ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0169.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Plumes; dynamics; resistivity; contamination; groundwater
Online: 10 December 2021 (11:28:20 CET)
The contamination of areas around solid urban waste dumps is a global challenge for the maintenance of environmental quality in large urban centres in developing countries. This study applied geophysical methods (electrical resistivity) to identify leachate contamina-tion plumes in the subsoil and groundwater, as well as to describe their temporal (2020 and 2021) dynamics in the lithology and groundwater around the Hulene - B waste dump, Maputo, Mozambique. Geophysical methods (electrical resistivity) were applied to identify possible groundwater contamination plumes, their dynamics, mechanisms of their enrichment and dispersion. Eight 400 m electrical resistivity profiles were performed, four profiles in January 2020 and four profiles in May 2021, overlapped, and the data were inverted with RES2D software. The electrical resistivity models indicate an E - W move-ment of large contamination plumes that dilute superficially into the natural surface wa-ter receiving basin and groundwater, creating zones of resistive anomalies. The thickness of the plumes in the subsurface environment was shown to be extensive in summer for profiles 1a and 2b and we associate it with the higher leachate production and migration mechanisms, which are intense in the hot and rainy season. Profile 4b showed the prop-agation of anomalous surface and subsurface areas, which was associated with higher leachate production and migration process in the new deposition zone (west). The spatial distribution of contamination plumes at both stations reduced significantly as we moved further away from the waste deposit, revealing the attenuating effect of groundwater and lithological substrate (Profile 3 a, b, and fig.7).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0170.v1
Online: 18 June 2019 (08:27:14 CEST)
Sustainability, particularly in construction materials, has been a subject of growing interest. Civil construction is one of the industries where more materials are consumed, which leads to high energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The production of cement, especially clinker is largely responsible for these problems. As a solution, new materials emerge, which do not require much energy for their production, which are the alkaline cements, specifically the geopolymers. Geopolymers are inorganic polymers obtained by the alkaline activation of aluminosilicate precursors. In the present study geopolymers were developed with low grade kaolin (as a precursor) from a Portuguese company. The development of these geopolymers will be, due to their properties, a good solution for rehabilitation of earth buildings, especially in adobe. The development of these geopolymers is also a contribution to the sustainability of kaolin exploitations as it opens new markets for the low grade kaolins, presently not easily commercialized. As mechanical strength of adobe materials ranges in literature from 0.6 to 8.3 MPa, the values obtained for the developed geopolymers (between ~2 to 10 MPa) can be considered as totally adequate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0497.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: road dusts; active mine; metal(loids); oral bioaccessibility; human health risk
Online: 21 May 2021 (07:44:30 CEST)
Aiming the characterization of road dusts on the surrounding villages of an active mine and to assess metal(loids) bioaccessible fractions, a dust samples survey was undertaken. To achieve these objectives, pseudototal element concentration, mineralogical composition, Enrichment factor and in vitro extraction UBM assay for both gastric (G) and gastrointestinal (GI) phases, were determined. Results obtained revealed that arsenic represents the higher risk to humans, with mean pseudototal values higher than the maximum reference value range. Enrichment factor points to As significant to very high enrichment in all villages. Particles enriched in As, Ca, Fe, Cu, Al, Ti were identified by SEM-EDS in weathered agglomerates, linked to mine wastes and long-distance transport, both by wind and/or traffic. Arsenic bioaccessibility fraction (%BAF) presents low values in the studied samples, possibly due to low Fe complexes solubility with adsorbed As, limiting arsenic release and reducing its bioaccessibility. Concentrations of Cd bioaccessible G and GI phases are within the reference values range, while for Cu are above and for Pb are lower, than reference value range. Results show that the pseudototal fraction risk is overestimated when comparing to BAF (bioaccessible fraction), nevertheless, total G and GI risk are above the carcinogenic target risk (1.00E-06) in most samples. Carcinogenic risk of the bioaccessible contaminants shows that As is the element that represents higher risk for developing cancer over a lifetime, being ingestion the main risk route.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0238.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: road dust; , traffic; , PM10 emission factors; Enrichment Index; human health risk
Online: 21 January 2020 (10:46:59 CET)
Road dust resuspension, especially the particulate matter fraction below 10 µm (PM10), is one of the main air quality management challenges in Europe. Road dust samples were collected from representative streets (suburban and urban) of the city of Viana do Castelo, Portugal. PM10 emission factors (mg veh-1 km-1) ranging from 49 (asphalt) to 330 (cobble stone) were estimated by means of the United Stated Environmental Protection Agency method. Two road dust fractions (< 0.074 mm and from 0.0074 to 1 mm) were characterised for their geochemical, mineralogical and morphological properties. In urban streets, road dusts reveal the contribution from traffic emissions, with higher concentrations of e.g. Cu, Zn, and Pb. In the suburban area, agriculture practices likely contributed to As concentrations of 180 mg kg-1 in the finest road dust fraction. Samples are primarily composed of quartz, but also of muscovite, albite, kaolinite, microcline, Fe-enstatite, graphite and amorphous content. Particle morphology clearly shows the link with natural and traffic related materials, with well-formed minerals and irregular aggregates. The hazard quotient suggests a probability to induce non-carcinogenic adverse health effects in children by ingestion of Zr. Arsenic in the suburban street represents a human health risk of 1.58 x 10-4.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0544.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Fogo volcano; volcanic eruption; outdoor dust; PM10; human health Risk
Online: 24 May 2021 (08:52:24 CEST)
Fogo (Fogo island, Cape Verde Republic) is the youngest and most active volcano of the archipelago. The last eruption occurred in 2014–2015. Aiming at studying dust emissions and transport during the eruption period and assessing their impact on air quality and human health, a mineralogical and chemical characterization was undertaken in outdoor dust from all over the island, as well as in the lava resulting from this event. Air quality monitors were used to obtain concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants. The mineralogical constitution of the samples was analysed by X-ray diffraction and Electron Microprobe, while the chemical characterization was performed through X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry and ICP-MS. The volcanic rock was found to be tephritic to basanitic, with high potassium content. Several minerals were identified, such as titanian augite with ilmenite, basaltic hornblendes, pyrrhotites, apatites, pyroxenes, basaltic hornblendes and hematites. Concentrations of the particulate matter inhalable fraction (PM10) exceeded the 24-hour mean of 50 µg/m3 recommended by the World Health Organization. Nevertheless, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) showed levels lower than the worrying range. The highest levels of CO2 were recorded in more populated villages and farthest from the volcano. The Pollution Load Index (PLI) for outdoor dust collected on rooftops was always above 1, suggesting enrichment, with higher values in the dust size fraction < 63 µm. In the same way, the Contamination Factor pointed to high enrichment of As, Ni and Pb, and very high enrichment of Cd in the same size fraction. The Non-carcinogenic Hazard Quotient and Hazard Index estimated for Children suggest that health problems may arise. The Carcinogenic Risk, for all size fractions, was above the target risk. The element that most contributed to the global risk was As, followed by Pb and Co. Ingestion was the main exposure route for all size fractions. The dust size fraction that represented the highest risk was < 63 µm, mostly due to the As concentration.