014. For this purpose, we run a Hierarchical Linear Mixed Model (HLM) for a sample of 301 non-financial listed firms in 12 different sectors. The empirical outcomes reveal that firms during introduction, growth and, decline stages (mature stage) of life-cycle experience higher (lower) bankruptcy risk. Moreover, in juxtaposition with growth stage, bankruptcy risk is higher at the introduction stage of life-cycle. These findings suggest that financial managers should be cautious about the financial fragility of the firm at each stage of corporate life-cycle. The results also entail that Pakistani firms do not follow a sequential pattern in their life-cycle rather they have the tendency to revert to a previous stage or jump to the next stage of life-cycle. This is the first study that empirically examines the association between firm life-cycle stage and corresponding bankruptcy risk and asserts that managers must incorporate the life-cycle effects into their financial planning and decision making for sustainable working of an enterprise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0381.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: financial time series; autocorrelation; models; GARCH; RMSE; MAE
Online: 16 November 2018 (07:11:22 CET)
This study compared the performance of five Family Generalized Auto-Regressive Conditional Heteroscedastic (fGARCH) models (sGARCH, gjrGARCH, iGARCH, TGARCH and NGARCH) in the presence of high positive autocorrelation. To achieve this, financial time series was simulated with autocorrelated coefficients as ρ = (0.8, 0.85, 0.9, 0.95, 0.99), at different time series lengths (as 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250, 1500) and each trial was repeated 1000 times carried out in R environment using rugarch package. And the performance of the preferred model was judged using Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE). Results from the simulation revealed that these GARCH models performances varies with the different autocorrelation values and at different time series lengths. But in the overall, NGARCH model dominates with 62.5% and 59.3% using RMSE and MAE respectively. We therefore recommended that investors, financial analysts and researchers interested in stock prices and asset return should adapt NGARCH model when there is high positive autocorrelation in the financial time series data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: emerging stock market, financial liberalization, Crisis, Cmax method
Online: 18 July 2016 (10:52:35 CEST)
In this paper, we focus on the impact of financial liberalization on stability of emerging stock market. We identify crises in a group of Latin American (Argentina, Brazil and Chile) and Asian countries (Philippines, Korea, Taiwan and Thailand) during 1975–2005. This paper aims to apply the methodology of CMAX method. Our results indicate that liberalization triggers more unstable stock market in the short run and generate several crises. Still, liberalization seems to generate more stable financial markets in the long run. Financial liberalization does not increase the frequency of crises in emerging countries and at long-term, crises are less several.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0252.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: time series; deep learning; convolutional neural network; recurrence plot; financial market prediction
Online: 19 December 2019 (07:39:54 CET)
An application of deep convolutional neural network and recurrence plot for financial market movement prediction is presented. Though it is challenging and subjective to interpret its information, the pattern formed by a recurrence plot provide a useful insight into the dy- namical system. We used a recurrence plot of seven financial time series to train a deep neural network for financial market movement predic- tion. Our approach is tested on our dataset and achieved an average of 53.25% classification accuracy. The result suggests that a well trained deep convolutional neural network can learn a recurrence plot and pre- dict a financial market direction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0194.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Economic growth, Principal Component analysis, Cointegration, Stock market development, financial market development
Online: 12 June 2018 (14:05:09 CEST)
Does the choice of proxy for stock market development matter? This paper suggests that the growth effect of stock market development is sensitive to the choice of proxy and using alternative financial development indicators have practically no influence on the results. We found that using either the stock market capitalization to GDP ratio or the stock market returns; have a positive and significant effect on growth. However, we cannot make same conclusion when one uses either the ratio of total value of trades on the major stock exchanges to GDP or stock market turnover ratio to proxy for stock market development as the coefficient on these variables were found to be statistically insignificant. The indexes extracted from principal component analysis confirm the sensitivity of the effect to the choice of proxy. This finding suggest that stock market development is a conceptual terms, thus, representing it with single indicators make it impossible to identify which stock market development indicators have a significant positive growth effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0215.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: COVID-19; green finance; green banking; green economic recovery; financial institutions; Bangladesh.
