ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0100.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: feed-forward loop (FFL); cAMP receptor protein (CRP); transcriptional factor (TF).
Online: 6 June 2018 (16:00:56 CEST)
The feed-forward loop (FFL) is an important and basic network motif to understand specific biological functions. Cyclic-AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP), a transcription factor (TF), mediates catabolite repression and regulates more than 400 genes in response to changes in intracellular concentrations of cAMP in Escherichia coli. CRP participates in some FFLs like araBAD and araFGH operons and adapt to fluctuating environmental nutrients thus enhancing the survivability of E. coli. Although computational simulations have been used to explore the potential functionality of FFLs, a comprehensive study of the functions of all structural types based on in vivo data is lacking. Also, the regulatory role of CRP-mediated feed-forward loops (CRP-FFLs) remain unclear to date. Using EcoCyc and RegulonDB, we identified 393 CRP-FFLs in the E. coli. Dose-response genomic microarray of E. coli revealed dynamic gene expression of each target gene of CRP-FFLs in response to a range of cAMP dosages. All eight types of FFLs were present in CRP regulon with various expression patterns of each CRP-FFL, that were further divided into five functional groups. Microarray and reported regulatory relationships identified 202 CRP-FFLs which were directly regulated by CRP in these eight types of FFLs. Interestingly, 30% (147/482) of genes were directly regulated by CRP and CRP-regulated TFs, indicating that these CRP-regulated genes were also regulated by other CRP-regulated TFs responding to environmental signals through CRP-FFLs. Furthermore, we applied gene ontology annotation to reveal the biological functions of CRP-FFLs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0379.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: surgical simulator training; individual performance trend; speed-accuracy function; automatic detection; performance feed-back
Online: 17 October 2018 (08:40:08 CEST)
Simulator training for image-guided surgical interventions may benefit from artificial intelligence systems that control the evolution of task skills in terms of time and precision of a trainee's performance on the basis of fully automatic feed-back systems. At the earliest stages of training, novice trainees frequently focus on getting faster at the task, and may thereby compromise the optimal evolution of the precision of their performance. For automatically guiding them towards attaining an optimal speed-accuracy trade-off, an effective control system for the reinforcement/correction of strategies must be able to exploit the right individual performance criteria in the right way, reliably detect individual performance trends at any given moment in time, and alert the trainee, as early as necessary, when to slow down and focus on precision, or when to focus on getting faster. This article addresses several aspects of this challenge for speed-accuracy controlled simulator training before any training on specific surgical tasks or clinical models should be envisaged. Analyses of individual learning curves from the simulator training sessions of novices and benchmark performance data of one expert surgeon, who had no specific training in the simulator task, validate the suggested approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0131.v1
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:22:24 CET)
A 52-day experiment was conducted to determine the crude protein (CP) requirements of juvenile matrinxã Brycon amazonicus, and to evaluate their resulting growth performance, hematological parameters and enzymatic activities. Sixty fish (29.03g ± 1.16g) were distributed in 12 tanks (310 L) with a completely randomized design, and maintained at four dietary crude protein levels (270, 320, 350, 390 g.kg-1) for 52 days. The results revealed that the fish fed diet 390 g.kg-1 CP had the best final weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio and lipid retention rate. The same could be stated for hematocrit, number of circulating erythrocytes, triglycerides and total proteins of the hematological profile (p<0.05). In the whole body composition, dry matter content was lower in the fish fed 390 g.kg-1 CP, while lipid content was higher in the fish fed 350-390 g.kg-1 CP (p<0.05). No differences were observed in CP and ash (p>0.05), or in the activities of digestive enzymes (p>0.05). In short, our findings suggest benefits of the 390 g.kg-1 CP feed for being the most adequate for this species’ juvenile stage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0400.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Jerusalem artichoke; green mass; tubers; feed value
Online: 24 December 2021 (10:58:03 CET)
Being a valuable source of inulin, fructose and pectin, Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is one of the most promising bioenergy crops for common usage. Animals have been reported to eat both Jerusalem artichoke green mass and tubers with pleasure. On the one hand, Jerusalem artichoke is cultivated on the area of about 3 thousand hectares in Russia. On the other hand, there are more than 200 crop species. So it is critical to choose a proper variety suitable both for soil and climatic conditions. The purpose of the research is to study Jerusalem artichoke, taking into account varietal characteristics appropriate for forage production. Research objects – varieties of Jerusalem artichoke: early ripening Skorospelka (RF); mid-early Vylgortskiy (RF); mid-season Dieticheskiy (RF), Kaluzhskiy (RF), Korenevskiy (RF), Nadezhda (RF), Nakhodka (RF), Podmoskovniy (RF), Sireniki (RB), Blank Brekos (France), Violet de Rense (France); late ripening Interest (RF), Interest 21 (RF), Novosti VIRa (RF), Tadzhikskiy Krasniy (USSR), Spindle (Germany). The soil for evaluating Jerusalem artichoke varieties was from experimental plot base "Korenevo". It is characterized as sod-slightly podzolic sandy loam. The field trial was established and the records and observations were carried out in accordance with the requirements of the field experiment methodology (1985), and