REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0675.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Breast cancer; Estrogen Receptor; PI3K-AKT-mTOR; anti-estrogen resistance
Online: 28 December 2020 (09:22:17 CET)
Signaling from estrogen receptor alpha (ER) and its ligand estradiol (E2) is critical for growth of ~70% of breast cancers. Therefore, several drugs that inhibit ER functions are in clinical use for decades and new classes of anti-estrogens are continuously being developed. Although a significant number of ER+ breast cancers respond to anti-estrogen therapy, ~30% of these breast cancers recur, sometimes even after 20 years of initial diagnosis. Mechanism of resistance to anti-estrogens is one of the intensely studied disciplines in breast cancer. Several mechanisms have been proposed including mutations in ESR1, crosstalk between growth factor and ER signaling, and interplay between cell cycle machinery and ER signaling. ESR1 mutations as well as crosstalk with other signaling networks lead to ligand independent activation of ER thus rendering anti-estrogens ineffective, particularly when treatment involved anti-estrogens that do not degrade ERa. As a result of these studies, several therapies that combine anti-estrogens that degrade ER with PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors targeting growth factor signaling or CDK4/6 inhibitors targeting cell cycle machinery are used clinically to treat recurrent ER+ breast cancers. In this review, we discuss nexus between ER-PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways and how understanding of this nexus has helped to develop combination therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0110.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: cardiac fibroblasts; sex-specific; estrogen; fibrosis; heart failure
Online: 6 September 2021 (17:24:51 CEST)
Several studies have demonstrated estrogen’s cardioprotective abilities in decreasing the fibrotic response of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). However, the majority of these studies are not sex-specific, and those at the cellular level utilize tissue culture plastic, a substrate that has a stiffness much higher than physiological conditions. Understanding the intrinsic differences between male and female CFs under more physiologically “healthy” conditions will help to elucidate the divergences in their complex signaling networks. We aimed to do this by conducting sex-disaggregated analysis of changes in cellular morphology and relative concentrations of profibrotic signaling proteins in CFs cultured on 8kPa stiffness plates with and without 17-β estradiol (E2). Cyclic immunofluorescent analysis indicated that there is a negligible change in cellular morphology due to sex and E2 treatment and that the differences between male and female CFs are occurring at a biochemical rather than structural level. Several proteins corresponding to profibrotic activity had various sex-specific responses with and without E2 treatment. Single-cell correlation analysis exhibited varied protein-protein interaction across experimental conditions. These findings demonstrate the need for further research into the dimorphisms of male and female CFs to develop better tailored, sex-informed prevention and treatment interventions of cardiac fibrosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0670.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: In silico; Estrogen Receptor; Hibiscus sabdariffa L.; Phytochemical; Anthocyanin; SERM
Online: 25 December 2020 (16:03:32 CET)
The estrogen hormone receptor (ER) mediated gene expression mainly regulate the development and physiology of primary and secondary reproductive system alongside bone-forming, metabolism and behaviour. Over-expressed ER is associated with several pathological conditions and play a key role in breast cancer occurrence, progression and metastasis. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. or roselle is a rich source of naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds including anthocyanins and reportedly have strong estrogenic activity. To validate these findings, we have investigated the estrogen receptor binding affinity and safety of some previously recorded polyphenols using a suite of computational methods. Our investigation showed the estrogen-receptor binding potential of Pelargonidin, Delphinidin, Cyanidin, and Hibiscetin are more efficient than popular breast cancer drugs, Tamoxifen and Raloxifene, with favourable toxicological parameters and low half maximal inhibitory concentration. This is the first report to investigate the phytochemical basis of estrogenic activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0132.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: machine learning; random forest; estrogen receptor; Tox21 data challenge 2014; QSAR prediction model
Online: 17 March 2017 (04:49:28 CET)
