HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0270.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Cell division; Intracellular osmotic pressure; Tolerance limit of cell membrane; Carcinogenesis; Aneuploidy; Na+/K+ pump; Cytoskeleton; Oncogene; Tumor suppressor
Online: 21 June 2020 (13:41:21 CEST)
At present more than 9 million people die of cancer every year. Simple and broad-spectrum drugs are still an urgent need for cancer patients. Recently, we proposed a new hypothesis that intracellular osmotic pressure (IOP) is the driving force of cell division, and abnormal tumor proliferation is the result of uncontrolled IOP in cells. On the one hand, aneuploidy and abnormal function of Na+/K+ pump lead to a faster rise of IOP in tumor cell than normal cells, on the other hand, abnormality of cytoskeleton assembly leads to the decrease of tolerance limit of cell membrane (TLCM) of tumor cells for resisting IOP. This hypothesis predicts: 1)Tumor cells were more intolerant to hypotonic stress than normal cells. 2) Maligancies may be sellectively killed by a suddenn increase of IOP and combined with decrease of the TLCM of tumors. Na+/K+ pump inhibitors can promotely increase the IOP of tumor cells and cytoskeleton inhibitors can dramatically lower the TLCM of tumor cells. Therefore, Na+/K+ pump and cytoskeleton inhibitors may have a synergetic effect to kill tumor cells. 3) Molecules regulating cell osmolality may be new targets for cancer treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0134.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Land Cover; High-performance computing; Remote sensing; Workflow; Automation
Online: 3 May 2023 (10:50:07 CEST)
Large-scale land cover plays a crucial role in global resource monitoring and management, as well as research on sustainable development. However, the complexity of the mapping process, coupled with significant computational and data storage requirements, often leads to delays between data processing and product publication, creating challenges for dynamic monitoring of large-scale land cover. Therefore, improving the efficiency of each stage in large-scale land cover mapping and automating the mapping process is currently an urgent and critical issue that needs to be addressed. We propose a high-performance automated large-scale land cover mapping framework(HALF) that introduces high-performance computing technology to the field of land cover production. HALF optimizes key processes, such as automated sample point extraction, sample-remote sensing image matching, and large-scale classification result mosaic and update. We selected several 10°×10° regions globally and the research makes several significant contributions:(1)We design HALF for land cover mapping based on docker and CWL-Airflow, which solves the heterogeneity of models between complex processes in land cover mapping and simplifies the model deployment process. By introducing workflow organization, this method achieves a high degree of decoupling between the production models of each stage and the overall process, enhancing the scalability of the framework. (2)HALF propose an automatic sample points method that generates a large number of samples by overlaying and analyzing multiple prior products, thus saving the cost of manual sample selection. Using high-performance computing technology improved the computational efficiency of sample-image matching and feature extraction phase, with 10 times faster than traditional matching methods.(3)HALF propose a high-performance classification result mosaic method based on the idea of grid division. By quickly establishing the spatial relationship between the image and the product and performing parallel computing, the efficiency of the mosaicking in large areas is significantly improved. The average processing time for a single image is around 6.5 seconds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0411.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: nanocomposites; degree of aggregation; analytical modelling; percolation threshold
Online: 22 November 2022 (07:57:34 CET)
Fiber aggregation in nanocomposites has an important effect on the macroscopic electrical performance. To quantitatively evaluate its effect, an index to characterize the degree of aggregation is imperative, and ideally it should have three features simultaneously, i.e., single-parametric, dimensionless and physically meaningful, applicable to different aggregation topologies, and one-to-one corresponding to material electrical properties. To this end, a new aggregation degree is proposed, which is defined as the average increased number of fibers that connect with each one when fibers aggregate from a uniformly distributed state. This index is applicable to different aggregation topologies from lump-like aggregating clusters to network-like aggregating clusters. This index is proven to only depend on the local features of aggregating clusters, and can be concisely expressed by the characteristic parameters of local structure, via geometric probability analysis and numerical validations. Further, a one-to-one linear relation between the aggregation degree and percolation threshold is established by Monte Carlo simulations, which is independent of the distribution law of the fibers. This work provides a guide to the property characterization, performance prediction and material design of nanocomposites, and also gives a physical insight into the understanding of systems with similar non-uniform distributions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0529.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; accuracy; complexity; entropy; landslide susceptibility mapping; dimensionality reduction; Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
