ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0144.v1
Subject: Keywords: Diabetic; Diabetic Mellitus; Diabetic Prediction; PIMA diabetic dataset; Female diabetic Patients; Machine Learning
Online: 4 June 2021 (15:25:16 CEST)
Diabetics or Diabetic Mellitus is a metabolic disorder of blood sugar levels in the human body. It is a major non-communicable disease and involved many serious health risk issues. This disease is rapidly increasing in India. It is a chronic condition and it occurs when a body doesn't produce enough insulin hormone to control the blood sugar level. In this study, different variables have been analyzed that cause the diabetics, and different machine learning algorithms are used to predict whether an unknown sample is diabetes or not. For this purpose, PIMA diabetic detection for Female patients was used. Here 10 different classification model is used for prediction. Finally, the detailed performance analysis of the different variables of the PIMA dataset and also the classification model are discussed.
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Literary Studies Keywords: patriarchy concept; persistent female figure; female sexuality
Online: 24 May 2020 (11:35:07 CEST)
The research is seeking for the elements of the Authentic Realism approach in five Australian short stories by Julie Keyes, Judith Ebun, Jess Roberts, Airdre Grant, and Margot Titcher, to which an authentic realist reader would respond. The content analysis method is used in searching for the depth and significance of the texts. Several aspects such as a depiction of the characters, strong female characters, the form and language of the text, the relation of the text to the author and experience are taken to obtain the reader's response by way of an Authentic Realism approach. The findings show that the short stories: My Mother’s New Boyfriend, Souvenir, Heartbreak Hotel, Lovers Knot and Someone Else are proof that women have their own perspectives and reactions. The female characters make their own choice themselves devoid of men’s influence. Despite Jim’s idleness, unwaged condition and dependency Mother remains his girlfriend. Mother’s previous boyfriends are mostly similar to Jim’s characteristics. Lynne told Mark that she has a lump in one of her breast and will soon have a mastectomy. Being disappointed and scared to picture Lynne with one breast, and lopsided, Mark decides to leave her. The female character in Lovers Knot enjoys having an unusual sex life with Gary. Her meeting with Jeff is only a break from her routine. In Heartbreak Hotel, Mum seems to be a typical ordinary wife with a moody husband. But it turns out that she is extraordinary for she handles all the problems single-handed including her sex life. Deirdre decides to take her new post in Perth after Paul snubs her. The decisions are theirs. The choice may not be perfect, but the choice is made. The writing style of the texts shows that the authors are experienced and know very well how to use the form and language to communicate with their (women) readers. Since the theme of the texts is mostly about daily life experience, (women) readers will find no difficulty in reading them; they can even share their feelings and experience with the characters in the texts. Moreover, by using authentic realist approach students of the English Department learn more about women's writings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0088.v1
Online: 2 June 2021 (15:25:00 CEST)
Climate change poses a major threat to development in most low and middle-income countries, especially the sub – Saharan Africa. Wurompo is a small farming community in the Wenchi Municipality of the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana that depends on rain-fed agriculture activities for livelihood. In recent years, droughts, unpredictable rainfall pattern and crop failure have become common in the area. The study assessed knowledge and awareness, effects of climate change on female farmers, and their adaptation strategies. A case study in design, qualitative methods were used to collect data from 50 purposefully selected participants. Data were analyzed using themes and sub-themes generated from the research questions. Findings showed lack of adequate information and knowledge on climate change and its effects. Climate change has impacted negatively on these farmers stemming from decline in crop production and unavailability of adequate water supply in due season. Challenges to climate change adaptation are poverty, poor basic infrastructure, and modern farming practices. Farmers must be educated on climate change and its effects, with training on the necessary adaptation strategies to build their resilience. Policies that target rural farmers to adapt to climate change, and device modern agricultural techniques and practices are also necessary.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0203.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Primary urethral cancer; Elderly female; Prognosis
Online: 11 September 2018 (15:43:04 CEST)
Primary urethral malignancies are rare in clinical practice and elderly female are prone to suffer. The cause of PUC is unknown and may be related to long-term chronic inflammation, infection, sexual intercourse, pregnancy and irritation of the urethra. Incipient symptom of PUC is not distinctness and can easily lead to misdiagnosis. The final diagnosis relied on transvaginal ultrasound-guided mass biopsy and urethral biopsy. Early tumor treatment is mainly based on surgical resection. For advanced tumors, it is recommended to adopt a comprehensive treatment plan combining surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy We report this case with the aim of bringing attention to that primary urethral cancer progresses rapidly and has a poor prognosis, it is urged to call for a need of diagnostic and treatment specification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0326.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Sleepiness; Lockdown; Female athletes; Epworth Scale; Soccer
Online: 18 January 2023 (08:40:31 CET)
BACKGROUND. The aims of this study was to compare differences in daytime sleepiness between genders and qualification levels in a cohort university Chinese soccer player under 0 Covid policy restrictions in the urban area of Shanghai. METHODS. 491 questionnaires of Epworth Sleepiness Scales (ESS) were compiled online by males and females Soccer Students (SS), Semi-professional players (SP) and professional players (PP) during the ongoing measures of Shanghai lockdown. ANOVA was performed for players levels and gender. RESULTS. Significant differences were found between the 3 levels and between males and females. PP showed a very low score in the ESS (5,97) well below the threshold of 8, while SS and SP showed an ESS score above the threshold. Female showed higher scores than males. CONCLUSIONS. This study present the first data on sleepiness in Chinese soccer players of different level of qualification in a lockdown condition. Professional players has been less affected by lockdown measures than SS and SP. We can hypothesize the reasons resides in the more ordered lifestyle of PP in comparison to SS and SP, which mitigated the effects of the lockdown. Measures to improve sleep in females’ soccer player should be adopted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: pharmacovigilance; clinical pharmacology; male; female; emergency department.