Many agonists for the estrogen receptor are known to disrupt endocrine functioning. We have developed a computational model that predicts agonists for the estrogen receptor ligand-binding domain in an assay system. Our model was entered into the Tox21 Data Challenge 2014, a computational toxicology competition organized by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. This competition aims to find high-performance predictive models for various adverse-outcome pathways, including the estrogen receptor. Our predictive model, which is based on the random forest method, delivered the best performance in its competition category. In the current study, the predictive performance of the random forest models was improved by strictly adjusting the hyperparameters to avoid overfitting. The random forest models were optimized from 4,000 descriptors simultaneously applied to 10,000 activity assay results for the estrogen receptor ligand-binding domain, which have been measured and compiled by Tox21. At this time, our model delivers the highest predictive power on estrogen receptor agonists in the world. Furthermore, analysis of the optimized model revealed some important features of the agonists, such as the number of hydroxyl groups in the molecules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0047.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: 17 β-estradiol; estrogen pollution; female reproduction; DPV
Online: 8 March 2017 (05:39:59 CET)
Environmental estrogen pollution and estrogen effects on the female reproduction system are well-recognized scientifically. Among the estrogens, 17 β-estradiol is a priority in environmental estrogen pollution, and it is also a major contributor to estrogen which regulates the female reproduction system. 17 β-estradiol is carcinogen and has a tumor promotion effect relating to breast cancer, lung cancer and others. It also affects the psychological well-being such as depression, fatigue and others. Thus, a simple method of detection of 17 β-estradiol will be important for both environmental estrogen pollution and women’s health care. This study demonstrates a simple-use, cost effective 17 β-estradiol biosensor system which can be used for both environment and women’s health care applications. The bio-recognition mechanism is based on the influence of the redox couple, K3Fe (CN) 6/K4Fe (CN) 6 by the interaction between 17 β-estradiol antigen and its α-receptor (ER- α; α-estrogen antibody). The transduction mechanism is an electrochemical analytical technique, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The levels of 17 β-estradiol antigen studied was between 2.25 pg/mL to 2,250 pg/mL, Phosphate buffered saline (PBS), tap water from the Cleveland regional water district, and simulate urine were used as the test media covering the potential application areas for 17 β-estradiol detection. An interference study by testosterone which has a similar chemical structure and molecular weight as those of 17 β-estradiol was carried out, and this 17 β-estradiol biosensor showed excellent specificity without any interference by similar chemicals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: centromere protein F (CENPF); Estrogen Receptor beta; Lung Adenocarcinoma (LUAD); WGCNA package; non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
Online: 5 May 2020 (12:08:59 CEST)
The signal transduction pathways of estrogen receptors (ER) mainly includes gene pathway and non-gene pathway. Studies have shown that the gene pathway of ER is related with the expression of nuclear proteins, and this is the key issue for our current research. With the GEO database analysis, Human centromere protein F (CENPF) is highly expressed in adenocarcinoma of lung (LUAD), and the co-expression of CENPF and ERβ was found in the nucleus of LUAD cells. Meanwhile, CENPF and ERβ2/5 were related with T stage and poor prognosis (P<0.05). Knockdown of CENPF gene significantly inhibited the biological effects of LUAD cells, the tumor growth of mice and the expression of ERβ2/5 (P<0.05). Further, group experiments showed that knockdown CENPF inhibits biological effects of LUAD cells mediated by ERβ pathway. All the results indicated that both CENPF and ERβ2/5 play important roles in the progression of LUAD, and knockdown of CENPF can inhibit the progression of LUAD by inhibiting the expression of ER2/5. Thus, the development of inhibitors against ERβ2/5 subtype and CENPF remained more effective in improving the therapeutic effect of LUAD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19; estrogen; RAGE; ACE2
Online: 10 May 2020 (17:46:13 CEST)
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has provoked major stresses on the health care systems of several countries, and caused the death of more than a quarter of a million people globally, mainly in the elderly population with pre-existing pathologies. Previous studies with coronavirus (SARS-CoV) point to gender differences in infection and disease progression with increased susceptibility in male patients, indicating that estrogens may be associated with physiological protection against the coronavirus. Therefore, the objectives of this work are threefold. First, we aim to summarize the SARS-CoV-2 infection pathway and the roles both the virus and patient play in COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) progression, clinical symptomology, and mortality. Second, we detail the effect estrogen has on viral infection and host infection response, including its role in both the regulation of key viral receptor expression and the mediation of inflammatory activity. Finally, we describe how ERs (estrogen receptors) and RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end-products) play a critical role in metabolic pathways, which we envisage could maintain a close interplay with SARS-CoV and COVID-19 mortality rates, despite a current lack of research directly determining how. Taken together, we present the current state of the field regarding SARS-CoV-2 research and illuminate where research is needed to better define the role both estrogen and metabolic comorbidities have in the COVID-19 disease state, which can be key in screening potential therapeutic options as the search for effective treatments continue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: NRF1; oncogenic reprogramming; estrogen; breast cancer
