ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0055.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Barhi date palm kernels (BDPK); non-extractable polyphenols (NEPP); anticancer activity; antioxidant activity; response surface methodology; optimisation.
Online: 3 July 2019 (09:23:01 CEST)
Dietary polyphenols exist in two forms; extractable polyphenols (EPP) or compounds solubilised by aqueous/organic solvents, and non-extractable polyphenols (NEPP) or compounds remain in the corresponding residues after the extraction. At present, most researchers focus on EEP fractions, while NEPP is neglected. Thus, this study aimed to release NEPP from the remaining powder residue of Barhi date palm kernels (BDPK) with acid hydrolysis. The related extraction conditions were determined and optimised using response surface methodology (RSM) for maximisation of NEPP with highest cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. The face-centred central composite design (FCCCD) was used to establish treatments based on three independent variables, namely; extraction temperature, time, and solvent/sample ratio. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental values for DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of NEPP (IC50=57.52µg/mL), and cytotoxicity of NEPP against A549 and HT29 cells were IC50=17.4 µg/mL and 31.4µg/mL, respectively. The experimental values were in agreement with those predicted by RSM models, confirming the suitability of the model employed and the success of RSM for optimisation of the extraction conditions for NEPP from BDPK. These results indicate that NEPP from industrial date fruit waste could be a promising candidate as natural antioxidants with significant antiproliferation effect against A549 and HT29 cancer cells in-vitro.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: apoptosis; Barhi date palm kernels (BDPK); extractable polyphenols (EPP); non-extractable polyphenols (NEPP); nobiletin (NOB); tectorigenin (TEC); persicogenin (PERSI).
Online: 3 June 2019 (08:33:05 CEST)
Background and objectives: The initiation of apoptotic death in cancer cells is the aim of many chemotherapeutic strategies. As many anticancer agents have been discovered in natural plant sources, the search for novel phytochemicals displaying anticancer activities continues at a tremendous rate. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of extractable polyphenols (EPP); non-extractable polyphenols (NEPP); nobiletin (NOB); tectorigenin (TEC) and persicogenin (PERS) from Barhi date palm kernels (BDPK) extracts on the induction of apoptosis in human lung cancer A549 and colon cancer HT29 cell lines. Materials and Methods: The anticancer activities were determined using MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to study the cell viability, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The underlying mechanism of apoptosis induced by crude extracts and the purified compounds was investigated using caspase-3, -8 and -9 assays and the mitochondrial membrane potential assay. Results: The findings indicate that both BDPK extracts and the purified compounds do exert induced cell death on A549 and HT29 cells. The results observed from MTT- assay and trypan blue exclusion indicate that the cytotoxic effects of both plant extracts and the three isolated flavonoids are dose-dependent with higher cell death after 72 hours treatment. Treatment of human lung and colon cancer cells with EPP, NEPP, NOB, TEC and PERSI induced late stages of apoptosis as there was evidence of the DNA degradation and high percentage of the cells population was situated at sub-G1 phase, indicating a high population of apoptotic cells. Conclusions: Study of the apoptotic mechanism demonstrated that EPP and NEPP exhibited dependent mitochondrial signalling pathway as seen with caspase-9 and induced receptor-mediated (extrinsic) apoptotic pathway as seen with caspase-8. Therefore, our results suggest that BDPK extracts and the three isolated flavonoids could be a good candidate for developing anticancer agents.