Online: 15 June 2021 (11:51:17 CEST)
This post-hoc analysis of an Italian active pharmacovigilance study describes pharmacological differences of ADEs leading to emergency department (ED) visit and hospitalization in women and men. During the study period (January 2007 – December 2018), 61,855 reports of ADE leading to ED visit were collected. Overall, 30.6% of ADEs resulted in hospitalization (30% in women and 31% in men). Multivariate logistic regression showed that, among women, drug classes significantly associated with an increased risk of hospitalization were heparins (ROR 1.41, CI 1.13-176), antidepressants (ROR 1.12, CI 1.03-1.23) and antidiabetics (ROR 1.13, CI 1.02-1.24). Among men only vitamin K antagonists (ROR 1.28, CI 1.09-1.50), opioids (ROR 1.30, CI 1.06-1.60) and digitalis glycosides (ROR 1.32, CI 1.09-1.59) were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization. Overall, older age, multiple suspected drugs and the presence of comorbidi-ties were significantly associated with a higher risk of hospitalization. A significantly reduced risk of hospitalization was observed in both women and men experiencing and adverse event following immunization (ROR 0.36, CI 0.27-0.48 and 0.83, 0.42-0.74, respectively) compared to drugs. Results obtained from this real-world analysis highlight important aspects of drug safety between sexes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0479.v1
Online: 22 February 2021 (14:56:22 CET)
Sherubtse College under Royal University of Bhutan has a total of 1582 students, where 787 0f them are female. They suffer from menstrual and menstrual cramps every month and they use napkins to stay clean and healthy. As all the college girls are educated on the norms and use of sanitary napkins, the proper management of the waste generated is lacking. The disposal of used sanitary napkins and management is a challenge to the college management. This small research aims to investigate on how girls in college campus manage the menstural waste and the amount of sanitary napkins used. The lack of proper dumping areas leads to the improper sanitary waste management and sometimes the waste generated from the sanitary napkins are toxic and unhealthy. It is very important to initate some ways to dump the pads and its related problem should be seriously addressed by the college management. It is also important to come up with different soultion and management of these wastes for sustainable environment. Therefore, this research will be mainly mentioning about the suggestions and how the sanitary waste is being managed in Sherubtse College campus and the amount of sanitary pads used in a month or an year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: female, generation, hospital, intention to leave, nurse
Online: 26 June 2018 (12:34:58 CEST)
An understanding of the cultural conditions that determine the factors affecting nurses’ intention to leave is important for countries suffering from nurse shortage. Aim: to examine factors influencing intention to leave among female hospital nurses in a large Japanese sample, classified into four generations by age considering economic conditions. Methods: a cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted. Anonymous self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all nurses in 30 hospitals. To assess intention to leave, basic attributes, life conditions, work characteristics, and factors of psychosocial work environment were addressed. After classifying data into four generations based on age cohorts, we conducted multivariate logistic regression analysis using the completed data (N = 5,074, mean age = 36.24). Results: regardless of generational characteristics influenced by economic conditions, effort and monetary reward were generation-common factors. Over-commitment, social support, and the presence of a role model were generation-common factors in three generations. While having children increased intention to leave in the generation born 1965–1979, having family members in need of caregiving other than children decreased the risk in the generation born in the 1980s. Conclusion: generational countermeasures considering factors of psychosocial work environment and life conditions are needed to avert female nurse turnover.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0476.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: female; HIV infections; breastfeeding; vertical transmission; patient’s autonomy.
Online: 25 November 2021 (12:55:13 CET)
Background: Vertical transmission of HIV infection can occur during pregnancy, during childbirth or through breastfeeding. The recommendations issued by the various international guidelines (WHO 2010, EACS 2017, DHHS 2017) on the safety of breastfeeding of HIV-infected women in effective antiretroviral treatment do not provide univocal indications referring to individual countries the choice to advise or advise against such procedure. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in a small cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women who, despite the information received, decided to breastfeed their children. The observation was carried out in the period between March 2017 and June 2021. In all newborns, prophylaxis therapy was initiated at birth, according to the treatment guidelines, the scheme adopted involved the administration of zidovudine (AZT) orally for 4 weeks, started immediately after the childbirth. Breastfeeding time was, on average, 5 months. Results: No contagion was diagnosed. All infants were tested for HIV-RNA at birth, 1, 3, and 6 months after birth, and 1, 3 and 3 months after stopping breastfeeding. Conclusions: The data obtained represent, in our opinion, a solicitation to discuss and re-evaluate scientific evidence that starting from "Undetectable Equals Untransmittable" (U = U) can open a scientific and cultural review of breastfeeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0562.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: female reproductive tract; organoid; co-culture; crosstalk; blastocyst
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:19:56 CEST)
Hormones must be balanced and dynamically controlled for the Female Reproductive Tract (FRT) to function correctly during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and delivery. Gamete selection and successful transfer to the uterus, where it implants and pregnancy occurs, is supported by the mucosal epithelial lining of the FRT ovaries, uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, and vagina. Successful implantation and placentation in humans and other animals rely on complex interactions between the embryo and a receptive female reproductive system. The FRT's recent breakthroughs in three-dimensional (3D) organoid systems now provide critical experimental models that match the organ's physiological, functional, and anatomical characteristics in vitro. This article summarizes the current state of the art on organoids generated from various parts of the FRT. The current analysis examines recent developments in the creation of organoid models of reproductive organs, as well as their future directions.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: female dog; cell culture; mammary cancer; veterinary; oncology
Online: 15 April 2020 (07:59:18 CEST)