the Program and methodology for evaluating Jerusalem artichoke varieties in test nurseries (2014). The varieties Vylgortskiy, Dieticheskiy, Nadezhda, Nakhodka, Sireniki, Skorospelka, Blank Brekos and Kaluzhskiy were found to reach due height of 155 - 170 cm at the end of the growing season; the varieties Podmoskovniy, Interest reached proper height of 175 - 208 cm; the varieties Interest 21, Tadzhikskiy and Violet de Rense were about 220 - 235 cm in hight; as for the varieties Korenevskiy, Novost VIRa, Spindlу their hight was 270 - 280 cm. According to aggregate amount of feed units per 1 ha, the following varieties have been shown to be the most reasonable for fodder production: Novost VIRa (22,438 fodder units), Nadezhda (19,928 fodder units), Korenevskiy (17,798 fodder units), Shpindle (16,887 fodder units), Dieticheskiy (16,395 fodder units), and Interest (16,116 fodder units). The highest total coefficient of energy efficiency has been found in the following varieties: Novost VIRa – 3.09, Tadzhikskiy – 2.78; Spindle – 2.68; Korenevskiy – 2.43; Interest – 2.10; Skorospelka – 1.98. The results of experimental and theoretical studies obtained were verified on-the-farm conditions based on a seed-speciality farm LLC Kaluga-Agro (the Kaluga region) and demonstrated beneficial effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0239.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Probiotics; Canine; Lactobacilli; Feed supplementation; Infectious diseases
Online: 12 July 2021 (10:13:26 CEST)
Antibiotics are commonly used to treat infectious diseases. However, massive and inappropriate antibiotics usage cause many problems including the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. To avoid this issue, in modern countries the interest of using probiotics in feed supplementation to promote health and prevent or treat intestinal infectious diseases in companion animals like dogs has been increasing. We evaluate the probiotic potential of Lactobacilli isolated from healthy dogs faeces. The isolated Lactobacilli were first confirmed by 16SrRNA sequencing, then in vitro tests were conducted to assess survival potential of Lactobacilli under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and adhesion ability to gut epithelia, effects on epithelial barrier function, anti-inflammatory activities, effects on defensin peptides (beta-defensin 3) and inhibitory effects on common pathogens. Lactobacilli showed considerable potential to survive in simulated gastrointestinal environmental conditions, low pH, high bile salt concentrations along with good adhesion properties with MODE-K cells. Pathogenic bacterial growth and their adhesion to MODE-K cells was significantly inhibited by Lactobacilli. Real-time PCR analyses further demonstrated that L. acidophilus strain AR1 and AR3 inhibit Salmonella-induced proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, 1ꞵ) production and reinforce expression of tight junction protein (occludin). None of the strain induce mRNA expression of beta-defensin 3 in MODE-K cells. Based on in vitro results the L. acidophilus strain AR1 has potential to be supplemented in canine feed. However, further in vivo studies investigating health-promoting effects are awaited.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0238.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: residual feed consumption; quail; high environmental temperature
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:22:21 CEST)
Three hundred ten 12-wek-old laying quails (155 each) were randomly selected from the initial population and kept in individual battery cages. The measurements of growth and egg production were determined to derive RFI. The relationship between RFI and egg quality, blood parameters and carcass characteristics was also determined. The results indicated that the gray quails had significantly higher egg mass and lower broken eggs compared to the white quails. A significant increase for eggshell strength and shell % was found in eggs produced from gray quails compared to white counterparts, although the shell thickness was the same. The results of multiple regression analysis clearly identified a significant effect of metabolic body weight and egg mass in computing expected feed intake rather than body weight gain in both varieties of Japanese quails. Strongly positive correlation between RFI and feed intake in both gray and white quail varieties was found. The same trend was also observed for feed conversion ratio (FCR). Therefore, including RFI in selection criteria of Japanese quail to improve FCR under high environmental temperature is highly recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0711.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: co-expression network; residual feed intake; RNA-Seq
Online: 30 July 2020 (09:39:36 CEST)
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) can regulate several aspects of gene expression, being associated with complex phenotypes in humans and livestock species. In taurine beef cattle, recent evidence points to the involvement of lncRNA in feed efficiency (FE), a proxy for increased productivity and sustainability. Here, we hypothesized specific regulatory roles of lncRNA in FE of indicine cattle. Using RNA-Seq data from liver, muscle, hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland from Nellore bulls with divergent FE, we submitted new transcripts to a series of filters to confidently predict lncRNA. Then, we identified lncRNA that were differentially expressed (DE) and/or key regulators of FE. Finally, we explored lncRNA genomic location and interactions with miRNA and mRNA to infer potential function. We were able to identify 126 relevant lncRNA for FE in Bos indicus, some with high homology to previously identified lncRNA in Bos taurus and some possible specific regulators of FE in indicine cattle. Moreover, lncRNA identified here were linked to previously described mechanisms related to FE in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and are expected to help elucidate this complex phenotype. This study contributes to expanding the catalogue of lncRNA, particularly in indicine cattle, and identifies candidates for further studies in animal selection and management.
