ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0467.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: energy efficiency; primary energy; electricity; DEA analysis
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:12:17 CET)
This paper is about energy as viewed through an integrated model that links energy with environment, technology and urbanisation as related areas. Our goal is to empirically investigate the (in)efficient energy use across 30 developed OECD member states during the period from 2001 to 2018. For that purpose, we set up an output-oriented BCC data envelopment analysis that employs a set of input variables with non-negative values to calculate the efficiency scores on minimising energy use and losses as well as environmental emissions. We develop a couple of baseline models for primary energy and secondary energy (electricity) in which we find that countries have mean inefficiency margins of 16.1 per cent for primary energy and from 10.8 to 13.5 per cent for electricity. Then, we extend the baseline models by adding environment as an important closely related concept and confirm the consistency of the baseline findings. In the context of this analysis, however, the inefficiency scores, on the one hand, point out to a mismatch in the utilisation of the inputs to produce efficiency but, on the other hand, they uncover a hidden potential to increasy efficiency through re-allocation under constant inputs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1564.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: buildings energy efficiency; climate change; energy efficiency; feedback effects; passive solar energy; renewable energy; transport energy efficiency; urban heat island
Online: 23 May 2023 (04:32:41 CEST)
Energy efficiency is, in principle, a simple idea: an output of human value, for example, vehicle-km traveled, divided by the needed input energy. Efficiency improvements are regarded by many as an important means of mitigating not only climate change, but also other environmental problems. Accordingly, many countries have efficiency ratings for appliances and efficiency standards for road vehicles. Despite the vast number of articles published on energy efficiency, few question whether it is a useful or accurate measure in its present form. This review addresses this lack, by a critical review of the literature, not only in energy efficiency, but in other areas of research, such as ‘energy services’, that can help broaden the scope of this idea, both geographically and conceptually. These shortcomings are illustrated in case studies of road passenger transport and buildings. The main findings are that energy efficiency inevitably has an ethical dimension, that feedbacks are more widespread than generally considered, and that conventional efficiency measures omit important energy input items, particularly those concerned with mining of the materials needed for renewable energy plants. Finally, the key results of this review are summarized, and its limitations are discussed, as is the future research needed to overcome these shortcomings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Energy Harvesting; energy management circuit; kinetic energy; vibratory transducer
Online: 17 March 2017 (16:58:48 CET)
Since the requirements in terms of power of the electronic applications range wide, the developed Energy Harvesting (EH) systems limit their availability to the less power demanding applications. However, this paper focuses on increasing the energy levels collected in the EH system so that it can be included in more demanding applications in terms of power. Therefore, an electronic system capable of grouping many single harvesting channels into one single system is analyzed in this paper. This multi-harvester electronic system is able to manage efficiently the energy collected by multiple vibratory transducers. The paper includes a comparison of its performance against some of the State-of-the-Art EH energy management circuits that interface the transducers. The method employed to demonstrate the intrinsic efficiency of each of the electronic circuits tested was based on experimental tests, where the average power transferred from several identical and simultaneous electric sources to a single storage element was measured. It was found out that only one energy management circuit was able to increase the transferred energy in a linear way while new input electric sources were added.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0495.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: decarbonisation; energy supply security; energy demand; energy systems; industry; capacity planning
Online: 28 February 2023 (02:53:02 CET)
The quickest and easiest way to avoid greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is to purchase renewable electricity and offset the remaining emissions. However, the industrial sector’s electricity needs already exceed renewable electricity generation. Moreover, electricity accounts for only one third of the industry’s energy needs. Simultaneously, the advance of sectoral coupling and the decarbonisation of industrial processes, as well as the desire to rapidly decrease dependence on fossil fuels, are creating significant additional demand for renewable energy. Neither existing nor planned generation and transmission infrastructure will suffice to meet the expected short-term demand. Based on survey data from the German Industry Energy Efficiency Index, this article therefore examines the share of GHG savings that companies intend to achieve on- and off-site. Understanding how much additional generation and transmission capacity is needed by the industry to decarbonise and by when is crucial to identify and address the extent of excess demand. On average, companies plan to avoid 22 % of their 2019 emissions by 2025 and 27 % by 2030, primarily through on-site measures. In combination with the extrapolation of the entire industry’s needs for off-site capacity, the data calls for a rapid expansion of planning authority and green generation capacities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0705.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: renewable energy; batteries; energy storage; energy challenges