Online: 16 December 2021 (12:36:55 CET)
The main purpose of study is to identify the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the green financing of banks and non-bank financial institutions (NBFIs) in an emerging economy such as Bangladesh. Also, this study shows the green banking activities of the banks and NBFIs during the pandemic. To analyze the impact of the pandemic on green financing, secondary data were obtained from the quarterly and annual reports of Bangladesh Bank (BB) on green financing as well as the annual reports and websites of 61 banks and 34 NBFIs in Bangladesh for the period 2021–2019. Subsequently, the study deployed dependent t-test statistics, growth rate (year-on-year), descriptive statistics, relative percentage changes, and varying tables and graphs to analyze the obtained secondary data. The empirical findings revealed that during the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an increase in green finance for all banks and NBFIs compared to before the epidemic, indicating that the pandemic had no negative impact on the total green finance growth of all banks and NBFIs. On the other hand, compared to the pre-pandemic period, bank-wise growth in green financing was higher for state-owned commercial banks (SOCBs), specialized banks (SDBs), and private commercial banks (PCBs) but lower for foreign-owned commercial banks (FCBs) during the COVID-19 epidemic. This suggests that the pandemic does not affect the expansion of green finance by SOCBs, SDBs and PCBs but significantly impacted the growth of green financing by FCBs. Furthermore, the research findings showed that the total outstanding and classified loans within the green finance investment decrease for both banks and NBFIs during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results indicated that the Bangladeshi banks’ level of automation towards green banking were satisfactory during the pandemic. Therefore, major policy implications for the green economic recovery by the government, BB, and managers of the banks and financial institutions in emerging economies like Bangladesh were discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0444.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Stock Market; Financial Markets; News Model; KSE 100 Index; ARCH/GARCH; OLS
Online: 16 June 2021 (12:40:07 CEST)
This study will investigate different signals and events/news that determined the stock market's movements. As we know, many factors affect the stock market on a daily, weekly, and monthly basis, e.g., rate of interest, exchange rate, and oil prices, etc. Our research will investigate the impact of daily events/news in the KSE-100 index due to several policies announced and events/news in the country because the daily movements in the stock market can be determined only by different signals and events/news. Time series data is collected daily for particular reasons from "The News" (Daily Newspaper, Sunday edition) from 2010 to 2019. The results of this study show that political and global news affects the stock market index ferociously. For investors, the investment in blue chips is not less than a safe haven. When day-to-day transactions are concerned, there is always a higher panic attack than the herd behaviour in the stock exchange. Investors tend to make prompt responses to negative rather than positive news, which makes them risk averters. Our finding also confirmed that the ARCH/GARCH model is better than the simple OLS method concerning stock market upheaval.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0424.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: financial resources ability; R & D; innovation orientation; competitive position; new product performance (NPP)
Online: 21 January 2021 (14:50:19 CET)
This study aims to test empirical research on the effect of financial resource ability, research and development (R & D) on innovation orientation and competitive position. This study also examines the critical mediating role of innovation orientation and competitive position to achieving new products performance (NPP). This study used a quantitative research approach by comparing data from service industry and manufacture industry in Indonesia included in Indonesian-State-Ownership companies. The analysis unit in this study used middle managers and top managers who responsible for managing divisions within the Indonesian-State-Ownership companies. The number of respondents studied in this study was 287 sample. The purposive sampling technique was used in taking the research sample. This study indicated that financial resources abilities, research and development (R & D) abilities positive effect on innovation orientation and competitive position. This study also testing the importance role of innovation orientation and a competitive position to enhancing new products performance (NPP).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0452.v1
Subject: Keywords: Financial Liberalization, Agriculture Output, Lending Rate, Inflation Rate, Exchange Rate, Commercial bank credit
Online: 23 August 2021 (14:31:05 CEST)
This study examined the relationship between financial sector liberalization and agricultural sector output in Nigeria using annual data spanning the period 1986-2020. Specifically, the objectives of the study are to examine the relationship between lending rate, exchange rate, commercial bank credit to agriculture, inflation rate and agricultural sector output in Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was employed and the annual time series data were collated from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Statistical Bulletin. The econometrics methods of unit root, co-integration and error correction mechanism were used for the analyses. The outcome of the ADF unit root test show that the variables were stationary. Also the co-integration result showed that there exist co-integration amongst the variables in the model. The results from Error Correction Model indicates that lending rate and inflation rate have a negative relationship on agricultural sector output while exchange rate and commercial bank credit to agriculture have positive relationship on agricultural sector output. Based on these results, this study recommends that government and policy makers in Nigerian should initial policies that will boost investments in the agricultural sector through direct provision of credits to agriculturist and banks should also lend at a very low and subsidized interest rate to enable farmers’ access agricultural loans that will boost agricultural productivity in the economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0083.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Ratios; Financial Crisis; Covid-19; Big Data; Accounting Data
Online: 3 August 2022 (10:42:06 CEST)
The effects of the 2008 financial crisis undoubtedly caused problems not only to the banking sector but also to the real economy of the developed and the developing countries in almost all around the globe. Besides, as is widely known, every banking crisis entails the corresponding cost to the economy of each country affected by it, which results from the shakeout and the restructuring of its financial system. The purpose of this research is to investigate the consequences of the financial crisis and the COVID-19 health crisis and how these affected the course of the four systemic banks (Eurobank, Alpha Bank, National Bank, Piraeus Bank) through the analysis of ratios for the period of 2015-2020.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0144.v1
Subject: Keywords: Poverty; Financial development; Education; Trade openness; Export product concentration
Online: 3 November 2020 (09:57:05 CET)
