ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1599.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: environmental education; environmental attitude; environmental knowledge; pro-environmental behavior
Online: 23 August 2023 (02:56:50 CEST)
The demand for industries to enhance sustainability is rising in response to climate change worries. A pervasive and intensifying worldwide environmental problem, plastic pollution has a particularly severe impact on climate change. The production of significant volumes of plastic garbage occurs mostly in Asian regions. So, it's commonplace to talk about pro-environmental conduct nowadays. Indonesia and Taiwan are chosen as case studies of developed and developing regions, respectively. The cultural differences between the two areas do, however, exist in terms of environmental values, and this further influences consumer behavior. In order to understand how environmental education has influenced pro-environmental behavior, this study examines how environmental attitude, knowledge, motivation, and intention have changed as a result of environmental education. By sending electronic questionnaires to a sample of 235 respondents (110 Indonesian and 125 Taiwanese), gathered between March 11 and April 30, 2023, we employ quantitative approaches and data-gathering procedures. The CB-Structural Equation Modelling with AMOS analytical tool is used to examine the data. We are able to draw important conclusions from the study of differences between Indonesian and Taiwanese and make suggestions for more research as well as theoretical and managerial ramifications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0039.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: global environmental concerns; domestic environmental concerns; environmental attitudes; environmental responsibility
Online: 5 January 2020 (15:33:53 CET)
Recently, both global and domestic environmental events have been occurring more frequently, bringing catastrophic consequences to humans and the environment. These adverse events have caused widespread concern among the general public. In positive terms, these devastating events could potentially enhance people’s environmental awareness, which, in turn, could instill a greater sense of environmental responsibility. This study aims to investigate how university students concern themselves with global and domestic catastrophic environmental events and to examine how global and domestic environmental concerns mediate the effect of environmental knowledge and attitudes on university students’ environmental responsibility. Students of King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi in Bangkok, Thailand were selected as the participants. A simple random technique was applied to select the research participants. Questionnaire surveys with 863 students were carried out during September–October 2019. A path analysis was performed to test how global and local environmental concerns mediate the effect of environmental knowledge and attitudes on university students’ environmental responsibility. The results demonstrated that domestic environmental concerns, taken alone, contributed less to the students’ sense of environmental responsibility. Domestic environmental concerns had a stronger effect on environmental responsibility when taken together with global environmental concerns. In addition, both domestic and global environmental concerns could help transform environmental knowledge and attitudes into environmental responsibility. Only environmental attitudes had no direct effect on responsibility. These results show that domestic and global catastrophic environmental events could raise students’ levels of concern for the environment, and, ultimately, enhance their sense of responsibility to protect the environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1195.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Sulfolane; environmental analysis; environmental pollution
Online: 20 November 2023 (03:17:40 CET)
Sulfolane, a highly water-soluble industrial solvent, has raised environmental concerns due to its persistence once released into the environment. To assess the extent of contamination effectively, reliable analytical methods are essential. In this review, we delve into the published literature on sulfolane analytical procedures. Existing guidelines for sampling from environmental matrices provide a solid foundation for sul-folane analysis. Notably, there is little variation in the choice of determination method, with GC-MS or GC-FID being favored across studies. However, substantial variability emerges in sample prep-aration methods. Many procedures rely on large quantities of environmentally hazardous solvents, such as dichloromethane, during extraction. Nevertheless, by incorporating extraction enhancement techniques proposed in various studies, it is possible to develop more eco-friendly extraction processes. Overall, this field calls for further re-search to devise efficient and environmentally sustainable analytical methods for sulfolane analysis. Through this review, insights into the challenges at hand and potential solutions can be gained, offering a foundation for the development of novel sulfolane analysis methods applicable to a range of environmental matrices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0342.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Environmental Manager, Maturity, Ecodesign, Environmental Decoupling
Online: 21 June 2018 (15:35:39 CEST)
The research investigates the role the environmental manager plays to ensure a successful (or not) implementation of environmental performance within an organization. It is based on interviews of 5-7 actors per company within a sample of 7 companies (42 interviews). We build upon bias of perception of the various actors interviewed within each company to define 4 paradoxes related to the roles and mission of the environmental manager that hinder proper efficiency of environmental management at company level. Paradox 1 is that no one takes ownership of environmental performance within the organization. Paradox 2 is that the environmental manager is in an awkward situation vis-à-vis his boss. Paradox 3 is that the role of the environmental manager is ambiguous vis-à-vis employees. Paradox 4 is that corporate and product approaches are decoupled. We suggest that these paradoxes interact and form a vicious cycle that may in part be responsible for the environmental decoupling phenomenon – the fact that companies often adopt a sustainability policy symbolically without implementing it substantively. Our research suggests that, by leveraging the leadership of the environmental manager through organizational and motivational measures, the vicious cycle can be transformed into a virtuous cycle and the human motivation can become a driver for green change within corporations. We proposed the SEA (Shaping Environmental Action) model based of 4 pillars: information, motivation, organization and strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0167.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: green hotel; environmental awareness; environmental knowledge
Online: 18 August 2016 (05:12:57 CEST)
There has been a growing awareness of the need to implement environmentally friendly operations in the hotel industry, but most studies focus on guest behaviors. Only a few studies investigate employees’ willingness to comply with hotels’ green practices. This study seeks to further the investigation from the human resource perspective. Using alumni from a tourism and hospitality programs, this study collected 233 responses. The study hypothesizes that the employees’ green ability consisting of environmental awareness, environmental knowledge, and environmental skill creates a positive impact on hotels’ green ability. The results indicate that employees contribute approximately a fifth of hotels’ ability to implement greener practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0285.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Environmental Sensitivity; Modeling; Environmental Quality; Cloud computing
Online: 6 September 2023 (14:50:48 CEST)
Many factors drive land desertification, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. However, the numerous driving factors of desertification make analyses computer expensive. Cloud computing comes along to address this problem, especially in developing countries. The objective of this work was to assess the sensitivity of the East Atlantic Basin, Brazil, to desertification using the Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use (MEDALUS) model and Google Earth Engine (GEE). The model is composed of four environmental Quality Indices (QIs) associated with soil (SQI), vegetation (VQI), climate (CQI) and management (MQI), and contains factors influencing the desertification process. Digital databases of the factors were pre-processed and uploaded to GEE for analysis. We report Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) and Environmentally Critical Factors (ECF) maps of the East Atlantic Basin, which showed that most of the basin is in either critical (49.4%) or fragile (35.7%) state of sensitivity. In contrast, only a smaller portion of the area is unaffected (5%) or potentially affected (10.1%). Sensitivity to desertification was inversely correlated with the presence of vigorous vegetation. A joint analysis of ESAs and ECF shed light on the importance of each factor in the sensitivity to desertification. The East Atlantic Basin shows a high degree of sensitivity to desertification, thereby demanding more attention and establishment of measures to mitigate the negative impacts of the desertification process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0316.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Environmental Sensitivity; Modeling; Environmental Quality; Cloud computing
Online: 6 September 2023 (13:53:12 CEST)
Many factors drive land desertification, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. However, the numerous driving factors of desertification make analyses computer expensive. Cloud computing comes along to address this problem, especially in developing countries. The objective of this work was to assess the sensitivity of the East Atlantic Basin, Brazil, to desertification using the Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use (MEDALUS) model and Google Earth Engine (GEE). The model is composed of four environmental Quality Indices (QIs) associated with soil (SQI), vegetation (VQI), climate (CQI) and management (MQI), and contains factors influencing the desertification process. Digital databases of the factors were pre-processed and uploaded to GEE for analysis. We report Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) and Environmentally Critical Factors (ECF) maps of the East Atlantic Basin, which showed that most of the basin is in either critical (49.4%) or fragile (35.7%) state of sensitivity. In contrast, only a smaller portion of the area is unaffected (5%) or potentially affected (10.1%). Sensitivity to desertification was inversely correlated with the presence of vigorous vegetation. A joint analysis of ESAs and ECF shed light on the importance of each factor in the sensitivity to desertification. The East Atlantic Basin shows a high degree of sensitivity to desertification, thereby demanding more attention and establishment of measures to mitigate the negative impacts of the desertification process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0375.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: environmental literacy; environmental pollution; awareness; attitude; Yazd
Online: 16 November 2018 (05:19:57 CET)
Introduction: Different factors such as rapid growth of population, urbanization and industrialization of communities have detrimental effects on the environment. In regard to the importance of the environment and its fundamental role in sustainable development along with the awareness and attitude of the people of Yazd which has not yet been assessed, this study aims to assess the level of awareness, attitude and environmental literacy of the people of Yazd in relation to environmental issues and challenges in the year 2017. Materials and methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, the sample size was obtained from 410 Yazd city residents through prior studies and the Cochran formula. The sample was then selected by the stratified random sampling method. The data selection tool was a questionnaire with questions on demographic characteristics, awareness level, attitude and practices in relation to menopause. The data was analyzed upon collection by the SPSS-20 software and Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and Chi-Square non-parametric tests along with the Spearman correlation test. In this study, the significance level was considered as 0.05. Results: In this study, a total of 404 questionnaires were completed and evaluated. Based on the obtained results, 224 individuals (55.4%) male, 53.3% married, 31.2% had at least a bachelor’s degree and the majority of individuals (40.1%) were in the 18-27 age group. In terms of area of residence, 64.1% reside in region 2. From all the participants, 51.3% of the participants believed that the main environmental issue in Yazd was water deficiency and pollution. The awareness score was statistically significant with the age, education level and employment status variables. Attitude only had significant relationship with the employment status variable. The relationship between the practices score was statistically significant with the age, marital status, and area of residence variables. There is a significant relation between age, income level and knowledge level but there is no significant relation with attitude levels. There is no significant relation between gender, education level, marital status, area of residence, awareness and attitude levels (p-value > 0.05). There is a positive correlation between awareness, attitude and practices scores. The results indicated that the attitude score of most participants (51.5%) was lower than the average score but the awareness and practices score of most participants was average. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, although the awareness of Yazdi citizens on some environmental issues and institutions that are active in the environmental pollution control field in the country appears low, but in general, the awareness of the people of Yazd, specifically regarding health issues stemming from pollution was assessed as adequate. Considering the importance of environmental factors’ role in communities’ health and its continuous improvement, due to the expansion of automated life namely in large cities within the country, it is necessary to conduct various researches to identify and control these factors and to carry out interventional studies to determine suitable solutions before implementing them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: E-waste management; environmental impact; environmental sustainability; WEEE
Online: 10 March 2023 (11:36:12 CET)
This article aims to investigate gaps in the law and policies on e-waste management in communi-ties of Thailand and suggests a guideline for improving, developing, and designing legal measures and state policies for more effective enforcement of the law on e-waste management in communities. The findings reveal that the currently applicable law of Thailand lacks effective approaches and rules for e-waste management. Also, there is not any implementation of key envi-ronmental principles for e-waste management in communities, such as the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP) that requires manufacturing companies to take part in being responsible for disposal ex-penses or the Public Participation principle that requires users, manufacturers, distributors, and government agencies to take parts in disposing e-waste. As a result, problems of e-waste in com-munities of Thailand have been continuously increasing. According to such problems, the authors suggest that legal measures on e-waste management in communities should be specifically de-signed by implementing key environmental principles as a basis in determining formats and guidelines of e-waste management, especially participation of all sectors that can help in solving and reducing e-waste in communities that is harmful to health, sanitation, and environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0407.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: thematic analysis; pro-environmental behavior; motivation; environmental activists
Online: 24 August 2022 (04:00:15 CEST)
We conduct a thematic analysis of a U.S. adult sample’s self-reported motives and perception of environmental activists’ motives to engage in pro-environmental behavior via a qualitative online survey. We identified themes using a two-stage coding procedure, whereby the research team first helped to code all content into one or more of 17 inductive content categories, then the lead investigator examined themes in each of the categories and created 5 themes based on both inductive and theoretical (e.g., moral foundations theory) considerations: a) harm and care, b) purity, c) waste and efficiency, d) spreading awareness, and e) self-interest (mostly non-financial). Endorsement of themes were qualitatively similar across individuals’ own self-described motives and perceptions of environmental activists’ motives.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Environmental taxes; computable general equilibrium; environmental impacts; waste
Online: 25 November 2020 (14:43:55 CET)
Economic theory states that incineration and landfill taxation can effectively diminish the environmental impacts of pollution and resource use by reducing their associated pollutants while stimulating the reuse and recycling of materials, and therefore, fostering a circular economy. The aim of this research is to assess the economic and environmental effects of these taxes in Spain under different scenarios with a detailed dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, as there are no studies analyzing this in detail. We focus on the economic impact on GDP and sectorial production and the environmental impact on different categories: global warming potential, marine eutrophication potential, photochemical ozone formation potential, particulate matter, human toxicity (cancer and noncancer), ecotoxicity, and depletion of fossil resources. We find in all scenarios that these taxes have a limited economic impact while reducing all of the environmental impact categories analyzed. The study reinforces the theory that policy makers need to impose taxes on landfill and incineration to reinforce the circularity of the economy and reduce environmental burdens, but also demonstrates that they can improve their design without additional costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0570.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Environmental Communication; Environmental preservation; Folk media; Guna community
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:20:58 CET)
This study focused on the assessment of folk media aimed at Environmental Communication (EC) in the Guna Community and suggested the dominant Guna Community folk media for environmental communication and preservation to conserve Mount Guna. Guna Mount is the home of different biodiversity and the tower of water, but it is becoming degraded. Folk media are operative in environmental communication and preservation. They have the power to transmitted environmental messages that incorporate cultural values, beliefs, and attitudes with societal needs. Folk media are locally oriented, easily accessible, flexible, portable, inclusive, and relatively inexpensive. A qualitative research approach was employed for this research. Ethnographic research design, snowball, and purposive sampling techniques were used to select the respondents. The researchers were gathered the data through in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, and observation. For this survey, 16 FGDs, 45 individual in-depth interviews, and participant observation were employed. Guna community has unique and indigenous folk media that use as a source of entertainment, information, and education. Their folk music, songs, dances, campfire storytelling, traditional motifs, fairs, and festivals, and folk poems are the dominants. Using folk media for operative ecology preservation is vital in the form of EC that inspires and develops positive behavior in the community by educating about environmentalism in the method of facilitating environmental issues incorporating the latest message. Finally, we recommended some folk media for developmental activities that use inform of advocacy regarding recommended reasons
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0206.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: environmental monitoring; ecological processes; functional diversity; environmental indicators; primers for environmental rehabilitation; Urucum Massif
Online: 18 September 2019 (12:57:40 CEST)
