ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0396.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SSR; variability; ethnobotany
Online: 26 October 2021 (17:31:55 CEST)
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), domesticated in the Amazonian region of South America, presents an important diversity in Ecuador, where it is a main staple food; however, only few Ecuadorian cassava accessions have been included in international molecular assessments. The purpose of this study was to apply suitable cassava mi-crosatellites to characterize the genetic variability of the Ecuadorian cassava collection composed mainly of local landraces from the Coast, Andes and Amazonia regions. The use of microsatellite markers allowed the determination of the genetic diversity of the collection. Seven selected SSR primers, permitted to identify homozygous and hetero-zygous materials within the cassava collection of 133 accessions. The loci presented an average genetic diversity value of 0.7 and an average PIC value of 0.67, which is con-sidered high. Low number of duplicates (8.8%) were identified in the Ecuadorian col-lection which is not fully duplicated at CIAT. Currently, a wide range of cassava diver-sity is still cultivated in multi-crop agro-ecosystem, mainly in the Coast and Amazo-nian regions. Especially in the Amazonian region, due to important cultural uses of cassava by local ethnic communities, more in depth studies in the region could unveil the genetic diversity present in situ today.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0175.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: biopesticides, ethnobotany; survey; indigenous people; Nigeria
Online: 9 August 2022 (06:11:42 CEST)
The quest for sustainable health, environmental protection and conservation of beneficial organisms makes the use of biopesticides a desirable option. This research aimed to identify botanicals used in the management of farm and household pest in Plateau State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out using semi-structured questionnaires and on the spot face-to-face interviews. The main issues captured include the pest, plants used to managed the pest, parts used, cultivation status, availability, effect on pest, formulation methods and modes of application. The quantitative data were analyzed using the Frequency of Citation (FC), Relative Frequency of Citation RFC (%) and Use Value (UV). A total of 45 plant species belonging to 42 genera, 20 orders and 30 families were found to be useful in the management of 15 different pests. The FC, RFC(%) and UV values identified the most popularly used plants as: Hyptis suaveolens, Vernonia amygdalina, Azadirachta indica, Canarium schweinfurthii and Euphorbia unispina and Erythrophloem africanum. Plants that showed broad activity include Azadirachta indica (7 uses), Erythrophloem africanum, Khaya senegalensis and Vernonia amygdalina. The perception of the respondents indicated that most of the biopesticides are available, affordable, effective, eco-friendly and safe. This survey provides a pathway for formulation of biopesticides.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Eastern Desert; Ethnobotany; Herbal medicine; Nomads
Online: 30 July 2021 (10:04:43 CEST)
This survey was conducted on 4 tribes (Ababda, Bisharia, Nubian and Rashayda) live in the south of the Nile and the Eastern Desert of Egypt with the aim to document and compare the traditional herbal medicines and assess the relationships among these tribes. A total of 180 interviews were conducted with the Bedouins and herb healers. Thirty-nine species belonged to 36 genera and 27 families were employed. Fabaceae and Poaceae and Rutaceae were the species-rich families. The used wild species comprised 43.6%, cultivated species (38.5%) and the imported from herbalist shops (17.9%). The leaves were the most used parts (31%), followed by stems and fruits with about 22% each. Distinct species included Acacia nilotica is used in the treatment of dental pain with use value 33.3%, Cymbopogon schoenanthus subsp. proximus in treatment of both cough or headache with use values 35 and 30.6% and a combination of Acacia nilotica with Lawsonia inermis in the treatment of sore throat with use value 22.2%. The highest similarity was recorded between Nubian and Rashayda tribes (55.3%), Ababda and Bisharia (46.8%). Diarrhea and headache were the most popular diseases with 7 different treatments, cough and dental pains with 6 treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1669.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Phytometabolites; ethnobotany; polyphenols; antiviral activity; molecular docking
Online: 24 May 2023 (02:30:24 CEST)
Traditional medicine is one of the main bases for studying and discovering natural sources of phytometabolites with antiviral properties. This research aims to demonstrate that the medicinal plants used as a treatment of viral diseases in the La Libertad region have, in fact, antiviral ac-tivity. The study evaluated the ethnobotany of the 8 most widely used medicinal plants in the region (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. “paraíso”, Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina) Kuntze “tara”, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck “limón”, Clinopodium pulchellum (Kunth) Govaerts “panizara”, Cordia lutea Lam. “overo”, Ocimum basilicum L. “albahaca”, Schinus molle L. “molle”, and Taraxacum campylodes G.E. Haglund “diente de león”). The phytometabolites responsible for the antiviral activity were identified by LC-MS and evaluated in silico against the viral proteins NS2B/NS3 (DENV-2), NS5B (HCV), and ICP27 (HSV-1) using molecular docking in Autodock Vina and UCSF Chimera. The presence of five polyphenols (chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, and rutin) was found and, in the in silico test, the antiviral activity of chlorogenic acid stood out against DENV-2 and HCV, rutin against HCV and HSV-1, rosmarinic acid against DENV-2 and HCV. Therefore, it is verified that the medicinal plants studied have antiviral activity, which supports their use in traditional medicine