Numerous studies in the literature have investigated the effect of financial development on poverty, and tend to report a poverty reduction effect of financial development. The present paper considers the issue in the other way around, by examining the effect of poverty on financial development. In particular, it has investigated the financial development effect of poverty that passes through three main channels, including the education level, the level of trade openness, and the degree of export product concentration. The analysis is carried out using a sample of 97 developing countries over the period 1980-2017, and the two-step Generalized Methods of Moments (GMM). Results have shown that poverty genuinely affects financial development through these three channels. Specially, lower poverty rates induce greater financial development in countries that experience higher education levels. Similarly, a rise in poverty rates in the context of restrictive trade policies (that eventually result in lower levels of trade openness) undermines the development of the financial sector. Finally, higher poverty levels adversely affect financial development in countries that experience an increase in the level of export product concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0051.v1
Online: 3 October 2018 (13:25:52 CEST)
The paper investigated the components of savings accumulation in Nigeria over the period 1980 to 2017. Secondary data were collated from World Development Index (WDI). In evaluating the objectives, the study employed the Auto Regressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) estimation methods. The key findings of the study show that the components of savings identified in literature understudied in the paper specifically, GDP per capita, foreign direct investment, financial deepening, interest rate, inflation rate exchange rate significantly influence savings accumulation in Nigeria either in short run, long run or both. Financial deepening was found statistically significant but influences savings negatively. Inflation rate was statistically insignificant although negative. The result from the VECM causality test revealed that short run and long run causal relationship exist between savings and the afore mentioned components in Nigeria. Hence, the study recommends careful manipulation of the identified savings components in a manner that they will not yield a counterproductive result in the economy rather contribute to the growth of savings and ultimately, the growth of Nigeria economy as a whole. It further recommends that the Nigerian government through its financial institutions encourage savings from both small and big savers which to large extent will assuage the perceived undeserved influence of financial deepening on savings accumulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0395.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: football; audit fees; audit shopping; financial fair play; UEFA
Online: 20 September 2018 (04:26:41 CEST)
This paper analyzes if the Financial Fair Play (FFP) regulations set by UEFA have influenced the auditing fees charged to the football clubs. In addition, it explores the determinants of audit fees. We use a two-sample t test with equal variances to determine whether differences are present. After this, we carry out a panel data regression with clubs fix effect to estimate the determinants of audit fees in football clubs. Our findings reveal an increase of audit fees after the implementation of FFP regulations. On top of that, audit fees are explained by the presence of foreign investors if the audit firm is one of the Big4 and if the auditor is a woman. The regulation change has an impact on the audit fees charged by auditors for their services. However, this increase can be compensated across future years given the improving financial situation of clubs; therefore, the auditors’ risk diminishes and subsequent audit fees may be reduced. UEFA should monitor audit fees as well as the quality of the audit reports, which have become crucial to obtaining the license to participate in UEFA competitions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0109.v1
Online: 6 September 2018 (04:53:27 CEST)
Over the past decade, the credit quality of loan portfolios across most countries in the world remained relatively stable until the financial crises hit the global economy in 2007–2008. In this paper I discuss, the relationship between non-performing loans and economic landscape. Since 2008, nonperforming loans have been an increasingly hot topic in the international scene, due to their important and rising volume and their impact on the economy as a whole, on the banking system and on its credit supply. Since then, average bank asset quality deteriorated sharply due to the global economic recession. Yet the deterioration of loan performance was very uneven across countries. I am interested in explaining these differences in bank asset quality across countries and over time. In this paper, I therefore study the empirical determinants of non-performing loan (NPL) ratios using a data set for EU countries covering the past decade. The paper assumes that the spatial organization of banking systems and the geographical distribution of comercial banks branches, ATMs and GDP growth are major factors influencing the effectiveness in credit system. The aim of this paper is to construct a continuous and quantifiable model, which will demonstrate a role of economic condition, technology, competition, policy, business climate in Financial Stability. Main hypotheses suggests, that GDP growth, interest rate, new business, FDI, ATMs and geographical distribution of branches have an influences on NPL (non-performing loans).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0183.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: financial inclusion; unit banking; banking in Bangladesh; banking policy
Online: 21 March 2018 (03:18:47 CET)
The financial inclusion, including all the people with the finance, is very concerned issue all over the world where Bangladesh is also trying to include all the people with the finance. Bangladesh lies in such a group of countries where only 17.6% - 38.6% adults are presently under the reach of the formal financial services. This is because the present banks and other formal financial modes consider the outcome and profitability in a way that, the rural and non-developed areas are always out of the consideration. But these areas consist of the most population of Bangladesh. And only then financial inclusiveness will be successful in Bangladesh when people from these regions will be under formal financial consideration. The paper seeks for a solution to the issue and presents the Unit Banking System as a probable way towards financial inclusion. For implementing the system in Bangladesh, the system needs a slight modification to cope in Bangladeshi economic condition and address the specific needs without hampering the surroundings. Considering all these, the paper shows the status, problems and key points of financial scenario of inclusion in Bangladesh and shows policy for a Modified Unit banking System.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0182.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: financial ruin, withdrawal strategy, asset allocation, rebalancing method, portfolio
Online: 19 January 2018 (09:42:46 CET)