Online: 9 August 2023 (04:24:25 CEST)
This analysis focuses on identifying the most efficient and cost-effective method of supplying power to a remote site, exploring photovoltaics (PV) and small wind turbines as primary power sources, and evaluating battery banks and hydrogen storage fuel cell systems as potential storage options. The hydrogen storage system converts surplus renewable power into hydrogen through an elec-trolyzer, storing it for later use in a fuel cell when renewable sources produce less power, enabling efficient energy storage during peak production periods. A sensitivity analysis of wind speed and hydrogen subsystem cost was conducted to evaluate the hydrogen storage system's performance. The optimal system graph suggests that the hydrogen subsystem must significantly decrease in cost to rival the battery bank, and in most cases, both the hydrogen system and battery bank were recommended together, offering reliable and efficient power for the remote site. While the battery bank is presently the more feasible option for powering the remote site, continuous monitoring and evaluation of both systems, considering site location, energy needs, and available resources, are essential to determine the most suitable power supply approach as technology advances and costs evolve over time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0605.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Renewable energy; Greenhouse gas emissions; sustainable energy system; clean energy; sustainability
Online: 10 October 2023 (08:36:23 CEST)
Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology is a cornerstone of the global effort to transition towards cleaner and more sustainable energy systems. This paper explores the pivotal role of PV technology in re-ducing greenhouse gas emissions and combatting the pressing issue of climate change. At the heart of its efficacy lies the efficiency of PV materials, which dictates the extent to which sunlight is transformed into electricity. Over the last decade, substantial advancements in PV efficiency have propelled the widespread adoption of solar PV technology on a global scale. The efficiency of PV materials is a critical factor, determining how effectively sunlight is transformed into electricity. Enhanced efficiency, achieved through a decade of progress, has driven the global expansion of solar PV. Multi-junction photovoltaic materials have now exceeded 40% efficiency in lab tests. China leads the world in solar PV installations, boasting over 253 GW of installed capacity by the end of 2021. Other prominent countries in this sector are the United States, Japan, Germany, and India. Supportive policies like feed-in tariffs, net metering, tax incentives, and cost reductions in PV modules have made solar PV increasingly competitive against fossil fuel-based power generation. Solar PV technology holds immense potential for creating a cleaner, reliable, scalable, and cost-effective electricity system. To expedite its deployment and foster a more sustainable energy future, continued investment in research and development, along with supportive policies and market mechanisms, is essential. This paper underscores the pivotal role of solar PV technology in the global energy transition and advocates for a concerted effort to unlock its full potential in achieving a more sustainable and resilient energy future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0127.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy efficiency indices; data visualization; clustering algorithms; university campus; energy management
Online: 10 April 2018 (10:40:47 CEST)
In this paper, we propose a simple tool to help the energy management of a large buildings stock defining clusters of buildings with the same function, setting alert thresholds for each cluster, and easily recognizing outliers. The objective is to enable a building management system to be used for detection of abnormal energy use. First, we framed the issue of energy performance indicators, and how they feed into data visualization (Data Viz) tools for a large building stock, especially for university campuses. Both for Data Viz and clustering algorithm processes, we discussed two possible approaches to choose the right number of clusters and the identification of alert thresholds and outliers, after a brief presentation of the University of Turin's building stock case study. Different Data Viz tools have been studied to apply a specific clustering algorithm, the k-means one. An explorative analysis based on the general Multidimensional detective approach by Inselberg has been performed. Two multidimensional analysis tools, the Scatter Plot Matrix and the Parallel coordinates method have been used. Secondly, the k-means clustering algorithm has been applied on the same dataset in order to test the hypothesis made during the explorative analysis. Data Viz techniques developed in this study revealed to be very useful to explore quickly and simply a large buildings' stock, identifying the worst efficient buildings and clustering them according to their distinct functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0571.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Solar energy; photovoltaic-thermal; electrical efficiency; thermal efficiency; exergetic efficiency; energy bandgap