Subject: Keywords: broiler; feed additives; LC–MS/MS; meat legislation; meat safety; poultry meat; veterinary drugs
Online: 22 September 2021 (12:13:55 CEST)
Brazil chicken production is around 13 million tons and about a third is exported to over 150 countries, placing Brazil as the world largest chicken meat producer, and therefore it is crucial to follow the legislation of all importer markets. This study conducted a survey by chance in 45 meat industries able to export. Therefore, 2580 chicken meat samples were collected and submitted to 11 analyte extraction and chromatographic verification of compliance in an accredited laboratory. Ten chemical residues (amoxicillin, bacitracin, colistin, dinitolmide + zoalene, spectinomycin, roxarsone, tiamulin, tylosin, trenbolone acetate and virginiamycin) were investigated in chicken meat and one (halofuginone hydrobromide) in chicken liver. The results showed that no compound exceeded the maximum residue limits established by seven legislations. All residue concentrations found were below the method quantification limit, thereby confirming the capability of Brazilian chicken meat industries in complying to foreign markets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0005.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: oleic acid; acorn feed ham; gut microbiota; ulcerative colitis
Online: 1 March 2019 (08:42:26 CET)
Background: Diets based on meat products are not recommended in the case of ulcerative colitis (UC). However, some foods, as those containing high oleic acid and a low omega-6/omega-3 ratio show anti-inflammatory properties. The objective here is to test if some traditional cured meat products, as acorn-fed ham (high levels of oleic acid), may be useful for controlling inflammatory diseases as UC in animal models. Methods: 3 rat cohorts have been used: vegetable rat feed, control ham and acorn-fed ham (a traditional ham where high oleic acid concentration from acorns is storage in the muscle fat). UC was induced with DSS in drinking water ad libitum for one week. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and 16S rRNA from bacterial populations were analyzed in cecum samples. Colon samples were analyzed for histological parameters (inflammatory cell density, mucosa damages, myeloperoxidase). Results: In the acorn-fed ham cohort, a protective effect was observed with respect to UC disease activity index, inflammatory cells density, colon mucosa alterations, myeloperoxidase levels, blood total antioxidant capacity and lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, in comparison with feed cohort. Both ham diets caused a reduction in Firmicutes and an increase in Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria in comparison with rat feed diet. Also, acorn-fed ham diet induced changes in gut microbiota composition, with pronounced enrichments in anti-inflammatory bacterial genera such as Alistipes, Bacteroides, Blautia, Butyricimonas and Parabacteroides. Conclusions: In the acorn-fed ham cohort, as a result of the dietary intake of oleic acid and low intake of omega-6 fatty acids, a strong preventive effect against UC symptoms was observed, indicating a valuable effect of this traditional Mediterranean cured meat product.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0129.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: semi-active suspension; feed energy; parameter optimization; genetic algorithm
Online: 19 December 2017 (06:53:01 CET)
In order to coordinate the damping performance and energy regenerative performance of energy regenerative suspension, this paper proposes a structure of vehicle semi-active energy regenerative suspension with electro-hydraulic actuator (EHA). In light of the proposed concept, a specific energy regenerative scheme is designed and the mechanical properties test is carried out. Based on the test results, the parameter identification for the system model is conducted using recursive least squares algorithm. On the basis of system principle, the nonlinear model of the semi-active energy regenerative suspension with EHA is built. Meanwhile, LQG control strategy of the system is designed. And then the influence of the main parameters of EHA on the damping performance and energy regenerative performance of suspension is analyzed. Finally, the main parameters of EHA actuator are optimized via genetic algorithm. The test results show that when sinusoidal is input at the frequency of 2Hz and the amplitude of 30mm, the spring mass acceleration RMS value of optimized EHA semi-active energy regenerative suspension is reduced by 22.23% and energy regenerative power RMS value is increased by 40.51%, which means while meeting the requirements of certain vehicle ride comfort and driving safety, energy regenerative performance is improved significantly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0233.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: lignocellulosic substrate; pre-treatment; microalgae/cyanobacteria; biogas; problems; animal feed
Online: 10 August 2020 (03:46:14 CEST)