Despite the wide variety of variables commonly applied to measure different aspects of rehabilitation, the assessment and subsequent definition of indicators of environmental rehabilitation status are not simple tasks. The main challenges are comparing rehabilitated sites with target ecosystems as well as integrating individual environmental and eventually collinear variables into a single tractable measure of the state of a system before effective indicators that track rehabilitation may be modeled. For that, a consensus is lacking regarding which and how many variables need to be surveyed. Our approach considered ecological processes, vegetation structure, and community diversity from nonrehabilitated, rehabilitating and reference sites. We applied this approach to a curated set of 32 environmental variables retrieved from nonrevegetated, rehabilitating and reference sites associated with iron ore mines from the Urucum Massif, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. By integrating variables from a single attribute or the entire set of variables into a single estimation of rehabilitation status, the proposed multivariate approach is straightforward and able to adequately address collinearity among variables. The proposed approach allows for the identification of biases towards single variables, surveys or analyses, which is necessary to rank environmental variables regarding their importance to the assessment. Furthermore, we show that bootstrapping permitted the detection of the minimum number of environmental variables necessary to achieve reliable estimations of the rehabilitation status. Finally, we show that the proposed variable integration enables the definition of environmental indicators for more comprehensive monitoring of mineland rehabilitation. Thus, the proposed multivariate ordination represents a powerful tool to outline the benefits of rehabilitating sites for the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services provided that sufficient environmental variables related to ecological processes, diversity and vegetation structure are gathered from nonrehabilitated, rehabilitating and reference study sites. By identifying deviations from predicted rehabilitation trajectories and providing assessments for environmental agencies, this proposed multivariate ordination increases the effectiveness of (mineland) rehabilitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0578.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: ecological footprint calculator; ecological footprint; environmental knowledge; environmental education; environmental values; carbon footprint calculator; carbon footprint; ecological behaviour; pro-environmental behaviour
Online: 25 February 2021 (12:00:10 CET)
Ecological footprint calculators are digital tools that help individuals calculate their environmental or climate impact, with the aim of stimulating pro-environmental behaviour change. These footprint calculators typically take an information-provision approach, but this strategy assumes that increased levels of knowledge result in increased levels of pro-environmental behaviour (i.e., a reduced footprint). This is not a given – existing literature on the relationship between environmental knowledge and pro-environmental behaviour is inconclusive, and this relationship may be different from that of environmental knowledge and ecological footprint. As such, we investigated the relationship between environmental knowledge and ecological footprint as estimated by a footprint calculator. 448 Dutch participants completed an online survey, including an ecological footprint calculator. We found no evidence for a relationship between environmental knowledge and ecological footprint calculator outcome. Rather, an exploratory analysis of our data showed that environmental values were more important predictors of ecological footprint. The finding that increased levels of knowledge are not related to a reduced ecological footprint suggests that calculators would do well to move beyond information provision, and employ additional behaviour change strategies. Based on our exploratory analysis, we provide several concrete examples of potential strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0081.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Neoliberalism; Environmental Awareness; Climate Change; Plastic Pollution; Environmental Activism
Online: 6 May 2021 (12:50:41 CEST)
We currently face several, interlinked environmental crises, including climate change, habitat destruction and biodiversity loss. However, many governments seem unwilling to take strong and immediate action to address these threats, preferring to promote neoliberal approaches to allow consumers and the general public to make environmentally friendly choices. This is despite neoliberal approaches being much less likely to be successful than government leadership, taxation, subsidies, and legislation in addressing environmental issues. In this study, we examine public perception of environmental threats and solutions to these threats, in a survey, mainly completed in the UK. Climate change is seen as the biggest issue, likely due to recent activist campaigns and subsequent media attention on the issue. Neoliberal attitudes, such as green consumer choices to environmental concerns, do still dominate in a series of possible presented solutions, and score more highly than lifestyle changes such as changing diet. However, when questioned specifically about plastic pollution, government intervention to ban all unnecessary plastic scored very strongly, indicating a shift from a consumer driven response. Furthermore, most participants think they are at best only partly ‘doing their bit’ to protect the environment. The results demonstrate that the public are aware that not enough is happening to protect the environment and provide evidence that there is willingness for stronger government intervention to address environmental issues, although there is potential resistance to major lifestyle changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0787.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Environmental disclosure; Green port; Environmental indicators; Port efficiency; DEA
Online: 31 December 2020 (11:24:24 CET)
The purpose of this article is to analyze, in a three-stage research, the relationships between environmental expenses, the improvements achieved in 5 environmental variables analyzed and efficiency, from an economic and operational perspective. The stages of this research are analyzing the sustainability reports to determine the level of information, analyzing the economic and operational efficiency, and analyzing the alignment with the environmental priorities of the Eco Ports-ESPO (European Sea Ports Organization). The results reveal that (1) the type of traffic does not condition environmental actions; (2) environmental performance (improvements) depends on environmental expenditures; (3) environmental spending and efficiency in port operations are correlated; and (4) environmental spending and port economic efficiency are correlated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0193.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Environmental regulation; green total factor productivity; Dynamic panel model; Environmental decentralization
Online: 25 November 2020 (11:08:10 CET)
Environmental decentralization (ED), or the allocation of environmental protection affairs and responsibilities among various administrative authorities, affects the effectiveness of environmental regulation in promoting green total factor productivity (GTFP). Based on panel data of 30 Chinese provinces from 2001 to 2015, this paper employs dynamic panel models to test the effects of environmental regulations (environmental protection investment, ENV; pollutant discharge fees, PDF) on GTFP, with or without being influenced by ED. Without the impact of ED, GTFP is significantly inhibited by ENV while significantly promoted by PDF. Considering the impact of ED, with the strengthening of ED, the negative effects of ENV on GTFP is significant; contrarily, the positive effects of PDF on GTFP is significant; improving provincial ED adds negative effects of ENV, while reduces the positive effects of PDF; increasing prefectural ED reduces negative effects of ENV; expanding county-level ED adds the positive effects of PDF. Therefore, to boost GTFP growth, prefectural environmental protection authorities should have more autonomy in ENV, while the county-level should have more autonomy in PDF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0027.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: environment; environmental pollution; environmental management; textile industry; legal instruments
Online: 12 July 2017 (10:14:33 CEST)
The aim of this short communication is to find out the legal set up that complies with the environmental management in the textile sector of Bangladesh. This sector is the one of the biggest contributor to the economy of the nation. This sector contributes 81% to the total export earnings involving an immense number of stakeholders to its production processes. It is also true that this sector is largely responsible for the overall environmental pollution through its effluent discharge. The findings suggest that there are both international and national legal guidelines exist for environmental management in the said sector. In order to improve the environmental standards rehearsing lawful instruments is compulsory for the said industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0219.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: pollution; cost-effectiveness analysis; Cocody; environmental policies; environmental constraints
Online: 27 August 2016 (11:01:22 CEST)
The pollution of the bays in Abidjan is a major concern for the Ivorian policy makers. In fact, the pollution of the bays induce high costs to the society while impacting population health dramatically. As a result, pollution reduction management of production activities has been undertaken in the Cocody Bay area. To our knowledge, no study has yet proposed a model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of these pollution management strategies. A cost-effectiveness model, based on Monte Carlo simulation, was developed to assess the economic and environmental impacts of various scenarios characterized by a set of production practices, both in the short term and in the long term. The authors discuss the steps and input parameters of the model presented. The proposed model may serve as the basis for identifying an optimal production scenario defined as the scenario with the best incremental cost-effectiveness ratio considering a willingness to pay (WTP) threshold. The WTP, to be estimated based on the gross domestic product of Côte d’Ivoire, represents the opportunity costs associated with selecting the optimal scenario. The current framework can also be applied to other settings facing similar challenge.
COMMENTARY | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0150.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Environmental Assessment Report (EAR); environmental health; Environmental Management/Environmental Management Systems (EM/EMS) Model; Environmental Management Plan (EMP); Multinational oil companies (MOCs); Niger Delta; Ogoni; Ogoniland; Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC); United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP)
Online: 30 December 2016 (07:39:30 CET)
In August 4 2011, United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) submitted an unprecedented, scientific, groundbreaking Environmental Assessment Report (EAR) of Ogoniland, to the Nigerian government. This was the outcome of a 14–month intensive evaluation of the extent of pollution. It was intended that UNEP’s recommendations would be implemented to restore the devastated environment, on the one hand, and on the other, counteract the numerous environmental health issues that have for decades, plagued Ogoniland. However, five years post EAR, and, despite the seriousness of the situation, no significant resolution has occurred, both on the part of the government, and on the part of Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) or Shell. To date, millions of Niger Delta residents, particularly those living in the oil-bearing communities, continue to suffer severe consequences. Although, the assessment was conducted in Ogoniland, other communities in the Niger Delta are also affected. This article explores prevailing issues, using Ogoniland (a microcosm of the Niger Delta) as an example. A multidisciplinary approach for sustainable mitigation of environmental health risks in the Niger Delta is paramount, and Environmental Management tools offer valuable strategies. Adopting UNEP’s recommendations for addressing environmental health problems requires implementing the Environmental Management/Environmental Management System (EM/EMS) model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1573.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Artificial intelligence; environmental impact assessment; strategic environmental assessment; biodiversity; digitalisation
Online: 24 July 2023 (08:46:03 CEST)
The opportunities and potential of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Environmental Assessment (EA) are often mentioned. However, do we in the EA field understand the implications of what is happening in other biological sciences, and are we preparing for the changes that are coming? This interdisciplinary letter focuses on AI-driven developments in biodiversity data and analysis as a starting point for stimulating discussion about what AI means in practice for the field of EA. We highlight implications for training, transformation of practice and decision making as first steps in a research agenda.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0299.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ddPCR, droplet digital PCR, environmental samples, environmental DNA, soil microbiology
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:48:11 CEST)
Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a method used to detect and quantify nu-cleic acids even when present in exceptionally low numbers. While it has proven to be valuable for clinical studies, it has failed to be widely adopted for environmental and applied studies. Due to the complexity of the chemical and biological composition of environmental samples, protocols tailored to clinical studies are not appropriate, and results are difficult to interpret. We used en-vironmental DNA samples originating from field studies to determine a protocol for environ-mental samples. Samples included field soils which had been inoculated with the soil fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (environmental positive control), field soils that had not been inoculat-ed and the targeted fungus was not naturally present (environmental negative control), and root samples from both field categories. To control for the effect of soil inhibitors, we also in-cluded DNA samples of an organismal control extracted from pure fungal spores (organismal positive control). Finally, we included a no-template control consisting only of the PCR reaction reagents and nuclease free water instead of template DNA. Using original data, we examined which factors contribute to poor resolution in root and soil samples and propose best practises to ensure accuracy and repeatability. Furthermore, we evaluated manual and automatic threshold determination methods and we propose a novel protocol based on multiple controls that is more appropriate for environmental samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0284.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Religion Keywords: Religious beliefs; Public pro-environmental behavior; Environmental risk perception; China
Online: 24 January 2020 (14:35:21 CET)
Although the positive relationship between religion and environmental behavior is well-argued, empirical research about the relationship between religion and public pro-environmental behavior is relatively lacking. This paper aims to explore the group differences in the influence of religion on public pro-environmental behavior and the mediating role of environmental risk perception in religion and public pro-environmental behavior. Using the Chinese General Social Survey data in 2013 for empirical analysis, this study’s results show that there are group differences in the impact of religion on public pro-environmental behavior. Women with religious beliefs are more willing to engage in public pro-environmental behavior than those without religious beliefs. Religious believers over the age of 45 are more willing to participate in public pro-environmental behavior than those without religious beliefs. Political participants with religious beliefs are more willing to practice public pro-environmental behavior than those without religious beliefs. In addition, we found that environmental risk perception can act as partial mediation in religious and public pro-environmental behavior. In other words, religious beliefs are deeply embedded in local political and social culture. In order to correctly understand the relationship between religion and public pro-environmental behavior, it is necessary to consider religion in a specific cultural background.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0032.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: rainwater; air pollution emissions; health; environmental law, environmental policy instruments
Online: 4 June 2018 (10:39:26 CEST)
Environmental legislation is moving towards global standards for ease of application and to impose sanctions and penalties when necessary, without compromising human health and biota. International environmental measures for control and monitoring of atmospheric air only monitor emissions of SOx, NOx, O3, and Pb. In general, most research work in air pollution done using the analysis of elements in rainwater show analysis of trace metals such as Na, Mg, Zn, and Mn. In this work, trace metals in the rainwater at the city of Goiânia, capital of the State of Goiás, were analyzed. Goiânia is a large city set in a predominantly agricultural province located in central Brazil. Presence of trace metals in rainwater was detected, indicating atmospheric air pollution levels higher than occupational limits set by WHO.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0885.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: environmental engineering; geotechnics and geoenvironmental energy; geoenergy; energy harvesting; environmental impact
Online: 14 November 2023 (10:39:13 CET)
Geoenvironmental engineering involves defining solutions for complex problems, such as containment systems management, contaminant transport control, wastewater management, remediation of contaminated sites and valorization of geomaterials and wastes. In the last years, energy harvesting (EH) - or energy scavenging - methods and technologies have been developed to reduce the dependence on traditional energy sources, namely fossil fuels, and nuclear power, also responding to the increase of energy demands for human activities and to fulfill sustainable development goals. EH in geoenvironmental works and surrounding soil and water environment include a set of processes for capturing and accumulating energy from several sources considered deemed wasted or unusable associated to soil dynamics, stress and strain of geomaterials, hydraulic, vibrations, biochemical, light, heating and wind sources can be potential EH systems. Therefore, this work presents a review of the literature and critical analysis on the main opportunities for EH capturing, accumulating and use in geoenvironmental works, among basic electric concepts and mechanisms, analyzing those works in complex conditions involving biological, chemical, mechanical, hydraulic, and thermal coupled actions, concluding with the main investigation and challenges within geoenvironmental aspects for EH purpose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0336.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Environmental tax; Environmental policy; Carbon reduction; climate change; tax relief; forestation
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:38:13 CET)
Environmental tax is the climate policy that offers, in theory, the easiest way for carbon reduction. But in practice, implementation has proven complicated despite public demand for policy action on climate change. This research investigates to reframe environmental taxes in ways more personally engaging to create a moral foundation, and massive participation. As people show rising demand, we aimed to design a tool that responds to public expectations and operates directly at source on emission reducers, viz the trees. Drawing on research from environmental taxes and the evidence of measures taken, we reasoned that an environmental fiscal policy may not intend necessarily to punish the “bads”, but rather might reward the positive attitude and direct it to act. Consequently, we focused on tax reliefs and designed Green Aid, that can address people’s attitude to take active participation into account by incorporating virtuous behaviours into tax relief. Green Aid Tax relief works embedded in the Green Aid Participation Scheme that bears directly on a source of environmental recovery and organizes the global call to public action in a sustained, structured, and collective participation to forestation. Green Aid bridges the action of contributing to carbon reduction with immediate, tangible, and direct benefits. It can be an alternative environmental tax, able to address and operate directly at source on emission reducers and secure effectiveness in carbon reduction and efficiency in terms of public acceptance and viability at a global level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0561.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: environmental identity; environmental collective action; emotions; moral conviction; group efficacy beliefs.