Online: 30 November 2022 (10:07:52 CET)
We investigate the performance of a novel flat photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) module under high-vacuum through a 1D numerical model based on steady-state energy balance, with the aims of optimizing the simultaneous production of thermal and electrical energy. In the proposed design, the photovoltaic (PV) cell is positioned directly above the selective solar absorber (SSA), in a multilayer or fully integrated PV-SSA structure, which allows full exploitation of spectral solar radiation. In fact, in this configuration the losses related to non-absorption of low-energy photons and thermalization, typical of a classical single-junction PV cell, are reduced. The present study is conducted as the emittance and energy bandgap of the PV layer varied, thus admitting a wide variety of materials into the analysis. The dependence of the temperature coefficient, β(%/K), on the energy bandgap of the PV cell is also included. In the last part of the work, we discuss the performance of the proposed evacuated PV-T equipped with a SSA layer and thin film solar cells, namely those made of CdTe, CdS and GaAs. Overall, the paper highlights the great advantage of using high vacuum insulation, which suppresses conductive losses, and the versatility of the proposed system, which could be adapted to the user's needs simply by choosing the appropriate material for the photovoltaic layer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0578.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: DC vs. AC; DC distribution networks; energy efficiency in buildings; energy savings; microgrids
Online: 24 May 2021 (15:08:40 CEST)
The concept of DC power distribution has gained interest within the research community in the past years; especially due to rapid prevalence of solar PVs as a tool for distributed generation in DC microgrids. Various efficiency analyses have been presented for the DC distribution paradigm, in comparison to the AC counterpart, considering a variety of scenarios. However, even after a number of such comparative efficiency studies, there seems to be a disparity in the results of research efforts - wherein a definite verdict is still unavailable: 'Is DC distribution a more efficient choice as compared to the conventional AC system?' A final verdict is absent primarily due to conflicting results. In this regard, system modeling and the assumptions made in different studies play a significant role in affecting the results of the study. The current paper is an attempt to critically observe the modeling and assumptions used in the efficiency studies related to the DC distribution system. Several research efforts will be analyzed for their approach towards the system upon which they have performed efficiency studies. Subsequently, the paper aims to propose a model that may alleviate the shortcomings in earlier research efforts and be able to give a definite verdict regarding the comparative efficiency of DC and AC networks for residential power distribution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1379.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: energy efficiency; energy savings; industrial hydraulics; power drive architecture; CO2 emissions reduction
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:40:19 CEST)
In hydraulic systems, energy dissipation can be significant. The pressure drops that can occur in the hydraulic circuit, influenced by the adopted drive architecture, result in an absorbed power often significantly greater than that required by the mechanical system. In this paper, a comparative study of energy efficiency among five drive common architectures in industrial hydraulic axes is carried out. The analysis is applied to a hydraulic blanking press with variable speed and force, a fairly frequent industrial system, e.g. in the production of semi-finished brass products. Standard, regenerative, high-low, variable displacement pump and variable speed drive for a fixed displacement pump configurations have been analysed and compared. An adequate and optimized sizing of the various components of the system has been carried out in each case and subsequently the energy consumption has been estimated for a load cycle common to all the considered cases. The results show that the choice of power generation architecture of the hydraulic system has a very significant impact on energy efficiency and consequently operating costs and carbon footprint. The performed quantification of the potential energy efficiency of the considered drive architectures can be very useful in guiding energy-conscious choices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0034.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: clean energy; correlation; market efficiency
Online: 4 April 2023 (02:49:29 CEST)
