REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0343.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Chronic stress; Recovery; Burnout; Exhaustion; Maintenance
Online: 17 February 2021 (07:45:19 CET)
Burnout is common in many countries and is associated with several other problems, such as depression, anxiety, insomnia and memory deficits, and prospectively it predicts long-term sick-leave, cardiovascular disease and death. Clinical burnout or its residual symptoms often last several years and a common assumption is that recovery takes a long time by nature despite full time sick-leave and absence of work stress. Literature suggests models that hypothetically explain the development, but not maintenance, of the syndrome. Based on cognitive and behavioral principles and stress theory this paper describes a theoretical model explaining how clinical burnout can develop and be maintained. While the development of clinical burnout is mainly explained by prolonged stress reactions and disturbed recovery processes due to work related stressors, maintenance of the syndrome is particularly explained by prolonged stress reactions and disturbed recovery processes due to the new context of experiencing burnout and being on sick-leave. Worry about acquired memory deficits, passivity and excessive sleep, shame, fear of stress reactions, and the perception of not being safe are examples of responses that can contribute to the maintenance. The model has important implications for research and how to intervene clinical burnout.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: international students, social support, depression, vital exhaustion
Online: 8 December 2022 (08:51:35 CET)
Background: Our study aimed to assess the differences between domestic and international students in terms of social support, vital exhaustion, and depression during the time of COVID-19. Methods: The online cross-sectional survey was conducted via Google Forms® at three time intervals during the pandemic. Results: Respectively 1320, 246, and 139 students completed our questionnaires in the different time intervals. International students reported significantly lower values of perceived social support. Women reached higher scores regarding vital exhaustion in both samples. Concerning depression, international female students had higher values than their male counterparts but the difference diminished with time. No differences could be found in the comparison of depression between domestic female and male students. Significant correlations were found between depression, perceived social support, and vital exhaustion. Discussion: International students perceive diminished social support just when they need more. Decreased levels of perceived social support may contribute to the development of their psychological problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0550.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: burnout; occupational therapist; emotional exhaustion; health; stress; coping; personality
Online: 29 November 2022 (11:55:47 CET)
1) Background: There are few studies of burnout syndrome (BS) in occupational therapists (OTs), and protective factors of BS has received little attention in the scientific literature. This research aimed to estimate the prevalence of BS, characterize the associated psychosocial factors, and analyze their relationship with health in a sample of Spanish OTs. (2) Methods A total of 127 therapists completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and other standardized questionnaires measuring: personality traits (reduced five-factor personality inventory, NEO-FFI), coping styles (Coping Strategies Questionnaire, CAE), work-family conflict (Survey Work-Home Interaction Nijmegen, SWING), professional factors (role ambiguity/clarity and modified role conflict questionnaires), and the perception of health (Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire). Several correlational and multiple regression analyses were performed to study the psychosocial predictors of burnout and its relationship with health perception. (3) Results showed that 15.8% of the professionals presented BS, with emotional exhaustion (EE; 38.7%) being the most compromised dimension. Neuroticism, role conflict, negative work-family interaction, and open emotional expression (OE) significantly predicted a higher EE. The main predictors of cynicism (CY) were being male, role conflict, and OE. Finally, role conflict and role ambiguity and social support-seeking were significant predictors of reduced professional eﬃciency (PE). (4) Conclusion: A high percentage of OTs with BS advocates becoming aware of the importance of this syndrome in the health community, it would be critical to consider the protective factors (i.e., emotional management, social support) that help promote OTs’ well-being and health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0454.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: CPA4; Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma; Immune cells; T cell exhaustion; checkpoint
Online: 27 September 2021 (16:02:31 CEST)