Modern day civilization is dependent on energy generation by fossil fuels. But the major drawback of using fossil fuels is environmental pollution. Microalgae are potential candidate for production of various products of interest, such as proteins, mini food, pigments and triglycerides that can be converted into biofuels. Lignocellulosic feedstocks are the most abundantly available raw material of plants that can serve as a promising feedstock for cultivating bacteria, fungi, yeasts and microalgae to produce biofuels and other value-added products. Owing to the abundant availability of these low/no cost substrates, can be utilized as feedstocks for cultivating microalgae to generate biogas/biodiesel. Likewise, there is much room to exploit defatted algal biomass to be used as animal/fish feed and oil producing/accumulating genes knowledge in future to produce high and good quality biodiesel and biogas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0454.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: feed efficiency; Nile tilapia; paring coconut and candlenut; plant oils; selenium
Online: 19 May 2021 (17:04:02 CEST)
This study aims to get growth and feed efficiency of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with plant oils supplement from paring coconut (P.C.) and candlenut (C.N.) enrichment of Se in rations formula. The oil of P.C. was dominated by saturated fatty acid (SFA) lauric (42.67%), while the extract of C.N. was unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), linoleic (34.4%), and oleic (48.99%). The extract of P.C. and C.N. or mix oils added 4% in basal ration formula (28% crude protein (C.P.) with energy-protein ratio 8 kcal/kg). Completely Randomized Design (6 × 3) consists R1: basal ration; R2: basal formula with blend of paring coconut and candlenut oils (2% PC + 2% CN); R3: blend oils (R2) with trace additive Se; R4: 4% PC + Se; R5: 4% CN + Se; R6: control ration (32% CP). The result of production parameters showed that blend oils supplement enrichment Se 0.15 ppm in feed formula with ratio SFA: UFA = 1: 1 was the best growth rate equal with high protein feed. Feed efficiency ranged from 50.14-57.93% and protein efficiency ratio 1.72-2.06 both for CN oil (SFA: UFA = 1 : 2), paring coconut (SFA : UFA = 2 : 1) or blend oils (SFA : UFA = 1 : 1). Incorporation of blend oils with Se can be used for Nile tilapia fingerlings (≥ 10 g). Paring coconut oil was trend increasing on feed efficiency for tilapia bigger stadium (≥ 30 g).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0408.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: VLBI; Geodesy; Radioastronomy; Radiotelescope; Receiver; Radiometer; Feed; Backend; Correlation; VGOS; RFI
Online: 31 December 2019 (10:27:51 CET)
This paper shows the development of a simultaneous tri-band (S: 2.2 - 2.7 GHz, X: 7.5 - 9 GHz and Ka: 28 - 33 GHz) low-noise cryogenic receiver for geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (geo-VLBI) which has been developed by the technical staff of Yebes Observatory (IGN) laboratories in Spain. The receiver was installed in the first radio telescope of the Red Atlántica de Estaciones Geodinámicas y Espaciales (RAEGE) project, which is located in Yebes Observatory, in the frame of the VLBI Global Observing System (VGOS). After this, the receiver was borrowed by the Norwegian Mapping Autorithy (NMA) for the commissioning of two VGOS radiotelescopes in Svalbard (Norway). A second identical receiver was built for the Ishioka VGOS station of the Geospatial Information Authority (GSI) of Japan, and a third one for the second RAEGE VGOS station, located in Santa María (Açores Archipelago, Portugal). The average receiver noise temperatures are 21, 23 and 25 Kelvin and the measured antenna efficiencies are 70%, 75% and 60% in S-band, X-band and Ka-band, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0194.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: coherent optical detection; optical fiber communication; carrier phase recovery; feed-back and feed-forward; laser phase noise; equalization enhanced phase noise; n-level phase shift keying
Online: 23 August 2016 (10:40:19 CEST)
Using coherent optical detection and digital signal processing, laser phase noise and equalization enhanced phase noise can be effectively mitigated using the feed-forward and feed-back carrier phase recovery approaches. In this paper, theoretical analyses of feed-back and feed-forward carrier phase recovery methods have been carried out in the long-haul high-speed n-level phase shift keying (n-PSK) optical fiber communication systems, involving a one-tap normalized least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm, a block-wise average algorithm, and a Viterbi-Viterbi algorithm. The analytical expressions for evaluating the estimated carrier phase and for predicting the bit-error-rate (BER) performance (such as the BER floors) have been presented and discussed in the n-PSK coherent optical transmission systems by considering both the laser phase noise and the equalization enhanced phase noise. The results indicate that the Viterbi-Viterbi carrier phase recovery algorithm outperforms the one-tap normalized LMS and the block-wise average algorithms for small phase noise variance (or effective phase noise variance), while the one-tap normalized LMS algorithm shows a better performance than the other two algorithms for large phase noise variance (or effective phase noise variance). In addition, the one-tap normalized LMS algorithm is more sensitive to the level of modulation formats.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0057.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: enteric methane; ruminants; mitigation; rumen; adoption; cost effectiveness; methanogenesis inhibition; feed additives
Online: 5 September 2022 (10:29:25 CEST)