An optimal withdrawal strategy beginning at age 65 provides a lifetime income from a portfolio, adjusted annually for inflation, while reducing the probability of living in financial ruin to an ac-ceptable level. This paper analyzes the probability of living in financial ruin, potentially for multiple years, rather than just the event of ruin. A stochastic Excel model was developed to simulate the effect of varying investment returns on a portfolio with two asset classes; large company stocks and long-term government bonds. A stochastic model is also applied to retiree mortality. The following variables were analyzed to determine their relative impact on withdrawal strategies: • Withdrawing a constant percentage of the portfolio, • Gender, • Initial asset allocation, • Asset allocation rebalancing methods, and • Low investment return environments. For both genders and most withdrawal rates, an approximately equal initial asset allocation of stocks and bonds, combined with a level rebalancing function, provided the lowest probability of living in financial ruin. Because each investment return followed its own probability distribution function, some retirees experienced financial ruin even in the most conservative simulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0207.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Green Initiatives; Economic Growth; Social Development; Green Economic Development Plan; Financial Performance
Online: 5 November 2020 (10:25:02 CET)
This study was conducted to propose the Green Economic Development Plan for Manufacturing S.M.E.s based on financial performance and operations thru Green Initiatives. The descriptive survey method used to gather data to determine the green initiative's implementation of small and medium (S.M.E.s) manufacturing enterprises. Green initiatives use as a basis for crafting a green economic development plan. Document analysis was also employed to obtain data from any available printed materials and records provided by the respondents. Such methods of gathering information used to validate data gathered from local and foreign-related literature. The observation also employed to survey the assets owned and validate any green initiatives practiced, including their implementation. The study's findings show that among the green initiatives implemented by SMMEs, which resulted in the reduction of total costs and expenses, were the proper disposal and segregation of waste materials, water management by recycling wastewater and using water-efficient equipment, natural resources, and raw materials management. SMMEs should encourage active participation and support of suppliers and customers in achieving G.E.D.'s objectives by developing incentive schemes.Furthermore, SMMEs should continue to benchmark with G.E.D. Practitioners are operating locally and abroad to adopt best greening strategies and regularly network with concerned government agencies for continuous updating on G.E.D. Initiatives that may benefit the firm. Further research may be conducted on green initiatives implemented by small and medium enterprises in other industry sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: unilateral/bilateral collateralization; partial/full/over collateralization; asset pricing; plumbing of the financial system; swap premium spread; OTC/cleared/listed financial markets
Online: 20 September 2019 (04:06:14 CEST)
This paper attempts to assess the economic significance and implications of collateralization in different financial markets, which is essentially a matter of theoretical justification and empirical verification. We present a comprehensive theoretical framework that allows for collateralization adhering to bankruptcy laws. As such, the model can back out differences in asset prices due to collateralized counterparty risk. This framework is very useful for pricing outstanding defaultable financial contracts. By using a unique data set, we are able to achieve a clean decomposition of prices into their credit risk factors. We find empirical evidence that counterparty risk is not overly important in credit-related spreads. Only the joint effects of collateralization and credit risk can sufficiently explain unsecured credit costs. This finding suggests that failure to properly account for collateralization may result in significant mispricing of financial contracts. We also analyze the difference between cleared and OTC markets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0418.v1
Subject: Keywords: economic indicators; financial markets; business rights; law; responsibilities of business; legal stability; information security; factors
Online: 17 December 2020 (08:00:57 CET)
Global economy, financial markets and technology are on the verge of moving to a new stage of development – information society. Three major world countries the US, Russia and China will play a leading role in this process. However, the specific development path will depend on many factors, including the stability of legal systems, security of computer and financial technologies, the effectiveness of legislation. The focus of this article is to assess the current condition of the economy the major countries, to identify trends and methods of stabilization of legal systems on the basis of balance of rights and obligations of the business, suggest some methods of objective evaluation of the impact factors of the total taxes, fixed costs and the legal system dynamics on financial indicators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0104.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: rainwater harvesting; rainwater quality; precast concrete; financial analysis; computer simulation
Online: 5 January 2021 (17:14:18 CET)
The objective of this paper is to assess the potential for potable water savings due to rainwater use in a precast concrete factory in southern Brazil. The economic feasibility and the rainwater quality were also assessed. The current water consumption, future water demand and rainwater demand in the factory were estimated. The future demand considered was two times higher than the current water consumption since there are plans to increase the production. Three scenarios were then simulated using the computer programme Netuno. The ideal rainwater tank capacity, the potential for potable water savings and the economic feasibility analysis for each scenario were estimated. Samples of rainwater were collected in the factory and tested for quality for manufacturing precast concrete. For a rainwater tank capacity equal to 25,000 litres, the potential for potable water savings for the first scenario was 55.4%, but the first scenario was considered economically unfeasible. For the same tank capacity, the second and third scenarios presented viable results regarding potable water savings and payback. As for the rainwater quality, it was proven to be adequate for manufacturing precast concrete. The main conclusion is that rainwater can be used to manufacture precast concrete in the factory studied herein.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0368.v1
Subject: Keywords: Fraud Detection; Recurrent Neural Network; PaySim; Financial Transactions; Deep Learning
Online: 30 June 2020 (11:34:34 CEST)