Online: 11 September 2018 (05:27:01 CEST)
Transcription factor activity of the nuclear respiratory factor 1 protein (NRF1) is increased in breast cancer. Whether this gain of NRF1 activity is directly involved in breast cancer remains unknown. Herein, we report a novel oncogenic function of NRF1 supporting its causative role in breast cancer development and progression. The gain of NRF1 and/or treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2) produced heterogeneous breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) composed of more than ten distinct cell sub-populations. Flow sorting combined with confocal imaging of markers for pluripotency, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), and BCSCs phenotypically confirmed that the sub-populations of BCSCs arise from cell re-programming. Thus, we determined the molecular actions of NRF1 on its target gene CXCR4 because of its known role in the acquisition of BCSCs through EMT. CXCR4 was activated by NRF1 in a redox dependent manner during malignant transformation. NRF1-induced BCSCs were able to form xenograft tumors in vivo, while inhibiting transcription of CXCR4 prevented xenograft tumor growth. Consistent with our observation of NRF1 driven breast tumorigenesis in the experimental model, higher levels of NRF1 protein expression were also found in human breast cancer tissue specimens. This highly novel role of NRF1 in the stochastic acquisition of BCSCs and their progression to a malignant phenotype may open an entirely new research direction targeting NRF1 signaling in invasive breast cancer. Additionally, the discovery of targeting transcriptional activation of CXCR4 to inhibit NRF1-induced oncogenic transformation provides a mechanistic explanation for estrogen-dependent breast carcinogenesis and opens the new avenues for mechanistic therapeutic strategy against breast cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0027.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: homocysteine; estrogen; bradykinin; magnesium; vitamin D; CD147
Online: 2 February 2023 (04:00:56 CET)
Brain fog with compromised ability to concentrate has been the most frequent Long Covid (LC) complaint. This is due to an increased TGF beta/IFN gamma with consequently increased bradykinin (BKN), especially in Caucasian females. Brain and lung blood vessels “leak.” This same ratio is increased in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but decreased in Parkinson’s disease (PD), because CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are differentially affected by the invading associated viruses, e.g., SARS CoV2, HIV, …. In Covid-19 CD147 receptors on immune cells are critical in generating the increased TGF beta/IFN gamma and those on endothelial cells, platelets, and erythrocytes are critical to the abnormal microvascular blood flow. ACE2 receptors on pneumocytes and enterocytes enable pulmonary and GI entry, initiating gut dysbiosis. Epigenetics, methylation, magnesium, vitamin D, the B vitamins, and antioxidants suggest that these issues can be surmounted. Biochemical, physiologic, and epidemiologic data are analyzed to answer these questions. An LC model is presented and discussed in the context of the most recent research. Suggestions to avoid these and other worrisome concerns are included. Other topics discussed include estrogen, the gut microbiome, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and homocysteine.
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Steroids, Vertebrate Evolution, Amphioxus, Ancestral Estrogen, Cambrian Explosion, Snowball Earth
Online: 1 April 2019 (13:50:13 CEST)
Considering that life on earth evolved about 3.7 billion years ago, vertebrates are young, appearing in the fossil record during the Cambrian explosion about 542 to 515 million years ago. Results from sequence analyses of genomes from bacteria, yeast, plants, invertebrates and vertebrates indicate that receptors for adrenal steroids (aldosterone, cortisol), and sex steroids (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone) also are young, with an estrogen receptor and a 3-ketosteroid receptor first appearing in basal chordates (cephalochordates: amphioxus), which are close ancestors of vertebrates. Through gene duplication and divergence of the 3-ketosteroid receptor, receptors that respond to androgens, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and progestins evolved in vertebrates. Thus, an ancestral progesterone receptor and an ancestral corticoid receptor, the common ancestor of the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, evolved in jawless vertebrates (cyclostomes: lampreys, hagfish). This was followed by evolution of an androgen receptor, distinct glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors and estrogen receptor-α and -β in cartilaginous fishes (gnathostomes: sharks). Further evolution of mineralocorticoid signaling occurred with the evolution of aldosterone synthase in lungfish, a forerunner of terrestrial vertebrates. Adrenal and sex steroid receptors are not found in echinoderms: and hemichordates, which are ancestors in the lineage of cephalochordates and vertebrates. The evolution of steroid receptors at key nodes in the evolution of vertebrates, in which steroid receptors act as master switches to regulate differentiation, development, reproduction, immune responses, electrolyte homeostasis and stress responses, argues for an important role for steroid receptors in the evolutionary success of vertebrates, considering that the human genome contains about 22,000 genes, which is not much larger than genomes of invertebrates, such as Caenorhabditis elegans (~18,000 genes) and Drosophila (~14,000 genes).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0401.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; environment; EE2; NP; estrogen receptor; EGFR
