ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0001.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: color; free fatty acids; iodine absorption value; paraanisidine value; peroxide value
Online: 6 February 2019 (06:36:41 CET)
Deep fat frying is not novel, but a classical antiquity culinary technique preferred chiefly for its swiftness, amenity, conferment of a crisp texture, attractive sensorial and organoleptic qualities and thus delectableness of the fries. Regrettably, repeated use of oils for deep frying impacts the storage life and nutritional suitability of fries. This concerted study investigated the effects of continuous deep fat frying on the physicochemical properties of ten brands of edible cooking oils: Fortune Butto, Roki, Tamu, Best Fry, Golden Fry, Mukwano, Sunny, Sunvita, Sunlite and Sunseed used in deep frying of potato chips in Kampala, Uganda. Three oil samples from local Irish chip fryers were also collected. The color value (CV) and the acidification of the oils as free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (POV), paraanisidine value (AnV) and iodine adsorption value (IV) before and between ten successive deep-fryings using potato chips were determined. The possible reuse of the oils was estimated from the frying round when a quality criterion surpassed national or CODEX specifications for the respective edible cooking oils. For fresh oils, the statistical parameter ranges were: CV (0.4R 3.4Y-7.7R 70Y), % FFA (0.0430-0.1508), POV (0.5951-6.6134 meqO2/Kg), AnV (0.90-4.30) and IV (57.62-128.35gI2/100g). By the tenth fry, the values were respectively 3.0R 23Y-20.4R 70Y, 0.2286-0.4817, 11.1138-15.7525 meqO2/Kg, 10.31-22.16 and 53.66-126.03 gI2/100g. Reuse of the oils for continuous frying of potatoes on the same day can be done only up to 7 times on average for hard oils and 6 times for soft oils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0445.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Contamination, Escherichia coli, fecal coliforms, Nakawa, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus
Online: 19 November 2018 (10:19:56 CET)
This study evaluated the microbial safety of vended boiled, pasteurized and UHT milk sold in Nakawa, Kampala-Uganda. 15 milk samples were analyzed; 2 samples had Salmonella, 5 had S. aureus with a count of 1.66 0.02 log10CFU/ml. E. coli was detected in 8 samples with 1.0 0.02 to 3.0 0.01log10CFU/ml count. A high load of 3.0 CFU/ml was obtained in 3 samples with E. coli. Four E. coli positive samples had a contamination load of 2.0 0.015log10 CFU/ml of which one was pasteurized milk. Only a pasteurized milk showed a low E. coli load at 1.0 0.02log10 CFU/ml. All UHT milk had no microbial contamination. Both boiled and pasteurized milk had Salmonella, S. aureus and E. coli in levels above the set threshold limits. Milk consumers in Nakawa stand a potential public health risk of food poisoning reflected by presence of Salmonella, S. aureus and E. coli in some milk sold in the area.