Online: 24 February 2021 (17:13:27 CET)
The deterioration and destruction of the environment is becoming more and more considerable and greater efforts are needed to stop it. To accomplish this feat, all members of society must identify with environmental problems, with collective environmental action being one of the most relevant means of doing so. From this perspective, the analysis of the psychosocial factors that lead to participation in environmental collective action emerges as a priority objective in the research agenda. Thus, the aim of this study is to examine the role of "environmental identity" as conceptualized by Clayton, as a central axis for explaining environmental collective action. The inclusion of the latter in the theoretical framework of the SIMCA model gives rise to the model that we have called EIMECA. Two studies were conducted, and the results reveal that environmental identity, a variety of negative affects, as well as group efficacy accompanied by hope for a simultaneous additive effect, are critical when it comes to predicting environmental collective action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Lead poisoning; environmental health; toxic metals; sub-Saharan Africa; environmental exposure
Online: 6 October 2020 (10:55:42 CEST)
Lead exposure is associated with poor cognitive development in children. Very few studies in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have studied blood lead levels (BLLs) and non-gasoline sources of exposure in children. Data from a birth cohort in Benin (2011-2013) suggested that 58% of one-year-old children had BLLs > 50 ug/L. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of elevated BLLs (>50 µg/L and >100 µg /L) among 425 of these children at six-years-of-age in 2016-18 and to compare BLLs between age one-year and six-years and study sources of lead at six years. BLLs were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multiple linear regression and quantile regressions were used to study potential sources of lead. The prevalence of BLLs >50 µg/L in children was 59.5% [Geometric Mean (GM) 56.4 µg/L, 95% CI: 54.1 - 58.7] at six years of age compared to 54.8% [GM 56.5 µg/L, 95% CI: 53.4-59.6] at one year of age. The prevalence of children with BLLs >100 µg/L decreased from 14.4% at one year of age to 8.2% at six years of age. After adjustment for all other covariates, consumption of peanut more than once per month was significantly associated with a 22.0% (95% CI: 4.6, 42.5) increment in BLLs at six years compared with no consumption. Consumption of bushmeat killed by lead bullets at six years was associated with an increase in the higher percentiles of BLLs (P75) compared with the absence of this source. Other potential sources of lead associated with BLLs with marginal significance were consumption of rice, paternal occupational exposure, and the presence of activity with the potential use of lead. This prospective cohort confirms the persistently high prevalence of elevated BLLs in children residing in a rural region in the south of Benin as well as the presence of multiple and continuous sources of lead. These results highlight the need for prevention programs to reduce and eliminate lead exposure in children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0062.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: environmental inequality; environmental justice; industrial pollution; prefectures; demographic and socioeconomic factors; China
Online: 10 October 2017 (11:47:20 CEST)
In China, environmental pollution generated via industrialization as well as the profound changes in the social structure and gradual maturation of the social hierarchy have jointly contributed to the Chinese people's increased environmental consciousness and appeals for environmental justice (EJ). Because of the absence of an EJ theory and a lack of empirical research focused on China, this paper proposes a ‘Pyramid Model’ for China’s EJ research that involves the following three factors: basic demographic and socioeconomic factors, U.S.-based EJ principles, and Chinese characteristics. A nationwide pilot analysis of environmental inequity at the prefecture level is conducted by empirically studying the association of demographics and socioeconomic status with sources of industrial pollution in China. The prefecture-based results are shown to be robust and indicate that areas inhabited by ethnic minorities and western regions in China carry disproportionate environmental burdens. However, a different picture for migrants is presented, revealing that Chinese migrants are not currently exposed to greater levels of industrial pollution, and relevant interpretations of these findings are provided. The results also show that environmental inequality associated with income level, which is observed in the U.S., does not occur in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0193.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: environmental economics; general; valuation of environmental effects; pollution control adoption and costs; recycling
Online: 12 December 2022 (04:40:25 CET)
In this article we investigate the impact of “Renewable Electricity Output” on green economy in the context of circular economy for 193 countries in the period 2011-2020. We use data from World Bank ESG framework. We perform Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, WLS, and Pooled OLS. Our results show that Renewable Electricity Output is positively associated, among others, to “Adjusted Savings-Net Forest Depletion” and “Renewable Energy Consumption” and negatively associated, among others, to “CO2 Emission” and “Cooling Degree Days”. Furthermore, we perform a cluster analysis implementing the k-Means algorithm optimized with the Elbow Method and we find the presence of 4 clusters. Finally, we confront seven different machine learning algorithms to predict the future level of “Renewable Electricity Output”. Our results show that Linear Regression is the best algorithm and that the future value of renewable electricity output is predicted to growth on average at a rate of 0.83% for the selected countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0044.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: air pollution; environmental awareness; environmental education; green gas emission; sustainable development; water shortage
Online: 4 June 2018 (13:01:55 CEST)
This study inscribes itself in the global discussion on the nurturing of pro-environmental behaviors among young people for a sustainable future. Here we focus on students' interest in Ecosystem Services and Sustainability to explain their awareness and optimism about the environmental issues of air pollution, water shortage and green gas emission in 50 countries around the world. To this end, we use the cross-sectional survey data of the OECD's Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015, along with seemingly unrelated bi-variate weighted ordered Probit modeling with country specific effects. The results show that in addition to factors such as age, gender, immigration status, and economic, social and cultural status, interest in the biosphere is a significant determinant of students' environmental awareness and optimism. In fact, a one level increase in students' interest in ecosystem services and sustainability raises on average their awareness level by 15.3% for the issue of air pollution, 15.7% for the issue of water shortage, and 24.6% for the issue of green gas emission. Although students' interest in the biosphere seems to not have a significant effect on their expectations about the issue of green gas emission, it does however raise their level of optimism by 0.8% for the issue of air pollution, and 0.2% for the issue of water shortage. Furthermore, every one level increase in students' environmental awareness leads to 17.3% more optimism about the issue of air pollution, 15.8% more optimism about the issue of water shortage, and 17.4% more optimism about the issue of green gas emission. Therefore, relying on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), our results imply that governments and policy makers can successfully leverage young people interests in the biosphere to effectively achieve their goals for sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1243.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: environmental pollution; biomonitoring; heavy metals
Online: 16 June 2023 (12:48:26 CEST)
This article presents the results of research on the influence of polymetallic dust aerial emissions on the pollution levels in the soil and plants by heavy metals which have been under impact of the “Severonickel” smelter complex on the Kola peninsula (Russia) for many years. Research using soil- and bio-indicators was carried out at fixed measuring points in the years 1980-1999 (high aerotechnogenic emissions) and 2000-2019 (low aerotechnogenic emissions). The organic horizon (forest litter) of the Al-Fe-humus podzol, leaves of Vaccinium myrtillus L., V. vitis-idaea L., V. uliginosum L., Empetrum hermaphroditum Hagerup and one-year old Scots pine needles Pinus sylvestris L. as well as tree rings of Pinus sylvestris L. were used for bioindication research. The content of heavy metals was determined by the AAS method. During these time periods, the volume of atmospheric emissions of sulfur dioxide decreased 5 fold, polymetallic dust by 3.5 times, while the level of forest litter pollution by heavy metals in the buffer zone increased by 2 times, and did not change significantly in the impact zone. The decrease in atmospheric emissions of pollutants led to a 1.5- fold increase in the width of the annual rings of pine trunks in the impact zone, while in the buffer zone the differences were insignificant. At present, the content of Ni and Cu in the leaves of the wild dwarf-shrubs and pine needles in the impact zone has decreased by 5 times compared with 1980-1999 due to a decrease in polymetallic dust on the leaf surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0060.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Environmental Health; Education; Climate Change
Online: 1 June 2023 (08:04:49 CEST)
Introduction. Environmental Health in a Global World at New York University was re-designed as a class participatory effort, challenging undergraduate students to understand environmental hazards and the resultant adverse health outcomes by embracing the inherent complexity of environmental risks and proposing solutions. Methods. Following introductory lectures, students are placed into teams and assigned a specific perspective, or avatar, which includes learning to see the challenge from the perspective of a technical expert such as a biologist, an engineer, or an anthropologist. The teams then design specific systems maps to visualize the complex interactions that lead to adverse health outcomes after a given environmental exposure. The maps highlight potential leverage points, where relatively minor interventions can provide a disproportionate benefit in health outcomes. The teams then explore potential interventions and identify the potential unintended consequences of those actions, develop and advocate for innovative new strategies to mitigate risk and improve outcomes. Results and Discussion. Over the past 5 years we have taught this methodology to over 680 students with strong, student-oriented results. The teams created and presented more than 100 strategies, addressing a diverse set of environmental challenges that include water contamination, gun violence, air pollution, environmental justice, health security, and climate change. Developing the strategies helped the students understand environmental threats in a more holistic way, provided them with some agency in finding solutions, and offered an opportunity for them to improve their presentation skills. The responses in course evaluations have been enthusiastic, with many students reporting a deep impact on their college experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0554.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Environmental justice; Urban parks; Tarragona
Online: 23 June 2021 (09:25:19 CEST)
There is consensus over the fact that urban green areas contribute to the quality of life of their inhabitants. So, efficient city management must assess whether the population has access to green areas and their quality in relation to vegetation, facilities or furnishings, for example. Therefore, the objective set is to establish the environmental justice of urban parks in Tarragona (Spain) by developing a Park Quality Index (PQI) and the sociodemographic characteristics (level of studies, Human Development Index [HDI], home sale and rental prices) of the population living within 300 metres of a park. To prepare this, a GIS-integrated Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) has been produced. The results show that the green areas have low accessibility and availability and that most parks obtain an average-low PQI, with the best- valued aspect being the vegetation and the worst the facilities. As for the degree of environmental justice, a casual relationship emerges between the PQI and the indicators used. The average value of the home sale prices is the one that shows the greatest correlation. These results can be used together with participatory procedures as a basis for identifying places with greater inequality, and for selecting the more effective actions that enable increasing environmental justice with respect to green areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0079.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Environmental heterogeneity; Habitat; Anthropization; Chiropterans
Online: 2 June 2021 (12:47:01 CEST)
Bats play important ecosystem roles. Anthropogenic activities cause the decrease and loss of biological diversity and, consequently, the loss of these ecosystem services. One way of measuring local habitat conditions and relating the landscape to biodiversity. Our objective is to investigate how the bat community is influenced by this change in the landscape. Collections were carried out at five points and 76 individuals of 12 species are sampled. Although the points present a high variation in relation to land use, we did not observe any correlation between species richness and guilds with land use. However, the difference in the composition of the guilds is related to the variation in land use, in which 74% of the variation in the abundance of guilds is related to the different patterns of land use. At SENAI, even though it was the place with the greatest anthropic impact, it was the one with the greatest abundance of species, while the points Module two and Sítio Jaburu had the greatest abundance of guilds. This result corroborates the idea that ecosystem services are dependent on habitat maintenance, since the greater the heterogeneity the greater the difference in the composition of the trophic guilds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0014.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Governance, Environmental Management, Biodiversity, Bangladesh
Online: 3 June 2019 (09:57:59 CEST)
Governance is one of the most essential instruments for environmental management. Biodiversity is in the core field of environmental governance. Yet environmental authorities are persistently challenged the loss of biodiversity as a very important global issue for several years due to high dependent exposure to risks. The study attempts to relook at the key governance tools that strengthen policies towards managing biodiversity within and around the national park’s survey in Moulvibazar district. The study showed that biodiversity related legislation amended was the highest in Bangladesh for the period of 2010 to 2016. The growth of policy instruments maximized at but in low environmental governance services within the same period. The study assessed that the existing environmental policy instrument is inadequate and sluggish for effective conservation, compared with several others governance tools and various performances are still below par. Governance knowledge is indispensable for biodiversity management but such knowledge is poorly identified. These results reflect the importance of effective governance for transparency that the State provides. The research is to represent a dynamic and adaptable framework that can be applied for collective governance relevant to policy integration, participation and enforcement in order to foster environmental conservation sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0212.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: dengue; Aedes mosquitoes; environmental factor
Online: 10 October 2018 (09:49:35 CEST)
Background: Dengue incidence has grown dramatically around the world in recent years. It transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Many factors contributed to the vector densities such as environmental and sociological factors. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the environmental and sociological factors contributing to dengue cases. Methods: The study used questionnaire survey involving 379 respondent with dengue history. Result: The study showed that there is significant association between the time departs to work and mobility of respondents (95%CI = 2.779 and 5.594, p < 0.0001). Similarly, there is significant association between the time of arrival to work and mobility of respondents (95%CI = 1.617 and 2.155, p < 0.0001). Moreover, the type of housing and the surrounding vegetation were the environmental factors that showed significant values; p = 0.023, and p = 0.017. Conclusion: The study indicated the factors contributed are patient who lived in independent houses and the time of mobility patient.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0483.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Graphene family materials; Ecotoxicity; Nanoecotoxicology; Environmental impact; Environmental relevance; Microcosm; Mesocosm; Multispecies ecotoxicity testing
Online: 7 August 2023 (09:58:51 CEST)
Even though, graphene family materials (GFMs) hold great promise for various applications, there are still significant knowledge gaps in ecotoxicology and environmental risk assessment associated with their potential environmental impacts. Here, we provide a critical perspective on published ecotoxicity studies of GFMs based on a meticulous bibliometric research. Analysis of the available data revealed that to date, ecotoxicity studies with GFMs have been carried out predominantly using freshwater species (82%), while their effects on marine or terrestrial or-ganisms are understudied. Three groups of organisms were found dominating ecotoxicological research: fish (39%), algae (20%) and arthropoda (20%) predominantly applying small, planktonic crustaceans. It was also revealed that despite their widespread detection in different environ-mental compartments the potential impacts of GFMs in complex test systems with hierarchical trophic organisation or in trophic transfer studies are significantly under-represented. One of the main causes was identified as the difficulties in the physicochemical characterisation of GFMs in complex terrestrial test systems or in aquatic micro- and mesocosm studies containing a sediment phase. The lack of tools for adequate characterisation of GFMs in these complex test systems may discourage researchers from conducting experiments under environmentally relevant test condi-tions. However, in the coming years, fundamental research about these complex test systems will con-tinue to better understand the mechanism behind GFMs toxicity affecting organisms in different environmental compartments and to ensure their safe and sustainable use in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0496.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Environmental Economics; General; Valuation of Environmental Effects; Pollution Control Adop-tion and Costs; Recycling.