Online: 22 July 2018 (11:23:02 CEST)
Lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer death in the world. In addition to smoking, estrogen is supposed to play an important role in the lung cancer development because women have a higher proportion of adenocarcinoma than men. In the environment, there are many metabolites and wastes that mimic human estrogen structurally and functionally. As an oral contraceptive, 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is released to wastewater after being utilized. Moreover, 4-nonylphenol (NP) exiting in the petrochemical products and air pollutants has estrogenic activity. In our study, 17β-estradiol (E2), EE2, and NP are administered to stimulate A549 male lung adenocarcinoma cells and H1435 female lung adenocarcinoma cells. The results demonstrate that EE2 and NP stimulate A549 and H1435 cells proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent trend. Both estrogen receptor α and β are activated simultaneously during these processes. Up-regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ERK expression is involved in response to estrogens. In conclusion, we first time report that EE2 and NP exert biotoxic effect to stimulate the proliferation of both male and female lung cancer cells in a dose- and time- response manner. New challenges from environmental hormones to lung cancer deserved further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0211.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: klotho; estrogen; hippocampus; chronic stress; sex difference; stress resilience
Online: 13 December 2022 (01:09:36 CET)
Klotho (KL) is a glycosyl hydrolase and aging-suppressor gene. Stress is a risk factor for depression and anxiety that are highly comorbid with each other. The aim of this study was to determine KL is regulated by estrogen and plays an important role in sex differences in stress resilience. Our results showed that KL was regulated by estrogen in rat hippocampal neurons in vivo and in vitro and was essential for estrogen-mediated increase in the number of presynaptic vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (Vglut1) positive clusters on the dendrites of hippocampal neurons. The role of KL in sex differences in stress responses was examined in rats using three-week chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). CUMS produced a deficit in spatial learning and memory, anhedonic-like and anxiety-like behaviors in male but not female rats, which was accompanied by a reduction in KL protein levels in the hippocampus of male, but not female rats. This demonstrated the resilience of female rats to CUMS. Interestingly, knockdown of KL protein levels in the rat hippocampus of both sexes caused a decrease in stress resilience in both sexes, especially in female rats. These results suggest that regulation of KL by estrogen plays an important role in estrogen-mediated synapse formation, and KL plays a critical role in the sex differences in cognitive deficit, anhedonic-like and anxiety-like behaviors induced by chronic stress in rats, highlighting an important role of KL in sex differences in stress resilience.
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: lncRNA; breast cancer; alternative splicing; estrogen receptor; RNA-Seq
Online: 19 April 2020 (04:29:31 CEST)
Background: DSCAM-AS1 is a cancer-related long noncoding RNA with higher expression levels in Luminal A, B and HER2-positive Breast Cancer (BC), where its expression is strongly dependent on Estrogen Receptor Alpha (ERα). Methods: To decipher its function, DSCAM-AS1 expression was measured by qRT-PCR in tissue samples from 93 BC patients in addition to a meta-analysis of 30 gene expression datasets, together with the evaluation of its association with clinical data. By computational analyses of our RNA-Seq in MCF-7 cells, we investigated the DSCAM-AS1 knock-down effects at both gene and isoform levels. Results: We confirmed DSCAM-AS1 overexpression in high grade Luminal A, B and HER2+ BCs and found a significant correlation with disease relapse. 908 genes were regulated by DSCAM-AS1-silencing, primarily involved in cell cycle and inflammatory response. Noteworthy, the analysis of alternative splicing and isoform regulation revealed 2,085 splicing events regulated by DSCAM-AS1, enriched in differential polyadenylation sites and 3’UTR shortening events. Finally, the DSCAM-AS1-interacting splicing factor hnRNPL was predicted as the most enriched RBP for exon skipping and 3’UTR events. Conclusion: The relevance of DSCAM-AS1 overexpression in BC is confirmed by clinical data and further enhanced by its possible involvement in the regulation of RNA processing, which is emerging as one of the most important dysfunctions in cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0102.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Curcumin; diferuloylmethane; E100; CYP19A1; Aromatase; estrogen synthase; cytochrome P450.