Mammary neoplasm affects a population of intact and elderly female dogs and 50% are malignant. In order to study this disease, cell culture is as a promising preclinical model, creating the opportunity to deposit cell lines at a cell bank, allowing a great reproducibility of the assays and making the validation of the results more reliable. Another important aspect is the possibility to establish models for better understanding tumour characteristics, such as vasculogenic mimicry. Due the importance of cancer cell lines in preclinical models, this study aimed to establish and characterize primary cell lines from canine mammary gland tumours according to immunophenotype and tumorigenicity, and with its ability to form vasculogenic mimicry-like structures in vitro and in vivo. Cell cultures were evaluated for morphology, phenotype, vasculogenic mimicry and tumorigenicity abilities. We collected 17 primary mammary carcinoma and 3 metastasis and had a satisfactory result in 10 of them. All cell lines presented spindle shape or polygonal morphology and expressed concomitant pan-cytokeratin and cytokeratin 8/18. Four cell lines had vasculogenic mimicry ability in vitro and two of them showed in vivo tumorigenic potential and forming VM in the xenotransplant tumour. Cell characterization of those lines will help to create a database for more knowledge of mammary carcinomas in dogs, including studies of tumour behaviour and new therapeutic targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0030.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: Pakistan; Rahim Yar Khan; female employment; gender discrimination
Online: 2 October 2019 (10:52:18 CEST)
As a traditional Muslim country, the problem of gender discrimination in employment among women in Pakistan is more common. If we let it develop without taking measures, it will seriously restrict the speed and quality of Pakistan’s domestic economic development in the long run. In this study, the author obtained the first-hand information on the employment status of professional women in the Rahim Yar Khan region of Pakistan through questionnaire survey, supplemented by the public data of the Federal Statistical Office of Pakistan, and combined with the existing research results of the predecessors. Sex discrimination in employment of professional women in Pakistan. Through the collection of the data obtained from the questionnaire, the author found that economic factors are one of the main factors that cause local women to encounter gender discrimination in employment. Specifically, it includes the imbalance of labor supply and demand and the pursuit of maximum profits. At the same time, the traditional Muslim culture, women's own literacy and the imperfect legal system in Pakistan are also the key factors that cause female employees in the local area to encounter gender discrimination in employment. Women’s gender discrimination in employment is a universal problem. In any country in the world, gender discrimination may exist as long as women are involved in the work. Based on Pakistan's basic national conditions and relevant professional knowledge, the author provides several suggestions for eliminating the problem of gender discrimination in employment for local female employees in Pakistan. 1) The Pakistani government should further promote the domestic economic growth, increase the number of jobs, and ease the imbalance between the supply and demand of labor. At the same time, encourage self-employment and provide corresponding policy support. A variety of measures are also intended to address local gender discrimination in employment for women. 2) The government's leadership accelerates the transformation of the concept of the whole society. On the one hand, it requires the whole society to correctly understand the social status and social contribution of women, and strives to bring the concept of equality between men and women into the hearts of the people. It is intended to encourage qualified women to go out of the family to participate in social work. At the same time, correctly guide corporate values. Enterprises should not unilaterally pursue the maximization of interests, and should take the initiative to assume social responsibilities. 3) Women should also actively and consciously improve their literacy. Including not only active learning advanced cultural knowledge and professional skills. For the professional skills that have already been mastered, you must study harder and make yourself more and more progressive. At the same time, families should guarantee that girls of the appropriate age receive the education they deserve, so that they can gather their strengths in the workplace in the future.
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: microRNA; polymorphism; breast neoplasm; female neoplasm; susceptibility; cancer
Online: 25 September 2019 (10:14:35 CEST)
Breast (BC) and gynecological (GC) cancers constitute a group of female neoplasms that has a worldwide significant contribution to cancer morbidity and mortality. Evidence suggests that polymorphisms influencing miRNA function can provide useful information to predict the risk of female neoplasms. To facilitate the genetic screening of miRNA polymorphisms even during childhood or adolescence, and their use as predictors of future malignancies, inconsistent findings in the literature should be detected and resolved. This study represents a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between miRNA polymorphisms and the risk of female neoplasms. Meta-analysis was performed by pooling odds-ratios (ORs) and generalized ORs using a random-effects model for 15 miRNA polymorphisms. The results suggest that miR-146a rs2910164 is implicated in the susceptibility to GC. Moreover, miR-196a2 rs11614913-T had a moderate protective effect against female neoplasms, especially GC, in Asians but not in Caucasians. MiR-27a rs895819-G may pose a protective effect against BC among Caucasians. MiR-499 rs3746444-C may slightly increase the risk of female neoplasms especially BC. MiR-124 rs531564-G may be associated with a lower risk of female neoplasms. The current evidences do not support the association of the remaining polymorphisms and the risk of female neoplasms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0047.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: 17 β-estradiol; estrogen pollution; female reproduction; DPV
Online: 8 March 2017 (05:39:59 CET)
Environmental estrogen pollution and estrogen effects on the female reproduction system are well-recognized scientifically. Among the estrogens, 17 β-estradiol is a priority in environmental estrogen pollution, and it is also a major contributor to estrogen which regulates the female reproduction system. 17 β-estradiol is carcinogen and has a tumor promotion effect relating to breast cancer, lung cancer and others. It also affects the psychological well-being such as depression, fatigue and others. Thus, a simple method of detection of 17 β-estradiol will be important for both environmental estrogen pollution and women’s health care. This study demonstrates a simple-use, cost effective 17 β-estradiol biosensor system which can be used for both environment and women’s health care applications. The bio-recognition mechanism is based on the influence of the redox couple, K3Fe (CN) 6/K4Fe (CN) 6 by the interaction between 17 β-estradiol antigen and its α-receptor (ER- α; α-estrogen antibody). The transduction mechanism is an electrochemical analytical technique, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The levels of 17 β-estradiol antigen studied was between 2.25 pg/mL to 2,250 pg/mL, Phosphate buffered saline (PBS), tap water from the Cleveland regional water district, and simulate urine were used as the test media covering the potential application areas for 17 β-estradiol detection. An interference study by testosterone which has a similar chemical structure and molecular weight as those of 17 β-estradiol was carried out, and this 17 β-estradiol biosensor showed excellent specificity without any interference by similar chemicals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0035.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: social relationships; descent systems; female autonomy; matriliny; gendered networks