Online: 27 December 2022 (01:30:08 CET)
In this article we investigate the role of “Renewable Energy Consumption” in the context of Circular Economy. We use data from the World Bank for 193 countries in the period 2011-2020. We perform several econometric techniques i.e., Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, Pooled OLS, WLS. Our results show that “Renewable Energy Consumption” is positively associated among others to “Cooling Degree Days” and “Adjusted savings: net forest depletion” and negatively associated among others to “GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF” and “Mean Drought Index”. Furthermore, we perform a cluster analysis with the application of the k-Means algorithm optimized with the Silhouette Coefficient and we find the presence of two clusters. Finally, we compare eight different machine learning algorithms to predict the value of Renewable Energy Consumption. Our results show that the Polynomial Regression is the best algorithm in the sense of prediction and that on average the renewable energy consumption is expected to growth of 2.61%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0010.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Environmental Product Declaration; Life Cycle Assessment; Generic databases; Environmental impacts; Uncertainty; Product category rules (PCR)
Online: 1 November 2023 (08:33:07 CET)
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is increasingly prevalent in the quantification of environmental status in the building sector, following new legislative frameworks. Countries need to quantify and assess their environmental impacts as a previous base for regulation and decision making. In this context, standardised national data sets are being developed, based on consensus with manufacturers: sectoral Environmental Product Declarations. This study focuses on assessing these EPDs with the aim of providing relevant information for global decision-making, focusing on consistency and pointing out shortcomings. An assessment has been carried out both at national level, considering all sectoral EPDs and declared products, and at international level, with three common building materials (brick, steel and concrete). The results highlight the lack of traceability in the development and assessment of uncertainty, resulting in substantial discrepancies in reported impacts, especially in the later stages of the life cycle (up to 90% difference). Meanwhile, impacts such as Global Warming Potential or total renewable and non-renewable primary energy use show homogeneous values in the cradle-to-gate stages with differences generally less than 10%. The analysis of sectoral EPDs should be a design guide with environmental sustainability criteria, as the last section of this study attempts to focus on.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0881.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Zero-Emission Building; Life cycle assessment; Environmental sustainability; Building materials; Environmental engineering design; Energy efficiency
Online: 13 September 2023 (12:41:44 CEST)
Buildings can play an important role in reducing GHG emissions through increased energy efficiency. The European Commission issued a proposal in 2021 suggesting that all new buildings should be “zero-emission Buildings” (ZEB), aiming at a zero GHG emission building stock by 2050.The extent to which ZEB can contribute to reduced GHG emissions, however, varies between countries, due to different energy systems. It is also important to consider other environmental effects to avoid that climate benefits come with unintended consequences.Here, we explore the life-cycle environmental performance for a ZEB in a case where electricity and heating is largely fossil-free. The assessment concentrates on i) environmental impact of the use stage in relation to the product stage, ii) the interrelation between different energy sources, with attention on household electricity, and iii) the performance for more impact categories than primary energy use and climate change. While our results generally support the use of ZEBs from an environmental perspective, they also show that the climate benefit in this setting is marginal. However, given that energy systems are connected and energy savings in one place can reduce the demand for fossil energy elsewhere, the climate benefit of ZEBs is likely underestimated. Besides methdological implications for future studies, this indicates that current EU policy is promising, as incentives for implementation of ZEBs is unaffected by domestic effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1388.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: HBCD; occurrence and distribution; environmental media
Online: 22 November 2023 (06:30:08 CET)
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was most important flame retardant in Expanded Polystyrene foam and Extruded Polystyrene foam in the past forty years in the world. China was the major producer and user of HBCD, and the total HBCD production was about 0.3 million tons. Although HBCD has been completely banned in China in 2021 because of its long-range transport, bioaccumulation and toxicity, there's still a lot of residues in environment. Therefore, we reviewed multiple studies concerning the distribution of HBCD in diverse environmental matrices, such as air, dust, soil, water, sediment and biota. Results revealed that HBCD levels in different environments in China present a geographical variation and were at high level compared with other countries. In all environmental media, relatively high HBCD concentrations have been found in industrial and urban areas. Industrialization and urbanization are two important factors that influence the concentration and distribution of HBCD in the environment. In terms of isomer, γ-HBCD was the dominant isomer in soil, water, and sediment, while in the biota, α-HBCD was the predominant isomer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0202.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: amaranth; environmental index; linear regression; stability
Online: 4 October 2023 (05:04:02 CEST)
Amaranth has the potential to support Malawi's food and nutrition security, income generation and livelihoods, and climate change resilience efforts. Due to the high genetic variability of Ama-ranth, there is a need to develop stable and high-yielding genotypes for sustainable production. To determine the degree of genetic stability in different environments, five Amaranth accessions were subjected to stability analysis. The experiment was carried out at three sites (Bunda, Bembeke, and Chipoka) for two seasons in 2020-2021 in the central region of Malawi. It was laid out in Ran-domized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. Eberhart and Russell linear regres-sion model was used for stability analysis and Pearson correlation was used to test the relationship between variables. Environmental variance + (genotype x environment) was significant for four of the parameters studied, namely grain yield, plant height, leaf length, and leaf width, indicating the presence of a remarkable interaction between genotypes and environment. The results of a pooled analysis of variance showed significant differences at a 5% significance level among the Amaranth accessions, indicating inherent genetic variability. Using the linear regression model of Eberhart and Russell, accessions PE-LO-BH -01 and LL-BH -04 were identified as the highest yielding stable genotypes for leaf and grain yield, respectively. In addition, Bembeke site was the most favourable environment for all the accessions. Thus, to enhance the production of amaranth in Malawi, LL-BH-04 and PE-LO-BH-01 were put forward for release as varieties for grain and leaf respectively. These results will also guide and support for future breeding programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1600.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Environmental cues; Flowering intensity; Mango; Phenology
Online: 22 June 2023 (11:15:30 CEST)
Mango flowering phenostages were recorded under global warming conditions to assess the relationship between environmental cues and flowering time shifts and their consequences on reproductive success. Phenological transition to floral destiny was studied in relation to standard metrological week and weather parameters. Shifting of phenostage was recorded in Bud swelling, which is important for the shoot transitioning from vegetative to flowering meristem. Variations were also recorded for panicle elongation and early anthesis. The critical temperature for Bud burst stage was estimated for Dashehari, Langra, Amrapali and Chausa while Chausa had the propensity for late flowering correlated with higher temperature. The shifting of phenological calendar in response to weather parameters was obvious and needed a bigger range of yearly data for arriving at the climatic drives. In general, the results revealed that flower intensity was positively correlated with temperature, sunshine hours and evaporation while humidity showed a negative correlation. Hermaphrodite Flower % is an important attribute affecting fruit set and yield and was found most variable in the two years in the case of the three alternate bearing cultivars. In conclusion, it can be inferred that weather parameters prevailing in subtropics affect flowering intensity and consequently its fate i.e.; fruit yield.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0867.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal insulation; energy efficiency; environmental impact
Online: 11 May 2023 (13:54:19 CEST)
The thermal insulation properties of building walls are critical to the overall energy efficiency and comfort of a building. One important factor that can affect these properties is the type of bricks used in construction. Bricks can vary in their geometry and thermal coefficient, which can impact their ability to transfer heat through the wall. The geometry of a brick can affect its thermal properties by altering the amount of air trapped within it and the surface area available for heat transfer. Hollow bricks or those with complex geometries may have lower thermal conductivity than regular solid bricks due to the air pockets trapped within them. Conversely, larger surface areas on the exterior of the brick can increase heat transfer. The thermal coefficient of clay, a common material used in brick production, is another important factor. Clay has a relatively low thermal conductivity, meaning it is a poor conductor of heat. However, the quality of the clay, as well as the firing temperature and duration used in brick production, can impact its thermal coefficient. Higher firing temperatures and longer firing times can result in a more compact and dense clay brick, which can improve its thermal properties. In summary, the thermal insulation properties of building walls can be significantly affected by the type of bricks used in their construction. It is important to consider the geometry and thermal coefficient of the bricks when designing a building to achieve the desired level of thermal insulation. By selecting bricks with appropriate properties, designers can help to improve the energy efficiency and comfort of the building while reducing its environmental impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0814.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: environmental geotechnology; landscape ecology; forest recovery
Online: 24 April 2023 (03:53:36 CEST)
Ecological corridors function as a viable way to mitigate the environmental impact arising from forest fragmentation by interconnecting forest fragments through various techniques. In this context, the objective of this study is to propose a route for the implementation of an ecological corridor in the Itapemirim river watershed. The specific objectives were: (i) to delimit the permanent preservation areas (APP) of the Itapemirim river watershed and compare land use and land cover in the delimited areas; (ii) to calculate landscape ecology indices and select the forest fragments with the highest potential for ecological corridor implementation using Fuzzy logic; (iii) to assess costs and trace the best route for ecological corridor implementation, considering distance and physical impediments; (iv) to assess land costs and expropriation costs to delimit the ecological corridor in the study area. To map land use and land cover, the MapBiomas platform was used, based on Landsat 8 satellite images. The permanent preservation areas were delimited according to criteria established by Law No. 12.651 of May 25, 2012, which establishes parameters, definitions, and limits for APP. The characterization and structural quantification of some landscape ecology indices were performed using the QGIS 3.26 computational application, through the LecoS 3.0.1 plugin and Fragstats 4.2. The connected forest fragments were the Caparaó National Park, the Serra das Torres State Natural Monument, and the fragments selected through the application of Fuzzy logic to the landscape ecology indices. The corridor was delimited according to the lowest cost route, considering land use and land cover, APP, fragment potential, slope, and subnormal clusters. For each cost raster image, its respective statistical weights were calculated using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) hierarchical method, as well as for the analysis of priority areas for forest restoration, considering land use and land cover, APP, pedology, lithology, and biological importance. The interconnection between protected areas and fragments with the ecological corridor followed the orientation described by CONAMA nº 09/96. Based on the development of the work, the following results were identified: the highest land use and land cover class is pasture. Of the area designated for permanent preservation, 68.58% is in conflicting use with the legislation. The bare land value per hectare of the pasture class is the second highest among the bare land value per LULC values, representing 64.28% of the total. The priority area map showed that 31.86% of the area was classified as of very high or high importance and 42.97% as low or very low priority for forest restoration. Thus, it is concluded that the least cost path algorithm associated with the result generated by the multi-criteria decision method (AHP) constitutes an important tool for planning and implementing an ecological network by taking into account the primary factors for decision-making regarding the location of the best route.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0127.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: environmental literacy; sustainable environment; nursing students
Online: 8 August 2022 (03:40:49 CEST)
Environmental literate citizenship is a lifelong learning process that aims to develop citizens who have the knowledge, skills, and commitment to make responsible decisions that will affect the quality of the environment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the environmental literacy levels of nursing students in terms of sustainable environmental by considering the dimensions of environmental literacy. It was also aimed at understanding the correlation among dimensions of environmental literacy and revealing the factors affecting the dimensions of environmental literacy. This research was designed as a descriptive study in the survey model. A total of 278 nursing students participated in this research. It was revealed that students obtained a high score for use and concern from the dimensions of environmental literacy, their attitudes towards the environment were moderate; however, nursing students took the lowest points for the environmental knowledge component, which indicates that students need support in environmental knowledge. It was put forward that there were statistically significant differences based on gender and taking environmental related courses with dimensions of environmental literacy. All dimensions of environmental literacy were found to be positively correlated with each other, ranging from low to moderate relations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0162.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Environmental Pollution; Airborne Carcinogens; Lung Cancer;
Online: 11 February 2022 (12:23:22 CET)
The risk of lung cancer continues to elevate for both smokers and never-smokers. With the increasing morbidities and mortalities related to lung cancer, there is much interest on establishing other confounding factors that lead to lung cancer, other than smoking which is the most common cause. Some of the environmental factors have been identified as potential lung cancer causes. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to assess the relationship of environmental factors and lung cancer incidences by investigating various carcinogenic risks exposures that predispose an individual to lung cancer. The objective of this systematic review is thus to assess the evidence of relationship between environmental carcinogens and lung cancer incidence by systematically reviewing relevant studies. A standard criterion for the review methodology was formulated to guide the review process and data extraction. Online databases like PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus (EMBASE), Google Scholar, Web of Science, and CINAHL were systematically searched for articles published between 2000 and 2021 that explored potential environmental carcinogens that were believed to expose occupational workers and individuals within the environment with lung cancer risks. 25 studies were eligible based on the selection criteria, and were finally included in the systematic review among which four were case-control studies, seven were cohorts, five was prospective, four were previous systematic reviews and four were systematic analysis. Chemical exposures like pesticides were analyzed for their carcinogenesis. Air pollution was also discussed with particulate and coal being the core of evidence of association with lung cancer. Second hand smoke, Asbestos, metal compounds like copper, PVC dust particles and ionizing radiations also provided evidence of environmental carcinogenesis associating to lung cancer cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0246.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Spatial effects; environmental pollution; healthcare services
Online: 13 January 2021 (12:48:11 CET)
With the rapid development of urbanization and industrialization in China, environmental issues have become a knotty problem, especially issues related to air, water, and solid-waste pollution. These pollutants pose threats to the health of the population and to that of communities and have a vicious influence on the healthcare system. Additionally, pollution also exhibits spill-over effects, which means that pollution in the local region could affect the healthcare services in a neighbouring region. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the relationship between pollution and healthcare. A spatial autocorrelation analysis was conducted and spatial panel econometric models were constructed to explore the characteristics of pollution and healthcare services in China and the relationship between them using data on all 31 provinces over twelve consecutive years (2006-2017). The results showed that the utilization of healthcare services and environmental pollution were not randomly distributed; unsurprisingly, air pollution and solid-waste pollution were mainly found in parts of northern China, while water pollution was highest in southern and coastal China. In addition, environmental pollution exhibited spill-over effects on healthcare services. For example, a 1% increase in solid waste in one specific geographical unit was estimated to increase the inpatient visits per capita in adjacent counties by 0.559%. Specifically, pollution showed different degrees of influence on healthcare services, which means that the impact of environmental pollution on the number of outpatient visits is greater than on the number of inpatient visits. Our results provide the government with evidence for effectively formulating and promulgating policies, especially policies aimed at tackling spill-over effects among different regions.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0401.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: calorie restriction; longevity; environmental fluctuation; senescence