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0144.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: medicinal plants; traditional knowledge; Himalayas; mountain plants; ethnobotany
Online: 29 November 2016 (06:35:45 CET)
The Himalaya is well known for high diversity and ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants. However, not all areas of the Himalayas are well studied. In particular, studies on ethnobotanical uses of plants from the Eastern Himalayas are rare and lacking for many tribes. Past studies primarily focused on listing plants name and their traditional medicinal uses. However, studies on traditional ethnopharmacological practices on medicine preparation had not yet been reported in published literature from the Eastern Himalaya. In this study, we are reporting the first time ethnopharmacological used 24 medicines, their procedures of preparation and listed 53 plant species used for those medicines for Monpa tribe. Such documentations had not yet been done for other tribes in India. Our research demonstrates the urgent need to documents traditional medicine preparation procedures from the local healers before rapid cultural modernization forgets them in transforming country like India. This study should motivate national and international researchers to do more works on ethnopharmacology and bioprospecting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0045.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: adoption; land-use; degradation; ethnobotany; networking; agroforestry; dry semi-deciduous
Online: 7 November 2017 (04:06:23 CET)
Bamboo agroforestry is currently being promoted as a viable land use option to reduce dependence on natural forest for wood fuels in Ghana. To align the design and introduction of bamboo agroforestry in conformity with farmers’ needs, perceptions, skills and local cultural practices, information on its acceptability and adoption potential among farmers is necessary. It is therefore the objective of this study to (1) describe bamboo ethnobotany and (2) assess socioeconomic factors that affect the acceptability and adoption of bamboo and its integration into farming practices. Accordingly, information has been collected from 200 farmers in the dry semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana. The study identified the socioeconomic risks and uncertainties as well as biophysical factors that are likely to influence the potential adoption of bamboo agroforestry in the study region. Gender, age, farmers’ known uses of bamboo, the practice of leaving trees on farmlands, farmers’ networking and access to extension services, land availability and ownership by farmers were identified as suitable predictor variables for the adoption of bamboo agroforestry. It is envisaged that bamboo agroforestry is a good bet in the DSFZ though there is the need to explore domestic energy (fuelwood) provision and substitution potential in order to have a broader picture of the technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0391.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Sustainable Development Goals; Ethnobotany; Human Health; Poverty; Traditional Knowledge; Sustainable Agriculture
Online: 20 January 2021 (11:04:41 CET)
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) envisaged under Agenda 2030 are a set of seventeen goals which envisage a holistic approach towards attaining certain targets keeping humankind and the planet at center. There are total 169 targets spread across seventeen goals covering wide ranging issues and challenges the world is facing in the twenty-first century. And they are to be achieved by 2030. Concerted efforts of all the stakeholders ranging from indigenous communities, common citizens, scientists, policy makers, world leaders are needed to achieve all the goals and targets Of the seventeen goals, at least seven goals are of interest to the ethnobotanists and are associated with traditional ethnobotanical knowledge. Therefore to achieve those set of goals, a thorough understanding is required to disentangle the intricacies involving traditional ethnobotanical knowledge, indigenous people as traditional knowledge holders and their future role. Understanding relationships between traditional ethnobotanical knowledge and indigenous communities, seeking cooperation from and establishing partnerships with them would help us design policies to achieve intended outcomes of SDGs. In this paper, particular attention is attracted towards the potential role of traditional ethnobotanical knowledge in achieving select sustainable development goals and targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: active methodologies; Sustainable Development Goals; non-formal education; Ethnobotany; learning assessment; STEM
Online: 21 June 2020 (11:55:34 CEST)
