ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0325.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Maternal satisfaction; Gondar public health facility; Ethiopia
Online: 21 September 2022 (10:37:22 CEST)
Background: Immunization prevents over 4-6 million deaths each year worldwide. Ensuring mother satisfaction is an important means of preventing the death of children caused by communicable diseases. However, in Ethiopia, there is paucity of evidence on maternal satisfaction with immunization services. Thus, this study is aimed at assessing the level of maternal satisfaction with childhood immunization services and associated factors among children’s caregivers. Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 556 systematically selected children’s caregivers in public health facilities at Gondar Town from May through June, 2022. Data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. P≤ 0.25 during the bivariate binary logistic regression analysis was included in the multivariate analysis. From the multivariable analysis, variables with p ≤ 0.05 were declared statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of maternal satisfaction towards childhood immunization services was 69.3%(95%CI: 65.5, 73.1%). Of mothers, 45.3% had adequate knowledge, while 43.9% had favorable attitude. Mothers 19-24 years old [AOR = 5.29; 95%CI:2.58,10.86], mothers who waited less than one hour [AOR = 3.03; 95%CI: 1.92,4.77], mothers less than thirty minutes waiting in health facility[AOR=1.98;95%CI:1.24,3.15], mother feel happy during service[ AOR=4.00; 95%CI: 2.53,6.34], mothers adequate knowledge [AOR=2.91; 95%CI: 1.79, 4.73] and had favorable attitude [AOR=3.64; 95%CI: 2.25, 5.91] were significantly associated with maternal satisfaction during childhood immunization services.Conclusions: The overall level of mothers’ satisfaction with childhood immunization services was considerably lower as compared with other studies. Thus, the town health office and concerned stakeholders need more efforts to improve mothers’ satisfaction with childhood immunization services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0142.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: glaucoma; tissue engineering; trabecular meshwork; outflow facility
Online: 8 December 2020 (10:09:17 CET)
Glaucoma is a blinding disease largely caused by increased resistance to drainage of fluid from the eye’s anterior chamber, resulting in elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). A major site of fluid outflow regulation and pathology is the trabecular meshwork (TM) at the entrance of the eye’s drainage system. We aimed to characterize the structural and functional properties of a newly developed tissue-engineered anterior segment eye culture model. We hypothesized that repopulation of a decellularized TM with non-native TM cells could restore aspects of normal TM. The decellularization protocol removed all cells and debris while preserving the ECM. Seeded cells localized to the TM region and progressively infiltrated the meshwork ECM. Cells reached a distribution comparable to control TM after four days of perfusion culture. After a perfusion rate increase challenge, tissue-engineered cultures reestablished normal IOPs (reseeded = 13.7±0.4 mmHg, decellularized = 35.2±2.2 mmHg, p < 0.0001). eGFP expressing CrFK control cells caused a high and unstable IOP (27.0±6.2 mmHg). In conclusion, we describe a readily available, storable, and biocompatible scaffold for anterior segment perfusion culture of non-native cells. Tissue-engineered organs demonstrated similarities to native tissues and may reduce the need for scarce donor globes in outflow research.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Bio-image Analysis; Core-Facility; Sustainability; FAIR-principles
Online: 30 January 2023 (10:03:53 CET)
Recent advances in microscopy imaging and image analysis motivate more and more institutes world-wide to establish dedicated core-facilities for bio-image analysis. To maximize the benefits research groups at these institutes gain from their core-facilities, they should be established to fit well into their respective environment. In this article, we introduce common collaborator requests and corresponding potential services core-facilities can offer. We also discuss potential conflicts of interests between the targeted missions and implementations of services to guide decision makers and core-facility founders to circumvent common pitfalls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0600.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: angle closure model; glaucoma; trabecular meshwork; outflow facility
Online: 27 November 2018 (08:42:09 CET)
Purpose: To investigate the extent of anterior chamber angle circumference needed to maintain a physiological outflow facility (C). Methods: Twenty anterior segments of porcine eyes were assigned to 5 groups, each with a different degree of cyanoacrylate-mediated angle closure: 90° (n = 4), 180° (n = 4), 270° (n = 4), 360° (n = 4) and four unoccluded control eyes. The outflow facility was measured at baseline, 3, 12, 24, and 36 hours after angle closure. Outflow patterns were evaluated with canalograms and the histomorphology was compared. Results: Baseline outflow facilities of the five groups were similar (F = 0.922, P = 0.477). Complete, circumferential occlusion over 360° induced a significant decrease in facility from baseline at all time-points (P ≤ 0.023 at 3, 12, 24 and 36 hours). However, no difference from baseline was found in any of the partially-occluded (0–270°) groups (F ≥ 0.067, P ≥ 0.296 at 3, 12, 24 and 36 hours). The canalograms confirmed the extent of occlusion with flow through the unblocked regions. Histology revealed no adverse effects of blockage on the TM or aqueous plexus in the unoccluded angle portions. The unoccluded TM appeared normal. Conclusion: Cyanoacrylate-mediated angle occlusion created a reproducible angle closure model. 90° of unoccluded anterior chamber angle circumference was sufficient to maintain physiological outflow. This model may help understand how outflow can be regulated in healthy, nonglaucomatous TM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: glaucoma; PRESERFLO; Trabectome; nycthemeral IOP measurement; tonographic outflow facility