Online: 17 September 2020 (11:22:37 CEST)
The world’s human population is reaching record longevities. Consequently, societies are experiencing the tangible impacts of prolonged longevity, such as increased retirement age. A major hypothesised influence on ageing patterns is resource availability and calorie restriction, considered by many to extend longevity in any organism. Here, we highlight challenges facing the field of calorie restriction research as it pertains to ageing and how more realistic environments can impact the role calorie restriction plays in longevity of species. We reviewed 120 peer-reviewed published studies to quantify calorie restriction effects on longevity. We show that calorie restriction research does not always have positive effects on ageing with 27% of studies having no, negative or neutral effects. Additionally, research is biased towards short-lived species and lacks realism. We argue that only by taking a more realistic approach can the impacts of calorie restriction on longevity under climate change be understood. We conclude by discussing Planarians and Hydra as model species that allow for future research to have a better understanding of calorie restriction effects on long-lived species, while incorporating climate change impacts. Steering future calorie restriction research towards integrating interaction effects across a broader range of species will begin addressing the challenges of calorie restriction research. Crucial insights from future research can contribute to the fundamental and translational understanding of human senescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0361.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: human resource; management; environmental protection; Serbia
Online: 27 December 2019 (10:27:44 CET)
Starting from the fact that the units of local self-government of the Republic of Serbia are not sufficiently oriented towards innovations related to human resources and the environment, the application of quantitative research tradition examines the positioning and understanding of certain procedures and decisions of human resources management regarding the functioning of the environmental protection system, on the one hand, and future strategies for changing the given system, on the other. A series of 105 face-to-face interviews were conducted during the whole of 2016 in 105 of the 191 municipalities in the Republic of Serbia. Examination of the attitudes of the local self-government was carried out using a specially designed closed electronic questionnaire. The results of the multivariate regressions show that the most important predictor of the possible improvement of the environment is the size of the municipality. The remaining variables (e.g., human resources policy, human resources service) did not have significant effects on the ability to improve the environment. In more than half of local self-governments, there was no clearly defined human resources strategy in the field of environmental protection, an environmental protection service, an Environmental Action Plan, as well as an employment plan for waste management in local governments, etc. The research has shown that top managers of local governments agree that the management of human resources in environmental protection represents a significant opportunity to improve the quality of the environment. The results of the research can be used to improve the organization of human resource competence in environmental protection and the quality of a working and sustainable environment in the area of local self-government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0309.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: legionella; legionellosis; environmental surveillance; water system
Online: 30 January 2019 (10:12:29 CET)
Legionnaires’ disease is normally acquired by inhalation of legionellae from a contaminated environmental source. Water systems of large buildings, such as hospitals, are often contaminated with legionellae and therefore represent a potential risk for the hospital population. In this study, we demonstrated the constant presence of Legionella in water samples from the water system of a large university hospital in Messina (Sicily, Italy) consisting of 11 separate pavilions during a period of 15 years (2004-2018). In total, 1346 hot water samples were collected between January 2004 and December 2018. During this period, to recover Legionella spp. from water samples the standard procedures reported by the Italian Guidelines emanated in 2000 were adopted; from May 2015 to 2018 Italian Guidelines revised in 2015 (ISS, 2015), were used. The most water samples (72%) were positive to L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 whereas L. pneumophila serogroup 1 accounted for the 18% and Legionella spp. for the 15%. Most of the positive samples were found in the buildings where are situated critical wards as ICU, Neurosurgery, Surgeries, Pneumology and Neonatal Intensive Unit Care. We highlighted the importance of a continuous monitoring of hospital water samples to prevent the potential risk of nosocomial legionellosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0255.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: metagenomics; antibiotic resistance; wastewater; environmental ecology
Online: 14 September 2018 (06:27:29 CEST)
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are thought to be potential incubators of antibiotic resistance. Persistence of commonly used antibiotics in wastewater may increase the potential for selection of resistance genes transferred between bacterial populations, some of which may pose a threat to human health. In this study, we measured the concentrations of ten antibiotics in wastewater plant influents and effluents, and in surface waters up- and downstream from two Charlotte area treatment facilities. We performed Illumina shotgun sequencing to assay the microbial community and resistome compositions at each site across four time points from late winter to mid-summer of 2016. Antibiotics are present throughout wastewater treatment, and elevated concentrations of multiple antibiotics are maintained in moving stream water downstream of effluent release. While some human gut and activated sludge associated taxa are detectable downstream, these seem to attenuate with distance while the core microbial community of the stream remains fairly consistent. We observe slight suppression of functional pathways in the downstream microbial communities, including amino acid, carbohydrate and nucleic acid metabolism as well as nucleotide and amino acid scavenging. Nearly all antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and potentially pathogenic taxa are removed in the treatment process, though a few ARG markers are elevated downstream of effluent release. Taken together, these results represent baseline measurements which future studies can utilize to help to determine which factors control the movement of antibiotics and resistance genes through aquatic urban ecosystems before, during and after wastewater treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0264.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: environmental tobacco exposure; pregnancy; infancy; measurement
Online: 30 March 2018 (09:51:09 CEST)
Background: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) presents substantial health risks for pregnant women and newborn infants. Measurements of ETS include invasive and expensive biochemical tests as well as less invasive and lower-cost self-reported exposure and avoidance measures. Better understanding of self-report measures will help to select ETS assessments for evaluation. Methods: This analysis was conducted within the context of a tailored video intervention to reduce tobacco smoking and ETS exposure during pregnancy and after delivery, in the control group sample of 147 nonsmoking women. Measurements of salivary cotinine concentration, self-reported ETS exposure and avoidance behaviors were captured at 32 weeks gestation and 6 months postpartum. Results: Salivary cotinine concentration was significantly related to ETS avoidance among pregnant nonsmokers at 32 weeks gestation, but not ETS exposure. At 6 months postpartum, both the reported ETS exposure of the infant and maternal avoidance behaviors to reduce her infant’s exposure were associated with the infant’s salivary cotinine concentration. At 32 weeks gestation and 6 months postpartum, avoidance behaviors decreased as exposure increased. Discussion: This study suggests that for nonsmoking women during pregnancy, report of tobacco smoke avoidance is more valid than report of exposure. After delivery, self-reported ETS exposure or avoidance are associated with each other and biochemical measurement of salivary cotinine. These results provide researchers and clinicians with evidence to support inclusion of avoidance behaviors in the selection of ETS measure.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0088.v3
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: pesticide dissipation; risk assessment; environmental fate
Online: 28 August 2017 (16:51:22 CEST)
Data relating to the rate at which pesticide active substances dissipate on or within various plant matrices are important for a range of different risk assessments; however, despite the importance of this data, dissipation rates are not included in the most common online data resources. Databases have been collated in the past, but these tend not to be maintained or regularly updated. The purpose of the exercise described herein was to collate a new database in a format compatible with the main online pesticide database resource (the Pesticide Properties Database, PPDB), to validate this database in line with the Pesticide Properties Database protocols and thus ensure that the data is maintained and updated in future. Data was collated using a systematic review approach using several scientific databases. Collated literature was subjected to a quality assessment, and then data was extracted into an MS Excel spreadsheet. The outcome of the study is a database based on data collated from 1390 published articles covering over 400 pesticides and over 200 crops across a wide variety of different matrices (leaves, fruits, seeds etc.) for pesticide residues on the crop surface, as well as residues absorbed within the plant material. This data is now fully incorporated into the PPDB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes; education; environmental tobacco smoke; smoker
Online: 20 March 2017 (09:09:44 CET)
Background: Smoking, including environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a well-known risk factor for diabetes. Low socioeconomic status, especially lack of education, also is a risk factor for diabetes. Therefore, we assessed the association of education and smoking status, including ETS exposure, with the prevalence of diabetes. Methods: Data were from the 2007–2013 Korea National Health and Nutritional Evaluation Survey (KNHANES). Multivariable logistic regression examined associations between various lifestyle and health factors and prevalence of diabetes while controlling for potential confounding variables. Subgroup analysis was performed according to smoking status to determine factors associated with diabetes. Results: Of 19,303 individuals analyzed, 1,325 (11.4%) had diabetes. Greater average age, male sex, lower educational level, unemployment, and coexisting health problems were significantly associated with diabetes. Individuals with only elementary, middle, or high school level education had significantly greater odds ratios (p<0.05) compared to college graduates; smokers and nonsmokers exposed to ETS had significantly greater OR (p<0.05) than nonsmokers unexposed to ETS. Subgroup analysis of diabetics according to smoking status revealed significant associations (p<0.05) for diabetic nonsmokers exposed to ETS with female sex, single status, elementary level education, urban residence, National Health Insurance (NHI), hypertension, no alcohol intake, and no moderate physical activity. For diabetic smokers, there were significant associations (p<0.05) with elementary education, urban residence, lack of moderate physical activity, no alcohol intake, and NHI. Conclusions: The results suggested that smoking status, including ETS exposure, was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes especially in populations with less education. Thus, we should direct efforts for controlling diabetes toward individuals with lower levels of education, and those who are smokers and nonsmokers exposed to ETS.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: cancer; incidence; endocrine disruptors; environmental exposure
Online: 16 March 2017 (06:42:22 CET)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of breast (females), prostate, testicular and thyroid cancer in the Italian National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs), served by cancer registries, where the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs), reported to be linked to these tumors, was documented. Evidence of carcinogenicity of EDs present in NPCs was assessed based on evaluation by international scientific institutions/committees. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs) were computed for each NPCS and cancer site with reference to the time window 1996-2005. Excess incidence of one or more cancer site at study was found in twelve out of fourteen NPCSs. Significantly increased SIRs were found for breast cancer in eight NPCSs, for prostate cancer in six, for thyroid cancer (both gender) in four and for testicular cancer in two. Non significantly increased SIRs were found in five NPCSs for testicular cancer and in two for thyroid cancer (males). Even if increased incidence of one or more cancer sites at study were found in several NPCSs, the ecological study design and the multifactorial etiology of the considered tumors do not allow reaching conclusions in terms of causal links with environmental contamination. In light of the observation of some excesses in SIRs, continuing epidemiological surveillance is warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0083.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: urban sustainability; environmental governance; energy policy
Online: 27 July 2016 (05:56:56 CEST)
As the world’s second largest economy, China ranks amount the world’s top nations when it comes to carbon emission, and therefore its attitude towards climate change is closely followed by all parties concerned. There have been few researches on the role of environmental governance in low-carbon city transformation process, especially the Chinese one. This paper analyses the role of government environmental regulation played in the low-carbon city transformation process by taking Shenzhen as the research object. One of the world's youngest super cities, it also happens to be the lowest carbon emission intensity city in China. Striving to explore green low-carbon development path for the whole country, Shenzhen provides practical experience for countries to cope with global climate change. However, its efforts to reduce the total carbon emissions failed, but it emphasized the carbon emission intensity, which is consistent with the international commitments made by the central government. China’s policy towards handling climate change relies on hierarchical governance arrangement. The strength of the NGOs in the country is weak and incomparable with the government’s, which has mastered most of the resources and is just a reality in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0793.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: heating systems; life cycle assessment; environmental impact; primary energy; environmental reliability model, complex decision-support model
Online: 13 September 2023 (02:47:43 CEST)
This paper utilizes a life cycle assessment to evaluate the energy resources and environmental impacts of three heating systems. In the first step, life cycle assessments (LCAs) are prepared for the renewable, conventional, and combined systems. The system boundary of the LCA method is "cradle to gate," which means it includes the entire life cycle of a product or process. This includes energy supply, transport, energy generation, and operational energy use. The system scenarios were compared based on ecological and energy loads in the second step. Primary energy, resources, emissions, and environmental potentials are calculated for the system scenarios using the life cycle assessment methods CML 2016 and ReCiPe 2016. Finally, models for environmental reliability and complex decision-support tools have been developed. This work addresses two main questions: how to characterize the environmental and energy impacts of the systems under study, and what is the optimal scenario for the system? The research results show that the gas boiler system has a greater environmental impact. The most significant differences between the systems relate to the degrada-tion of abiotic fossil fuels when using a gas boiler and the process of acidification when using an electric heat pump. The results can be used to develop sustainable heating systems with reduced environmental impacts and enhanced energy efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1520.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Environmental management accounting; Environmental Sustainability; green practices; institutional pressure; Resource-Based View; Technology, Organization-Environment Framework
Online: 21 June 2023 (10:03:24 CEST)
Current and dynamic developments in green technologies have led to several innovation practices in the manufacturing sector only to become the top approaches used for achieving and accelerating sustainable development (SD) in the current business markets. In addition, manufacturing firms is in need of green innovation to be able to monitor and control their operations and enhance their environmental performance. However, regardless of its many benefits, the level of green innovation adoption and implementation is still lower than expected among manufacturing industries. Thus, this study aimed to minimize the gap by developing and validating a study model underpinned by Resource based view and Institutional theories, along with the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework in combination to convince firms to adopt green innovation. The study gathered data from 179 respondents using a survey distributed to manufacturing firms, after which data was exposed to Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) approach, for analysis. Based on the approach deliverables, all the integrated constructs of the model, namely perceived benefits, top management support, coercive pressure, normative pressure and mimetic pressure all predicted green management accounting practices. Moreover, green management accounting practices were found to directly and significantly affect green environmental performance. The developed integrated model provides a clear implication to decision-makers, indicating the importance of adopting and using green practices and innovative technologies for enhancing environmental performance. Based on the results from the reviewed advanced green technologies studies, there is considerable connection between green management accounting practices and environmental performance in the context of developing economies.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: corona virus; environmental degradation; hydrogen economy; clean energy; renewable sources; non renewable sources; economic impact; environmental impact.