Climate change, the scarcity of fossil fuels, technical advances in clean energy, and the volatility of crude oil prices are just a few of the factors that have prompted the world to recognize clean energy as a viable alternative to dirty energy. As part of the Paris Climate Accord of 2015, many countries agreed to change their economies to be more sensitive to climate change. Due to this Accord, which increased interest from investors and decision-makers, investments in clean energy companies have benefited [1,2]. Clean energy stocks, which are a part of the larger world of tradable reserves, might experience pricing inefficiencies. In this paper, we investigate the multifractal scaling behavior and efficiency of green finance markets, as well as traditional markets like gold, crude oil, and natural gas between January 1, 2018, and March 9, 2023, which covers periods of low volatility and financial instability (2020 and 2022 events). To test the serial dependency (autocorrelation) and the efficient market hypothesis, in its weak form, we employed the Lo and Mackinlay test and the DFA method. The empirical findings demonstrated that both periods exhibit severe multifractal and significant asymmetry, indicating that the price indices under study are not at all efficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1902.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Serial autocorrelation; Stock markets; Green energy; Sustainability
Online: 30 October 2023 (10:33:16 CET)
The rising global concern for environmental sustainability has driven a surge in green invest-ments' popularity. This study examines the multifractal characteristics and efficiency of various green stock indexes, such as Clean Science and Technology, ISE Clean Edge Global Wind Energy Index, iShares Global Clean Energy ETF, Nasdaq Clean Edge Green Energy, and Solactive Clean Energy. The research covers the period from October 4, 2021, to October 4, 2023. The central ob-jective of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of clean energy stock markets and dissect their influence on investment decisions and market performance in the realm of green investments. To accomplish this, the study employs the Wright test (2000) and the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) method. The findings indicate the presence of negative serial autocorrelation within the Rankings and Signals tests. Furthermore, the DFA analysis concurrently reveals long memory patterns in most green indexes, with the notable exception being the Nasdaq Clean Edge index, which exhibits tendencies toward anti-persistence. These results imply that prices inadequately incorporate available information, resulting in non-i.i.d. price fluctuations. These implications are significant for investors, as they indicate the potential for predictable returns and opportunities for arbitrage and abnormal profits, challenging the assumptions of random walk and information efficiency hypotheses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1971.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Energy efficiency; optimization; electric vehicle; M-EAD
Online: 29 August 2023 (10:32:36 CEST)
The predominance of traffic lights in urban settings often induces fluctuations in traffic patterns and energy utilization among vehicles. To counteract the adverse effects of traffic lights on the energy efficiency of electric vehicles (EVs), a Multi-Intersections-Based Eco-Approach and Departure strategy (M-EAD) is proposed. This strategy aims to enhance vehicle energy efficiency, traffic flow, and battery longevity, all while upholding satisfactory driving comfort. The M-EAD strategy unfolds in two distinct stages: the optimization of an eco-friendly green signal window and the refinement of speed trajectories. The initial stage tackles the optimization of traffic light green signal windows, underpinned by the minimization of travel delays via solving the shortest path problem. In the subsequent stage, a receding horizon framework takes center stage, leveraging an iterative dynamic programming algorithm to tackle the speed optimization challenge. The objective here is to curtail energy consumption and reduce battery wear by finding an optimal speed trajectory. Furthermore, the real-world efficacy of this approach is substantiated through on-road vehicle tests, attesting to its viability in actual road scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0627.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Energy efficiency; Lifecycle analysis (LCA); Embodied energy; Source energy; Site energy; Energy savings; Energy payback period.
Online: 9 November 2023 (10:13:47 CET)
This article aims to assess the benefits of floor-slab insulation measures using extruded polystyrene (XPS) and polyisocyanurate (polyiso) insulation materials at various levels of insulation thicknesses for a detached residential building. The EnergyPlus simulation analysis was carried out within the seven energy zones (represented by eight locations) of South Africa in accordance with the South African national code for building energy efficiency (SANS10400-XA). The energy savings and payback periods due to use of the insulation over a lifecycle period of 50 years were assessed. Cape Town (zone 4) behaved differently from other locations and hardly benefitted from the application of floor-slab insulation measures. Generally, polyiso insulation performed better than XPS, for vertical gap insulation. For vertical gap insulation, lower insulation thicknesses required higher insulation depths to maximize energy savings. Similarly, lower insulation thicknesses required higher perimeter insulation widths to maximize energy savings, for the horizontal perimeter insulation method. The locations that benefitted most from vertical gap floor-slab insulation were Pretoria (zone2), Kimberley (zone6), Nelspruit (zone3), Fraserburg (zone7), Welkom (zone1), Mthatha (zone5), Ixopo (zone5H) and Cape Town (zone4) in that order. This order was almost similar with those for the horizontal perimeter floor-slab insulation and horizontal full floor-slab insulation methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0457.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Thermoelectric Generator; Ratchet Potential; Brownian Ratchet; Electrostatic; Particles Distribution; Energy Harvesting.