Online transactions are becoming more popular in present situation where the globe is facing an unknown disease COVID-19. Now authorities of Countries requested peoples to use cashless transaction as far as possible. Practically it is not always possible to use it in all transactions. Since number of such cashless transactions have been increasing during lockdown period due to COVID-19, fraudulent transactions are also increasing in a rapid way. Fraud can be analysed by viewing a series of customer transactions data that was done in his/her previous transactions. Normally banks or other transaction authorities warned their customers about the transaction If any deviation is noticed by them from available patterns. These authorities think that it is possibly of fraudulent transaction. For detection of fraud during COVID-19, banks and credit card companies are applying various methods such as data mining , decision tree, rule based mining, neural network, fuzzy clustering approach and machine learning methods. These approaches is try to find out normal usage pattern of customers based on their past activities. The objective of this paper is to find out such fraud transactions during such unmanageable situation.Digital payment schemes are often threatened by fraudulent activities. Detecting fraud transaction in during money transfer may save customers from financial loss. Mobile based money transactions are focused in this paper for fraud detection. A Deep Learning (DL) framework is suggested in this paper that monitors and detects fraudulent activities. Implementing and applying recurrent neural network on PaySim generated synthetic financial dataset, deceptive transactions are identified. The proposed method is capable to detect deceptive transactions with an accuracy of 99.87%, F1-Score of 0.99 and MSE of 0.01.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0427.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: City Marathons; financial stability; corporate sponsors; the Bank of America Chicago Marathon; Marathon Valencia Trinidad Alfonso
Online: 28 July 2022 (03:14:14 CEST)
City marathons have evolved and grown exponentially in type and popularity, managerial complexity, for their financial impact on their host cities and for the attraction of corporate sponsors. Much research has focused on evaluating the broad economic, urban, tourist, social, sporting, and symbolic effects of city marathons on host cities. Research have not examined the importance of the contribution of sponsors to the financial stability and its implications to the overall management and further success of marathons. This article focuses on the cases of the Bank of America Chicago Marathon and the Marathon Valencia Trinidad Alfonso and examines how effective has been the contribution of their sponsors to the financial stability and its implications for the management and success of both races over time. Results show that the international success of both events –in terms of sporting participation, performance and economic impact– is closely related to the design and management of the event; the synergies between the political, business and sporting spheres that the organizational leadership of the event has made it possible to implement and, as a consequence, the support received from sponsors, which has not only provided both races with financial stability, but also has contributed to improve the management of the race.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0541.v1
Subject: Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Accounting systems integration; Accounting systems accuracy; Financial statements; Aqaba Special Economic Zone
Online: 24 May 2021 (08:47:20 CEST)
The study aims to examine the effects of artificial intelligence (AI) on the consistency and analysis of financial statements in hotels in ASEZA, Jordan. This research is an exploratory, empirical study, which uses the methodology of data collection and interpretation to draw conclusions. The researchers used the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, T-test and ANOVA test to calculate the degree of significance of the study questions. The findings of a basic linear regression study of the impact of AI implemented in Jordanian hotels on the integration of accounting information systems and the association between AI and the integration of accounting information systems (R = 59.6%) also indicate that the fixed limit value amounted to (2.060) and the value of (Beta) for T-test
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0472.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: fundamental analysis supported by machine learning; financial texts sentiment analysis; natural language processing in finance
Online: 28 September 2021 (12:38:54 CEST)
The deep neural network - BERT model (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers) and the stocks cumulative abnormal return is used in this article to analyze the sentiment of financial texts. The proposed approach, unlike those used so far, does not require the creation of dictionaries, takes into account the broad context of words and their meaning in financial texts, eliminates the problem of ambiguity of words in various contexts, does not require manual labelling of data and is free from the subjective assessment of the researcher. The sentiment of financial texts in the meaning presented in this paper is directly related to the market reaction to the information contained in these texts. For texts belonging to one of the two classes (positive or negative) with the highest probability the BERT model gives the results of predictions with a precision level of 62.38% for the positive class and 55% for the negative class. The results at this level can be used in event study, market efficiency research, investment strategy development or support of investment analysts using fundamental analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0328.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Financial literacy education; to conscience; curriculum; alchemy; making kinds of people
Online: 21 July 2022 (11:00:16 CEST)
This article mainly proposes the point of view that financial literacy curriculum aims to make kinds of people, to make people with financial creativity of resource integration thinking and continuous ‘to conscience’ of morality, which is cultivate a way of thinking that can maximize benefits through the use of resource integration and constantly ‘to conscience’ to achieve goals for participants in financial structures with balanced interests. In this sense, this article argues that financial literacy is to make kinds of people with a financial mindset and constantly strengthen ‘to conscience’ through uniting of knowledge and action to achieve human well-being and benign operation of society. In this sense, this article attempts to determine what is really taught in financial literacy education in terms of curriculum theory. That is to improve creativity by cultivating financial thinking with constant ‘to conscience’. The views of this paper provide a new way of thinking about financial literacy education assessment. This changes the evaluation criteria of financial literacy education from the result-oriented of wealth growth to the process-oriented of financial creativity growth, trying to move the criticism of financial literacy education curriculum and evaluation from controversy to unity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0340.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Digital Transformation; SME; Digital Orientation; Digital Capability; Financial Performance; Mediation Analysis
Online: 24 January 2022 (10:25:48 CET)
The COVID-19 crisis has emphasized the importance of digital transformation of SMEs and has served as an accelerator. Digital transformation empowers SMEs to rethink the way they make decisions and apply technology in meaningful and sustainable ways. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of digital transformation, fostered by COVID-19, and its potential contribution to the sustainability of SMEs. This paper examines a new conceptual framework designed on resource-based theory perspectives by using a survey data of 246 SMEs in Latvia and employing mediation analysis. The main findings of the study are that digital orientation and digital capability have direct positive effects on digital transformation; higher levels of digital orientation and capability, mediated by digital transformation, lead to higher revenue; as well as a more sophisticated business model in the case of digital orientation. Even if we cannot confirm that higher digital capability, mediated by digital transformation, leads to a more sophisticated business model, we found statistically significant direct effects from digital capability to digital transformation and from digital transformation to business model. These findings can be useful for policymakers, managers and practitioners to clarify how digital orientation, digital capability intermediated through digital transformation affect sustainability of SMEs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0383.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: AHP; COPRAS; corporate finance; environmental performance; financial planning; green bonds; MCDA