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:49:50 CET)
Covid-19 pandemic lockdown has slow down the world economic system. The pandemic has cleared the roads, close factories and grounded planes causing severe economic challenges. The damaging impact of the pandemic amid lockdown has been a blessing in guise for the environment because of significant drop in pollution level as transport and industrial sectors shutdown. Transport and industrial sectors are major contributors to environmental degradation through various emissions as a result of fossil fuel consumption. Energy consumed by transport and industrial sectors will have to shift to viable, readily available, economically and environmentally friendly with no carbon build up post Covid-19 pandemic. Hydrogen energy remains the best alternative option technologies containing green house gas emission and pollutions of several forms. Hydrogen holds the potential to provide a clean, reliable, renewable and economical source of energy for meeting the growing and unending global energy needs post pandemic. The present paper explores the economic feasibility and potential of hydrogen to serve as a competitive fuel option post pandemic. In this paper, the role of hydrogen as an energy carrier hydrogen economy structure, potential of hydrogen economy, hydrogen production methods, hydrogen application and the economic and environmental importance of hydrogen as a viable fuel option post covid-19 pandemic were discussed. There will be a surge in demand and investment for hydrogen economy post Covid-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0032.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Environmental decision support systems; applications; outcome-based approach; adaptive management; user requirements; environmental management; participatory land planning
Online: 6 October 2017 (08:51:07 CEST)
There is increasing demand from stakeholders for tools to support outcome-based approaches in environmental management. For such tools to be useful, understanding user requirements is key. In Scotland, UK, stakeholders were engaged in the development of an Environmental Decision Support System (EDSS) to support the management of land and freshwater resources for multiple policy outcomes. A structured participatory engagement process was employed to determine stakeholder requirements, establish development principles to fulfil these requirements and road-test prototypes. The EDSS specification that emerged from this bottom-up process was spatially-explicit, free at the point of use, and touch and mobile device compatible. This application, which is under development, does not closely resemble most existing published EDSS. We suggest that there is a mismatch between the way scientists typically conceptualise EDSS and the kinds of applications that are likely to be useful to decision-makers on the ground. Interactive mobile and web-based geospatial information services have become ubiquitous in our daily lives, but their importance is not reflected in current literature on EDSS. The current focus in environmental management on adaptive, stakeholder-centred strategies based on outcomes offers an opportunity to make better use of these new technologies to aid decision-making processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1312.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: tourism; solid waste; surface water; environmental management
Online: 20 October 2023 (08:48:37 CEST)
Environmental perception is a powerful tool for identifying community needs and potential within their surroundings. This study assessed tourists' environmental perception regarding solid waste and its impact on the Hurtado balneary, located in Valledupar, Colombia. From May to July 2023, the investigation delved into the environmental attitudes and behaviors of 769 balneary users by employing a combination of observation, photographic documentation, and a comprehensive 21-question online survey. The findings unveiled compelling insights: an overwhelming 98.8% of participants acknowledged the adverse effects of solid waste on the environment, with an impressive 98% demonstrating a willingness to participate in waste management efforts. Alarmingly, 42.13% exhibited limited awareness of waste management practices, reflecting a lack of public interest and commitment (41.61%). Statistically significant disparities emerged: 59% of waste items were not appropriately disposed of in designated receptacles. Reasons for this included a lack of a sense of belonging (50.2%) and inadequate environmental education (45.6%). 96% expressed the need for river conservation signage, while 59.8% had not engaged in environmental training. The implications of these results extend beyond the Hurtado balneary, potentially informing solid waste management strategies in other aquatic environments. Furthermore, this investigation aligns with three critical Sustainable Development Goals: SDG 12, emphasizing responsible consumption and production; SDG 13, addressing climate action; and SDG 15, advocating for life on land and below water. Keywords: Tourism; solid waste; surface water; environmental management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0521.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: natural rubber; concentrated latex manufacturing; environmental impacts
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:43:49 CEST)
Sri Lanka is a top producer of premium quality concentrated latex (CL), which becomes a base material for dipped rubber products such as gloves and condoms. The processing of CL is resource-intensive, requiring significant amounts of energy, fuel, water, and chemicals. This process leads to various environmental issues such as wastewater pollution, malodor, and greenhouse gas emissions. Several environmental life cycle assessments (ELCA) have been conducted at international and local levels to address the aforesaid issues. However, ELCAs encapsulating different environmental impact areas on CL processing in Sri Lanka are absent. The study revealed that electricity usage was the main hotspot of the environmental burden, significantly impacting Abiotic depletion (fossil fuels), Global warming potential, Ozone layer depletion, Photochemical oxidation, and Acidification. Heavy reliance on coal in the Sri Lankan power grid was identified as the root of this trend. The study suggested two viable options to mitigate the environmental impact: installing inverters to centrifuge separators and solar systems in the factories. The second option was deemed more effective, reducing Acidification, Photochemical oxidation, and Global Warming Potential by approximately 37%, 36%, and 28%, respectively. Relevant officials may immediately consider these improvement options and collaborate to pave the way to a sustainable natural rubber industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1510.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Environmental regulation; Green technology innovation; Spatial spillovers
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:14:32 CEST)
This study empirically examines the spatial spillover effect of various environmental regulations on green technology innovation using panel data from 284 county-level cities in China between 2007 and 2019. A geographical-economic spatial weight matrix is constructed, and the spatial Durbin model is employed to identify the specific characteristics of this spillover effect. The findings indicate that the spatial spillover effect of green technology innovation primarily occurs through geographical transmission. However, there is no significant spatial autocorrelation when using the economic distance weight matrix. Various types of environmental regulations influence the spatial spillover effect of green technology innovation in distinct ways. Specifically, Market-motivated environmental regulation exhibits a U-shaped relationship with the spatial spillover effect, while Command-controlled environmental regulation demonstrates an inverted U-shaped relationship, suggesting a complementary effect. Additional research shows that the upgrading of industrial structure acts as a mediator between command environmental regulation and the spatial spillover effect of green technology innovation. Government departments should comprehensively coordinate Market-motivated environmental regulation and Command-controlled environmental regulation, accurately assess the intensity of Command-controlled measures, and prevent the migration of green technology innovation elements caused by excessive regulatory measures within enterprises.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0827.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: edible packaging; environmental pollution; food safety; sustainability
Online: 12 June 2023 (10:54:17 CEST)
This review aims to describe an edible packaging system in food production. The growing global population, changes in climate and dietary patterns, as well as increasing need for environmental protection have created an increasing demand for waste-free food production. The need for durable and sustainable packaging materials has become significant to avoid food waste and environmental pollution. Edible packaging has emerged as a promising solution also to extend the shelf life of food products and reduce dependence on petroleum-based resources. In this review, the importance, composition, and functions of edible packaging materials, as well as their production methods, were described. The market value of edible packaging materials is expanding. It needs further research and development of edible packaging materials to increase sustainable, eco-friendly packaging practices significant for environmental protection and food safety.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0482.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Rats; Biological research; Environmental conditions; Stress; Handling
Online: 28 February 2023 (02:04:49 CET)
Rat is one of the most commonly used model animals for biological research. The organs and systems of human being are somewhat similar to that of rat in structure as well as functions, making it a valuable choice for research experimentation in biological sciences. A number of studies have been conducted to evaluate the potential risks and toxicity of different elements on the physiology and histology of rats. There is need to address certain environmental factors affecting rats condition during experimentation. Reproduction along with its pathologies is under investigation on larger scale throughout the world, being central for the existence of a species. These studies focus on the major factors that influence reproductive function. Review of literature clearly indicated the unwanted consequences of over nutrition, malnutrition, high or low temperature, non-enriched housing, improper handling, intense or poor light exposure and environmental pollution on histology and hormonal profile of reproductive system of rats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0358.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: environmental knowledge; pollution; rural women; health; China
Online: 21 February 2023 (09:31:19 CET)
Rural women in developing nations are especially vulnerable to higher health risks due to environmental pollution exposure and are more likely to experience poorer health outcomes. Using data from the 2013 China General Social Survey CGSS2013, this study empirically examined the relationship among environmental knowledge (EK), pollution, health investment, and health status of women residing in rural regions in China. We employed a nationally representative sample of 1,930 female individuals for our analysis. Our results showed that the level of EK for women in rural China significantly impacted their self-reported physical and mental health. In order to account for potential endogeneity due to mutual causality, this study employed television usage and network usage as two instrument variables (IVs) of EK. We performed an IV-probit method to correct the estimated errors due to endogeneity. Additionally, to assess the reliability and robustness of our results, we re-estimated our model by replacing health status with the variable Body Mass Index (BMI). The results were consistent, providing evidence of robustness. Additionally, we examined the relationship between health investment (holding and purchasing a public health insurance policy, engaging in frequent physical activity, and acquiring commercial insurance) and health status. Our results indicate that the level of EK had no significant impact on participating in the new rural cooperative medical system. However, the preference of purchasing commercial insurance was positively impacted by EK, though it does not have a direct impact on the health condition. Conversely, an increase in EK and pollution is associated with a greater likelihood of engaging in physical exercise, which could, in turn, improve overall mental health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0047.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Anthropization; Environmental impact; Water resource; Land-use.
Online: 2 December 2022 (10:28:44 CET)
The suppression of natural spaces due to the urban sprawl and increase of the built and agricultural environments has impacted the water resources quality, especially in areas with high population density, as the metropolitan regions. Considering the advance in Brazilian environmental legal framework, the present study aims to verify whether land use has still significantly affected water quality, through a case study in the Stones River watershed, a peri-urban river basin at a metropolitan region, Brazil. Analysis of physical-chemical indicators, collected at several sample points with different land-use (urban areas, commercial forestry, riparian forestry, mixed vegetation, pasture, and sugar cane plantation) at different seasons of the year (dry and rainy) were carried out. As a result, it was verified some statistically significant spatiotemporal effects on the of water quality caused associated to the land-use. In conclusion, in spite of the advances in the Brazilian law, land-use has still significantly affected the water quality, demanding public policies and decisions, so that effective compliance with legal guidelines is ensured.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0315.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Plastic pollution; waste management; environmental behavior; recycling
Online: 21 September 2022 (07:05:39 CEST)
Excessive production, consumption and indiscriminate disposal of plastic waste cause an increasing plastic pollution with detrimental impacts on environment and human health. This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) towards plastic pollution among Malaysians and evaluate the variation of plastic pollution related KAP among various socio-demographics. An online survey was conducted, and 294 valid responses was obtained. Descriptive statistics, KAP scoring and cross tabulation of responses were estimated. One-way analysis of variance, paired t-test and binary logistic regressions were carried out. Results showed that respondents had poor knowledge (mean 7.41 ± 1.80) and practice score (3.81 ± 1.39) across all socio-demographics. Compared to younger (18-30 years) respondents, older ones (>46 years) had higher knowledge (odds ratio, OR 4.304; p<0.01). However, middle aged (31-45 years) respondents reported significantly (p<0.01) higher attitude (OR 4.019) and practice (OR 4.056; p <0.05). Respondents with environmental related university education had showed higher odds about plastic pollution related knowledge (OR 10.343; p<0.01). Suggestions are made to undertake interventions such as environmental awareness creation, incorporating plastic pollution topics in formal and informal education, and providing recycling facilities nearby the localities for encouraging good practices towards minimizing plastic uses and pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0033.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: road friction; environmental information; measurement; friction estimation
Online: 2 August 2022 (04:18:45 CEST)
This paper deals with the possibility for construction of the database on friction coefficient on the actual roads from the viewpoint of traffic safety. A measurement algorithm is determined in order to construct road friction measuring device. Next, the tires used for measurement are selected and the characteristics are measured using bench tire characteristic tester, and the measuring device is designed and constructed based on the characteristics. Finally, using this device, the measurement results of the road friction characteristics for two types of road surfaces are shown.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: V2X; Connected Vehicles; Communication; Environmental; Safety; Transportation
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:08:32 CET)
With the rapid development of communication technology, connected vehicles (CV) have the potential, through the sharing of data, to enhance vehicle safety and reduce vehicle energy consumption and emissions. Numerous research efforts have been conducted to quantify the impacts of CV applications, assuming instant and accurate communication among vehicles, devices, pedestrians, infrastructure, the network, the cloud, and the grid, collectively known as V2X (vehicle-to-everything). The use of cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X), to share data is emerging as an efficient means to achieve this objective. C-V2X releases 14 and 15 utilize the 4G LTE technology and release 16 utilizes the new 5G new radio (NR) technology. C-V2X can function without network infrastructure coverage and has a better communication range, improved latency, and greater data rates compared to older technologies. Such highly efficient interchange of information among all participating parts in a CV environment will not only provide timely data to enhance the capacity of the transportation system but can also be used to develop applications that enhance vehicle safety and minimize negative environmental impacts. However, before the full benefits of CV can be achieved, there is a need to thoroughly investigate the effectiveness, strengths, and weaknesses of different CV applications, the communication protocols, the varied results with different CV market penetration rates (MPRs), the interaction of CVs and human driven vehicles, the integration of multiple applications, and the errors and latencies associated with data communication. This paper reviews existing literature on the environmental, mobility and safety impacts of CV applications, identifies the gaps in our current research of CVs and recommends future research directions. The results of this paper will help shape the future research direction for CV applications to realize their full potential benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0474.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: probiotic; Enterococcus faecium; antimicrobial resistance; environmental change
Online: 25 November 2021 (12:49:29 CET)
In two sequential replicates (n=90 and n=96 feedlot finisher cattle, respectively) we measured the impact of an Enterococcus faecium-based probiotic (DFM) and an altered feedlot pen environment on antimicrobial resistance among fecal enterococci in cattle fed (or, not fed) the macrolide tylosin. Diluted fecal samples were spiral-plated on plain and antibiotic-supplemented m-Enterococcus agar. In the first replicate, tylosin significantly (p<0.05) increased the relative quantity of erythromycin-resistant enterococci. This effect was diminished in cattle fed the DFM in conjunction with tylosin. A similar observed effect was not statistically significant (P > 0.05) in the second replicate. Isolates were speciated and resistance phenotypes were obtained for E. faecium and E. hirae. E. faecium isolates were whole-genome sequenced, which yielded sequence types (ST), resistance genes and phylogeny. Samples of the DFM were sequenced and found to contain E. faecium ST296, which was not present on Day 0 of either replicate. This DFM sequence type was found in fecal samples after Day 0, the majority of which were isolated from cattle in one of the DFM-fed pens. Increased prevalence of ST296 occurred with a concomitant decrease in ST240; of importance, the latter typically harbored both ermB and tet(M) genes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0268.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Road Friction; Environmental Information; Measurement; Friction Estimation
Online: 15 November 2021 (14:35:48 CET)
This research deals with the possibility for construction of the database on the braking friction coefficient for actual roads from the viewpoint of traffic safety especially for automated driving such as level 4 or higher. In an automated driving such levels, the controller needs to control the vehicle, but the road surface condition, especially the road friction coefficient on wet roads, snowy or icy roads, changes greatly, and in some cases, changes by almost one order. Therefore, it is necessary for the controller to constantly collect environment information such as the road friction coefficients and prepare for emergencies such as obstacle avoidance. However, at present, the measurement of the road friction coefficients is not systemically performed, and a method for accurately measuring has not been established. In order to improve this situation, this study examines a method for continuously measurement for the road friction characteristics such as μ-s characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0299.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: contamination; trace elements; metal concentration; environmental pollution
Online: 13 August 2021 (15:07:34 CEST)