This paper analyzes the mitigation of enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants with the use of feed additives inhibiting of rumen methanogenesis to limit global temperature increase to 1.5 °C. A mathematical simulation conducted herein predicted that pronounced inhibition of rumen methanogenesis with pure chemicals or bromoform-containing algae can contribute to limit global temperature increase by 2050 to 1.5 °C only if widely adopted at a global level and considering an efficacy higher than obtained in most studies. Currently, the most important limitations to the adoption of antimethanogenic feed additives are probably increased feeding cost without a consistent return in production efficiency, and achieving sustained delivery of inhibitors to the rumens of non-supplemented, extensively ranging animals. Economic incentives, and changes in rumen microbial metabolism caused by inhibiting methanogenesis, could potentially be used to make the methanogenesis inhibition intervention cost effective. Also, the composition of the methanogenic community, and rate of disappearance of inhibitors of methanogenesis in the rumen can influence the effective dose of the inhibitors, and hence the cost of their adoption. Possible means for sustained delivery of antimethanogenic compounds to extensively grazing animals are discussed. Limitations and knowledge gaps of these approaches, and future research directions, are examined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0503.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: oily wastewater; ceramic membrane; fouling mitigation; fouling resistance; periodic feed pressure technique
Online: 30 August 2022 (04:01:08 CEST)
Fouling represents a bottleneck problem for promoting the use of membranes in filtration and separation applications. It becomes even more persistent when it comes to the filtration of fluid emulsions. In this case, a gel-like layer that combines droplets, impurities, salts, and other materials form at the membrane's surface, blocking its pores. It is, therefore, a privilege to combat fouling by minimizing the accumulation of these droplets that work as seeds for other incoming droplets to cluster and coalesce with. In this work, we explore the use of the newly developed and novel periodic feed pressure technique (PFPT) in combating the fouling of ceramic membranes upon the filtration of oily water systems. The PFPT is based on alternating the applied transmembrane pressure (TMP) between the operating one and zero. A PFPT cycle is composed of a filtration half-cycle and a cleaning half-cycle. Permeation occurs when the TMP is set at its working value, while the cleaning occurs when it is zero. Three PFPT patterns were examined over two feeds of oily water systems with oil contents of 100 and 200ppm, respectively. The results show that the PFPT is very effective in minimizing the problem of fouling compared to a non-PFPT normal filtration. Furthermore, the overall drops in permeate flux during the cleaning half cycles are compensated by appreciable enhancement due to the significant elimination of fouling development such that the overall production of filtered water is even increased. Inspection of the internal surface of the membrane post rinsing at the end of the experiment proves that all PFPT cycles maintained the ceramic membranes as clean after a 2-hours operation. This can ensure a prolonged lifespan of the ceramic membrane use and a continuous greater permeate volume production. The advantage of the PFPT is that it can be implemented on existing units with minimal modification, ease of operation, and saving energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0454.v2
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: food waste recovery; maggot production; environmental protection; animal feed; solid waste management
Online: 24 January 2022 (14:16:03 CET)
Waste recovery is an important aspect towards human and environmental health protection. Unfortunately, proper food waste management is among the serious challenges in the field of solid waste management worldwide. Therefore, it is of great importance to conduct studies towards achieving efficient and cost-effective approaches for food waste management. This study investigated the potential of recovering food waste through maggots’ production as animal feed. The influence of fly attractant application on maggot production was also investigated. The study also investigated the potential of maggot production for waste recovery and reduction. Four different types of food waste (starch food leftovers, rotten bananas and peels, rotten pineapple and peels, and rotten oranges) were used in the investigation process. From the results, it was observed that the application of fly attractants had a significant effect on the production of maggots as determined by the weights after harvesting. Average weight of 94 g/kg of maggot was achieved from banana materials with an application of fly attractant during the 8th day of the cultivation; which is equivalent to a 32.4% increase from the same day when the material was cultured without applying fly attractant. Also, from the starch materials, about 77 g/kg of maggot weight was achieved; which is a 54.6% increase from the same day and the same material but without application of fly attractant. Moreover, the relative dry weight reduction in the trials varied from 52.5% to 82.4%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0202.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Napier grass; elephant grass; EMBRAPA; forage yield; feed quality; marker trait association
Online: 15 February 2020 (15:01:37 CET)