Online: 2 August 2022 (05:09:05 CEST)
Purpose: We hypothesized that a recently introduced epibulbar micro-shunt (PRESERFLO, P) produces nycthemeral (24h) intraocular pressure (IOP) profiles different from ab-interno trabeculectomy (Trabectome, T). P is a flow restrictor that drains fluid into the sub-tenon space. In contrast, T increases conventional outflow, which is limited by episcleral venous pressure. Methods: In this prospective cohort, we analyzed 68 patients (34 P and 34 T) who presented for 24-h IOP monitoring 6 to 12 months after surgery. IOP and tonographic outflow facility were measured in the habitual position using a pneumatonometer. The IOP variation was considered the primary outcome measure. Glaucoma medications were also compared. Results: P had a higher baseline IOP than T (24.8±10.0 vs. 17.3±7.9 mmHg, p=0.001). Postoperatively, P and T had similar nycthemeral IOP profiles, but IOP in P was significantly lower than in T, except at 4 pm. P had a lower absolute IOP variation than T (5.8±2.6 vs. 7.1±2.7 mmHg, p=0.049). The relative IOP variation was similar in both (34.8±13.2 vs. 37.2±13.1, p=0.45) as was the tonographic outflow facility (0.35±0.23 vs. 0.26±0.18 µl/min/mmHg, p=0.097). Conclusion: Nycthemeral IOP profiles of P and T were similar, but P had lower IOPs and less variation than T. This could reflect how T, unlike P, is more impacted by habitual, positional factors, especially at night.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0509.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Hygiene; Cleanliness; Water; Rural water facility; Water shortage; Uganda
Online: 30 September 2021 (11:02:14 CEST)
This research contributes to the detailed discussion about the approach to secure, hygienic water and cleanliness in Uganda and its pastoral regions. The relationship between the sanitation and clean water access with destitution is also discussed. Although this document is not leading towards the policy recommendation but it is an overall idea of how Uganda progressed because of the provisions adopted by the government, local and international organizations, and NGOs, and how the country lacked before these steps taken. Most of the data mentioned is taken from the house surveys of a decade 2002-2013 alongside the qualitative data. Literature review is also considered and is divided in two sections: first included researches related to water accessibility and usage, while the second section included researches related to work done and progress for diarrheal diseases and sanitation. Afterwards, methodologies were discussed where, firstly, trends and then the limitations in access to the basic necessities of life that is clean water and hygiene are mentioned. At last, the implementations and how they affected the rural Ugandans was discussed.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0486.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: coating; food and crop; hybrid energy; storage facility; sustainability
Online: 20 May 2021 (11:27:52 CEST)
This research project focuses on the optimization of the hybrid energy system together with the assistance of thin-film coatings aiming to achieve self-sustainable food and crop storage facilities which will run effectively with its own generated energy. An infrastructure will be designed and constructed that will comprise a hybrid power generation system accompanied by thin-film coated semitransparent and non-transparent construction materials for energy saving. Thin-film low emissivity (Low-E) type coatings will assist the transparent or semitransparent construction materials to reflect most of the infrared (IR-mostly heat) and UV spectra of sunlight without interrupting the visible spectrum and will lead to saving energy consumption by reducing the heat and lighting during day time
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0436.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: pigmentary glaucoma; trabecular meshwork; Goniotome; intraocular pressure; outflow facility
Online: 27 June 2018 (09:30:53 CEST)
Purpose: To investigate whether microsurgical excision of trabecular meshwork (TM) in an ex vivo pigmentary glaucoma model can normalize the hypertensive phenotype. Methods: Eight eyes of a porcine pigmentary glaucoma model underwent 90° of microsurgical TM excision with an aspirating dual-blade (Goniotome (G)). 24 hours later, an additional 90° of TM were removed. Anterior segments with sham surgeries served as the control (C). Outflow facility and intraocular pressure (IOP) were analyzed. Histology with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) was obtained. Results: After the first 90° TM excision, IOP was significantly lower in G (10.23±2.39 mmHg, n=7) than C (20.04±1.97mmHg, n=8, P<0.01). Outflow facility in G (0.38±0.07 µl/min/mmHg) was higher than C (0.16±0.02 µl/min/mmHg, P<0.01). After the second 90° TM excision, IOP in G (6.46±0.81 mmHg, n=7) was significantly lower than C (20.25±1.66 mmHg, n=8, P<0.001), while the outflow facility in G (0.50±0.05 µl/min/mmHg, n=7) was higher than C (0.16±0.01 µl/min/mmHg, n=8, P<0.001). Compared to the first excision, excision of an additional 90° did not change of IOP (P=0.20) or outflow facility (P=0.17) further. Conclusion: Excision of 90° of TM in a pigmentary glaucoma model using an aspirating dual-blade decreased IOP and increased outflow facility. Translational Relevance: Microsurgical TM excision over 90° can effectively restore outflow in pigmentary glaucoma.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0199.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: SANS; Neutron Scattering; Instrument control; Data acquisition, User facility, GUI