Online: 16 July 2021 (15:02:53 CEST)
There is an increasing pressure by community and customers forcing companies to insert environmental concerns in their practices. To help companies initiatives, the green bonds market was incepted. Our research question is how to select bonds in a growing billion-dollar market. This paper presents a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) model to enable investors identify opportunities based not only in opinions, but grounded on objective facts. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Complex Proportional Assessment (COPRAS) are two MCDA methods applied in this paper. Top-fifteen green bonds ranked by specialized media were assessed with the proposed MCDA model. Criteria included the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) proposed by Yale University, and common financial indicators as assets, risks (β), and dividends. The new AHP–COPRAS rank is compared with another published by specialized media.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0205.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: integrity of financial reporting information; good corporate governance; firm size; leverage
Online: 10 October 2018 (06:05:12 CEST)
This research aims to determine the influence of the independent commissioners, audit committee, institutional ownership, firm size and leverage against the integrity of the financial reporting information. This research is quantitative research with the causal approach. This study uses secondary data and panel data regression analysis method. The research results prove that audit committee, institutional ownership and leverage effect on the integrity of the financial reporting information. But it does not prove that the independent commissioner and firm size effect on the integrity of the financial reporting information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0035.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: exchange traded funds; financial and energy sectors; co-volatility spillovers; spot and futures prices; generated regressors; Diagonal BEKK
Online: 11 September 2017 (04:35:24 CEST)
It is well known that that there is an intrinsic link between the financial and energy sectors, which can be analyzed through their spillover effects, which are measures of how the shocks to returns in different assets affect each other’s subsequent volatility in both spot and futures markets. Financial derivatives, which are not only highly representative of the underlying indices, but can also be traded on both the spot and futures markets, include Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs), a tradable spot index whose aim is to replicate the return of an underlying benchmark index. When ETF futures are not available to examine spillover effects, “generated regressors” are useful for constructing both Financial ETF futures and Energy ETF futures. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the co-volatility spillovers within and across the US energy and financial sectors in both spot and futures markets, by using “generated regressors” and a multivariate conditional volatility model, namely Diagonal BEKK. The daily data used are from 1998/12/23 to 2016/4/22. The data set is analyzed in its entirety, and are also subdivided into three distinct subsets. The empirical results show there is a significant relationship between the Financial ETF and Energy ETF in the spot and futures markets. Therefore, financial and energy ETFs are suitable for constructing a financial portfolio from an optimal risk management perspective, and also for dynamic hedging purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0117.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Mittag-Leffler stability; Caputo fractional-order derivative; non-Lipschitz continuity; hyper-chaotic financial system; Mittag-Leffler function
Online: 8 July 2022 (10:31:03 CEST)
This paper reports a new global Mittag-Leffler synchronization criterion with regard to fractional-order hyper-chaotic financial systems by designing the suitable impulsive control and the state feedback controller. The significance of this impulsive synchronization lies in the fact that the backward economic system can synchronize asymptotically with the advanced economic system under the effective impulse macroeconomic management means. Matlab LMI-toolbox is utilized to deduce the feasible solution in numerical example, which shows the effectiveness of the proposed methods. It is worth mentioning that the LMI-based criterion usually requires the activation function of the system to be Lipschitz, but the activation function in this paper is fixed and truly nonlinear, which cannot be assumed to be Lipschitz continuous. This is another mathematical difficulty overcome in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0528.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Conformable calculus; Fractional-order financial system; ESDDFD and NSFD methods; Hyperchaotic attractor; Market confidence; Ethics risk
Online: 6 December 2021 (12:48:05 CET)
Four discrete models using the exact spectral derivative discretization finite difference (ESDDFD) method are proposed for a chaotic five-dimensional, conformable fractional derivative financial system incorporating ethics and market confidence. Since the system considered was recently studied using the conformable Euler finite difference (CEFD) method and found to be hyperchaotic, and the CEFD method was recently shown to be valid only at fractional index , the source of the hyperchaos is in question. Through numerical experiments, illustration is presented that the hyperchaos previously detected is in part an artifact of the CEFD method as it is absent from the ESDDFD models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0026.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Advanced Hepatocellular carcinoma; Immune checkpoint inhibitors; Low middle-income countries; Financial Toxicity
Online: 1 December 2022 (10:33:14 CET)
Advanced Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is no longer a terminal illness. This change was mainly attributed to the development of new treatments including tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) but the financial toxicity of treating advanced HCC is of a major concern specially in low middle-income countries (LMICs) where the patients are still battling for their most basic rights. Most of advanced HCC patients in LMICs have very limited accessibility to the new treatments including ICPIs. Searching for out of the box solutions to improve access to treatments -mainly ICPIs- is an utmost necessity for LMICs advanced HCC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0112.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: options pricing; financial derivatives; efficient market hypothesis; martingale; Feynman-Kac; Black-Scholes
Online: 7 September 2022 (12:18:35 CEST)