Online: 24 November 2021 (13:07:10 CET)
The novel Ionized Gas Thermoelectric Generator (IG-TEG) system that has been studied theoretically showing capabilities to continually extracting energy from the thermal energy of the ambient air, at low temperatures within the standard room temperature and below. This system does not need a temperature gradient in order to work, unlike the other TEGs that use Seebeck effect, and therefore this new system can be utilized for cooling purposes, by extracting energy instead of wasting energy in compressing the gas for cooling. This novel system was designed based on Static Ratchet Potential (SRP), which is known as a spatially asymmetric electric potential produced by an array of positive and negative electrodes. The ratchet potential produces electrical current from random Brownian Motion of charged particles that are driven by thermal energy. Ratchet potential was studied and investigated by several researches in the fields of sensing and energy harvesting. The main ratchet potential system parameter is the particles transportation, this parameter was studied under the condition of flashing ratchet potentials, and was analyzed based on several methods. In this study, a different approach is pursued to estimate particles transportation, by evaluating the charged particles distribution, and applying the other conditions of the SRP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0239.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: energy-efficient buildings; deep renovation; Plug-and-Play (PnP); building information modelling (BIM); building energy modelling (BEM)
Online: 14 August 2018 (03:59:42 CEST)
Ninety percent of the existing building stock in Europe was built before 1990. These buildings are in urgent need for a significant improvement of energy-efficiency through renovation. Regrettably, so far only five percent of renovation projects have been able to yield energy-saving at deep renovation level. State-of-the-art renovation solutions are available, but costly and lengthy renovation processes and incomprehensible technical complexities hinder the achievement of a wide impact at a European scale. This paper presents research on Plug-and-Play (PnP) technologies supported by Building Information Modelling (BIM) to provide affordable, interchangeable and quick-installation solutions to overcome the main barriers of building deep renovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Energy saving, cornering, camber, Magic Formula
Online: 9 February 2018 (15:31:02 CET)
Actively controlling the camber angle to improve energy efficiency has recently gained interest due to the importance of reducing energy consumption and the driveline electrification trend that makes cost-efficient implementation of actuators possible. To analyse how much energy that can be saved with camber control, the effect of changeing the camber angles on the forces and moments of the tyre under different driving conditions should be considered. In this paper, Magic Formula tyre models for combined slip and camber are used for simulation of energy analysis. The components of power loss during cornering are formulated and used to explain the influence that camber angles have on the power loss. For the studied driving paths and the assumed driver model, the simulation results show that active camber control can have considerable influence on power loss during cornering. Different combinations of camber angles are simulated, and a camber control algorithm is proposed and verified in simulation. The results show that the camber controller has very promising application prospects for energy-efficient cornering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Renewable Energy; solar energy; PV panels slope; azimuth; temperature; albedo
Online: 20 June 2018 (14:22:44 CEST)
The There are many factors influencing the performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. Among these factors, temperature and solar radiation are two major parameters that have a large effect on the efficiency of PV systems. The cell temperature of PV panels is related to the ambient temperature while the solar radiation incident on the surface of the PV modules depends on the slope and azimuth of these modules. Furthermore, ground reflectance (albedo) affects the irradiance incident on the PV panel surface, which in turn affects the output of a PV system. Nevertheless, the effects of these factors on the economic performance of the solar PV systems are scarcely reported. This paper presents a complete design of a stand-alone PV/battery system to supply electric power for a mobile base station in Choman, Erbil, Iraq. The effects of different factors on the total electricity produced by PV arrays and its economic performance are simultaneously investigated. HOMER software has been used as a tool for the techno-economic and environmental analysis. As indicated from the simulation results, the PV array capacity and its economic performance are highly affected by the variation of the slope and azimuth. With a base case (albedo of 20% and average annual ambient temperature of 11°C), the best feasible system which is achieved by facing PV due to south with a tilt angle of 40° or 45°, is found to have net present cost (NPC) of 70595 $ and cost of energy (COE) of 0.54 $/kWh. Moreover, the results indicate that increasing the ground reflectance from 10% to 90% results in a 7.2% decrease in the PV array capacity and about 3% decrease in the NPC and COE. On the other hand, increasing the ambient temperature from 0°C to 40°C results in a 19.7% increase in the PV array capacity and an 8.2% increase in the NPC and COE. Furthermore, according to the ambient temperature of Choman, using PV modules with high sensitivity to temperature is found to be an attractive option. Provided simulation performance analysis proves that the studied parameters must be treated well to establish an enabling environment for solar energy development in Iraq.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0524.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Optimal Predictive Control; Energy Management; Electric Vehicles; Sustainable Transportation; Efficient Energy Consumption; Electrification of Transportation
Online: 7 September 2023 (13:27:36 CEST)