Online: 8 August 2019 (11:25:51 CEST)
Turmeric is a popular ingredient in the cuisine of many Asian countries. Turmeric is known for its use in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine and comes from the roots of the Curcuma longa. Turmeric is rich in curcuminoids, including curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin. Curcumin has potent anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. Since many anti-cancer drugs target enzymes from the steroidogenic pathway, we tested the bioactivity of curcuminoids on cytochrome P450 CYP17A1, CYP21A2, and CYP19A1 enzyme activities. Curcuminoids were extracted from turmeric with organic solvents. We conducted a cell-based assay for CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 activities using human adrenal cell line NCI-H295R. 3H-pregnenolone was used for CYP17A1 assays, and 3H-17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone was used as a substrate for CYP21A2. Curcuminoids were added at different concentrations and incubated for 24h. Steroids were separated by thin layer chromatography and analyzed by phosphorimager analysis. For CYP19A1 activity, an in vitro assay using endoplasmic reticulum from JEG3 were used with 3H-androstenedione as the substrate. Curcuminoids were incubated for 1h, and the formation of 3H-water from the androstenedione breakdown was measured by scintillation counting. When using 10 µg/ml of curcuminoids, both the 17-hydroxylase as well as 17,20 lyase activities of CYP17A1 were reduced significantly. On the other hand, CYP21A2 activity was only reduced to ~50% control. Furthermore, CYP19A1 activity was reduced to ~20% of control when using 1-100 µg/ml of curcuminoids in a dose-dependent manner. No effect on the activity of 5alpha reductase for the conversion of androstenedione to androstanedione was observed. Molecular docking studies confirmed that curcumin could dock into the active sites of CYP17A1, CYP19A1 as well as CYP21A2. In CYP17A1 and CYP19A1, curcumin docked within 2.5 Å of central heme while in CYP21A2 the distance from heme was 3.4 Å, which is still in the same range or lower than distances of bound steroid substrates. These studies show that curcuminoids may potentially cause inhibition of steroid metabolism, especially at higher dosages. The activities of CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 were inhibited by curcuminoids, which indicate potential anti-carcinogenic effects in case of prostate cancer as well as breast cancer, which can be targeted by inhibition of steroidogenesis. Also, the recent popularity of turmeric powder/curcumin as a dilatory supplement needs further evaluation for the effect of curcuminoids on steroid metabolism. Curcuminoids present in curcumin may affect activities of multiple steroid metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes. Computational docking suggests curcumin binds into the active sites of steroid metabolizing P450s and may serve as a model for lead discovery. Molecular structure of curcuminoids could be modified to generate better lead compounds with inhibitory effects on CYP17A1 and CYP19A1 for potential drugs against prostate cancer and breast cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0362.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; inflammation, oxidative stress; red blood cells; estrogen receptors.