Online: 11 January 2021 (13:19:34 CET)
In an effort to upgrade and provide a unified and improved instrument control and data acquisition system for the ORNL SANS instrument suite (Bio-SANS, EQ-SANS, GP-SANS), beamline scientists and developers teamed up and worked closely together to design and develop a new system. We began with an in-depth analysis of user needs and requirements, covering all perspectives of control and data acquisition based on previous usage data and user feedback. Our design and implementation were guided by the principles from the latest user experience and design research and based on effective practices from our previous projects. In this article, we share details of our design process as well as prominent features of the new instrument control and data acquisition system. The new system provides a sophisticated Q-Range Planner to help scientists and users plan and execute instrument configurations easily and efficiently. The system also provides different user operation interfaces, such as wizard-type tool Panel Scan, a Scripting Tool based on Python Language, and Table Scan, all of which are tailored to different user needs. The new system further captures all the metadata to enable post-experiment data reduction and possibly automatic reduction and provides users with enhanced live displays and additional feedback at the run time. We hope our results will serve as a good example for developing a user-friendly instrument control and data acquisition system at large user facilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0028.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: ab interno trabeculectomy; intraocular pressure; outflow facility; canalogram; trabecular meshwork
Online: 27 March 2018 (05:13:49 CEST)
Purpose: To evaluate three different microincisional ab interno trabeculectomy procedures in a porcine eye perfusion model. Methods: In perfused porcine anterior segments, 90 degrees of trabecular meshwork (TM) were ablated using the Trabectome (T; n = 8), Goniotome (G; n = 8), or Kahook device (K; n = 8). After 24 hours, additional 90 degrees of TM were removed. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and outflow facility were measured at 5 µL/min and 10 µL/min perfusion to simulate an elevated IOP. Structure and function were assessed with canalograms and histology. Results: At 5 µL/min infusion rate, T resulted in a greater IOP reduction than G or K from baseline (76.12% decrease versus 48.19% and 47.96%, P = 0.013). IOP reduction between G and K was similar (P = 0.420). Removing another 90 degrees of TM caused an additional IOP reduction only in T and G but not in K. Similarly, T resulted in the largest increase in outflow facility at 5 µL/min compared with G and K (first ablation: 3.41 times increase versus 1.95 and 1.87; second ablation: 4.60 versus 2.50 and 1.74) with similar results at 10 µL/min (first ablation: 3.28 versus 2.29 and 1.90 (P = 0.001); second ablation: 4.10 versus 3.01 and 2.01 (P = 0.001)). Canalograms indicated circumferential flow beyond the ablation endpoints. Conclusions: T, G and K significantly increased the outflow facility. In this model, T had a larger effect than G and K.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0159.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: insecticidal wastes; waste disposal; incineration; waste pit; environment; testing facility; climate
Online: 11 March 2022 (03:53:00 CET)
Insecticide testing facilities that evaluate a variety of vector control products may generate large amount of hazardous wastes from routine operations. These wastes originate from degraded technical grade materials, sprayed substrates, redundant stock or working insecticidal solutions. The washing of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) during preparation for laboratory and experimental hut trials also contribute to waste water with insecticide content. Human and environmental exposure to insecticidal waste can occur during transport, categorization, storage and disposal in resulting in environmental pollution and potential health effects. Various national and international guidelines have been devised for safe disposal and should be strictly followed to avoid adverse effects on humans or environment. The current paper describes a case study from insecticide test facility in north-eastern Tanzania in management of insecticidal waste.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0701.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Challenges; coinfection; COVID-19; dengue fever; co-epidemic; health care facility
Online: 29 September 2020 (09:12:06 CEST)
