REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0277.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Diabetes; transcription factor; β-cell mass; pluripotent stem cells; pancreatic progenitors; cell therapy
Online: 19 October 2020 (16:04:27 CEST)
Understanding the biology underlying the mechanisms and pathways regulating pancreatic β-cell development is necessary to understand the pathology of diabetes mellitus (DM), which is characterized by the progressive reduction in insulin producing β-cell mass. Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) can potentially offer an unlimited supply of functional β-cells for cellular therapy and disease modeling of DM. Homeobox protein NKX6.1 is a transcription factor (TF) that plays a critical role in pancreatic β-cell function and proliferation. In human pancreatic islet, NKX6.1 expression is exclusive toβ-cells and is undetectable in other islet cells. Several reports showed that activation of NKX6.1 in PSC-derived pancreatic progenitors (MPCs), expressing PDX1 (PDX1+/NKX6.1+), warrants their future commitment to monohormonal β-cells. However, further differentiation of MPCs lacking NKX6.1 expression (PDX1+/NKX6.1-) results in an undesirable generation of non-functional polyhormonal β-cells. The importance of NKX6.1 as a crucial regulator in MPC specification into functional β-cells directs attentions to further investigating its mechanism and enhancing NKX6.1 expression as a mean to increase β-cell function and mass. Here, we shed light on the role of NKX6.1 during pancreatic β-cell development and in directing the MPCs to functional monohormonal lineage. Furthermore, we address the transcriptional mechanisms and targets of NKX6.1 as well as its association with diabetes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0063.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: hPSCs; hyperglycemia; insulin-secreting cells; β-cell precursors; pancreatic islets; transplantation.
Online: 8 January 2020 (05:30:34 CET)
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent metabolic disorders. In order to replace the function of the destroyed pancreatic beta cells in diabetes, islet transplantation is the widely practiced treatment; however, it has several limitations. As an alternative approach, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can provide an unlimited source of pancreatic cells that have the ability to secrete insulin in response to high blood glucose level. However, determination of the appropriate pancreatic lineage candidate for the purpose of cell therapy for treatment of diabetes is still debated upon. While hPSC-derived beta cells are perceived as the ultimate candidate, the efficiency needs further improvement in order to obtain a sufficient number of glucose responsive β-cells for transplantation therapy. On the other hand, hPSC-derived pancreatic progenitors can be efficiently generated in vitro and can further mature into glucose responsive beta cells in vivo after transplantation. Herein, we discuss the advantages and predicted challenges associated with the use of each of the two pancreatic lineage products for diabetes cell therapy. Furthermore, we address co-generation of functionally relevant islet cell subpopulations and structural properties contributing to glucose responsiveness of beta cells, as well as the available encapsulation technology for these cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0098.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Type 2 diabetes; insulin target tissues; iPSCs; genetic factors; disease modeling
Online: 7 February 2020 (11:45:04 CET)
In this review, we discuss the insulin resistance (IR) and its development in the insulin target tissues that leads to diabetes. Also, we highlight the use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to understand the mechanisms underlying the development of IR. IR is associated with several metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). The development of IR in insulin target tissues involves genetic and acquired factors. Persons at genetic risk for T2D tend to develop IR several years before glucose intolerance. Although there are currently several mouse models for both IR and T2D that had provided a lot of information about the disease, these models cannot recapitulate all the aspects of this complex disease as seen in each individual. Patient-specific iPSCs can overcome the hurdles faced with the classical mouse models for studying IR. iPSC technology can generate cells genetically identical to IR individuals, which can help in distinguishing between genetic and acquired defects in insulin sensitivity. Combining the technologies of the genome editing and iPSCs may provide important information about the inherited factors underlying the development of different forms of IR. Further studies are required to fill the gaps in understanding the pathogenesis of IR and diabetes.