The evaluation of forage crops for adaptability and performance across production systems and environments is one of the main strategies used to improve forage production. To enhance the genetic resource base and identify traits responsible for increased feed potential of Napier grass, forty-five genotypes from EMBRAPA, Brazil, were evaluated for forage biomass yield and feed nutritional quality in a replicated trial under wet and dry season conditions in Ethiopia. The results revealed significant variation in forage yield and feed nutritional qualities among the genotypes and between the wet and dry seasons. Feed fibre components were lower in the dry season while crude protein, in vitro organic matter digestibility and metabolizable energy were higher. Based on the cumulative biomass yield and metabolizable energy yield, top performing genotypes were identified that are candidates for future forage improvement studies. Furthermore, the marker-trait association study identified diagnostic SNP and SilicoDArT markers and potential candidate genes that could differentiate high biomass yielding and high metabolizable energy genotypes in the collection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0199.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Adama Ⅰ Wind Farm; SRF; Feed forward control; Voltage Sag; DVR; MATLAB-Simulink
Online: 10 August 2022 (09:46:15 CEST)
Rising sensitivity of the loads with respect to power quality has grown-up the consideration of power system study and power quality enhancement systems. The fluctuation of voltage outside the normal working range due to faults may lead to unsuitable interruption of wind turbines. This thesis present 1.5MW grid connected Adama Ⅰ Wind Farm in Ethiopia with the objectives to capture the optimal power from the wind and ensure voltage source for sensitive load. This paper deals with the effective voltage sag mitigation and Harmonic distortion effectively met IEEE 519-1992 standard under all Phase to ground fault compensation by using Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), to regulate the terminal voltage of the wind farm and safe operation of sensitive load. The DVR utilizes a feed forward control-based algorithm to generate PWM. The simulation results are going to be carried out by MATLAB-Simulink to verify the operation and effectiveness of DVR during balanced voltage sag and swell conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0117.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: decision trees; deep feed-forward network; neural trees; consistency; optimal rate of convergence
Online: 9 November 2021 (16:54:30 CET)
Decision tree algorithms have been among the most popular algorithms for interpretable (transparent) machine learning since the early 1980s. On the other hand, deep learning methods have boosted the capacity of machine learning algorithms and are now being used for non-trivial applications in various applied domains. But training a fully-connected deep feed-forward network by gradient-descent backpropagation is slow and requires arbitrary choices regarding the number of hidden units and layers. In this paper, we propose near-optimal neural regression trees, intending to make it much faster than deep feed-forward networks and for which it is not essential to specify the number of hidden units in the hidden layers of the neural network in advance. The key idea is to construct a decision tree and then simulate the decision tree with a neural network. This work aims to build a mathematical formulation of neural trees and gain the complementary benefits of both sparse optimal decision trees and neural trees. We propose near-optimal sparse neural trees (NSNT) that is shown to be asymptotically consistent and robust in nature. Additionally, the proposed NSNT model obtain a fast rate of convergence which is near-optimal up to some logarithmic factor. We comprehensively benchmark the proposed method on a sample of 80 datasets (40 classification datasets and 40 regression datasets) from the UCI machine learning repository. We establish that the proposed method is likely to outperform the current state-of-the-art methods (random forest, XGBoost, optimal classification tree, and near-optimal nonlinear trees) for the majority of the datasets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0567.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: post-extraction residues; fir wood greenery; bioconversion; protein feed additive; Pleurotus pulmonarius; chemical composition
Online: 27 January 2021 (16:05:16 CET)
The effectiveness of forest resources depends on the comprehensiveness and rationality of their consumption and processing into finished products. This article discusses a problem of utilising solid fir wood greenery residues generated during the industrial production of essential oils. Bioconversion is considered to be the most promising utilization method. The objective of this research was to study the chemical composition of bioconversion products of fir wood greenery-based substrates. The РР-3.2 strain of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél was used as a biodestructor. In the process of bioconversion, the contents of polysaccharides and lignin substances is reduced to 38 and 28 % respectively. Up to 20 % of protein accumulates in bioconversion products of fir wood greenery. The amount of nucleic acids is not more than 1.5 g per 1 kg, the contents of heavy metals, such as mercury, cadmium, arsenic, lead, do not exceed maximum permissible concentration standards. The substrate weight loss reaches 15 %. When fallen leaves and post-extraction poplar bud residues are added to the substrate, the substrate-destroying activity of fungi rises, as well as the protein content increases by 3 %. The digestibility of products as a result of bioconversion increases 1.6–2.8 times depending on the substrate composition. The obtained data enable to recommend post-fermented substrates based on fir wood greenery and balsam poplar biomass for use as a protein feed additive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0050.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Nigella sativa; Curcuma longa; Pasteurella multocida; feed conversion ratio; gross pathological changes; histopathological changes