The current global COVID-19 pandemic is compounding on populations susceptible to tropical illnesses like dengue in different developing countries like Bangladesh. The growing concern is that Bangladesh is a dengue-endemic zone and the peak transmission occurs in the monsoon season (June to October). In the most recent monsoon, a total of 354 dengue cases have been confirmed until 27th July 2020, data-driven from only 41 hospitals alone. A fifty-three-year-old male patient was found to be co-infected with COVID-19 and dengue fever. Concerns arise as hospitals are increasingly denying to admit the patients. Moreover, reports of the false-positive results in dengue screening tests recorded in different countries further exacerbate the issue. These conditions could postpone the early diagnosis of COVID-19 cases and aggravate the situation. In addition, the overwhelming wave of the dengue cases would be a challenge for the vulnerable health care system of the country which is already under strain due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Failure to establish and implement proper policies might lead to the dengue outbreak with the burdens of the concurrent COVID pandemic, resulting in the collapse of the health and social system, as well as the economic growth of the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0015.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: school sports facility; assessment; t-sne; fuzzy c mean; unsupervised learning
Online: 3 December 2019 (05:24:26 CET)
The aim of this study is (a) to develop, test, and employ a combined method of unsupervised machine learning to objectively assess the condition of sports facility in primary schools (PSSFC) and (b) examine the examine the geographical and typological association with PSSFC. Based on the Sixth National Sports Facility Census (NSFC), six PSSFC indicators (indoor and outdoor facility included) were selected as the measurements and decomposed by using the t-stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE). Thereafter, the Fuzzy C-mean (FCM) algorithm was used to cluster the same type of PSSFC with selecting the optimum numbers of evaluation level. Overall 845 primary schools in Shanghai, China were recruited and tested by this combined approach of unsupervised machine learning. In addition, the two-way analysis of covariance was used to examine the location and types of school associated with PSSFC variables in each level. The combined method was found to have acceptable reliability and good interpretability, differentiating PSSFC into five gradient levels. The characteristics of PSSFC differ by the location and school type of individual school. Our findings are conducive to the regionalized and personalized intervention and promotion on the children’s physical activity (PA) upon the practical situation of particular schools.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0095.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Building Information Modelling (BIM); Facility management; scientometric review; Africa; construction industry; barriers; awareness
Online: 6 March 2023 (06:44:55 CET)
The state of BIM adoption and implementation in facility management in Africa has been regarded as a developmental discourse gradually gaining grounds. While several studies have focused on manual review of the intellectual progression of BIM research, this confined review however understates the evolution of BIM in facility management. This approach therefore is not always representative of the picture of BIM in facility management at its formative stage. This paper aims to present a scientometric review of BIM in facility management exploring the intellectual progress made so far by authors. The state of the art of BIM in facility management research and practice and the challenges debilitating against BIM in facility management research. The review revealed a considerable amount of research endeavours limited by inadequate collaboration acorss organizations and institutions. The study also revealed the low degree of awareness amongst researchers in the AEC sector. While North America and China were leading countries due to the activity of few universities, Africa wasn’t as visible in research endeavours. The study recommended an increase in awareness drive across countries and increased government effort, joint funding for research to include gaps in practice issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0336.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: control system; system design; reactive system; physics facility; experiment control; x-ray spectroscopy
Online: 16 August 2021 (12:39:30 CEST)
A novel approach to the remote-control system for the compact multi-crystal energy-dispersive spectrometer for x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) applications has been developed. This new approach is based on asynchronous communication between software components and on reactive design principles. In this paper, we identify the challenges we have faced, our solution to them as well as the implementation and future development prospects. The main motivation of this work was the development of a new holistic communication protocol that can be implemented to control various hardware components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0266.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; mild patients; quarantine facility; video-consultation; living and treatment support center
Online: 16 April 2020 (08:23:06 CEST)