Online: 10 July 2023 (11:11:27 CEST)
In this study, our primary objective was to analyze the tradeoff between accuracy and complexity in machine learning models, with a specific focus on the impact of reducing complexity and entropy on the production of landslide susceptibility maps. We aimed to investigate how simplifying the model and reducing entropy can affect the capture of complex patterns in the susceptibility maps. To achieve this, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of various machine-learning algorithms for classification tasks. We compared the performance of these algorithms in terms of accuracy and complexity, considering both "before" and "after" scenarios of dimensionality reduction using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Our findings revealed that reducing complexity and lowering entropy can lead to an increase in model accuracy. However, we also observed that this reduction in complexity comes at the cost of losing important complex patterns in the produced landslide susceptibility maps. By simplifying the model and reducing entropy, certain intricate relationships and uncertain patterns may be overlooked, resulting in a loss of information and potentially compromising the accuracy of the susceptibility maps. The analysis encompassed a diverse range of machine learning algorithms, including Random Forest (RF), Extra Trees (EXT), XGboost, LightGBM, Catboost, Naive Bayes (NB), K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Gradient Boosting Machine (GBM), and Decision Trees (DT). Each algorithm was evaluated for its strengths and limitations, considering the tradeoff between accuracy and complexity. Before dimensionality reduction, the algorithms demonstrated promising results, with RF exhibiting excellent AUC/ROC scores and average accuracy. However, computational costs were noted as a potential drawback for RF, especially when dealing with large datasets. EXT showcased robust performance and good accuracy, while XGboost demonstrated its ability to handle complex relationships within large datasets, albeit requiring careful hyperparameter tuning. The efficiency and scalability of LightGBM made it a suitable choice for large datasets, although it displayed sensitivity to class imbalance. Catboost excelled in handling categorical features, but longer training times were observed for larger datasets. NB showcased simplicity and computational efficiency but assumed independence among features. KNN, known for its capability to capture local patterns and spatial relationships, was found to be sensitive to the choice of distance metric. GBM, while capturing complex relationships effectively, was prone to overfitting without proper regularization. DT, with its interpretability and ease of understanding, faced limitations in terms of overfitting and limited generalization. After dimensionality reduction, certain algorithms exhibited improvements in their AUC/ROC scores and average accuracy, including RF, EXT, XGboost, and LightGBM. However, for a few algorithms, such as NB and DT, a decrease in performance was observed. This study provides valuable insights into the performance characteristics, strengths, and limitations of various machine learning algorithms in classification tasks. Researchers and practitioners can utilize these findings to make informed decisions when selecting algorithms for their specific datasets and requirements. We also aim to identify the potential factors contributing to the high accuracy rates obtained from these ensembled algorithms and explore possible shortcomings of non-ensembled algorithms that may result in lower accuracy rates. By conducting a comprehensive analysis of these algorithms, we seek to provide valuable insights into the benefits and limitations of ensembled approaches for landslide susceptibility mapping. Our study sheds light on the challenges faced when balancing accuracy and complexity in machine learning models for landslide susceptibility mapping. It emphasizes the importance of carefully considering the level of complexity and entropy reduction in relation to the specific patterns and uncertainties present in the data. By providing insights into this tradeoff, our research aims to assist researchers and practitioners in making informed decisions regarding model complexity and entropy reduction, ultimately improving the quality and interpretability of landslide susceptibility maps.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1936.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Lithology Mapping; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Feature Extraction; Remote Sensing; Vegetated area
Online: 27 July 2023 (13:26:07 CEST)