Online: 2 November 2020 (14:34:20 CET)
The antibiotic residues and pathogenic resistance against the drug are very common in poultry due to usage of antibiotics in their feed. It is the need of the time to use natural feed additives as effective alternatives instead of synthetic antibiotic. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune response of Nigella sativa and Curcuma longa in broilers under biological stress against Pasteurella multocida. The total 100, one-day old chicks were divided into 5 groups. The Groups 1 and 2 were served as control negative and control positive. Both control groups were receiving simple diet without any natural feed additives but infection was given in Group 2 at day 28 with the dose of 5.14×107 CFU by IV. Groups 3A & 3B were offered 2% seed powder of Nigella sativa, Groups 4A & 4B were offered Curcuma longa 1% in powdered form and Group 5A & 5B were offered both Curcuma longa 1% & Nigella sativa 2% in feed from day 1 and groups 3B, 4B and 5B were challenged with Pasteurella multocida. The Haemagglutination inhibition titter against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), feed conversion ratio, mortality, gross and histopathology were studied. The results of this study revealed that haemagglutination inhibition titers against NDV were highly significant (P< 0.05) in treated groups, highest titers (3A 6.8, 3B 6.4 and 5A 7.2) were obtained from treated Group. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) of Nigella sativa + Curcuma longa treated Groups (5A 1.57 and 3A 1.76) were higher as compared to other non-treated groups. The gross and histopathological changes were much severe in control positive, but less changes were seen in treated groups. Therefore, we recommend that natural feed additives; black cumin (Nigella sativa) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) act as immune enhancer in broilers against Pasteurella multocida.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0509.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Extrusion-Based Additive Manufacturing; 3D Printing; Feed of Filament; Curvilinear Path; Variable Stiffness Composites.
Online: 22 September 2020 (04:21:16 CEST)
The extrusion-based additive manufacturing is a popular fabrication method, which has attracted the attention of various industries due to its simplicity, cheapness, ability to produce complex geometric shapes, and high production speed. One of the effective parameters in this process is the feed of filament that is presented in the production G-code. The feed of filament is calculated according to the layer height, the extrusion width and the length of printing path. All the required motion paths and filling patterns created by commercial software are a set of straight lines or circular arcs that are placed next to each other at a fixed distance. In special curved paths, the distance of adjacent ones is not equal at different points, and due to the weakness of common commercial software, it is not possible to create curved paths for proper printing. Therefore, making a special computer code that can be used to create various functions of curved paths is investigated in this research, and also the feed of filament parameter is studied in detail. Next, by introducing a correction technique, the feed of filament is changed during the curved path to distribute the polymer material uniformly. Finally, composite samples (which have variable stiffness) consisting of curved fibers are produced with the proposed method, and the high quality of printed samples confirm the suggested code and technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0137.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Taihe silky fowl; metabolic components; un-targeted metabolome; breed and feed; biosynthesis of amino acids
Online: 15 April 2022 (05:47:06 CEST)
Chinese Taihe Black-bone silky fowl (TBsf) is the homology of medicine and food and has high nutritional and medical value all over the world. However, the nutritional compositions and specific metabolite advantages of Taihe silky fowl muscle are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the differences of nutritional components between TBsf and another similar breed (Black Feathered chicken and laid green-shelled eggs, BF-gsc). Meanwhile, we also explored the divergences in muscle characteristics of Taihe silky fowl fed with two different diets, that is normal chicken feed (TBsf-ncf) and Broussonetia papyrifera-fermented feed (TBsf-bpf). Firstly, the growth performance and biochemical index of Taihe silky fowl was significantly different compared with black-feathered chicken. Secondly, we identified the metabolic alterations in Taihe silky fowl by performing an un-targeted UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis. Our results suggested that the whole metabonomic characteristics had obvious separation between TBsf-ncf, TBsf-bpf and BF-gsc