With the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is a need for efficient management of patients with mild or no symptoms, which account for the majority. The aim of this study is to introduce the structure and operation protocol of a living and treatment support centre (LTSC) operated by Seoul National University Hospital in South Korea. The existing accommodation facility was converted into a 'patient centre' where patients was isolated. A few Medical staff here performed medical tests and responded to emergencies. Another part of the LTSC was 'remote monitoring centre'. In this center, patients’ self-measured vital signs and symptoms were monitored twice a day, and the medical staff staying here provided video-consultation via a smartphone. During the 3 weeks from March 5 to March 26, 2020, 113 patients were admitted and treated. LTSC could be an efficient alternative to hospital admission in pandemic situation like COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0098.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: community food environment; nutrition environment; geographical information systems (GIS); Facility List Coder; Python
Online: 7 August 2019 (16:53:36 CEST)
A community food environment plays an essential role in explaining the healthy life-style patterns of its community members. However, there is a lack of compelling quantitative approaches to evaluate these environments. This study introduces and validates a new tool named the Facility List Coder (FLC), whose purpose is to assess food environments based on data sources and classification algorithms. Using the case of Mataró (Spain), we randomly selected 301 grids areas (100 m2) where we conducted street audits in order to physically identify all the facilities by name, address and type. Then, audit-identified facilities were matched with those automatically-identified and were classified using the FLC in order to determine its quality. Our results suggest that automatically-identified and audit-identified food environments have a high level of agreement. The ICC estimates and their respective 95% confidence intervals for the overall sample, yield the result “excellent” (ICC ≥ 0.9) for the level of reliability of the FLC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0020.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: conceptual framework; Information Modelling; Building Information Modelling (BIM); Facility Management; Smart Buildings; Smart Applications
Online: 1 July 2022 (16:48:35 CEST)
The paper is based on the scientific outcome of a PhD Thesis. It introduces the generic, model-based, reusable, and extensible conceptual framework to incorporate Facility Management data based within the three-dimensional model-based design and construction of an asset to enable smart applications, which are introduced. The conceptual framework is composed of empirical data from expert interviews, questionnaires, and factual analysis from 13 projects of varied sizes of public and private clients. It shows which phases need which data, who needs them, and which added value can be generated if intelligent data structuring is used at the beginning of the construction project and bridges the gap between requirement and practice. The term “smart application” is introduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0066.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: nuclear facility; ultrasonic interface wave; defect detection; nondestructive testing; finite element method; inaccessible nozzle
Online: 13 January 2017 (10:01:23 CET)
An effective method to inspect inaccessible nuclear power facility by interface wave which propagate along the shrink fit boundary of reactor head is proposed in this study. Reactor head is relatively thick to inspect from the outside of reactor by conventional ultrasonic testing. The proposed interface wave can propagate a long distance from the fixed transducer position. The inside of nuclear reactor is limited to access due to the high radiation, so transducers are located at outside of nuclear facility and interface wave propagates into the nuclear reactor for defect detection. The numerical simulation and experiments were carried out to validate the effectiveness of the proposed interface wave inspection method. Various defect cases simulating field failures are also presented with satisfactory detectability by the proposed technique with the features for defect classification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1216.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Adipose-derived stem cells; human cell therapy; mesenchymal stem cells; endothelial cells; pericytes; GMP-compliant-facility; clean room; ATMPs
Online: 17 May 2023 (09:53:20 CEST)
The adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells are becoming the tool of choice for many clinical applications and nowadays, nearly 200 clinical trials are running worldwide to prove the efficacy of this cell type for many diseases and pathological conditions. To reach the goal of cell therapies and produce ATMPs as drugs for regenerative medicine, it is necessary to properly standardize the GMP processes and thus collection methods, transportation strategies, extraction protocols and characterization procedures without forgetting that all the tissues of the human body are characterized by a wide inter-individual variability genetically determined and acquired during life. Here we compare 302 samples processed under GMP rules to exclude the influence of the operator and of the anatomical site of collection. Variability in the age of patients, gender and laboratory parameters like total cell number, cell viability, stem cell number and other stromal vascular fraction cell sub-populations have been compared to each other. Results show that, when the laboratory protocol is standardized, the variability in quantifiable cell parameters is widely statistically non-significant, meaning that we can make a further step toward standardized advanced cell therapy products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0280.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: depression, virtual reality (VR), virtual reality therapy (VRT), long-term care facility (LTCF), mood disorder, place attachment, neuro-architecture