Remote sensing (RS) technology has significantly contributed to geological exploration and mineral resource assessment. However, its effective application in vegetated areas encounters various challenges. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the challenges and opportunities associated with RS-based lithological identification in vegetated regions. The article begins by introducing the sources and processing methods of RS data, which serve as the foundation for subsequent analysis. Moreover, it highlights the techniques and methodologies employed for lithological classification in vegetated areas. Notably, hyperspectral RS and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) have emerged as prominent tools in lithological identification. In addition, this paper addresses the limitations inherent in RS technology, including issues related to vegetation cover and terrain effects, which significantly impact accurate lithological mapping. To propel further advancements in the field, the paper proposes promising avenues for future research and development. These include the integration of multi-source data to enhance classification accuracy and the exploration of novel RS technologies and algorithms. In summary, this paper presents valuable insights and recommendations for advancing the study of RS-based lithological identification in vegetated areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1784.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: machine learning algorithms; hyperparameters; hyperparameter optimization; spatial data; Bayesian optimization; metaheuristic algorithms
Online: 26 June 2023 (10:10:33 CEST)
Algorithms for machine learning have found extensive use in numerous fields and applications. One important aspect of effectively utilizing these algorithms is tuning the hyperparameters to match the specific task at hand. The selection and configuration of hyperparameters directly impact the performance of machine learning models. Achieving optimal hyperparameter settings often requires a deep understanding of the underlying models and the appropriate optimization techniques. While there are many automatic optimization techniques available, each with its own advantages and disadvantages, this article focuses on hyperparameter optimization for well-known machine learning models. It explores cutting-edge optimization methods and provides guidance on applying them to different machine learning algorithms. The article also presents real-world applications of hyperparameter optimization by conducting tests on spatial data collections for landslide susceptibility mapping. Based on the experiment's results, both Bayesian optimization and metaheuristic algorithms showed promising performance compared to baseline algorithms. For example, the metaheuristic algorithm improved the overall accuracy of the random forest model. Additionally, Bayesian algorithms, such as Gaussian processes, performed well for models like KNN and SVM. The paper thoroughly discusses the reasons behind the efficiency of these algorithms. By successfully identifying appropriate hyperparameter configurations, this research paper aims to assist researchers, spatial data analysts, and industrial users in developing machine learning models more effectively. The findings and insights provided in this paper can contribute to enhancing the performance and applicability of machine learning algorithms in various domains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0664.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Policy Optimization; Ensemble Learning; Artificial Neural Network; Index Sensitivity
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:19:11 CEST)
Capability assessment plays a crucial role in the demonstration and construction of equipment. To improve the accuracy and stability of capability assessment, we study the neural network learning algorithms in the field of capability assessment and index sensitivity. Aiming at the problem of over-fitting and parameter optimization in neural network learning, the paper proposes an improved machine learning algorithm—the Ensemble Learning Based on Policy Optimization Neural Networks (ELPONN) algorithm with the policy optimization and ensemble learning. This algorithm presents optimized neural network learning algorithm through different strategies evolution, and builds an ensemble learning model of multi-intelligent algorithms to assessment the capability and analyze the sensitivity of the indexes. Through the assessment of capabilities, the algorithm effectively avoids parameter optimization from entering the minimum point in performance to improve the accuracy of equipment capability assessment, which is significantly better than previous neural network assessment methods. The experimental results show that the mean relative error is 4.10%, which is better than BP, GABP, and early stopping. The ELPONN algorithm has better accuracy and stability performance, and meets the requirements of capability assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1401.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: broadband enhancement; photovoltaic; flower-like silver particles
Online: 20 July 2023 (10:12:47 CEST)