groups both in the positive and negative ion mode by PCA analysis. Next, OPLS-DA multivariate analysis revealed that 57 metabolites (in positive mode) and 49 metabolites (in negative mode) were identified as differential metabolites between TBsf-ncf and BF-gsc group. These differential metabolites were mainly enriched to ABC transporters, biosynthesis of amino acids and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis. Besides, there were 47 metabolites (in positive) and 13 metabolites (in negative) were differentially regulated between TBsf-ncf and TBsf-bpf group, which were majorly involved in histidine metabolism and linoleic metabolism. Furthermore, the integrated network analysis suggested that DL-arginine, DL-isoleucine, linoleoylcarnitine, stearoylcarnitine (positive) and ricionleic acid, D-proline, uric acid (negative) were the significantly metabolic biomarkers in Taihe silky fowl. Moreover, the metabolites of primaquine, ticlpoidine, riboflavin, acetylcarnitine (positive) and salicylic acid, acetaminophen sulfate, glutamic acid (negative) were markedly changed in the Taihe silky fowl fed with BP-fermented feed. In summary, a global survey of the nutritional components and metabolite differences were performed in muscle tissues of Taihe silky fowl between various breeds and feeds. The comprehensive expression profiles of the metabolites in Taihe silky fowl affected by genetic and environmental factors were acquired. This study provided valuable evidence fo breed and feed-induced putative biomarkers as well as improved the economic value of Taihe silky fowl through targeted metabolite regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0046.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: feed-in management; frequency domain; inertial energy; inertial response; power control; synthetic inertia; wind turbine
Online: 5 June 2019 (16:10:07 CEST)
This paper presents findings of a study on continuous feed-in management and continuous synthetic inertia contribution with wind turbines. A realistic case study, based on real measurements, is outlined. A wind turbine feeds into a weak feeder, such that its power has to be adapted to the permissible loading of this feeder. At the same time the wind turbine is to provide inertia to the grid by applying the previously published variable inertia constant controller. It is discussed that optimal grid utilisation and simultaneous inertia contribution are mandatory for the frequency control in power systems that are heavily penetrated with renewable energies. The study shows that continuous feed-in management can be combined well with continuous inertia provision. There are hardly any negative consequences for the wind turbine. The benefits for the grid are convincing, both in terms of increased system utilisation and in terms of provided inertia. It is concluded that wind turbines can enhance angular stability in a power system to a larger extent than conventional power plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: physical layer security (PLS); cooperative relay transmission; non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA); fuzzy logic; feed forward neural networks (FFNN); secrecy capacity
Online: 2 December 2019 (04:30:17 CET)
Cooperative non-orthogonal multi access communication is a promising paradigm for the future wireless networks because of its advantages in terms of energy efficiency, wider coverage and interference mitigating. In this paper, we study the secrecy performance of a downlink cooperative non-orthogonal multi access (NOMA) communication system under the presence of an eavesdropper node. Smart node selection based on feed forward neural networks (FFNN) is proposed in order to improve the physical layer security (PLS) of a cooperative NOMA network. The selected cooperative relay node is employed to enhance the channel capacity of the legal users, where the selected cooperative jammer is employed to degrade the capacity of the wiretapped channel. Simulations of the secrecy performance metric namely the secrecy capacity ($C_S$) are presented and compared with the conventional technique based on fuzzy logic node selection technique. Based on our simulations and discussions the proposed technique outperforms the existing technique in term the of secrecy performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: piezoelectric cantilever energy harvester 1; autonomous 2; adaptive 3; self-powered 4; voltage doubler interface circuit 5; closed loop control 6; feed-forward 7; multi-shot technology 8
Online: 12 January 2017 (10:45:23 CET)
The abundant mechanical vibration energy in bridge road environment can be converted into electric energy by using the piezoelectric energy harvest technology, which could be an efficient way to provide energy required by the wireless sensor network in the bridge condition monitoring system. An autonomous energy harvesting system has been designed based on cantilever beams for sensing and acquiring the bridge vibration energy. After the analysis of the dynamic properties of the piezoelectric cantilever beam in the energy conversion, three kinds of interface circuits were compared through simulation and experimental results. It was shown that the VD interface circuit has less power loss. Furthermore, the proposed closed loop control method based on the VD circuit was simple, adaptive, and self-powered, which is suitable for the road energy harvesting application. Finally, the energy harvesting system based on VD circuit was realized with harvested power of around 0.8mW.