The Katangese Copperbelt area (KCA) located south-eastern of D.R. Congo presents high concentration of metal trace elements (MTE) in several soils due to a rich natural geochemical background, and intense mining activities, causing serious health issues to humans and animals. However, the lack of data on specific baseline concentrations makes it difficult to properly assess and monitor the environmental quality of soils in the region. In this study, the baseline concentration of 11 potentially toxic MTE (i.e., Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ti, Ni, Al, and Fe) was assessed in topsoils of the KCA, and the possible influence of land uses (croplands, forest and mining areas) was examined. Results showed the following baseline concentrations, i.e. lower and upper limits (mg.kg-1) in cropland soils : Al (18.4–162.0), Cd (0.0–0.1), Co (0.1–3.5), Cu (0.8–17.7), Cr (0.0–0.2), Fe (4.7–233.8), Mn (3.5–575.6), Ni (0.1–1.9), Pb (0.2–2.4), Zn (0.1–20.3), Ti (0.0–392.6); in forests: Al (18.8–1167.1), Cd (0.02–0.48), Co (0.20–18.1), Cu (3.6–42.7), Cr (0.1–33.7), Fe (86.4–283.3), Mn (4.9–1538.9), Ni (0.05–24.2), Pb (0.3–13.7), Zn (2.0–7.0), Ti (0.2–0.8); and in mining areas: Al (7.4–241.2), Cd (0.01–164.8), Co (0.2–211.3), Cu (2.4–5485.4), Cr (0.03–0.4), Fe (5.9–481.6), Mn (7.1–95.9), Ni (0.1–1.9), Pb (0.2–390.8), Zn (1.5–5629.3), Ti (0.1–1.3). Cu and Zn were highest in mining areas demonstrating a prevalent influence of mining activities in altering the natural background of metals concentrations in the region. By contrast, croplands and forest shared a similar trend of Al and Mn contents, suggesting a mild influence of agricultural activity. Intriguingly, higher Cu and Co contents were found in forest compared to croplands. For all the three studied land uses, no straightforward relation was found between metal concentrations and soil total acidity. This study is the first attempt to establish reference values of MTE contents in the KCA soils and thus provides valuable information for legislative purposes and for soil quality assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0214.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: pro-environmental behavior; factorial experiment; adolescence; intervention
Online: 10 May 2021 (15:27:23 CEST)
The current study aimed to assess the components of the intervention program “Aquatic”, targeted at the reduction of bottled water use in adolescence. The Comprehensive Action Determination Model was chosen as a theory of change for the development and evaluation of pro-environmental behavior intervention. We examined the impact of five experimental intervention factors (water bottles, promo video, prompts, goal setting, and feedback) on eight intervention program outcomes: Perceived behavioral control, Social norm, Habit, Awareness of need, Awareness of consequence, Personal norm, Intention, and Behavior. The study sample consisted of 419 adolescents (52.8% girls, Mage = 15.21, SDage = .64) from Lithuania. A factorial experimental study design was used, and a Latent change modeling approach was applied for the evaluation of individual and combined effects of intervention components. Promo video, Prompts, and Goal setting had a positive effect on Awareness of consequence, Social norm, and Awareness of need, respectively. Receiving a Water bottle in combination with the Promo video had a positive effect on Perceived behavioral control and in combination with Prompts as well as Goals – on Awareness of need. Water bottles, Promo-video, Prompts, and Goals, but not Feedback, had value in the promotion of targeted pro-environmental outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0327.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: COVID-19; Medical waste; Environmental impac; China
Online: 13 April 2021 (09:09:57 CEST)
COVID-19 greatly challenges human beings in the health sector and leaves behind a large amount of medical waste that poses many potential threats to the environment. In this paper, we compiled relevant data released by official agencies and the media, and conducted data supplementation based on previous studies to calculate the net value of medical waste production in Hubei Province during COVID-19 with the help of a neural network model. Then, we reviewed the data related to the environmental impact of medical waste per unit and designed four scenarios to estimate the environmental impact of new medical waste generated during the epidemic. The results showed that at a medical waste generation rate of\ 0.\ 5\ kg/(\ bed\ \cdot\ d) COVID-19 resulted in a net increase in medical waste volume of about 3366.99 tons in Hubei Province. In the four scenario assumptions, if the medical waste brought by COVID-19 is completely incinerated, it will have a large impact on the air quality. If it is disposed by distillation sterilization, it will produce a large amount of wastewater and waste residue. Based on the results of the study, three policy recommendations are proposed in this paper: strict control of medical wastewater discharge, reduction and transformation of the emitted acidic gases, and attention to the emission of metallic nickel in exhaust gas and chloride in soil. These policy recommendations provide a scientific basis for controlling medical waste pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0220.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Convolutional Neural Network; Deep Learning; Environmental Monitoring
Online: 8 March 2021 (13:37:58 CET)
Accurately mapping individual tree species in densely forested environments is crucial to forest inventory. When considering only RGB images, this is a challenging task for many automatic photogrammetry processes. The main reason for that is the spectral similarity between species in RGB scenes, which can be a hindrance for most automatic methods. State-of-the-art deep learning methods could be capable of identifying tree species with an attractive cost, accuracy, and computational load in RGB images. This paper presents a deep learning-based approach to detect an important multi-use species of palm trees (Mauritia flexuosa; i.e., Buriti) on aerial RGB imagery. In South-America, this palm tree is essential for many indigenous and local communities because of its characteristics. The species is also a valuable indicator of water resources, which comes as a benefit for mapping its location. The method is based on a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to identify and geolocate singular tree species in a high-complexity forest environment, and considers the likelihood of every pixel in the image to be recognized as a possible tree by implementing a confidence map feature extraction. This study compares the performance of the proposed method against state-of-the-art object detection networks. For this, images from a dataset composed of 1,394 airborne scenes, where 5,334 palm-trees were manually labeled, were used. The results returned a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.75 trees and an F1-measure of 86.9%. These results are better than both Faster R-CNN and RetinaNet considering equal experiment conditions. The proposed network provided fast solutions to detect the palm trees, with a delivered image detection of 0.073 seconds and a standard deviation of 0.002 using the GPU. In conclusion, the method presented is efficient to deal with a high-density forest scenario and can accurately map the location of single species like the M flexuosa palm tree and may be useful for future frameworks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0170.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Air pollution; environmental hazards; Volatile Organic Compounds
Online: 8 January 2021 (16:59:01 CET)
Air pollution is a serious global issue, responsible for approximately one in every nine deaths each year, ranking it among the greatest environmental hazards to human health. It is of particular concern in urban areas, where elevated pollutant concentrations and potential sufferers converge. Over one half of the world’s population presently lives in urban areas, and the urban population ratio is expected to reach 68% by 2050. Common air pollutants include particulate matter (PM), sulphur dioxide (SO2), ground-level ozone (O3), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO). While elevated rates of air pollution pose serious health risks for humans, outdoor plants can help reduce the harmful effects of air pollution by filtering and purifying the air around us.In this project Common Ivy, Aster and Miniature Andromeda plants were evaluated for air pollutant mitigation. In this study we developed a vegetation barrier model with the plant located in the middle of the greenhouse box, and air pollutant was sprayed on one side of the plant. Dispersion patterns of sprayed pollutants were tested with and without vegetation barrier. Measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2), Formaldehyde (HCHO), Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC), and Particulate Matter (PM2.5/PM10) were taken before spraying, then at 0 and 30 minutes after spraying, using both monitors.The results show mitigation rates (in 177 ft3 of air after 30 min): for TVOC the minimum reduction is 5 mg/m3; for HCHO, 1 mg/m3; for CO2, 2000 ppm; for PM2.5, 2000 ug/m3; and for PM10 it was 1000 ug/m3.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0321.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: quantile regression; groundwater; environmental; multivariate; metals; health
Online: 14 December 2020 (10:13:09 CET)
One of the most important defining characteristics of groundwater quality is pH as it fundamentally controls the amount and chemical form of many organic and inorganic solutes in groundwater. Groundwater data are frequently characterized by a wide degree of variability of the factors which possibly influence pH distribution. For this reason, it is challenging to link the spatio-temporal dynamics of pH to a single environmental factor by the ordinary least squares regression technique of the conditional mean. In this study, quantile regression was used to estimate the response of pH to nine environmental factors (As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and nitrates). Results of 25%, 50%, 75% quantile regression and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression were compared. The standard regression of the conditional means (OLS) underestimated the rates of change of pH due to the selected factors in comparison with the regression quantiles. The effect of arsenic increased for sampling locations with higher pH values (higher quantiles) likewise the influence of Pb and Mn. However, the effects of Cd and Fe decreased for sampling locations in higher quantiles. It can be concluded that these detected heterogeneities would be missed if this study had focused exclusively on the conditional means of the pH values. Consequently, quantile regression provides a more comprehensive account of possible spatio-temporal relationships between environmental covariates in groundwater. This study is one of the first to apply this technique on groundwater systems in sub-Saharan Africa. The approach is useful and interesting and has broad application for other mining environments especially tropical low-income countries where climatic conditions can drive rapid cycling or transformations of pollutants. It is also pertinent to geopolitical contexts where regulatory; monitoring and management capacities are weak and where mining pollution of groundwater largely occur.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0228.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: environmental monitoring; underwater respirometry; fluorometry; photobiology; coral metabolism
Online: 28 December 2020 (03:43:55 CET)
Coral reefs are declining worldwide due to global changes in the marine environment. The increasing frequency of massive bleaching events in the tropics is highlighting the need to better understand the stages of coral physiological responses to extreme conditions. Moreover, like many other coastal regions, coral reef ecosystems are facing additional localized anthropogenic issues such as nutrient loading, increased turbidity, and coastal development. Different strategies have been developed to measure the health status of a damaged reef, ranging from the resolution of individual polyps to an entire coral community, but techniques for measuring coral physiology in situ are not yet widely implemented. For instance, while there are many studies of the coral holobiont response in single or limited-number multiple stressor experiments, they provide only partial insights to metabolic performance under more complex temporally and spatially variable natural conditions. Here, we discuss the current status of coral reefs and their global and local stressors in the context of experimental techniques that measure core processes in coral metabolism (respiration, photosynthesis, and biocalcification) in situ, and their role in indicating the health status of colonies and communities. We highlight the need to improve the capability of in situ studies in order to better understand the resilience and stress response of corals under multiple global and local scale stressors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0388.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: stair climbing; behavior change; architecture; environmental design
Online: 17 July 2020 (15:10:26 CEST)
Innovative interventions in the planning and design of stair and escalator facilities call for understanding their effects on stair use. This study considers five planning variables for the twinned stair and escalator facilities–stair pitch and width, angle of deviation, height and separating distance. Public sites were identified in 8 commercial districts in Beijing. Facilities (n=21) presenting heterogeneously across variables were sampled for simultaneous up and down pedestrian counts in 18 5-minute video segments middays, for a total of 1464 counts. Stair width accounts for 20% of the variance in ascending rate and 10% in descending. Plan angle accounts for 2% in ascending and 5% in descending, while pitch accounts for 1% in ascending and 5% in descending. The study confirms the effects of layout and design of stairway and escalator facilities on facility choice. The results point directly to interventions in support of higher stair-climbing rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0136.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: groundwater quality; environmental change; Permian Basin; Texas
Online: 9 April 2020 (05:50:27 CEST)
This study evaluates spatial analyses of groundwater quality and environmental changes to obtain information on the groundwater contamination in the Permian Basin, Texas. Coupled with the U.S. government’s open data, these analyses can identify regions where environmental change could have potentially effected groundwater quality. A total of thirty-six wells were selected within the six counties: Andrews, Martin, Ector, Midland, Crane, and Upton. Spatial distribution maps were created for six different parameters: pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), chloride, fluoride, nitrate, and arsenic. Total groundwater quality maps incorporate all the contaminants and denote regions of poor, medium, and optimum conditions. To identify spatial changes in groundwater quality, maps were separated into two different time intervals, 1992-2005 and 2006-2019. We found that groundwater contamination resulted primarily from the mobilization of the contaminant from natural sources or anthropogenic activities such as chemical fertilizers. Overall, groundwater quality decreased during the study period from 1992 to 2019 as population and urban growth began to develop in the Permian Basin. This study contributes on understanding of the response of groundwater quality associated with environmental change in the Permian Basin. Therefore, this research provides important information for groundwater managements in developing plans for the use of water resource in the future for Texas.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0059.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: myopia progression; environmental factors; vision care knowledge
Online: 7 October 2019 (10:55:03 CEST)
Importance: Because of the high prevalence of myopia in Taiwan, understanding the risk factors for its development and progression is important to public health. Background: This study investigated the risk factors for myopia and their influence on the progression of myopia in schoolchildren in Taiwan. Design: Patients’ clinical records were obtained retrospectively from ophthalmologists. Questionnaires were given to collect demographic information, family background, hours spent on daily activities, myopia progression, and treatment methods. Participants: A total of 522 schoolchildren with myopia from a regional medical hospital in northern Taiwan participated the study. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants of legal age or the parents or legal guardians. Methods: Multivariable regression analyses were performed. Myopia measured in dioptres was analysed, controlling for patients’ family and demographic information as well as their daily behaviours. Main Outcome Results: Children with high myopic parents were more myopic. Earlier onset age of myopia was associated with a higher level of myopia and greater annual myopic progression. Children reporting more near work activities had higher levels of myopia and greater progression of myopia. Lower levels of myopia were associated with more exercise, longer periods of sleep, and better vision care knowledge in children and parents. Intake of food supplements had no effect on myopia. Conclusions and Relevance: In addition to genetics, education, environment, and near work activity can influence the development of myopia. Health policies for schoolchildren should promote protective activities and vision care knowledge in order to protect the eyesight of schoolchildren.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0167.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Environmental pollution; wastes; nutrient recovery; biochar; composting
Online: 12 July 2019 (11:46:12 CEST)
Nutrients management is a mainspring in agricultural systems for sustained productivity, economy sustainability and environmental quality. Excessive and lesser nutrient application caused environmental pollution and reduced production, respectively impacting socio-economics of the entire ecosystems. Sustainable agricultural production thus demands supplementation of nutrients either through natural processes, application of animal by-products, and mineral fertilizers to crop fields. Technology application for treating useless agricultural wastes into useful source is a management strategy that prevents environment pollution. Crude animal manures triggered soil degradation, attenuation air and water quality, and resulted in higher concentrations of heavy metals. Primary nutrients, i.e., nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are used globally and are non-renewable. Augmented upsurge in prices of inorganic fertilizers and required discharge restrictions on nutrient has stimulated the technological developments including biochar, composting, vermicomposting, composting with biochar, pyrolysis, forward osmosis, and electro-dialysis to recover nutrients. Therefore, outlining the research gaps considering the present and imminent potential of these technologies for adaptation of nutrient recycling is of great importance. Thus, it’s need of an hour to fix our environment and for that scientists are trying to introduce and renovate the technologies which have immense potential to mitigate the negative effects of technology adversities on our environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0238.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: residual feed consumption; quail; high environmental temperature
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:22:21 CEST)
Three hundred ten 12-wek-old laying quails (155 each) were randomly selected from the initial population and kept in individual battery cages. The measurements of growth and egg production were determined to derive RFI. The relationship between RFI and egg quality, blood parameters and carcass characteristics was also determined. The results indicated that the gray quails had significantly higher egg mass and lower broken eggs compared to the white quails. A significant increase for eggshell strength and shell % was found in eggs produced from gray quails compared to white counterparts, although the shell thickness was the same. The results of multiple regression analysis clearly identified a significant effect of metabolic body weight and egg mass in computing expected feed intake rather than body weight gain in both varieties of Japanese quails. Strongly positive correlation between RFI and feed intake in both gray and white quail varieties was found. The same trend was also observed for feed conversion ratio (FCR). Therefore, including RFI in selection criteria of Japanese quail to improve FCR under high environmental temperature is highly recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0284.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Autism; polychlorinated biphenyls; environmental chemicals; children; neurodevelopment
Online: 15 October 2018 (06:23:08 CEST)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impaired social communication and repetitive or stereotypic behaviours. In utero exposure to environmental chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), may play a role in the etiology of ASD. We examined the relation between plasma PCB concentrations measured during pregnancy and autistic behaviours in a subset of children aged 3–4 years old in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a pregnancy and birth cohort of 546 mother-infant pairs from Canada (enrolled: 2008-2011). We quantified the concentrations of 6 PCB congeners that were detected in >40% of plasma samples collected during the 1st trimester. At age 3–4 years, caregivers completed the Social Responsiveness Scale-2 (SRS), a valid and reliable measure of children’s reciprocal social and repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. We examined SRS scores as both a continuous and binary outcome, and we calculated Bayesian predictive odds ratios for more autistic behaviours based on a latent variable model for SRS scores >60. We found no association between plasma PCB concentrations and autistic behavior, However, we found small and imprecise increases in the mean SRS score and odds of more autistic behaviour for the highest quartile of plasma PCB concentrations compared with the lowest quartile; for instance, an average increase of 1.1 [95%PCI: −0.5, 2.6] in the mean SRS (exposure contrast 4th versus 1st quartile) for PCB138 translated to an odds ratio of 1.6 [95%PCI: 1.0, 2.5]. Our findings illustrate the importance of measuring associations between PCBs and autistic behaviour on both continuous and binary scales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0006.v4