Online: 12 April 2021 (11:51:41 CEST)
Virtual reality (VR) describes a family of technologies which immerse users in sensorily-stimulating virtual environments. Such technologies have increasingly found applications in the treatment of neurological and mental health disorders. Depression, anxiety, and other mood abnormalities are of concern in the growing elderly population – especially those who reside in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). The transition from the familiar home environment to the foreign LTCF introduces a number of stressors that can precipitate depression. However, recent studies reveal that VR therapy (VRT) can promote positive emotionality and improve cognitive abilities in the elderly, both at home and in LTCFs. VR thus holds potential in allowing elderly individuals to gradually adapt to their new environments – thereby mitigating the detrimental effects of place attachment and social exclusion. Nevertheless, while the current psychological literature is promising, the implementation of VR in LTCFs faces many challenges. LTCF residents must gain trust in VR technologies, care providers require training to maximize the positive effects of VRT, and decision makers must evaluate both the opportunities and obstacles in adopting VR. Here, we concisely review the implications of depression related to place attachment in LTCFs, and explore the potential therapeutic applications of VR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0511.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Neonatal infection; hand hygiene; behaviour change; Cambodia; post-natal care; newborn care; formative research; intervention design; health facility; household
Online: 22 March 2021 (10:37:57 CET)
Background: Globally, infections are the third leading cause of neonatal mortality. Predominant risk factors for facility-born newborns are poor hygiene practices that span both the facility and home environments. Current improvement interventions focus on only one environment and tar-get limited caregivers, primarily birth attendants and mothers. To inform the design of a hand hygiene behaviour change intervention in rural Cambodia, a formative mixed-methods research study was conducted to investigate the context specific behaviours and determinants of hand-washing among healthcare workers, maternal and non-maternal caregivers along the early new-born care continuum. Methods: Direct observations of hygiene practices of all individuals providing care to 46 newborns across eight facilities and associated communities were completed and hand hygiene compliance assessed in analysis. Semi structured interactive interviews were subsequently conducted with 35 midwives and household members to explore the corresponding cognitive, emotional, and environmental factors influencing the observed key hand hygiene behaviours. Results: Hand hygiene opportunities during newborn care were frequent in both set-tings (n = 1319) and predominantly performed by mothers, fathers and non-parental caregivers. Compliance to hand hygiene protocol across all caregivers, including midwives, was inadequate (0%). Practices were influenced by the lack of accessible physical infrastructure, time, increased workload, low infection risk perception, nurture-related motives, norms and inadequate knowledge. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that an effective intervention in this context should be multi-modal to address the different key behaviour determinants and target a wide range of caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0310.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle; Facility Location Problem; Mission Planning; Restricted Airspace; UAS Geographical Zone; Water Search & Rescue; Open Source Georeferenced Data
Online: 17 February 2023 (11:46:40 CET)
With Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), a swift response to urgent needs like search \& rescue missions or medical deliveries can be realized. Simultaneously, the legislator is establishing so-called geographical zones, which restrict UAV operations to mitigate the air and ground risk to third parties. These geographical zones serve a particular safety interest, but they may also hinder the efficient usage of UAVs on time-critical missions with a range-limiting battery capacity. In this study, we address a facility location problem for up to two UAV hangars with a robust optimization model considering demand hotspots, geographical zones as restricted areas, a standard mission to satisfy battery capacity constraints, and the impact of wind scenarios. To this end, water rescue missions are used exemplary, for which positive and negative location factors for UAV hangars and areas of increased drowning risk as demand points are derived from open-source georeferenced data. Optimal UAV mission trajectories are computed with an A* algorithm considering five different restriction scenarios. As this pathfinding is very time-consuming, binary occupancy grids and image processing algorithms accelerate the computation by identifying either entirely inaccessible or restriction-free connections beforehand. For the optimal UAV hangar locations, we maximize accessibility while minimizing the service time to the hotspots, resulting in a decrease from the average service time of 570.4 s for all facility candidates to 351.1 s for one and 287.2 s for two optimal UAV hangar locations.