Online: 22 December 2021 (12:25:17 CET)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease associated with a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular mortality, mainly attributed to accelerated atherosclerosis. Methods: Thirty-two women (aged more than 18 years) with RA, and 25 age-matched healthy women were included in this study. Biomarkers of inflammation, red blood cells (RBCs) redox balance, estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) expression as well as ERK 1/2 phosphorylation content were evaluated in RA patients at baseline and six months after treatment with disease modifying anti‐rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Results: For the first times we demonstrated that in RA patients: i) disease activity score (DAS-28) positively correlated with RBC ER-α expression, and negatively with total antioxidant capacity of plasma; ii) RBC ER-α expression positively correlated with systemic inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress parameters as well as ERK 1/2 phosphorylation; and iii) DMARDs treatments improved the clinical condition measured by DAS-28 score decrease, although the RBCs appeared to be more prone to pro-oxidant status associated to the expression of survival molecules. Conclusion: Our data strongly suggest that RBCs could also participate in vascular homeostasis through fine modulation of an intracellular signal linked to the ER-α.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0212.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Annona squamosa; phytomedicine; proliferation; apoptosis; migration; estrogen receptor; tumor size
Online: 12 May 2020 (12:37:43 CEST)
: Annona squamosa L. is an important medicinal plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Different parts of A. squamosa L. have various therapeutic effects; however, the anticancer activity of the leaves has not yet been identified. In vitro, MTT, nuclear staining, and LDH assays were used to evaluate cell survival and proliferation in cells exposed to the extracts. The effect of the extracts on cell migration was investigated using a monolayer wound repair assay, and the apoptotic effects were evaluated using flow cytometry. A breast cancer model was used to study the effect of the extract on the tumor size, and the expression of different proliferative and apoptotic markers was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis. At a concentration of 100 µg/mL, A. squamosa leaf extracts exerted strong antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects against various cell lines. The extracts reduced wound closure and strongly induced apoptosis. In vivo study, rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last injection, and tumor size, as well as the expression of proliferative and apoptotic markers, were observed to be greatly affected by treatment with the extracts. Therefore, A. squamosa leaf extract may be developed as a potential novel drug to treat breast cancer in the future
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0359.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; endocrine; estrogen; immune activation; melanin concentrating hormone
Online: 25 May 2018 (10:37:23 CEST)
The voluminous daily output of autism research has become increasingly disconnected, existing largely within highly specific subspecialty areas, and lacking cross-disciplinary linkages of context, theory, and findings to inform a unified body of knowledge. Robust syntheses of published research across the fields of psychiatry, cellular and molecular biology, neurology, endocrinology, immunology, behavioral and social sciences, and pedagogy may help clarify and extend current knowledge by guiding more efficient future research efforts investigating underlying causes, developmental divergences, novel treatments, and specific, sensitive biological markers in autism. This synthesis of interdisciplinary research indicates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis may be at the center of an interaction among sex steroids, immune function, signaling protein transcriptions, neurogenesis, and dysregulation of brain structures sending or receiving projections from the HPA stress axis. These interaction manifest observably as a range of sexually dimorphic behaviors and functional limitations often falling within the current diagnostic features of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The pathogenicity of endocrine dysregulation may serve as a valuable model for developing a cohesive theory of ASD by explaining how the HPA and connected brain areas respond to extreme conditions of dysregulated endocrine signaling to cause symptoms associated with autism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0355.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: testosterone; estrogen; cyprotenone acetate; masculinizing; feminizing; cytochrome P450; sex-specific genes
Online: 18 November 2022 (10:10:00 CET)
Transgender (TG) describes individuals whose gender identity differs from the social norms. Some TG people undergo gender-affirming hormone therapy (HT) and may be considered as a sub-group of population susceptible to environmental contaminants for their targets and modes of action. Aim of the work is to set appropriate HT doses and identify specific biomarkers to implement TG animal models. Four adult rats/group/sex are subcutaneously exposed to 3 doses of HT (plus control) selected starting from available data. Demasculinizing-feminizing model (dMF): β-estradiol plus cyproterone acetate: 0.09+0.33, 0.09+0.93 and 0.18+0.33 mg, 5 times/week. Defeminizing-masculinizing model (dFM): testosterone 0.45, 0.95 and 2.05 mg, 2 times/week. Clitoral gain and sperm count, histophatological analysis of reproductive organs and liver, hormone serum levels and gene expression of sex-dimorphic CYP450 are evaluated. In dMF model, the selected doses, leading to T serum levels at the range of the corresponding cisgender, induced strong general toxicity and cannot be used in long-term studies. In dFM model, 0.45 mg of testosterone represents the correct dose. In addition, the endpoints selected are considered suitable and reliable to implement the animal model. The sex-specific CYP expression is a suita-ble biomarker to set proper (de)masculinizing/(de)feminizing HT and to implement TG animal models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0160.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; HER2-positive; estrogen receptor positive; triple-positive; HER2-targeted therapy; immunotherapy
Online: 10 June 2022 (11:03:05 CEST)
Up to 25% of early human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer (BC) patients will relapse despite the improvement achieved by the introduction of HER2-targeted therapy. Beyond trastuzumab, other agents approved for early HER2+ BC include the monoclonal antibody pertuzumab, the antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) trastuzumab-emtansine (T-DM1) and the reversible HER2 inhibitor lapatinib. New agents, such as trastuzumab-deruxtecan or tucatinib in combination with capecitabine and trastuzumab, have also shown an improvement in the metastatic setting. Other therapeutic strategies to overcome treatment resistance have been explored in HER2+ BC, mainly in HER2+ that also overexpress estrogen receptors (ER+). One strategy has been to target the cyclin-dependent kinases 4/6 (CDK4/6) as they are downstream of HER2 and many of the cellular pathways associated with resistance to HER2-targeted therapies play a key role in cell cycle and proliferation. Different trials have explored these strategies with encouraging results, but definitive results are needed. In addition, HER2+ BC is known to be more immunogenic than other BC subgroups, with high variability between tumors. Different immunotherapeutic agents have been investigated in this setting, with promising but controversial results obtained to date.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0123.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Genistein; Estrogen receptor; BRCA-1; Cell cycle; Tumor suppressor gene; Molecular pharmacology; Synergistic activity.