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: biomonitor; environmental assessment; elemental competition; bioconcentration factor
Online: 9 December 2016 (16:31:32 CET)
Levels of trace element pollution in surface soil can be estimated using soil analyses and leaching tests. These methods may reveal different results due to the effect of soil properties, such as grain size and mineral composition, on elemental availability. Therefore, this study advocates an alternative method for monitoring and assessment of trace element pollution in surface soil using terricolous fruticose lichens. Lichens growing at abandoned mine sites and unpolluted areas in southwest Japan and their substrata were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to clarify the relationships between Cu, Zn, As, and Pb concentrations in lichens and soils, including their absorption properties. Concentrations of these elements in the lichens were positively correlated with those in the soils regardless of lichen species, location, habitat, or conditions of soils. The analyzed lichens had neither competitive nor antagonistic properties in their elemental absorption, which made them good biomonitors of trace element pollution in surface soil. The distribution maps of average Cu, Zn, As, and Pb concentrations at each sampling region detected almost all of the Cu, Zn, and As pollution of the soils. Therefore, lichens could be used in practical applications to monitor Cu, Zn, and As pollution in surface soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0005.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Landfill, Waste, Socio-environmental impact, Hematologic diseases
Online: 4 October 2016 (09:03:17 CEST)
We are experiencing an unprecedented urbanization process that alongside with physical, social and economic developments is having a significant impact on population’s health. Due to higher apprehensions of pollution, violence and poverty, our modern cities no longer ensure a good quality of life so they become unhealthy environments. This study aims to measure the socio-environmental and hematologic profile of residents of Santo André’s landfill – “Bairro Espírito Santo” by using the contextualization of the studied area. The research method is Observational type and from Retrospective cohort and by convenience sampling in Santo André in the Greater ABC region. The study determined a socio environmental profile and the hematologic diseases screening related to a close location to the landfill. The disease manifests itself within a broad spectrum of symptoms that causes changes in blood count parameters. The full blood counts analysis was performed, indicating that the blood counts of residents living near the landfill led to positive hematological changes and diseases like Leukopenia, Anemia, Neutropenia and lymphocytosis were the most common changes. However it is considered that the proof of the relation of cause- effect to environmental exposures that may trigger chronic manifestations in humans requires specific studies that are often complicated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0015.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: speciation; mercury; analytical instruments; speciation; environmental samples
Online: 5 September 2016 (10:43:33 CEST)
This paper reviews the current research on the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical instruments such as, atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS), voltammeter, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), ICP-atomic emission spectrometer (AES), ICP-mass spectrometer (MS), atomic fluorescence spectrometer (AFS), spectrophotometer, spectrofluorometer, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Approximately 126 research papers on the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical instruments published in international journals since 2015 are reviewed. All the analytical parameters, such as limit of detection, linearity range, quality assurance and quality control studies, applicability, and interfering ions studies evaluated in the reviewed articles are tabulated. This review find outs the lack of information on speciation studies of mercury in recent years. Another important prediction from this review is authors are not much studied about the concentrations of mercury in the atmosphere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1080.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: greenhouse gas; healthcare; sustainability; environmental justice; carbon emissions; hospital; climate change; quality improvement; greening; environmental stewardship; planetary health
Online: 15 September 2023 (12:02:07 CEST)
(1) Background: Human-generated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are the largest contributor to climate change worldwide. Climate change negatively impacts human and planetary health threatening the existence of life on earth. The healthcare industry is responsible for approximately 8.5% of carbon emissions in the United States. Measuring baseline GHG emissions is the first step in emissions reduction. However, very few models of measurement exist for health care organizations. This project aimed to develop and implement a program to measure and track GHG emissions at a Midwestern Academic Medical Center (MAMC) and to educate staff to manage the process. (2) Methods: A Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) cycle and Quality Improvement methodology was used to develop, implement, and assess a standardized GHG emission inventory process to measure Scope 1 and Scope 2 baseline emissions, and provide virtual training and education to the accountable staff. A pre- and post-survey design was used to measure the knowledge and readiness of the staff after the implementation of the GHG inventory training. (3) Results: The GHG inventory process was validated through an external verification process and the measurement of Scope 1 and Scope 2 baseline GHG emissions was completed and verified for accuracy through a data comparison review. The pre-post-training survey showed an increase in the knowledge and readiness of staff in maintaining a GHG inventory. (4) Conclusions: This work shows the feasibility of obtaining baseline GHG emissions data at large medical centers. It represents the initial phase of the overarching goal to develop site-wide and system-wide carbon reduction strategies and a climate action plan within this health system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0195.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: decision support systems; environmental state; Case Based Reasoning; Analytic Hierarchy Process; environmental management actions; driving-force variables; pressure variables
Online: 18 September 2019 (03:32:42 CEST)
This paper proposes a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) system to contribute to reinforce the sustainable performance of an environmental management system. The CBR system aims to support the decision-making process to select environmental management actions aimed at reducing risky trends of the environmental state of a region. The CBR system takes advantage of a set of situation-solution pairs called cases, which are stored in a memory and then retrieved as candidates to solve new problems. Situations in this work are represented by a set of risky trends of the following key environmental variables: CO2 emissions, Air-Quality, Loss of Vegetation Cover, Water Availability, and Solid Waste, whose combination damage the environmental state quality of a region. Meanwhile, solutions are represented by a set of environmental management actions. Similar situations to a given current situation are retrieved from the memory of cases and then their solutions are combined, through an adaptation mechanism, until the solution of the current problem is obtained. We used risky trends derived from real data related to the environmental states of a Mexican region to test the proposed CBR system. The results obtained provided insights into the potential of CBR systems to support the decision-making process to select environmental management actions aimed at reducing risky trends of current environmental states.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1645.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: fake food; environmental health; food safety; legislation; poisoning
Online: 27 November 2023 (04:37:29 CET)
Food fraud (often called fake food in South Africa), the deliberate misrepresentation or adulteration of food products for financial gain, is a growing problem in South Africa (SA) with severe public health and financial consequences for consumers and businesses. The recent public outcry against food fraud practices, especially in communities that have lost loved ones due to the consumption of allegedly unsafe foodstuffs, highlights the grave danger that food fraud poses to consumers and the potential for significant reputational damage to food manufacturers. Despite the risks, food fraud often goes undetected, as perpetrators are becoming increasingly sophisticated. The precise magnitude of food fraud remains obscure, as incidents that do not cause consumer illnesses are frequently unreported and, as a result, are not investigated. Food fraud costs the global economy billion annually. This cost is borne by consumers, businesses, and the government. Food fraud can occur at any stage of the food supply chain, from production to processing to retailing or distribution. This is due in part to the limitations of current analytical methods, which are not always able to detect food fraud. This systematic literature review of food fraud in SA looks at several factors that may be contributing to epidemic of food fraud (fake food), including lenient penalties, inadequate government commitment, a complex labelling regulations, emerging threats such as e-commerce, and a shortage of inspectors and laboratories. The review recommends establishing a single food control/safety authority, developing more food safety laboratories, and adopting innovative technologies to detect and prevent food fraud. SA faces a serious food fraud crisis unless decisive action is taken.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1332.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: EMI shielding; sandwich structure; aramid nanofibers; environmental suitability
Online: 22 November 2023 (07:28:39 CET)
The recent advancements in communication technology have facilitated the widespread deployment of electronic communication equipment globally, resulting in the pervasive presence of electromagnetic pollution. Consequently, there is an urgent necessity to develop a thin, lightweight, efficient, and durable electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding material, capable of withstanding severe environmental conditions, and possessing a scalable production method. In this paper, we proposed an innovative and scalable method for preparing EMI shielding films with a tunable sandwich-structure. The film possesses a nylon mesh (NM) backbone, with AgNWs serving as the shielding coating and aramid nanofibers (ANFs) acting as the cladding layer. The prepared film was thin and flexible, with a thickness of only 0.13 mm. AgNWs could easily form a conductive network structure with excellent performance, and the film had a high EMI shielding efficiency, up to 50.6 dB with 1.0mg/cm2. Due to the outstanding thermal resistance, acid and alkali resistance properties of aramid fibers, the NAAANF film demonstrates remarkable robustness in the face of complex usage environments. Such a thin, efficient and environmentally resistant EMI shielding film provided new ideas for the broad EMI shielding market.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0332.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: crop responses; environmental impacts; nanoparticles; smart fertilisers; synergist
Online: 7 November 2023 (02:36:49 CET)
Nano-nitrogen fertilizers (NNFs) have emerged as a promising technology in the field of agriculture, offering potential solutions to improve nutrient uptake efficiency, enhance crop productivity, and reduce environmental impacts. The NNFs showed superior characteristics and performance on crops and therefore, became a potential alternative to conventional nitrogen (N) fertilisers. These fertilizers enhance plant uptake while simultaneously reducing environmental losses. Additionally, their small particle size increases crop acclimation and decreases the application rate. With all these beneficial traits of NNFs, they potentially contribute to achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This review article summarises the materials used in NNFs formulation, methods of preparing NNFs, and their crop responses. This review also highlights the limitations identified in the research studies and provides research recommendations for the future. Further, this review provides a critical assessment of the current state of NNFs and their prospects for revolutionizing modern agriculture to attain SDGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0498.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Natural radioactivity; Water; Sediment; environmental implications; North Africa
Online: 9 October 2023 (11:56:38 CEST)
Natural radioactivity of 238U, 232Th and 40K for water and sediment samples collected from Sidi Salem dam (Tunisia) and Aïn Dalia dam (Algeria) were measured using TERRA detector of rays (gamma, beta, and alpha), Gamma-ray spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy were used to analyze the levels of radionuclides and heavy metals, respectively. Heavy metals (Fe, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr and Cd) and associated health risks in surface water and sediment of dams have been investigated in this study. The mean activity concentrations in the water samples were 1.72±0.01, 0.068±0.01 and 94.6±1.04 Bql-1 for 238U, 232Th and 40K respectively (Tunisia dam) and were 1.9± 0.24, 0.09±0.01 and 131.43±1.03 Bql-1 for 238U, 232Th and 40K respectively (Algeria dam). The mean activity concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K measured in the sediment samples were 2.67±0.01, 0.18±0.012 and 197.87±2.01 Bqkg-1 respectively (Tunisian dam) and were 4.34±0.05, 0.27±0.05 and 287.61±3.34 Bqkg-1 respectively (Algeria dam). The activity concentration of 40K was higher than that of 238U and 232Th for the water and sediment samples. The mean activity concentrations follow the order 40K > 238U > 232Th. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals decreased in this order Fe > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cr > Cu > Cd. All measured activity concentrations and estimated radiological parameters were below world permissible limit values. Therefore, there may be no serious immediate radiological health burden on the environment and the people using the damage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0354.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Broiler production systems; Broiler producer; Emergy; Environmental assessment
Online: 9 October 2023 (08:50:33 CEST)
The contractual relationship between the processing firm and the broiler smallholder presents incessant conflicts of interest and inequality due to technical and economic discrepancies, leading to an undervaluation of the producers' remuneration. This study aims to deepen the discussions in searching for a more balanced monetary exchange between processing firms and broiler smallholders based on scientific aspects. For this, the Emergy theory and its concepts were used in considering a representative broiler production system at Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. This study suggests the inclusion of cultural information in the Emergy-based model calculation. For the broiler smallholder, cultural information showed the highest Emergy contribution (62.95%; transformity = 1.73 ×10^8). However, only considering cultural information was not sufficient to increase the sustainability of the broiler production system. The results highlight an imbalance of the monetary exchange between agroindustry and broiler smallholder payment for both the economic and Emergy-based payment. Both estimated payments were higher than the practiced payment value (0.24 USD/broiler as well as 0.32 USD/broiler and 1.62 EmUSD/broiler, respectively). Thus, evaluating the “(eco)cost” in Emergy-based accounting recognizes that production depends not only on tangible physical resources but also on knowledge, skills and information (“iceberg of value” thinking). Policy and decision makers must, therefore consider the promotion of public policies that subside initiatives, including social and environmental welfare programmes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0277.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: asbestos, hazards, rehabilitation, dispersion, risks, environmental, mine waste
Online: 5 October 2023 (10:46:07 CEST)
Derelict asbestos mine sites in South Africa pose a considerable risk to human, environmental and socio-economic health. Comprehensive mineralogical and geochemical datasets for the existing hazardous geological materials still exposed in Southern African derelict asbestos mines remain largely non-existent, as very little published and up-to-date literature is available. In this study three representative types of asbestos mineral fibres from derelict asbestos mines in Southern Africa, namely chrysotile from Havelock mine, amosite from Penge mine and crocidolite from Prieska mine are characterized mineralogically and geochemically to critically evaluate real-life hazards in rural and asbestos-fibre contaminated regions. The samples were examined using polarising light microscopy, X-ray fluorescence (major and trace elemental analysis), X-ray diffraction (including Rietveld refinement), specific surface area analyses and bio-durability tests. Data are discussed in view of their potential toxicities on both human health and the environment in the context of developing countries. Finally, information on the mineralogical and geochemical status of asbestos mine waste and its importance as baseline data for rehabilitation considerations is also evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0593.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice; integrated cultivation practices; microbial diversity; environmental factors
Online: 11 September 2023 (05:07:03 CEST)
Integrated cultivation strategies can significantly improve rice yield. However, it is unclear how integrated cultivation practices improve soil microbial diversity and its related mechanism in rice field. Therefore, four integrated cultivation practices i.e., no N application (N0), local farmers’ practice (FP), high-yield and high-efficiency practice (HYEY), and super-high-yield cultivation practice, impacts on soil properties and structure composition of microbial community were explored. Compared with N0, SHY treatment, significantly increased soil alkaline nitrogen and organic matter contents. HYHE and SHY treatments significantly altered soil fungal community and Alpha diversity. Based on Venn diagram analysis, the composition of bacterial communities under all treatments was similar, but with different compositions of fungal communities. Cluster analysis indicates that the Proteobacteria was the absolute dominant group of bacterial communities, and Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria were the dominant group. Different cultivation methods also led to changes in the main factors affecting soil bacteria and fungi composition. Available potassium and organic matter were the main environmental factors that affected bacteria, with the strong of available potassium on the soil. To sum up, SHY and HYEY were beneficial management options in terms of improved soil fertility Alpha diversity of the soil bacterial community respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0256.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Sustainable development; Energy management; Environmental protection; Economic management
Online: 5 September 2023 (08:11:19 CEST)
This investigation delves into an examination of the growth dynamics observed in Central Taiwan Science Park (CTSP) and Silicon Glen in Scotland, with a specific focus on their energy, environmental, and economic management. The aim is to predict and evaluate the latest advancements and applications of technology. In terms of energy, CTSP focuses on Taiwan's supply security and green transformation challenges, while Silicon Glen emphasizes Scotland's wind energy generation technologies. Both regions are committed to the development of renewable energy and smart grids. Regarding environmental aspects, CTSP and Silicon Glen prioritize environmental protection and sustainable development by implementing measures for environmental monitoring. In terms of economic management, CTSP, and Silicon Glen serve as key technology industry hubs This investigation delves into an examination of the growth dynamics observed in Central Tai-wan Science Park (CTSP) and Silicon Glen in Scotland, with a specific focus on their energy, environmental, and economic management. The aim is to predict and evaluate the latest advancements and applications of technology. In terms of energy, CTSP focuses on Taiwan's supply security and green transformation challenges, while Silicon Glen emphasizes Scotland's wind energy generation technologies. Both regions are committed to the development of renewable energy and smart grids. Regarding environmental aspects, CTSP and Silicon Glen prioritize environmental protection and sustainable development by implementing measures for environmental monitoring. In terms of economic management, CTSP, and Silicon Glen serve as key technology industry hubs in Taiwan and Scotland, respectively, attracting numerous high-tech and startup enterprises. Various means facilitate the growth of industries and foster innovations in different industrial spheres. Important factors contributing to this growth include policy support, availability of research materials, and provision of infrastructure. This research paper compares the successful case studies of two industrial parks, along with their environmental and economic management strategies. It explores the management principles that ensure the sustainable development and economic growth of industrial parks, aiming to assist decision-makers and relevant stakeholders in evaluating the sustainable development planning of industrial parks.