Online: 10 June 2021 (15:16:03 CEST)
Although cooperative social networks are considered key to human evolution, emphasis has usually been placed on the functions of men’s cooperative networks. What do women's networks look like? Do they resemble or differ from men's and what does this suggest about evolutionarily inherited gender differences in reproductive and social strategies? In this paper, we test the ‘universal gender differences’ hypothesis positing gender-specific network structures against the ‘gender reversal’ hypothesis that posits women's networks looking more 'masculine' under matriliny. Specifically, we ask whether men's friendship networks are always larger than women's and we investigate measures of centrality by gender and descent system. To do so, we use tools from social network analysis and data on men’s and women’s friendship ties in matrilineal and patrilineal Mosuo communities. In tentative support of the gender reversal hypothesis, we find that women's friendship networks in matriliny are relatively large. Measures of centrality and generalized linear models otherwise reveal greater differences between communities than between men and women. The data and analyses we present are primarily descriptive given limitations of sample size and sampling strategy. Nonetheless, our results provide support for the flexible application of social relationships across genders and clearly challenge the predominant narrative of universal gender differences across space and time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0170.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: migration; female genital mutilation; sexual health; reproductive health; communication
Online: 18 August 2016 (05:30:20 CEST)
Objectives: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a significant public health problem. It is estimated around 14,700 women affected by FGM live in Switzerland, primarily among women with a history of migration. Our qualitative research investigated the sexual health of immigrant women living with FGM in Switzerland, describing their own perception of health, reproductive life and sexuality. Methods: We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a group of eight immigrant women of African origin living in Switzerland with Type III FGM (infibulation). Results: Seven of the women were from Somalia and one from Ivory Coast. All of the Somali women were mothers and married (two separated), and the Ivorian woman was a single mother. The women in our study reported a low level of sexual satisfaction and reproductive health. They affirmed their desire to improve, or at least change, their condition. Although they rarely talk with their husbands about sexual subject matter, they would like to include them more and improve dialogue. Conclusions: Specific socio-sexual management is recommended when caring for immigrant women living with FGM in order to respond to their specific health care needs. Multidisciplinary approaches may be able to offer more comprehensive health care, including facilitated communication to improve dialogue between women and health care professionals, and eventually between women and their husbands in discussing sexual matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: autistic spectrum disorder, male to female ratio, biases, young women.
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:57:39 CET)
The ratio of males to females with ASD is generally quoted as 4:1 though it is believed that there are biases preventing females being diagnosed and that the true ratio is lower. These biases have not been clearly identified or quantified. Starting with a clinical dataset of 1711 children <18 years old four different methods were employed in an inductive study to identify and quantify the biases and calculate the proportion of females missed. A mathematical model was constructed to compare the findings with current published data. The true male to female ratio appears to be 3:4. Eighty per cent of females remain undiagnosed at age 18 which has serious consequences for the mental health of young women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0274.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: musculoskeletal disorders; lower back pain; female artisanal fisher; shellfish gatherers
Online: 28 January 2019 (10:19:59 CET)
Lower back musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are an important public health problem and the leading cause of disability worldwide, but with prevalence yet unknown among shellfish gatherers. To investigate the prevalence and work-related factors associated with lower back MSD in a population of female shellfish gatherers, an epidemiological cross-sectional study was carried out in Saubara, Bahia – Brazil, in 2013. The Brazilian version of the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ), in addition to a questionnaire containing the physical demands adapted to the artisanal work, were applied to a random sample of 209 female shellfish gatherers. The prevalence of lower back MSD was 72.7%. Using multivariate logistic regression, the shellfish gatherers who had worked for more than 26 years in the activity showed a prevalence of 1.22 (95% CI: 1.04-1.44) times higher compared to those unexposed. Lower back MSD was 1.24 (95%CI: 1.08-1.42) times higher among those more exposed to work sitting with trunk flexion. Those performed manual handling and muscle force with the arms had a prevalence ratio of 1.18 (95%CI: 1.01-1.39). These results show the need for greater awareness of health and social welfare factors impacting workers in small-scale fisheries and will promote the elaboration of health care policies for this occupational class.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0249.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, History Keywords: Jesuits; French protectorate; female orders; Zi-ka-wei; Roman question
Online: 14 August 2018 (06:10:07 CEST)
In a global context, the story of the Jesuit compound in Shanghai, since its establishment by French Jesuits in 1847, reflected not only conflicts between rival powers in Europe but also the fight for their interests in the Eastern world. The Pope, who was stuck without legal status in the Vatican after 1861, was also seeking the chance to save the authority of the Church in the face of questions regarding the extent of his temporal power and the status of Rome in the context of Italian unification. As in the Reformation, a break-through in the east seemed to offer a solution for losses in Europe. However, the Jesuits to the East in the late 19th century were not only troops working and fighting on behalf of the Pope; their identities under the French Protectorate added complexity to an already complicated story involving not just the Church, but the course of world history.The female Catholic orders at the east bank of Zi-ka-wei compound became a unique window to approach the complexity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0261.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Tissue Engineering; Gastrointestinal tract; urinary tract; female genital tract; hollow structure.