In the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), education plays a fundamental role. However, traditional methodologies do not favor the enrichment and personal development essential to promote global awareness. The use of active methodologies based on experiences improve the quality of learning. This work describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of the acquired knowledge of a didactic proposal for non-formal education as a support for regulated education based on botany content. Firstly, a workshop was held, where young people participated directly in developing field work with a real scientific methodology. Subsequently, a group of students was chosen to be interviewed to obtain a global vision of the learning they obtained. The motivation of the students was quite positive, which allowed us to obtain voluntary participation in the field work and gave the students a participative attitude throughout the development of the workshops. Four months later, this positive attitude remained during their direct involvement in various activities, and the students still remembered the fundamental content discussed. Relating the didactic proposal to its immediate environment was shown to increase interest in learning and value in its own context. The results of this educational experience have been very positive, as knowledge was acquired, and interest in the preservation of the environment and the profession of a researcher was promoted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: antiophidic; antivenin plants; envenomation; ethnobotany; ethnomedicine; phospholipase A2; snakebite; traditional medicine; Uganda
Online: 18 October 2019 (11:41:08 CEST)
Snakebite envenomation, cognized as a neglected tropical disease, is a dread public health concern with the most susceptible groups being herdsmen, the elderly, active farmers, hunters, fishers, firewood collectors, 10 to 14-year old working children and individuals with limited access to education and health care. Snakebites are fragmentarily documented in Uganda primarily because most occur in rural settings where traditional therapists end up being the first line defence for treatment. Ethnobotanical surveys in Uganda have unveiled that some plants are used to antagonize the activity of various snake venoms. This review was sought to compile the sporadic information on the vegetal species reported as antivenins in Uganda. Electronic data indicate that no study entirely reported on antivenin plants in Uganda. A total of 77 plant species belonging to 65 genera, distributed among 42 botanical families claimed as antiophidic in Uganda are used for treatment of snakebites. Majority of these species belong to family Fabaceae (30.9%), Euphorbiaceae (14.3%), Asteraceae (11.9%), Amaryllidaceae (9.5%) and Solanaceae (9.5%). The antiophidic species listed are shrubs (40.5%), trees (32.9%) and herbs (17.7%), usually found in the wild and uncultivated. Antivenin extracts are primarily prepared from roots and leaves, through decoctions, infusions, powders and juices and administered orally or topically. The most frequently encountered therapeutically important species are Allium cepa L., Carica papaya L., Securidaca longipedunculata Fres., Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv. and Nicotiana tabacum L. Baseline epidemiological data on snake envenomation and antivenin plants in Uganda remain incomplete due to inadequate research and diverse ethnic groups in the country. There is a dire need to isolate and characterize the bioactive compounds in the claimed plants to enable their adroit utilization in handling the plague of snake envenomation. More baseline data should be collected on snake ecology and human behaviour as well as antivenin plants in Uganda. Indigenous knowledge on the use of plant preparations in traditional medicine in Uganda is humongous, but if this is not quickly researched and appropriately documented, indications as to the usefulness of this vegetal treasure house will be lost in the not so distant future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0171.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Alien plant species; Availability hypothesis; Versatility hypothesis; Residence time hypothesis; theory driven ethnobotany
Online: 14 February 2022 (10:02:40 CET)
Ethnobotany has been, for too long, a descriptive discipline. However, ethnobotanists are increasingly calling for a paradigm shift towards the formulation of unifying theories and hypothesis-driven research in ethnobotany. Here, we formulated a theory, termed time-since-introduction theory, to explain the integration of alien plants into local pharmacopoeias in their recipient environment. This theory suggests that the factor time is paramount in determining which alien plants are more likely to be included in the medicinal flora of the areas they are introduced in. The theory relies on three hypotheses, the availability and versatility hypotheses alongside the residence time hypothesis newly proposed in the present study. We tested this theory by fitting a structural equation model to ethnobotanical data collected on South Africa’s alien woody flora. Although residence time is a direct predictor of medicinal status of alien plants, it is a better predictor when mediated through plant versatility. These findings are in support of the theory, and we consequently proposed a framework with which to understand different paths linking all three hypotheses. Collectively, our study shows the value of time in the development of ethnobotanical knowledge and fully responds to the pressing call for paradigm shift in ethnobotany.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Availability hypothesis; Ethnobotany; Ex-situ Conservation; Kruger National Park; Sustainable Development of Traditional Knowledge; Traditional medicine
Online: 6 June 2022 (13:19:18 CEST)