In this study, a novel two-layer control scheme aimed at enhancing the dynamic performance of a nonlinear vehicle through the utilization of an optimal control approach grounded in predictive control principles is presented. The first layer of our control system focuses on the computation of an optimized rotational torque that ensures lateral dynamic stability. This torque is subsequently translated into differential forces acting on the wheels, employing the inverse tire model to derive the desired longitudinal slips. These slip values are then transmitted to the second layer of our control system. In the second layer, the electric motors associated with the vehicle's wheels dynamically adjust the input torque to accurately track the desired slip, thereby ensuring the overall stability of the electric vehicle. In view of the paramount importance of energy consumption in electric vehicles, we adopt optimal control strategies to substantially minimize battery utilization. To this end, careful selection of appropriate weighting coefficients in the control laws enables us to maintain the electric motors within their permissible operational range while simultaneously minimizing battery energy consumption for desired slip tracking. Extensive simulation results validate the effectiveness of our proposed control system in proficiently managing nonlinear effects and safeguarding the vehicle's stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: solar energy; Compound Parabolic Concentrators (CPC); high vacuum insulated solar collectors
Online: 9 January 2020 (05:31:26 CET)
A new frontier in solar thermal panel technology can be a high vacuum collector, thick enough to be equipped with solar concentrators based on non-imaging optics, such as the Compound Parabolic Concentrators (CPC). The high vacuum technology guarantees higher operating temperatures thanks to the enhanced thermal insulation, which leads to pay particular attention to the absorber radiative emission. In this paper by means of numerical simulations we compare the efficiency of a flat selective solar absorber under high vacuum to the efficiency of a CPC under high-vacuum collector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0162.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal emittance; conversion efficiency; selective solar absorber; thermal energy; evacuated flat panel; solar energy
Online: 20 October 2020 (12:18:01 CEST)
This study refers to the optimization of a Selective Solar Absorber to improve the Sun-to-thermal conversion efficiency at mid temperatures in high vacuum flat thermal collectors. Efficiency has been evaluated by using analytical formula and a numerical thermal model. Both results have been experimentally validated using a commercial absorber in a custom experimental set-up. The optimization procedure aimed at obtaining Selective Solar Absorber is presented and discussed in the case of a metal dielectric multilayer based on Cr2O3 and Ti. The importance of adopting a real spectral emissivity curve to estimate high thermal efficiency at high temperatures in selective solar absorber is outlined. Optimized absorber multilayers can be 8% more efficient than the commercial alternative at 250 °C operating temperatures and up to 27% more efficient at 300 °C. Once the multilayer has been optimized the choice of a very low emissivity substrate such as copper allows to further improve efficiency and to reach stagnation temperature higher than 400 °C without Sun concentration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1455.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: calorific value; biomass conversion; biogas production; chemical energy; energy efficiency; cogeneration
Online: 21 September 2023 (07:26:41 CEST)
Using a wide range of organic substrates in the methane fermentation process enables efficient biogas production. Nonetheless, in many cases, the efficiency of electricity generation in biogas plant cogeneration systems is much lower than expected, close to the calorific value of the applied feedstock. This paper analyses energy conversion efficiency in a 1 MWel agricultural biogas plant fed with corn silage or vegetable waste and pig slurry as a feedstock dilution agent, depending on the season and availability. Biomass conversion studies were carried out for 12 months, during which substrate samples were taken once a month. The total primary energy in substrates was estimated in laboratory conditions by measuring the heat of combustion in a ballistic bomb calorimeter (17,760 MWh·year-1), and in the case of pig slurry, biochemical methane potential (BMP, (201.88±3.21 m3·Mg VS-1). Further, the substrates were analysed in terms of their chemical composition — from protein, sugar and fat content to mineral matter determination, among other things. The results obtained during the study were averaged. Based on such things as the amount of biogas produced at the plant, the amount of chemical (secondary) energy contained in methane as a product of biomass conversion (10,633 MWh·year-1) was calculated. Considering the results obtained from the analyses, as well as the calculated values of the relevant parameters, biomass conversion efficiency was determined as a ratio of chemical energy in methane to (primary) energy in substrates, which was 59.87%, as well as electricity production efficiency, as a ratio of electricity produced (4,913 MWh·year-1) to primary energy, with a 35% cogeneration system efficiency. Full energy conversion efficiency, related to electricity production, reached a low value of 27.66%. This article provides an insightful, unique analysis of energy conversion in an active biogas plant as an open thermodynamic system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0479.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: real monitoring; energy efficiency management system; wsan; majmaah university
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:58:31 CEST)
