ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0161.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: deepfake detection; deep learning; computer vision; generalization
Online: 9 March 2023 (02:13:46 CET)
The increasing use of deep learning techniques to manipulate images and videos, commonly referred to as "deepfakes," is making more and more challenging to differentiate between real and fake content. While various deepfake detection systems have been developed, they often struggle to detect deepfakes in real-world situations. In particular, these methods are often unable to effectively distinguish images or videos when these are modified using novel techniques which have not been used in the training set. In this study, we carry out an analysis of different deep learning architectures in an attempt to understand which is more capable of better generalizing the concept of deepfake. According to our results, it appears that Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) seem to be more capable of storing specific anomalies and thus excel in cases of datasets with a limited number of elements and manipulation methodologies. The Vision Transformer, conversely, is more effective when trained with more varied datasets, achieving more outstanding generalization capabilities than the other methods analysed. Finally, the Swin Transformer appears to be a good alternative for using an attention-based method in a more limited data regime. All the analyzed architectures seem to have a different way to look at deepfakes but since in a real-world environment, the generalization capability is essential, based on the carried out experiments the Vision Transformer seems to provide superior performances.