This research article provides criticism and arguments why the canonical framework for derivatives pricing is incomplete and why the delta-hedging approach is not appropriate. An argument is put forward, based on the efficient market hypothesis, why a proper risk-adjusted discount rate should enter into the Black-Scholes model instead of the risk-free rate. The resulting pricing equation for derivatives and in particular the formula for European call options is then shown to depend explicitly on the drift of the underlying asset, which is following a geometric Brownian motion. It is conjectured that with the generalized model, the predicted results by the model could be closer to real data. The adjusted pricing model could partly also explain the mystery of volatility smile. The present model also provides answers to many finance professionals and academics who have been intrigued by the risk-neutral features of the original Black-Scholes pricing framework. The model provides generally different fair values for financial derivatives compared to the Black-Scholes model. In particular, the present model predicts that the original Black-Scholes model tends to undervalue for example European call options.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0160.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: application of financial statement analysis; decision making; novice investor; Indonesian capital market
Online: 18 April 2022 (08:35:00 CEST)
Financial statement analysis is an analysis that uses analytical procedures to evaluate a company's financial health, risks, performance, and future growth potential. This article aims to find out the application of analysis of financial statements of PT. Astra Internasional, Tbk towards the decision-making of novice investors in the Indonesian capital market. This article is qualitative descriptive with literature studies. The results of this article can be concluded that the analysis of the financial statements of PT. Astra Internasional, Tbk can help novice investors in the Indonesian capital market in making investment decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0203.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: sustainability reporting; earnings management; European Directive 2014/95/EU; non-financial reporting; sustainable development goals (SDGs); empirical research
Online: 8 June 2021 (09:33:10 CEST)
In light of the worldwide spreading requirements related to the disclosure of non-financial information, which are aligning to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed by the United Nations (UN) in 2015, the study aims to analyse the influence of sustainability and other non-financial reporting on companies’ engagement in earnings management practices, through a pre-post adoption of European Directive 2014/95/EU comparative analysis for firms listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE) in the period 2015-2019. To conduct the investigation, the research involves the assessment and analysis of three earnings management metrics resulted by running multiple linear regression models on a sample of 31 companies listed on BSE. Research findings emphasise a decrease in the use of income smoothing practices by sampled companies in the post-adoption period 2017-2019, compared to the period preceding the implementation of the EU directive related to mandatory disclosure of non-financial information, 2015-2016. Thus, firms characterised by a higher transparency in terms of sustainability reporting are less inclined to engage in earnings management practices. This research complements the literature in the field of sustainability reporting and earnings management, providing empirical evidence on the significance and impact of publishing non-financial information.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: econophysics; financial complexity; collective intelligence; emergent property; stock correlation; detrended cross-correlation analysis
Online: 28 May 2021 (13:53:24 CEST)
Finding the key factor and possible "Newton's laws" in financial markets has remained the central issue in this area. However, with the development of information and communication technologies, financial models are becoming more and more realistic but complex which is contradictory to the objective law “Greatest truths are the simplest”. Therefore, this paper attempts to discover the most critical parameter and establishes an evolutionary model which is independent of micro features. In the model, information is the only key factor and stock price is the emergence of the collective behavior. The statistical properties of the model are significantly similar to the real market. It also explains the correlations of stocks within an industry, which provide a new idea for the study of key factors and core structures in the financial market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0084.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: price discovery; financial economics; clearing; credit default swaps; collateralization; OTC; risk premium; CCP.
Online: 2 March 2021 (12:05:53 CET)
This paper shows the influence of CCP’s collateralization on the pricing of the Credit Default Swaps (CDS). A narrowly variant in the way the CDS seller decides over the resources in the settlement comes with a substantial change on the elements that determine the price of the CDS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0109.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Information Technology, Risk Primary Market, Secondary Market Risk, Non-Financial Risks, Risk Management
Online: 11 January 2019 (10:45:25 CET)
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of information technology in management of risks in the capital market-listed company is in Tehran Stock Exchange. The purpose of the present study is an applied descriptive approach. The target population for the survey, companies that from 2009 to the first half of 2015 have been a member of the Tehran Stock Exchange, through Cochranʼs sample size of 140 companies, respectively. We used cluster sampling method. In order to collect data from two questionnaires: risk management questionnaire Foakeh (2013) has 38 items and a standard questionnaire Chanvyas (2006) has 40 items, the whole five-item Likert scale questionnaire is above has been used. Data gathered through the questionnaire, sign the application was 21spss. For inferential analysis of the variables and to analyze the data from different statistical tests and regression was used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The results showed that information technology on risk management and its dimensions (primary market risk, market risk and the risk of secondary non-financial) impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0401.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Islamic accounting; mudarabah investment deposit; financial reporting of Islamic banks; profit equalization reserve; risk management for Islamic banks
Online: 27 February 2020 (11:22:54 CET)
The aim of this cross-country research is to examine how the profit and loss sharing mudarabah investment deposits are classified and disclosed in the financial statement of Islamic banks. The cross-country study examined the financial statements of fifty-one fully-fledged Islamic banks. The results of the data analysis show that Islamic banks disclose the mudarabah investment account in different ways. The absence of standardized disclosure for mudarabah investment deposit confuses the stakeholders. This research suggests to the regulators to fully or partially adopt the AAOIFI standards specifically for Islamic financial institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0083.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: COVID-19 and Stock Market; Pakistan Stock Market and Pandemic; Financial Markets and Pandemics