Online: 15 November 2022 (01:02:10 CET)
The gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts share several similarities. Primarily, these tissues are composed of hollow structures lined by an epithelium through which materials need to flow with the help of peristalsis brought by muscle contraction. In the case of the gastrointestinal tract, solid or liquid food must circulate to be digested and absorbed and the waste products eliminated. In the case of the urinary tract, the urine produced by the kidneys must flow to the bladder, where it is stored until its elimination from the body. Finally, in the case of the vagina, it must allow the evacuation of blood during menstruation, accommodate the male sexual organ during coitus, and is the natural way to birth a child. The present review describes the anatomy, pathologies and treatments of such organs, emphasizing tissue engineering strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0330.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Female Participation in Labor Force (FPLF); Foreign Direct Investment (FDI); System GMM
Online: 21 January 2022 (13:39:27 CET)
This study assesses the impact of globalization on female participation in the labor force (FPLF). The increased globalization in the last several decades has created various economic opportunities for enterprises and individuals worldwide at an unprecedented rate. As a result, it has helped improve the quality of life for many men and women. In this process, the issue of women’s economic participation has been a critical topic for discussion worldwide. In that context, the objective of the paper is to determine if FPLF is influenced by a country’s participation in foreign markets through foreign direct investment (FDI) – a proxy for globalization. The paper uses a panel dataset obtained from the World Bank’s World Development Indicators database for 99 countries from 2001 to 2018. We then use system Generalized Method of Moments (system GMM) to estimate a dynamic panel model with appropriate specification tests. The results show that the positive effects of FDI on FPLF are more robust for low- and middle-income countries than high-income countries. We also find that results may be sensitive to outlier observations. Our results explain the seemingly inconclusive results within existing literatures and suggest that low- and middle-income countries should particularly focus on sectors that generate FDI as they stand to yield the greatest benefits with regards to female economic empowerment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0300.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Endocrine disruptors; gender; female; atherosclerosis; Cadmium; Bisphenol A; inflammatory cytokines; cardiovascular diseases
Online: 17 November 2021 (10:53:12 CET)
The number of aged individuals is increasing worldwide, rendering essential the comprehension of pathophysiological mechanisms of age-related alterations, that could facilitate the development of interventions contributing to “successful aging” and improvement of quality of life. Cardio-vascular diseases (CVD) include pathologies affecting heart or blood vessels, such as hyperten-sion, peripheral artery disease and coronary heart disease. Indeed, age-associated modifications in body composition, hormonal, nutritional and metabolic factors, as well as a decline in physical activity are all involved in the increased risk of developing atherogenic alterations raising the risk of CVD development. Several factors have been claimed to play a role in the alterations observed in muscle and endothelial cells and leading to increased CVD, such as genetic pattern, smoking, unhealthy lifestyle. Moreover, a difference in the risk of these diseases in women and men has been reported. Interestingly, in the last decades attention has been focused on a potential role of several pollutants which disrupt human health by interfering with hormonal pathways, and more specifically in non-communicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes and CVD. This review will focus on the potential alteration induced by Endocrine Disruptors (Eds) in the attempt to characterize a potential role in the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the atheromatic process and CVD progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0547.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: military; IDF; female soldiers; religion and the military; religious considerations; religious women’s conscription
Online: 25 August 2020 (11:26:52 CEST)
Women serve in diverse roles in the 21st century militaries of the world. They are no longer banned exclusively from combat. The presence of women on the battlefield has raised religious arguments and considerations. What role do religious arguments play in the discussion regarding women’s military service? The current paper examines this question in the context of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF): a conscription-based military that conscripts both men and women, religious and secular, for both combat and non-combat postings. Using the case of the pilot program in the IDF attempting to integrate women in the Israeli tank corps, the paper argues that religious considerations serve the same purpose as functional considerations and can be amplified or lessened, as needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0536.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Big Data; Natural Language Processing; Social Media; Female Workplace Bullying, Crowdsourcing; Social Computing
Online: 25 August 2020 (04:13:59 CEST)
Motivated by the #Metoo movement, we explore in this paper people’s perception of female bullying at workplace. We looked at #workplacebullying and found that 1) people were split between identifying the prevalence of workplace bullying against female and the view that such bullying simply does not exist and is a nuisance, 2) The tweets also showed the existence of psychological effects of cyberbullying, and 3) the tweets showed many intervention techniques that can minimize the effects of such bullying. We further explored the top three recurring hashtags mentioned under the #workplacebullying and found that the three top hashtags were #sexism, #feminism and #equality. Our results showed that the above hashtags represent the positive and negative approach to workplace bullying i.e. #feminism hashtag was mostly used by people who denied that workplace bullying against females exist while # sexism was mentioned as the prime cause by people who agree that such bullying exist. #equality overwhelmingly comprises of techniques to minimize workplace bullying against females.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0323.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: exploratory regression analysis; built environment; influencing factors; incidence rate for female lung cancer
Online: 20 May 2020 (09:06:39 CEST)
Objective: Application of ERA methods to investigate the atmospheric pollution and built environment factors influencing lung cancer incidence rate in Chinese women. Methods: Lung cancer incidence rate among Chinese women at 339 cancer registries were obtained from the China Cancer Registry Annual Report 2017, air quality and built environment data were obtained from the Greenpeace and China Construction Yearbook. After multiple covariates variables were eliminated, an exploratory regression analysis was performed using the world standardized population incidence rate as the dependent variable. Air quality and built environment factors as the independent variable. Results: Shandong Peninsula, Hebei and Liaoning are high incidence rate areas of female lung cancer in China, with significant regional aggregation. In addition to air quality factors such as industrial smoke emission data, the association between built environmental factors such as urbanization rate, development LUI, population density and greening coverage of built-up areas and female lung cancer incidence rate is statistically significant. Conclusion: In addition to air quality factors, urban spatial factors can also significantly affect respiratory health. The LUI is positively while urbanization rates and population density are negatively correlated with the incidence rate of lung cancer. The role of green space for respiratory health has not been proven. In addition, there is little relationship between income and health, and similar findings are found for indicators such as the public transportation and roads network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0120.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Aronia melanocarpa berries; bone biomechanical properties; cadmium; chokeberries; female rats; polyphenols; procollagen; protection
Online: 16 May 2017 (07:45:30 CEST)
The hypothesis that consumption of Aronia melanocarpa berries (chokeberries) extract, recently reported by us to improve bone metabolism in female rats at low-level and moderate chronic exposure to cadmium (1 and 5 mg Cd/kg diet for up to 24 months), may increase the bone resistance to fracture was investigated. Biomechanical properties of the neck (bending test with vertical head loading) and diaphysis (three-point bending test) of the femur of rats administered 0.1% aqueous chokeberry extract (65.74% of polyphenols) or/and Cd in the diet (1 and 5 mg Cd/kg) for 3, 10, 17, and 24 months were evaluated. Moreover, procollagen I was assayed in the bone tissue. The low-level and moderate exposure to Cd decreased procollagen I concentration in the bone tissue and weakened biomechanical properties of the femoral neck and diaphysis. Chokeberry extract administration under the exposure to Cd improved the bone collagen biosynthesis and femur biomechanical properties. The results allow for the conclusion that consumption of chokeberry products under exposure to Cd may improve the bone biomechanical properties and protect from fracture. This study provides support for Aronia melanocarpa berries being a promising natural agent for the skeleton protection under low-level and moderate chronic exposure to Cd.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: autistic spectrum disorder; anorexia nervosa; female; prevalence; Bayes’ Theorem; diagnosis; management; generalized joint hypermobility.