Carboxypeptidase A4 (CPA4) has shown the potential possibility as a biomarker in the early diagnosis for certain cancers. However, no previous research has linked CPA4 to therapeutic or prognostic significance in bladder cancer. Using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, we set out to determine the full extent of the link between CPA4 and BLCA. We further analyzed the interacting proteins of CPA4 and infiltrated immune cells via TIMER2，STRING and GEPIA2 databases. The expression of CPA4 in tumor and normal tissues was compared using the TCGA+GETx database. The connection between CPA44 expression and clinicopathologic characteristics and overall survival (OS) was investigated using multivariate methods and Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The potential functions and pathways were investigated via gene set enrichment analysis. Furthermore, we analyze the associations between CPA4 expression and infiltrated immune cells with their respective gene marker sets using the ssGSEA, TIMER2, and GEPIA2 databases. Compared to matching normal tissues, human CPA4 was found to be substantially expressed. We confirmed that overexpression of CPA4 is linked with shorter OS, DSF, PFI, and increased diagnostic potential using Kaplan-Meier and ROC analysis. The expression of CPA4 is related to T-bet, IL12RB2, CTLA4, and LAG3, among which T-bet and IL12RB2 are Th1 marker genes, while CTLA4 and LAG3 are related to T cell exhaustion, which may be used to guide the application of checkpoint blockade and the adoption of T cell transfer therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: acute physical stress; sports performance; heart rate variability; physical exhaustion
Online: 5 November 2018 (10:35:01 CET)
Athletes are exposed to high-intensity loads to promote athletic performance, however without appropriate evaluation for its effects. This study investigates the effects of four types of exhaustion exercises on Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and Poincaré features as markers of central fatigue; Creatine Kinase (CK) and blood lactate concentrations ([LA-]b) as biomarkers of peripheral fatigue. To achieve this purpose, ten healthy volunteers were exposed to exhaustive exercise using isotonic-, isometric-, aerobic-, and anaerobic-fatigue protocols. HRV Poincaré features, standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability (SD1) and standard deviation of continuous long-term R-R interval variability (SD2) variables were collected. Central fatigue was tested through the sympathetic stress index (SS) and the sympathetic and parasympathetic index (SS/SD1). Blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of the exercises to determine CK and [LA-]b. The SD1 decreased in each exercise protocol, while the SS and SS/SD1 increased. [LA-]b and CK increased at the end of each protocol and correlated with SD1 and SS/SD1. HRV, CK, and [LA-]b are acute markers to detect, both central and peripheral fatigue; sensitive to the type, duration, and intensity of exercise, being HRV a novel noninvasive marker, simple and useful for sports coaches and athletes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0728.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: T cell exhaustion; chronic viral infections; cancer; immunotherapy; epigenetics; PD-1; inhibitory receptors
Online: 31 August 2020 (17:49:37 CEST)
T cells follow a triphasic distinct pathway of activation, proliferation and differentiation before becoming functionally and phenotypically ‘exhausted’ in settings of chronic infection, autoimmunity and in cancer. Exhausted T cells progressively lose canonical effector functions, exhibit altered transcriptional networks and epigenetic signatures and gain constitutive expression of a broad coinhibitory receptor suite. This review outlines recent advances in our understanding of exhausted T cell biology and examines cellular and molecular mechanisms by which a state of dysfunction or exhaustion is established, and mechanisms by which exhausted T cells may still contribute to pathogen or tumour control. Further, this review describes our understanding of exhausted T cell heterogeneity and outlines the mechanisms by which checkpoint blockade differentially engages exhausted T cell subsets to overcome exhaustion and recover T cell function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0731.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: cytokine storm; COVID-19; CD169; inflammation; respiratory outcome; T-cell exhaustion; COVID-19 therapy
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:28:24 CEST)
Background: CD169 has been found overexpressed in the blood of COVID-19 patients and identified as a biomarker in the early disease. We have analysed CD169 in blood cells of COVID-19 patients to assess its role as predictive marker of the disease. Methods : The ratio of the CD169 Median median Fluorescence fluorescence Intensity intensity of CD169 between monocytes and lymphocytes (CD169 RMFI ) was analysed by flow cytometry in blood samples of COVID-19 patients (COV) and healthy donors (HD ) and correlated with immunophenotyping, inflammatory markers, cytokines mRNA expression, pulmonary involvement and disease progression. Results: CD169 RMFI increased in COV but not in HD. CD169 RMFI correlated with T-cell differentiation and exhaustion markers as well as with B cells maturation and differentiation. In vitro stimulation of PBMCs of HD with SARS-CoV-2 Spike spike protein induced CD169 RMFI together with IL-6 and IL-10 gene expression. Likewise, CD169 RMFI correlated with blood cytokine mRNA levels, inflammatory markers, and pneumonia severity in patients which that had not received any treatment at sampling. Notably, in untreated patients, CD169 RMFI reflected the respiratory outcome during hospitalization. Conclusion : Considering the immunological role of CD169 and its involvement during the infection and the progression of COVID-19, it could be considered as an early biomarker to evaluate disease progression and clinical outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: heat-related illness; international classification; heat cramp; syncope; heat exhaustion; heat stroke; novel classification
Online: 3 August 2018 (03:51:27 CEST)