Recent researches indicated that metal nanoparticles which have the unique optical properties can be used to enhance the spectral response of the photovoltaic modules. Since most of the nanoparticles have enhancement effects in a specific wavelength range, improving the spectral response of the photovoltaic modules in a broadband range is crucial for their applications in imaging, energy harvesting, and optical communication. In this study, flower-like silver particles are applied to achieve the enhancement effects in a broadband range. The optical absorption of photovoltaic modules is improved in a broad wavelength range of 400~2000 nm by immobilizing flower-like silver particles onto an amorphous Si p-i-n structure, and the peak responsivity of the spectral response is enhanced by about 10 times. Theoretical investigation further elaborates that the enhancement originates from the near-field effects of silver particles due to the interaction of different parts of the flower-like silver particles. Through these studies, we demonstrate that, utilizing the subwavelength silver particles with roughness surface can achieve the spectral response of the photovoltaic modules enhanced in broadband range, which can improve the utilization efficiency of optical energy for the applications of sensing, imaging, optical communication, and energy harvesting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0336.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: plant fructans; fructosyltransferase; metabolism; evolution aspects; functional foods
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:11:41 CEST)
Fructan, a fructose polymer, is used as carbohydrate reserve in many plants. The nutritional and therapeutic benefits of fructans have attracted increasing interest by consumers and food industry. In the course of evolution, many plants have developed the ability of regulating plant frunctan metabolism genes to produce different structures and chain length fructans, which are strongly correlated with their survival in harsh environments. De nevo domestication of fructan-rich plants based on genome editing is a viable and promising approach to improve human dietary quality and reduce the risk of chronic disease. These advances will greatly facilitate breeding and production of tailor-made fructans as a healthy food ingredient from wild plants such as polygonati rhizoma. The purpose of this review is to broaden our knowledge on plant fructan biosynthesis, evolution and beneficial applications for human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1467.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: artificial neural networks; Bayesian techniques; metaheuristic techniques; hyperparameters; feature selection techniques
Online: 26 July 2023 (03:37:57 CEST)
The most frequent, noticeable, and frequent natural calamity in the karakoram region is landslides. Extreme landslides have occurred frequently along Karakoram highway, particularly during the monsoon, causing a major loss of life and property. Therefore, it was necessary to look for a solution to increase growth and vigilance in order to lessen losses related to landslides caused by natural disasters. By utilizing contemporary technologies, an early warning system might be developed. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are widely used nowadays across many industries. This paper's major goal is to provide new integrative models for assessing landslide susceptibility in a prone area of north of Pakistan. To do this, the training of an artificial neural network (ANN) is supervised using metaheuristic and Bayesian techniques: particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO), Genetic algorithm (GA), Bayesian optimization Gaussian process (BO_GP), and Bayesian optimization Gaussian process (BO_TPE). 304 previous landslides and the eight most prevalent conditioning elements combine to form a geographical database. The models are hyper-parameter optimized, and the best ones are employed to generate the susceptibility maps. The area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AUROC) accuracy index found demonstrated that the maps produced by both Bayesian and metaheuristic algorithms are highly accurate. The effectiveness and efficiency of applying artificial neural networks (ANNs) for landslide mapping, susceptibility analysis, and forecasting are studied in this research it’s observed from experimentation that the performance differences for GA, BO_GP, and PSO compared to BO_TPE are relatively small, ranging from 0.3166% to 1.8399%. This suggests that these techniques achieved comparable performance to BO_TPE in terms of AUC. However, it's important to note that the significance of these differences can vary depending on the specific context and requirements of the ML task. Additionally in this study, we explore eight feature selection algorithms to determine the geospatial variable importance for landslide susceptibility mapping along the KKH. The algorithms considered include Information Gain, Gain Ratio, OneR Classifier, Subset Evaluators, Principal Components, Relief Attribute Evaluator, Correlation, and Symmetrical Uncertainty. These algorithms enable us to evaluate the relevance and significance of different geospatial variables in predicting landslide susceptibility. By applying these feature selection algorithms, we aim to identify the most influential geospatial variables that contribute to landslide occurrences along the KKH. The algorithms encompass a diverse range of techniques, such as measuring entropy reduction, accounting for attribute bias, generating single rules, evaluating feature subsets, reducing dimensionality, and assessing correlation and information sharing. The findings of this study will provide valuable insights into the critical geospatial variables associated with landslide susceptibility along the KKH. These insights can aid in the development of effective landslide mitigation strategies, infrastructure planning, and targeted hazard management efforts. Additionally, the study contributes to the field of geospatial analysis by showcasing the applicability and effectiveness of various feature selection algorithms in the context of landslide susceptibility mapping.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0210.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Maize; drought; landrace; climate-change; crop genetic resources
