ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0061.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: printed circuit boards; gold; copper; electrochemical leaching; alternating current
Online: 6 October 2022 (09:59:38 CEST)
Modern technologies for recycling electronic waste (e-waste) impose high economic efficiency and environmental safety requirements. Among existing technologies, hydrometallurgy is considered the most promising technology for e-waste recycling. Increasing attention to the chlorination method is associated with the complex recycling of low-grade ores containing noble metals and secondary polymetallic raw materials. In this paper, we propose a new scheme for leaching metals from computer printed circuits (PCBs) pre-crushed in a disintegrator: the processes of chlorine production and hydrochlorination are implemented in one reactor under the action of alternating current (AC) of industrial frequency (50 Hz). It was found that complete leaching of gold is achieved from fine fractions of raw materials containing 0.03% and 0.01% of the gold at an experiment duration of 2 hours, a current density of 0.66 A·cm-2, and a solid/liquid ratio of 8.6 g·L-1. Under the same conditions of the electrochemical leaching process from the fraction of raw material with a gold content of 0.08%, the degree of metal leaching is 80.5%. At the same time, with an increase in the copper content in the raw material from 1.40% to 6.13%, an increase in the degree of its leaching from 84.6% to 95.2%, respectively, is observed. These results will serve as a foundation for developing a complex technology for recovering valuable metals from PCBs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0401.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: e-waste; e-waste mechanical pretreatment; disintegration; e-waste milling; printed circuit boards; precious metals
Online: 23 August 2022 (17:24:51 CEST)
Various metals and semiconductors containing Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are abundant in any electronic device equipped with controlling and computing features. These devices inevitably constitute E-waste after the end of service life. The typical construction of PCBs includes mechanically and chemically resistive materials, which significantly reduce the reaction rate or even avoid accessing chemical reagents (dissolvents) to target metals. Additionally, the presence of relatively reactive polymers and compounds from PCBs requires high energy consumption and reactive supply due to the formation of undesirable and sometimes environmentally hazardous reaction products. Preliminarily milling PCBs into powder is a promising method for increasing the reaction rate and avoiding liquid and gaseous emissions. Unfortunately, current state-of-the-art milling methods also lead to the presence of significantly more reactive polymers still adhered to milled target metal particles. This paper aims to find a novel single and two-stage disintegration-milling approach that can provide the formation of metal-rich particle size fractions. The morphology, particle fraction sizes, bulk density, and metal content in produced particles were measured and compared. Research results show the highest bulk density (up to 6.8 g·cm-3) and total metal content (up to 95.2 wt. %) in finest sieved fractions after the single-step milling of PCBs. Therefore, the concentrations of about half tested metallic elements are higher in the single milled specimen and with lower adhered plastics concentrations, as compared to double milled specimens.