The Japanese Association for Acute Medicine Committee recently proposed a novel classification system for the severity of heat-related illnesses. The illnesses are simply classified into three stages based on symptoms and management or treatment. Stages I, II, and III broadly correspond to heat cramp and syncope, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke, respectively. Our objective was to examine whether this novel severity classification is useful in the diagnosis by healthcare professionals of patients with severe heat-related illness and organ failure. A nationwide surveillance study of heat-related illnesses was conducted between June 1 and September 30, 2012, at emergency departments in Japan. Among the 2130 patients who attended 102 emergency departments, the severity of their heat-related illness was recorded for 1799 patients, who were included in this study. In the patients with heat cramp and syncope or heat exhaustion (but not heat stroke), the blood test data (alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and platelet counts) for those classified as stage III were significantly higher than those of patients classified as stage I or II. There were no deaths among the patients classified as stage I. This novel classification may avoid underestimating the severity of heat-related illness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0359.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Hematological malignancies; treatment outcomes; CAR-T cell exhaustion; memory 22 pool, functional CAR-T cells; antigen dependent CAR-T expansion
Online: 23 September 2022 (05:33:24 CEST)
Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR)-T cell immunotherapy revolutionized cancer treatment and consists of the genetic modification of T lymphocytes with a CAR gene, aiming to increase their ability to recognize and kill antigen-specific tumor cells. The dynamics of CAR-T cell responses in patients presents a multiphasic kinetics with distribution, expansion, contraction, and persistence phases. The characteristics and duration of each phase depend on the tumor type, the infused product, and on patient-specific characteristics. We present a mathematical model which describes the multiphasic CAR-T cell dynamics resulting from the interplay between CAR-T and tumor cells, considering patient and product heterogeneities. The CAR-T cell population is divided into functional (distributed and effector), memory, and exhausted CAR-T cell phenotypes. The model is able to describe the diversity of CAR-T cell dynamic behaviors in different patients and hematological cancers as well as their therapy outcomes. Our results indicate that the joint assessment of the area under the concentration-time curve in the first 28 days and the corresponding fraction of non-exhausted CAR-T cells may be considered as potential markers to classify therapy responses. Overall, the analysis of different CAR-T cell phenotypes can be a key aspect for a better understanding of the whole CAR-T cell dynamics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0795.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: T cells; chimeric antigen receptor; transgenic T-cell receptor; tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes; exhaustion; terminal differentiation; senescence; apoptosis; adoptive cell transfer; immunotherapy
Online: 31 December 2020 (12:16:55 CET)
Over the last decades, cellular immunotherapy has revealed its curative potential. However, the inherent physiological characteristics of immune cells can limit the potency of this approach. Best defined in T cells, dysfunction associated with terminal differentiation, exhaustion, senescence, and activation-induced cell death undermine adoptive cell therapies. In this review, we concentrate on how the multiple mechanisms that articulate the various forms of immune dysfunction impact cellular therapies primarily involving conventional T cells, but also other lymphoid subtypes, in addition to the various strategies put in place to circumvent these effects. The repercussions of immune cell dysfunction across the full life cycle of cell therapy, from the source material, during manufacturing, and after adoptive transfer are discussed. Applicable to cellular products prepared from native and unmodified immune cells, as well as genetically engineered therapeutics, the understanding and potential modulation of dysfunctional features is key to the development of improved cellular immunotherapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0308.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: adoptive T cell therapy; hypoxic tumors; immune checkpoint blockade; CAR T; solid tumors; T cell exhaustion; co-stimulatory domains; CD28; 4-1BB; CD137
Online: 29 April 2022 (15:14:06 CEST)
The complete regression of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) obtained pre-clinically with anti-carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) G36 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells in doses equivalent to 10e8 CAR T cells/ Kg renewed the potential of this target to treat ccRCC and other tumors in hypoxia. The immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) brought durable clinical responses in advanced ccRCC and other tumors. Here we tested CD8/4-1BB compared to CD28-based anti-CAIX CAR PBMCs cells-releasing anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) IgG4 for human ccRCC treatment in vitro and in an orthotopic NSG mice model in vivo. Using a 10e7 CAR PBMCs cells/ Kg dose, anti-CAIX CD28 CAR T cells releasing anti-PD-L1 IgG highly decrease both tumor volume and weight in vivo, avoiding the occurrence of metastasis. This antitumoral superiority of CD28-based CAR PBMCs cells compared to 4-1BB occurred under ICB via PD-L1. Furthermore, T cell exhaustion status in peripheral CD4 T cells, additionally to CD8 was critical for CAR T cells efficiency. The lack of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity upon administration of 10e7 CAR PMBCs cells/Kg dose is the basis for carrying out clinical trials using anti-CAIX CD28 CAR PBMCs cells releasing anti-PD-L1 antibodies or anti-CAIX 4-1BB CAR T cells, offering exciting new prospects for the treatment of refractory ccRCC and hypoxic tumors.