Online: 10 November 2022 (11:02:35 CET)
It appears that up to 80% of females with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have not been diagnosed by 18 years of age. This translates to a prevalence of about 5-6%, and if true has serious implications for female mental health. One way of finding the true value is to use Bayes’ Theorem with a comorbid condition as a more easily recognizable flag. An obvious choice is anorexia nervosa (AN), but it transpires that the proportion of women with ASD who develop AN is unknown. This study uses published data in novel ways to provide two methods of estimating a range for this variable, and gives a median value of 8.3% for AN in ASD and with four other methods a median prevalence of 6% for female ASD. The clinical implications for diagnosis and management of ASD and comorbidities are discussed and a solution is provided for the rate of ASD in generalized joint hypermobility.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: Krukenberg Tumor; Neoplasm Metastasis; Ovarian Neoplasms; Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications; Case Report.
Online: 11 June 2020 (12:30:50 CEST)
BACKGROUND Krukenberg tumor is a rare metastatic tumor of the ovary with characteristic histopathological features known as signet-ring cells. It usually presents in women around 45 years of age, however, we present an uncommon case in a 38-year-old pregnant woman. We report this case because of the unusual findings, the uncommon presentation in this younger age bracket, its diagnostic challenge, and poor prognosis. CASE PRESENTATION We describe an unusual case of a young woman with a history of painful vaginal bleeding at 13 weeks of pregnancy and treated for abruptio placentae. In her routine prenatal visit at week 20 of pregnancy, she was found to have a uterine fundus greater than her gestational age and referred to the hospital to discard polyhydramnios. At her admission a pelvic ultrasound was performed with normal findings of a 25 weeks pregnancy, also showing bilateral enlarged ovaries with heterogeneous echogenicity. The MRI showed a left tumoral lesion with dimensions of 22.1 x 13.6 x 16.3 cm, with lobulated regular contours with displacement of peripheral structures and mild compression of the bladder, the left ureter, and the inferior vena cava. The lesion was heterogeneous with irregular borders. The patient was programmed for a cesarean section; during the operation, the abdominal cavity showed bilateral tumors compatible with MRI findings, the ovarian tumors were sent to pathology and the results showed poorly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma (WHO III) with extensive signet-ring cells, an indicative of Krukenberg tumor. CONCLUSION: The case presented is rare due to its presentation in a pregnant woman without identifiable risk factors for gastric cancer. The incidental finding suggests the pregnancy masked the clinical presentation of gastric cancer, and the rapid deterioration of the patient is consistent with the aggressiveness described in the literature. The limited descriptions of this neoplasm in our country and the torpid evolution of this case highlight the importance of further studies of this cancer in Mexico.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0507.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: epigenetics; plant development; microsporogenesis; megasporogenesis; male and female gametophytes; embryogenesis; endospermogenesis; sexual and asexual reproduction
Online: 30 September 2021 (09:16:17 CEST)
Plants are exposed to highly fluctuating effects of light, temperature, weather conditions and many other environmental factors throughout their life. As sessile or-ganisms, unlike animals, they are unable to escape, hide or even change their position. Therefore, the growth and development of plants is largely determined by interaction with the external environment, the success of this interaction depends on the ability of the phenotype plasticity, which is largely determined by epigenetic regulation. In addi-tion to how environmental factors can change the patterns of genes expression, epige-netic regulation determines how genetic expression changes during the differentiation of one cell type into another, and how patterns of gene expression are passed from one cell to its descendants. Thus, one genome can generate many 'epigenomes'. Epigenetic modifications acquire special significance during the formation of gametes and plant reproduction, when epigenetic marks are eliminated during meiosis and early embry-ogenesis and later reappear. However, during asexual plant reproduction, when meio-sis is absent or suspended, epigenetic modifications that have arisen in the parental sporophyte can be transmitted to the next clonal generation practically unchanged. In plants that reproduce sexually and asexually, epigenetic variability has different adap-tive significance. In asexuals, epigenetic regulation is of particular importance for im-parting plasticity to the phenotype, when the genotype remains unchanged for many generations of individuals. Of particular interest is the question of the possibility of transferring acquired epigenetic memory to future generations and its potential role for natural selection and evolution. All these issues will be discussed to some extent in this review. In the last two decades, a lot of data on the epigenetic regulation of plants has appeared, as well as works summarizing the accumulated knowledge (Verhoeven and Preite 2013; Pikaard and Scheid 2014; Gehring 2019; Ono and Kinoshita 2021), nevertheless, many questions remain unclear, and a number of results are contradic-tory. New in this area data is constantly emerging. We tried to take into account and discuss the main findings and conclusions in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0484.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: Acute Cystitis Symptom Score; ACSS; cystitis; urinary tract infection; female patients; diagnosis; patient-reported outcome
Online: 18 November 2020 (16:35:23 CET)
Background To develop and validate the American-English version of the self-reporting Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS), a suitable tool for diagnosis and patient-reported outcome in female patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis (UC). Methods After certified translation into American-English and cognitive assessment, the clinical validation of the ACSS was performed as an embedded study in a US phase II trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03129295). Results A total of 167 female patients with typical symptoms of UC were included in the study following FDA guidance. At Day 1 (diagnosis) the mean(SD) sum score of the six ACSS typical symptoms reached 10.60(2.51). Of 100 patients followed-up last time on Day 5 or 6 (End-of-treatment, EoT), 91 patients showed clinical success according to the favoured ACSS criteria (sum score of typical symptoms 0.98(1.94)). There was no correlation between the severity of symptoms on Day 1 or between clinical success rate at EoT and level of bacteriuria on Day 1. Conclusion The American-English ACSS showed high predictive ability and responsiveness, and excellent levels of reliability and validity. It can now be recommended as the new master version in clinical and epidemiological studies, in clinical practice or for self-diagnosis of women with symptoms of UC.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Adolescent girls; Female genital mutilation/cutting; Global health; Sexual initiation; Sexual and reproductive health; Young women
Online: 30 August 2020 (17:28:36 CEST)
