REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis; HERV; MSRV; Epstein Barr Virus
Online: 19 April 2020 (02:36:17 CEST)
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) has a well established link with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and a growing association with human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). In this review, we described how these two pieces may interact in MS pathogenesis
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0154.v1
Online: 11 October 2022 (10:43:36 CEST)
We have previously discussed the pathological characteristics, clinical characteristics, detection methods, pathogenesis, and treatment of Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-positive gastric cancer, but we have not discussed the unique immune microenvironment in EBV-positive gastric cancer. Here, we reviewed studies on the immune microenvironment in EBV-positive gastric cancer and found that CD8+ T lymphocytes and a small number of CD204+ macrophages infiltrate the immune microenvironment in EBV-positive gastric cancer. Moreover, immune checkpoints, such as IDO1 and PD-L1, are expressed at high levels in EBV-positive gastric cancer. Lastly, we also analyzed the mechanisms underlying the formation of the immune microenvironment in EBV-positive gastric cancer. Our findings and conclusions have significance in clinical guidance and provide research direction for basic experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Cervical cancer – viruses – Human Papillomaviruses – Epstein-Barr virus – Id-1
Online: 11 April 2018 (13:49:57 CEST)
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) has been recently shown to be co-present with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in human cervical cancer; thus, these oncoviruses play an important role in the initiation and/or progression of this cancer. Accordingly, our group has recently viewed the presence and genotyping distribution of high-risk HPVs in cervical cancer in Syrian women; our data pointed out that HPVs are present in 95.45% of our samples. Herein, we aim to explore the co-prevalence of EBV and high-risk HPVs in 44 cervical cancer tissues from Syrian women using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and tissue microarray (TMA) analyses. We found that EBV and high-risk HPVs are co-present in 15/44 (34%) of the samples. Additionally, we report that the co-expression of LMP1 and E6 genes of EBV and high-risk HPVs, respectively, is associated with poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas phenotype; this is accompanied by a strong and diffused Id-1 overexpression, which is an important regulator of cell invasion and metastasis. These data imply that EBV and HPVs are co-present in cervical cancer in the Middle East area including Syria and their co-presence is associated with a more aggressive cancer phenotype. Future investigations are needed to elucidate the exact role of EBV and HPVs cooperation in cervical carcinogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0195.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Burkitt's lymphoma; Epstein-Barr Virus
Online: 18 January 2020 (09:01:45 CET)
The Tumor Microenviroment (TME) is a complex milieu that is increasingly recognized as a key factor in multiple stages of disease progression and responses to therapy as well as escape from immune surveillance. However, the precise contribution of specific immune effector and immune suppressor components of the TME in Burkitt lymphoma (BL) remains poorly understood. In this paper, we applied the computational algorithm CIBERSORT to Gene Expression Profile (GEP) datasets of 40 BL samples to draw a map of immune and stromal components of TME. Furthermore, by VECTRA multispectral immunofluorescence (IF) and multiple immunohistochemistry (IHC), we investigated the TME of an additional series of 40 BL cases and evaluated the possible role of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint axis. Our results indicated that M2 polarized macrophages are the most prominent TME component in BL. In addition, we investigated the correlation between PD-L1 and latent membrane protein-2A (LMP2A) expression on tumour cells, highlighting a subgroup of BL cases characterized by a non- canonical latency program of EBV with an activated PD-L1 pathway. In conclusion, our study analysed the TME in BL and identified a tolerogenic immune signature highlighting new potential therapeutic targets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0223.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Epstein-Barr virus; hydroa vacciniforme; lymphoproliferative disorders; photodermatosis; sunlight; skin; ultraviolet radiation
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:30:05 CEST)