Online: 13 December 2022 (01:07:51 CET)
To meet an ever global population's food demand, crop yields must be sustained and increased. Drought, which is getting harsher as a result of global warming, is largely impeding the agricultural productivity. Maize is widely used as food and animal feed in many regions of the world, but its yields are largely effected by drought and heat stress. Historical data on climate change predicts that drought and heat stress becoming major threat for maize cultivation in coming years, which will have huge impact on food security of the world especially in Africa and Asia. Thus there is an immense necessary to develop drought tolerant and climate resilient maize to feed the predicted population of the world. Availability and accessibility of crop genetic resources plays a huge role in development of drought-tolerant maize cultivars. A huge genetic resources of maize, including its landraces and crop wild relatives (CWR) have been reported naturally and many of them have stored in National and International gene banks globally. Conventional breeding methods have been tremendously increased maize yields, but these methods frequently fall short of achieving the demand for improved drought stress resistance. In this article, we have briefly discussed about impact of climate variability on crop production, maize yield losses due to drought, drought tolerance in maize landraces and CWR, and origin and evolution of Mexican landraces. This information may help in utilization of these potential resources in various pre-breeding programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0119.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Endophytic fungi, Leptosphaerulina chartarum; Curvularia trifolii; mitogenomes; gene content; phylogenetic implications
Online: 8 July 2019 (12:44:35 CEST)
In tobacco plants, symbiont endophytic fungi are widely distributed in all tissues where they play important roles. It is therefore important to determine the species distribution and characteristics of endophytic fungi in tobacco. Here, two parasitic fungi Leptosphaerulina chartarum and Curvularia trifolii were isolated and identified from normal tobacco tissue. We sequenced the mitogenomes of these two species and analysed their features, gene content, and evolutionary histories. The L. chartarum and C. trifolii mitochondrial genomes were 68,926 bp and 59,100 bp long circular molecules with average GC contents of 28.60% and 29.31%, respectively. The L. chartarum mitogenome contained 36 protein coding genes, 26 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes (rrnL and rrnS), which were located on both strands. The C. trifolii mitogenome contained 26 protein coding genes, 29 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes (rrnL and rrnS). The L. chartarum 26 tRNAs ranged from 70 bp to 84 bp in length, whereas the 29 tRNAs in C. trifolii ranged from 71 bp to 85 bp. L. chartarum and C. trifolii mtDNAs had an identical mitochondrial gene order and orientation and were phylogenetically identified as sisters. These data therefore provide an understanding of the gene content and evolutionary history of species within Pleosporales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0081.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: reference evapotranspiration; climatic change; drought/wet; Songnen Grassland
Online: 22 February 2017 (16:46:01 CET)
Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) plays an irreplaceable role in regional dry/wet conditions under the background of climate change. Based on the FAO Penman-Monteith method and daily climate variables, ET0 was calculated for 22 stations in and around Songnen Grassland, northeast China, during 1960-2014. The temporal and spatial variations of ET0 and precipitation (P) were comprehensively analyzed at different time scales by using the Mann-Kendall test, Sen’s slope estimator, and linear regression coupling with break trend analysis. Sensitivity analysis was used to detect the key climate parameter attributed to ET0 change. Then, the role of ET0 in regional dry/wet conditions was discussed by analyzing the relationship between ET0, P and aridity index (AI). Results shown a higher ET0 in the southwest and a lower in the northeast, but P was opposite to that of ET0. Evidently decreasing trend of ET0 at different time scales was detected in almost the entire region, and the significant trend mainly distributed in the eastern, northeastern and central. For the whole region, sensitivity analysis indicated decreasing trend of ET0 was primarily attributed to relative humidity and maximum air temperature. The positive contribution of increasing temperature rising to ET0 was offset by the effect of significantly decreasing relative humidity, wind speed and sunshine duration. In addition, the value of ET0 shown higher in drought years and lower in wet years.