Despite several attempts by governments and non-governmental organizations to eliminate female genital mutilation or cutting, it is puzzling that this traditional procedure is widely practiced today in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Scholarly arguments on the influence of female genital mutilation on sexual behavior up until now remain inconclusive. The current study sought to examine the association between female genital mutilation and early sexual initiation among girls and young women (AGYW) in SSA. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 12 SSA countries were combined. A total of 30,089 AGYW (15-24 years) who had ever had sex and had complete information on all the variables of interest were considered. The outcome variable for the study was early sexual initiation. The study employed multilevel logistic regression for the data analysis, with reported odds ratio and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The overall prevalence of female genital mutilation among AGYW was 49.9%, with the highest and lowest prevalence in Guinea (95.8%) and Togo (3.3%) respectively. The prevalence of early sexual initiation was 42.4%, with the highest and lowest prevalence in Niger (59.9%) and Burkina Faso (30.6%) respectively. AGYW who had not experienced female genital mutilation were less likely to have early sexual initiation [OR= 0.74, CI= 0.70-0.78], compared to those who had experienced female genital mutilation, after controlling for significant covariates. The likelihood of early sexual initiation was high among AGYW aged 15-19 [OR=2.38, CI=2.26-2.51] but low among AGYW with secondary education [AOR=0.58, CI=0.54-0.63], those who had never married [OR=0.68, CI=0.60-0.78], those in households with richest wealth quintile [OR=0.64, CI=0.57-0.72], those who were exposed to mass media [OR=0.88, CI=0.83-0.93], and those working [OR=0.91, CI=0.87-0.96]. Not undergoing female genital mutilation in the midst of socio-economic factors (e.g., education level, household wealth) could limit AGYW from early sexual debut. These findings underscore the need for effective campaign and programs (e.g., educational programs, entrepreneurial training, micro-finance schemes) against the practice of female genital mutilation. Policy interventions (e.g., “schooling for the girl-child” initiatives) that might delay early sexual initiation among adolescent girls and young women in the midst of identified socio-economic factors should be developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0735.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Urology Keywords: Greek language; translation; acute cystitis symptom score; ACSS; cystitis; urinary tract infection; female pa-tients; diagnosis; patient-reported outcome
Online: 29 December 2020 (15:40:33 CET)
Objective: The Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS) was developed and validated as a self-reporting questionnaire for diagnosing and monitoring acute, uncomplicated cystitis (AC) in female patients. The study aims at the translation of the ACSS into Greek from original Russian as a source and American English as a new master version and at its linguistic validation. Material and Methods: Three independent professional native Greek translators, two of them experts in Russian and one in English, translated the ACSS from Russian and American English into Greek. The second group of three translators translated each of the three versions back into the original language to detect or correct any important discrepancies. These three Greek versions were then used for linguistic validation. Results: The English to Greek translation reflected more the spoken language, the two Russian to Greek translations more the written, formal language. A total of 60 randomly selected females and 30 healthcare professionals was asked about their preferences and to comment on each of the three translations. Considering all comments the scientific committee (SC) developed the Greek consensus version. For cognitive assessment additional 30 healthcare professionals and 30 females were asked to comment on the intelligibility of all items. Considering their comments the linguistically validated Greek study version was established by the SC. Conclusion: The linguistically validated Greek version of the ACSS can now be used for the clinical validation study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0398.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: 1α,25-dihydroxyvitaminD3; photoprotection; DNA damage; cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers; edema; photoimmune suppression; female vs male mice; ER-β knockout
Online: 16 December 2020 (08:49:22 CET)
Susceptibility to photoimmune suppression and photocarcinogenesis is greater in male than in female humans and mice and is exacerbated in female estrogen receptor-beta knockout (ER-β-/-) mice. We previously reported that the active vitamin D hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) applied topically protects against ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induction of cutaneous cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in female mice. Here we compare these responses in female versus male Skh:hr1 mice, in ER-β-/- versus wild type C57BL/6 mice, and in female ER-blockaded Skh:hr1 mice. Induction of CPDs was significantly greater in male than female Skh:hr1 mice and was more effectively reduced by 1,25(OH)2D in female Skh:hr1 and C57BL/6 mice, than in male Skh:hr1 or ER-β-/- mice respectively. This correlated with reduced sunburn inflammation by 1,25(OH)2D in female but not male Skh:hr1 mice. Furthermore, although 1,25(OH)2D alone dose-dependently suppressed basal CHS responses in male Skh:hr1 and ER-β-/- mice, UV-induced immunosuppression was universally observed. In female Skh:hr1 and C57BL/6 mice, the immunosuppression was decreased by 1,25(OH)2D dose-dependently, but not in male Skh:hr1, ER-β-/- or ER-blockaded mice. These results reveal a sex bias in genetic, inflammatory and immune photoprotection by 1,25(OH)2D favoring female mice, that is dependent on the presence of ER-β.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0021.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: excess winter mortality; influenza; latitude; gender; age; respiratory conditions; spatiotemporal effects; female; male; pandemics; seasons; ethnic groups; respiration disorders; coinfection
Online: 1 February 2021 (12:16:39 CET)
(1) Background: To investigate the dynamic issues behind international variation in EWM. (2) A rolling EWM calculation is used to reveal seasonal changes in the EWM calculation and is especially relevant nearer to the equator. (3) Results: In addition to latitude country specific factors determine EWM. Females generally show higher EWM mainly due to respiratory conditions. The EWM for respiratory conditions in England and Wales ranges from 44% to 83% which is about double the all-cause mortality equivalent. Age has a profound effect on EWM with a peak in puberty and then increasing EWM at old age. The gap between male and female EWM seems to act as a diagnostic tool reflecting the infectious/metrological mix in each winter. Additional difference due to ethnicity are also observed. An EWM equivalent calculation for sickness absence demonstrates how additional health-related variables can be linked to EWM. (4) Conclusions: EWM does not reach a peak at the same time each year, especially so in the tropics. Countries midway between the equator and the poles show highest EWM. Differences between the genders are highly significant and seem to vary according to the mix of variables active each winter. Pandemic influenza does not elevate EWM, although seasonal influenza plays a part each winter.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: preterm birth; oxidative stress; sex differences; male disadvantage; female advantage; bronchopulmonary dysplasia; retinopathy of prematurity; necrotizing enterocolitis; intraventricular hemorrhage; periventricular leukomalacia; mortality.