Online: 7 September 2021 (11:59:15 CEST)
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common type of cancer in both men and women alike, but it is more prevalent in women. Natural compounds that can modulate the oncogenic process can be considered a significant anti-cancer agent for treating BC. These natural compounds are more effective than synthetic drugs, which have profound side effects on the normal cell and resistance to cancer cells. Genistein is a type of dietary phytoestrogen included in the flavonoid group with a similar structure of estrogen that might provide a strong alternative and complementary medicine to existing chemotherapeutics drugs. Several research studies demonstrated that it can target the estrogen receptor (ER), Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), and Breast cancer gene-1 (BRCA-1) in multiple BC cell lines, as well as sensitize cancer cell lines to this compound when used at an optimal inhibitory concentration. Genistein effectively showed anti-cancer activities through apoptosis induction, arresting cell cycle, inhibiting angiogenesis with metastasis, reducing inflammation, mammosphere formation, tumor growth, up-regulating tumor suppressor gene, and downregulating oncogene in suppressing cancer progression in vitro and animal model study. In addition, research studies have also suggested that these phytochemicals synergistically reverse the resistance mechanism of chemotherapeutic drugs, increasing the efficacy of some chemoinformatics drugs. Our review article aims to unbox and validate the molecular pharmacology in breast tissue, cell-specific anti-cancer mechanism with synergistic activity, and possible pharmacokinetic parameters of Genistein as a potential alternative therapeutic option for the treatment of BC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0374.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: alpha-fetoprotein; estrogens; selective estrogen receptor modulators; homology-based modeling; molecular docking; protein-ligand interaction; amino acid substitutions
Online: 29 December 2019 (08:08:23 CET)
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a major embryo- and tumor-associated protein capable of binding and transporting variety of hydrophobic ligands including estrogens. AFP has been shown to inhibit estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumor growth and this can be attributed to its estrogen-binding ability. Despite AFP has long been investigated, its three-dimensional (3D) structure has not been experimentally resolved and molecular mechanisms underlying AFP-ligand interaction remain obscure. In our study we constructed homology-based 3D model of human AFP (HAFP) with the purpose to perform docking of ERα ligands, three agonists (17β-estradiol, estrone and diethylstilbestrol) and three antagonists (tamoxifen, afimoxifene and endoxifen) into the obtained structure. Based on ligand docked scoring function, we identified three putative estrogen- and antiestrogen-binding sites with different ligand binding affinities. Two high-affinity sites were located in (i) a tunnel formed within HAFP subdomains IB and IIA and (ii) opposite side of the molecule in a groove originating from cavity formed between domains I and III, while (iii) the third low-affinity site was found at the bottom of the cavity. 100 ns MD simulation allowed studying their geometries and showed that HAFP-estrogen interactions occur due to van der Waals forces, while both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions were almost equally involved in HAFP-antiestrogen binding. MM/GBSA rescoring method estimated binding free energies (ΔGbind) and showed that antiestrogens have higher affinities to HAFP as compared to estrogens. We performed in silico point substitutions of amino acid residues to confirm their roles in HAFP-ligand interactions and showed that Thr132, Leu138, His170, Phe172, Ser217, Gln221, His266, His316, Lys453, and Asp478 residues along two disulfide bonds, Cys224-Cys270 and Cys269-Cys277 have key roles in both HAFP-estrogen and HAFP-antiestrogen binding. Data obtained in our study contribute to understanding mechanisms underlying protein-ligand interactions and anti-cancer therapy strategies based on ER-binding ligands.