In ethnobotany, the availability hypothesis predicts that plants that are abundant and easily accessible to people are more likely to be medicinal than not. By protecting species diversity away from people, protected areas (PAs) may act as a limiting factor to a sustainable development of traditional knowledge concerning medicinal uses, and in so doing, PAs provide opportunity to prioritize ex-situ conservation for species that are PAs restricted. In this scenario, ex-situ conservation becomes the only chance for people to develop traditional knowledge on plants which otherwise wouldn’t be documented as traditionally useful to people. To test these expectations, we used data collected for almost 20 years of fieldworks on plant medicinal uses and their abundance inside and outside the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. We fitted four different scenarios of structural equation models (SEMs) to the data collected. We found that total plant abundance (abundance outside + inside KNP) is a significant positive predictor of medicinal status, and so is abundance outside KNP, thus supporting the availability hypothesis. However, not only abundance inside KNP is not a direct significant correlate of medicinal status, but also the relationship between both is negative. The lack of predictive power of inside-abundance is most likely because some species are exclusively found inside KNP, and local communities do not have access to them. It also shows that the positive and direct correlation of total abundance with medicinal status is driven by outside-abundance. In addition, the negative relationships between inside abundance and medicinal status implies that abundant plants inside KNP tend to be not-medicinal, further providing evidence that PAs hinder the development of medicinal knowledge. Furthermore, when inside and outside abundance were included simultaneously in a model as two distinct variables, inside abundance was never a direct significant predictor of medicinal status, but it was so, via an indirect path mediated by outside abundance. This suggests that outside abundance is the key variable driving the development of medicinal plant knowledge. Cumulatively, our findings suggest that anything that promotes the growth of PA-restricted plants beyond the natural realized niches of these plants (ex-situ conservation) such as in botanical gardens, private gardens, in agroforestry systems, etc., is to be promoted so that people-plant interactions may continue for the benefits of ethnobotanical knowledge development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0163.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: ethnobotany; paleoethnobotany; biocultural heritage; digital heritage; online database; Indigenous data sovereignty; Open Access; research accessiblity; digital reference collection
Online: 9 December 2021 (20:01:36 CET)
Biocultural heritage preservation relies on ethnobotanical knowledge and the paleoethnobotanical data used in (re)constructing histories of human-biota interactions. Biocultural heritage, defined as the knowledge and practices of Indigenous and Local peoples and their biological relatives, is often guarded information, meant for specific audiences and withheld from other social circles. As such, these forms of heritage and knowledge must also be included in the ongoing data sovereignty discussions and movement. In this paper we share the process and design decisions behind creating an online database for ethnobotanical knowledge and associated paleoethnobotanical data, using a content management system designed to foreground Indigenous and local perspectives. Our main purpose is to suggest the Mukurtu content management system, originally designed for physical items of cultural importance, be considered as a potential tool for digitizing and ethically circulating biocultural heritage, including paleoethnobotanical resources. With this database, we aim to create access to biocultural heritage and paleoethnobotanical considerations for a variety of audiences while also respecting the protected and sensitive natures of Indigenous and local knowledges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0043.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ethnobotany; traditional ecological knowledge; Waorani; indigenous communities; Ecuadorian Amazon; medicinal plants; loss of knowledge; globalization; global change; acculturation; socio-cultural changes
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:59:53 CEST)
This paper explores how the medicinal plant knowledge of the Waorani indigenous society in Ecuador varies in accordance with both socio-economic and demographic factors. Medicinal plant knowledge was compared at both individual and community levels. Fifty-nine semi-structured interviews (men n = 30, women n = 29) were performed with people between fifteen and seventy years old in five Waorani communities located within the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve. Results show a positive correlation between an individual’s medicinal plant knowledge and age, a negative correlation between medicinal plant knowledge and the years of schooling, and differences among isolated and easily accessible communities. Reasons behind these findings are seen in the rapid socio-cultural changes of the Waorani society due to globalization processes. Increased accessibility to health centers, improved transportation infrastructure and changes in how knowledge is transmitted to young people all result in a loss of ethnobotanical knowledge. Policymakers need to take action in order to ensure the maintenance of ethnoecological knowledge among the Waorani.