Online: 3 September 2021 (11:08:04 CEST)
A widely accepted concept is that boys are more susceptible than girls to oxidative stress related complications of prematurity, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). We aimed to quantify the effect size of this male disadvantage by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies exploring the association between sex and complications of prematurity. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were calculated by a random-effects model. Of 1365 potentially relevant studies, 41 met the inclusion criteria (625680 infants). Male sex was associated with decreased risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, fetal distress, and C-section, but increased risk of low Apgar score, intubation at birth, respiratory distress, surfactant use, pneumothorax, postnatal steroids, late onset sepsis, any NEC, NEC>stage 1 (RR 1.12, CI 1.06-1.18), any IVH, severe IVH (RR 1.28, CI 1.22-1.34), severe IVH or PVL, any BPD, moderate/severe BPD (RR 1.23, CI 1.18-1.27), severe ROP (RR 1.14, CI 1.07-1.22), and mortality (RR 1.23, CI 1.16-1.30). In conclusion, preterm boys have higher clinical instability and greater need for invasive interventions than preterm girls. This leads to a male disadvantage in mortality and short-term complications of prematurity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0388.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: phenotypic polymorphism; structural genomics; chromosomal inversion; supergene; functional genomics; hormonal plasticity; frequency-dependent selection; cryptic female choice of sperm; sexual selection; eco-evolutionary dynamics
Online: 30 March 2022 (10:15:55 CEST)
A few empirical examples document fixed alternative male mating strategies in animals. Here we focus on the polymorphism of male mating strategies in the ruff (Calidris pugnax, Aves Charadriiformes). In ruffs, three fixed alternative male mating strategies coexist and are signaled by extreme plumage polymorphism. We first present relevant data on the biology of the species. Then we review the available knowledge of the behavioral ecology of ruffs during the breeding season and we detail the characteristics of each of the three known fixed male mating strategies. We next turn to the exceptional quality results accumulated on both the structural and functional genomics of the ruff over the past few years. We show how much these genomic data can shed a new, mechanistic light on the evolution and maintenance of the three fixed alternative male mating strategies. We then look if there are sufficient indication to support frequency-dependent selection as key mechanism in maintaining these three strategies. Specifically, we search for evidences of equal fitness among individuals using each of the three strategies. Finally, we propose three lines of research avenues that will help to understand the eco-evolutionary dynamics of phenotypic differences within natural populations of this iconic model species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0059.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: deciduous forest; female; forest bathing; forest therapy; Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; Profile of Mood States; Restorative Outcome Scale; restoration; Shinrin-Yoku; snow covered forest; Subjective Vitality Scale; winter
Online: 5 August 2019 (08:56:32 CEST)
Forest recreation can be successfully conducted for the purpose of psychological relaxation, as has been proven in previous scientific studies. During the winter in many countries, when snow cover occurs frequently, forest recreation (walking, relaxation, photography, etc.) is common. Nevertheless, whether forest therapy conducted in a forest environment with a snow cover will also have a positive effect on psychological indicators remains unknown. Furthermore, male subjects frequently participate in forest therapy experiments, whereas females are rarely involved. Thus, in this study, the effectuality of forest recreation during winter and with snow cover was tested on 32 young females. For these reasons, the experiment involved 15-minute periods of relaxation in a forest environment or in an urban environment, in addition to a pre-test under indoor conditions. Four psychological questionnaires (POMS, PANAS, ROS, SVS) were administered to participants before and after interventions. Results showed that participants’ levels of negative mood, as measured by different aspects of the POMS questionnaire (tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, depression-dejection, confusion, fatigue), decreased after exposure to the forest environment. In contrast, both tension-anxiety and anger-hostility increased in the urban environment. The indicator of negative affect from the PANAS questionnaire also increased after exposure to the urban environment, whereas the indicator of positive affect based on PANAS was higher in the forest environment than in the urban environment. Restorativeness and subjective vitality exhibited higher values after exposure to the forest environment in comparison to those from the control and pre-test. The changes in these indicators demonstrates that forest recreation in the snow during winter can significantly increase psychological relaxation in young females, as well as showing that recreation can be successfully conducted under these winter conditions.