This research presents alternative solutions for an Energy Efficiency Management System (EEMS) serving as a framework for optimizing the energy consumption algorithm and lowering energy consumption. First, a monitoring Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network (WSAN) is used for sensing, measuring, gathering data, and modeling all the dynamic disturbance parameters of the rooms in the building. Second, integrated software for metering and controlling the processes of digital data flow is used. Third, an alternative solution is proposed to reduce energy consumption. The primary benefits of this system are real-time monitoring; rapid, alternative solutions; and the ability to make a prudent decision on how to lower energy consumption. The system shows instant and accumulated solutions for short and long-term time planning. The solutions identified can be implemented in the same buildings under the same circumstances. The universities of Majmaah and Philadelphia have buildings with similar infrastructure. The system was applied to the buildings at Philadelphia University. The results were generalized to both universities. After implementation, the energy consumption of the EEMS using WSAN (based on the monitoring was reduced up to 23% when compared to that of the initial state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0074.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: energy; KNL; MCDRAM; memory; Lattice Boltzmann; HPC; DVFS
Online: 6 April 2018 (10:46:23 CEST)
Energy consumption of processors and memories is quickly becoming a limiting factor in the deployment of large computing systems. For this reason it is important to understand the energy performance of these processors and to study strategies allowing to use them in the most efficient way. In this work we focus on computing and energy performance of the Knights Landing Xeon Phi, the latest Intel many-core architecture processor for HPC applications. We consider the 64-core Xeon Phi 7230, and profile its performance and energy efficiency using both its on-chip MCDRAM and the off-chip DDR4 memory as the main storage for application data. As a benchmark application we use a Lattice Boltzmann code heavily optimized for this architecture, and implemented using several different arrangements of the application data in memory (data-layouts, in short). We also assess the dependence of energy consumption on data-layouts, memory configurations (DDR4 or MCDRAM), and number of threads per core. We finally consider possible trade-offs between computing performance and energy efficiency, tuning the clock frequency of the processor using the Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1763.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Energy Efficiency; Energy Audit; Internal barriers; Competing interests; Lack of information; Low technical competence
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:06:12 CEST)
Climate change complies firms to introduce various measures to enhance both their competitiveness and sustainability, particularly energy efficiency measures (EEMs). Energy efficiency is particularly important in energy-intensive sectors such as the industrial sector. However, EEMs within the industrial firms are hindered by several internal barriers such as competing interests within firms, the lack of information regarding energy efficiency opportunities, and the low technical competence. In this regard, energy audit aims to improve energy efficiency in facilities and to tackle internal barriers to energy efficiency. We construct a model which aims to explore the importance of energy audit in implementing EEMs and reducing the intensity of internal barriers to energy efficiency. Our research model was empirically tested through survey data gathered from 193 industrial firms in Morocco. Results show that competing interests, the lack of information and the low technical competence hinder the adoption of EEMs within industrial firms. In addition, energy audits enhance EEMs, and mitigate the negative effect of the lack of information and the low technical competence on the adoption of EEMs. However, energy audits do not attenuate the negative effect of competing interests on EEMs. This study reinforces previous studies with additional confirmation regarding the importance of energy audits for tackling the lack of information, and the low technical competence within firms. Furthermore, our study extends prior research as we found that energy audits do not reduce the intensity of competing interests within firms regarding EMMs’ implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0485.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy management; energy efficiency; small and medium enterprises; artificial intelligence techniques; decision support platform
Online: 28 April 2020 (08:17:22 CEST)
The paper presents a new vision on the energy consumption management in the case of the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), integrated into an advanced decision support platform, with technical and economic benefits on increasing the energy efficiency, which contains modules for database management, profiling, forecasting, and production scheduling. Inside each module, Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining techniques were proposed to remove the uncertainties regarding the dynamic of technological flows. Thus, the data management module includes the Data Mining techniques, that extract the technical details on the energy consumption needed in the development of production scheduling strategies, the profiling module uses an original approach based on clustering techniques to determine the typical energy consumption profiles required in the optimal planning of the activities, the forecasting module contains a new approach based on an expert system to forecast the total energy consumption of the SMEs, and production scheduling module integrates a heuristic optimization method to obtain the optimal solutions in flattening the energy consumption profile. The testing was done for a small enterprise from Romania, belonging to the domain of trade and repair of vehicles. The obtained results highlighted the advantages of the proposed decision support platform on the decrease in the intensity of energy consumption per unit of product, reduction of the purchase costs, and modification of the impact whom the energy bills have on the operational costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1438.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Brazilian labelling regulation; energy efficiency; thermal comfort; university buildings.