Online: 5 July 2020 (15:23:36 CEST)
The objective of this study is to determine the impact of COVID-19 on the performance of Pakistani Stock Market. This study uses the data of COVID-19 related positive cases, fatalities, recovers and the closing prices of PSX 100 index of the first half of 2020. The findings of the study suggest that only COVID-19 recoveries are influencing the performance of the index and the daily positive cases and fatalities are insignificantly related to the performance. Further studies can be performed by incorporating other variables such as economic growth, interest rate and inflation rate along with the COVID-19 related variables at a cross-country level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0235.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: World economy restructuring; nature of global crises; risks of the financial markets; leadership problem
Online: 21 January 2020 (10:06:40 CET)
The World economy after global crisis of 2008–2009 entered a restructuring era. It defines relevance of researches of its directions and patterns. The principles of determinism and systemic analysis are methodological basis of article. In research were used the methods of processing Big Date, as of continuous changes and the symmetric analysis of macroeconomic indicators according to databases of the IMF, WB, BIS, the Central banks and treasuries. As a result of the research it is proved that depth and globalism of recessionary processes are caused by a combination of crisis of world financial system and civilization problems. Intrinsic signs of risks in the modern economy caused by the duality of the nature of global crises have been identified. There are analyzes: the deficit of resources of the international financial institutions, a negative role of a fixed rate of Yuan, a big share of derivatives and off-balance obligations of banks, use of SPV in structures of deals, growth of debt obligations, trade wars, slowdown in the growth of the Chinese economy, aggravation of contradictions between global and national finances. The thesis is reasonable that deglobalization and dedollarization deepened this conflict, started the rollback mechanism from achievements of globalization, led to tariff wars. By means of a systematization it is proved the key directions of the restructuring of global economy: legal basis, leadership and reserve currency. On the basis of SWOT-analysis of the USA and China it was concluded that the question of leadership of one country should be excluded, but slow transition to use SDR (with a basket from 15–20 currencies) as a reserve.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0157.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Disaster Risk Reduction; EO4SD; Official Development Assistance; Actionable Information; World Bank; International Financial Institutions
Online: 7 November 2018 (09:53:46 CET)
Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) is a high priority on the agenda of main stakeholders involved in sustainable development and Earth Observation (EO) can provide useful, timely and economical information in this context. This short communication outlines the European Space Agency’s (ESA) specific initiative to promote the use and uptake of satellite data in the global development community: ‘Earth Observation for Sustainable Development (EO4SD)’. One activity area under EO4SD is devoted to Disaster Risk Reduction: EO4SD DRR. Within this project, a team of European companies and institutions are tasked to develop EO services for supporting the implementation of DRR in International Financial Institutions’ (IFI) projects. Integration of satellite-borne data and ancillary data to generate insight and actionable information is thereby considered a key factor for improved decision making. To understand and fully account for the essential user requirements (IFI & Client States), engagement with technical leaders is crucial. Fit-for-purpose use of data and comprehensive capacity building eventually ensure scalability and long-term transferability. Future perspectives of EO4SD and DRR regarding mainstreaming are also highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0176.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: sustainability reporting award (SRA), financial statements, value relevance, earnings per share (EPS), earnings per share change (CEPS), book value per share (BVPS)
Online: 27 February 2018 (05:26:26 CET)
This study examines whether information about the winners of the Sustainability Reporting Award (SRA) contributes to the usefulness of the information in the financial statements. This study used a sample consisting of 110 winners of SRA (SRA firms) and 110 companies that did not receive SRA (non-SRA firms) from 2008 to 2016. The study found that earnings per share (EPS), book value per share (BVPS), and earnings per share change (EPSC) are value relevant information. Results of comparison between SRA firms and non-SRA fimrs, this study found that EPS positive association with stock price and with returns for SRA firms is higher than that for non-SRA firms. Findings of this study also show that, value relevance of BVPS for non-SRA firms is higher than that for SRA firms. When mesures of Price and BVPS are transformed into natural logarithm, the value relevance of BVPS for SRA firms is higher than that for non-SRA firms. Thus, the results are sensitive to measures of the variables. The findings of this study indicate that information about the winners of SRA contributes to the usefulness of financial statements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0028.v1
Subject: Keywords: Financial Analytics, Parametric and Non-parametric, Credit card fraud detection, bankruptcy detection, loan default prediction
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:15:52 CEST)
The growth of regularly generated data from many financial activities has significant implications for every corner of financial modeling. This study has investigated the utilization of these continuous growing data by a means of an automated process. The automated process can be developed by using Machine learning based techniques that analyze the data and gain experience from the underlying data. Different important domains of financial fields such as Credit card fraud detection, bankruptcy detection, loan default prediction, investment prediction, marketing and many other financial models can be modeled by implementing machine learning models. Among several machine learning based techniques, the use of parametric and non-parametric based methods are approached by this research. Two parametric models namely Logistic Regression, Gaussian Naive Bayes models and two non-parametric methods such as Random Forest, Decision Tree are implemented in this paper. All the mentioned models are developed and implemented in the field of Credit card fraud detection, bankruptcy detection, loan default prediction. In each of the aforementioned cases, the comparative study among the classification techniques is drawn and the best model is identified. The performance of each classifier on each considered domain is evaluated by various performance metrics such as accuracy, recall, precision, F1-score and mean squared error. In the credit card fraud detection model the decision tree classifier performs the best with an accuracy of 99.1% and, in the loan default prediction and bankruptcy detection model, the random forest classifier gives the best accuracy of 97% and 96.84% respectively.