Hydroa vacciniforme (HV) is a rare form of photosensitivity disorders in children and is frequently associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, whereas HV-like lymphoproliferative disorders (HVLPD) describe a spectrum of EBV-associated T-cell or NK-cell lymphoproliferations with HV-like cutaneous manifestations, including EBV-positive HV, atypical HV, and HV-like lymphoma. Classic HV occurs in childhood with vesiculopapules on sun-exposed areas, which is usually induced by sunlight and ultraviolet irradiation, and mostly resolves by early adult life. Unlike classic HV, atypical or severe HV manifests itself as recurrent papulovesicular eruptions in sun-exposed and sun-protected areas associated occasionally with facial edema, fever, lymphadenopathy, oculomucosal lesions, gastrointestinal involvement, and hepatosplenomegaly. Notably, atypical or severe HV may progress to EBV-associated systemic T-cell or natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma after a chronic course. Although rare in the United States and Europe, atypical or severe HV and HV-like lymphoma are predominantly reported in children from Asia and Latin America with high EBV DNA levels, low numbers of NK cells, and T cell clones in the blood. In comparison with the conservative treatment used for patients with classic HV, systemic therapy such as immunomodulatory therapy is recommended as the first-line therapy for patients with atypical or severe HV. This review aims to provide an integrated, overview of current evidence and knowledge of HV and HVLPD to elucidate the pathophysiology, practical issues, environmental factors, and the impact of EBV infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0494.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Latent membrane protein 1; Epstein-Barr virus; Herpesvirus; Proteomics; Mass spectrometry; interactions; signaling; extracellular vesicles; exosomes; CD63; Tetraspanin
Online: 22 February 2021 (16:27:27 CET)
Abstract Tetraspanin CD63 is a cluster of cell surface proteins with four transmembrane domains which associates with tetraspanin-enriched microdomains and typically localizes to late endosomes and lysosomes. CD63 plays an important role in cellular trafficking of different proteins, EV cargo sorting and vesicles formation. We have preciously shown that CD63 is important in LMP1 trafficking to EVs and this also affects LMP1 mediated intracellular signaling including MAPK/ERK, NF-κB and mTOR activation. Using the BioID combined with mass spectrometry, we sought to define the broad CD63 interactome and how LMP1 modulates this network of interacting proteins. We identified a total of 1600 total proteins as proximal interacting newtwork of proteins to CD63. Biological process enrichment analysis revealed significant involvement in signal transduction, cell communication, protein metabolism and transportation. The CD63 only interactome was enriched in Rab GTPases, SNARE proteins and sorting nexins while adding LMP1 into the interactome increased presence of signaling and ribosomal proteins. Our results showed that LMP1 alters the CD63 interactome, shifting the network of proteins enrichment from protein localization and vesicle mediated transportation to metabolic processes and translation. We also show that LMP1 interacts with mTor, Nedd4L and PP2A indicating formation of a multiprotein complex with CD63 thereby potentially regulating LMP1 dependent mTor signaling. Collectively, the comprehensive analysis of CD63 proximal interacting proteins provides insights into network of partners required for endocytic trafficking, extracellular vesicle cargo sorting, formation and secretion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0049.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: natural product; drug discovery; protoflavonoid; continuous-flow chemistry; oxime; antitumor; antiviral; epstein-barr virus; lytic cycle
Online: 4 December 2019 (11:40:33 CET)
Protoflavones, a rare group of natural flavonoids with a non-aromatic B-ring, are best known of their antitumor properties. The protoflavone B-ring is a versatile moiety that may be explored for other pharmacological purposes, but common cytotoxicity of these compounds is a limitation to such efforts. Protoapigenone was previously found to be active against the lytic cycle of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Further, the 5-hydroxyflavone moiety is a known pharmacophore against HIV-integrase. The aim of this work was to prepare a series of less cytotoxic protoflavone analogs, and to study their antiviral activity against HIV and EBV. Twenty-seven compounds including 18 new derivatives were prepared from apigenin through oxidative de-aromatization and subsequent continuous-flow hydrogenation, deuteration, and/or 4′-oxime formation. One compound was active against HIV at the micromolar range, and 3 compounds showed significant activity against the EBV lytic cycle at the medium-low nanomolar range. Among these, protoapigenone 1′-O-isopropyl ether (6) was identified as a promising lead due to its 73-times selectivity of its antiviral over its cytotoxic effect, which exceeds that of protoapigenone by 2.4-times. Our results open new opportunities to design new, potent and safe anti-EBV agents based on the natural protoflavone moiety.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0284.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: acute acalculous cholecystitis; Orientia tsutsgugamushi; scrub typhus; eschar; Epstein-Barr virus; re-activation; clinical manifestation; Maldives
Online: 16 November 2021 (09:34:22 CET)
Scrub typhus is a neglected tropical disease predominantly occurring in Asia. The causative agent is a bacterium transmitted by the larval stage of mites found in rural vegetation in endemic regions. Cases of scrub typhus frequently present as acute undifferentiated febrile illness, and without early diagnosis and treatment, the disease can develop fatal complications. We retrospectively reviewed de-identified data from a 23-year-old woman who presented to an emergency department with complaints of worsening abdominal pain. On presentation, she appeared jaundiced and toxic-looking. Other positive findings on abdominal examination were a positive Murphey’s sign, abdominal guarding and hepatosplenomegaly. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography demonstrated acalculous cholecystitis. Additional findings included eschar on the medial aspect of the left thigh with inguinal regional lymphadenopathy. Further, positive results were obtained for immunoglobulins M and G, confirming scrub typhus. Workups for other infectious causes of acute acalculous cholecystitis detected human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus). Whether that represented acute infection or re-activation of the Epstein-Barr virus could not be determined. As other reports have described acute acalculous cholecystitis in adult scrub typhus patients, we recommend doxycycline to treat acute acalculous cholecystitis in endemic regions while awaiting serological confirmation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0229.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: pharynx; oncogenic virus; oropharyngeal cancer; nasopharyngeal cancer; human papillomavirus (HPV); Epstein–Barr virus (EBV); microbiome; infection; inflammation; carcinogenesis
Online: 16 June 2022 (04:27:04 CEST)
While the two primary risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are alcohol and tobacco, viruses account for an important and significant upward trend in HNSCC incidence. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent for a subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC)—a cancer that is impacting a rapidly growing group of typically middle-aged non-smoking white males. While HPV is a ubiquitously present virus (with about 7% of the population having oral HPV infection at any one time), only 1% of those infected develop OPSCC— suggesting that additional cofactors or coinfections may be required. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a similarly ubiquitous virus that is strongly linked to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Both of these viruses cause cellular transformation and chronic inflammation. While dysbiosis of the human microbiome has been associated with similar chronic inflammation and the pathogenesis of mucosal diseases (including OPSCC and NPC), a significant knowledge gap remains in understanding the role of bacterial-viral interactions in the initiation, development, and progression of head and neck cancers. In this review, we utilize the known associations of HPV with OPSCC and EBV with NPC to investigate these interactions. We thoroughly review the literature and highlight how perturbations of the pharyngeal microbiome may impact host-microbiome-tumor-viral interactions—leading to tumor growth.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0482.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Telomerase reverse transcriptase; TERT; TERT promoter; TERTp; human papillomavirus; HPV; Epstein Barr virus (EBV); Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus; HHV-8; hepatitis B virus; HBV; hepatitis C virus; HCV; human T-cell leukemia virus-1; HTLV-1
Online: 30 September 2022 (10:11:58 CEST)
Human oncoviruses are able to subvert telomerase function in cancer cells through multiple strategies. The activity of the catalytic subunit of telomerase (TERT) is commonly enhanced in virus-related cancers. Viral oncoproteins, such as high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) LMP1, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (HHV-8) LANA, hepatitis B virus (HBV) HBVx, hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein and human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1) tax protein, interact with regulatory elements in the infected cells and contribute to the transcriptional activation of TERT gene. Specifically, viral oncoproteins have been shown to bind TERT promoter, to induce post-transcriptional alterations of TERT mRNA and to cause epigenetic modifications, which have important effects on the regulation of telomeric and extra-telomeric functions of the telomerase. Other viruses, such as herpesviruses, operate by integrating their genomes within the telomeres or by inducing alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) in non-ALT cells. In this review, we recapitulate recent findings on virus-telomerase/telomeres interplay and the importance of TERT-related oncogenic pathways activated by cancer causing viruses.