Online: 21 August 2023 (08:58:00 CEST)
Thermal comfort is extremely important in architecture, especially in environments with more people spending longer on studies or intellectual activities. This research describes a case study to investigate university buildings' energy and thermal performance as a part of the ANEEL program. Due to this importance, and the need to save energy in Brazilian public buildings, the ANEEL-the Brazilian Energy Electricity Regulatory Agency, launched 2016 a national program focusing on energy efficiency in public universities around the country. University offices and classrooms require high intellectual effort; thus, environmental comfort is critical for maintaining its users' physical and mental health. This study included a pre-diagnosis of the performance of the envelope, lighting, and air conditioning systems and a survey about the quality of the environments from the users' point of view. The Prescriptive Method of the Brazilian Labeling Program (PBE) for Commercial, Service, and Public Buildings (RTQ-C) assessed the building performance. Statistical analysis was applied to correlate the quality and thermal preference of the users from the PMV/PPD. The results showed a high rate of thermal discomfort in both environments of the studies, even when using air conditioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1553.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Smart Buildings; 5G; Cloud Computing; IoT; Energy Efficiency
Online: 24 November 2023 (11:27:20 CET)
As urbanization continues to accelerate, the concept of smart buildings has transitioned from a futuristic vision to an integral component of modern cities. These buildings, often seen as the building blocks of smart cities, are increasingly relying on cutting-edge technologies like 5G and cloud computing to reach unprecedented levels of energy efficiency, sustainability, and occupant comfort. This paper offers a comprehensive exploration into the marriage of smart building technologies with 5G and cloud computing. It scrutinizes the individual and combined impacts of these technologies, presents various case studies showcasing real-world applications, and anticipates future trends. Moreover, it delves into technical challenges, policy implications, and offers concrete recommendations for stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0867.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal insulation; energy efficiency; environmental impact
Online: 11 May 2023 (13:54:19 CEST)
The thermal insulation properties of building walls are critical to the overall energy efficiency and comfort of a building. One important factor that can affect these properties is the type of bricks used in construction. Bricks can vary in their geometry and thermal coefficient, which can impact their ability to transfer heat through the wall. The geometry of a brick can affect its thermal properties by altering the amount of air trapped within it and the surface area available for heat transfer. Hollow bricks or those with complex geometries may have lower thermal conductivity than regular solid bricks due to the air pockets trapped within them. Conversely, larger surface areas on the exterior of the brick can increase heat transfer. The thermal coefficient of clay, a common material used in brick production, is another important factor. Clay has a relatively low thermal conductivity, meaning it is a poor conductor of heat. However, the quality of the clay, as well as the firing temperature and duration used in brick production, can impact its thermal coefficient. Higher firing temperatures and longer firing times can result in a more compact and dense clay brick, which can improve its thermal properties. In summary, the thermal insulation properties of building walls can be significantly affected by the type of bricks used in their construction. It is important to consider the geometry and thermal coefficient of the bricks when designing a building to achieve the desired level of thermal insulation. By selecting bricks with appropriate properties, designers can help to improve the energy efficiency and comfort of the building while reducing its environmental impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0619.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: nonequilibrium; thermodynamics; energy processes; wind energy conversion system (WECS); vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT); permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG); cascade connection
Online: 8 June 2023 (10:05:18 CEST)
In this paper, the linear nonequilibrium thermodynamic approach is used to analyze energy processes in the wind energy conversion system (WECS), with a directly connected vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) and vector controlled permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). Both elements are considered as linear universal energy converters (EC) linearized at the points of the given range of common to VAWT and PMSG angular velocity. The dependences on the angular velocity of the coupling coefficients between the ECs input and output and the dimensionless parameters of their operating modes were received. This allows for choosing the optimal points of ECs operation according to the specified criteria and obtaining indicators of their maximum efficiency. To assess the quality of the cascade connection of two ECs, the appropriate coefficient was introduced, the dimensionless parameters and characteristics of the equivalent EC were obtained, and the conditions of its maximum efficiency were determined. Analysis of the VAWT-PMSG connection quality showed reserves for improving WECS efficiency. The impact of VAWT and PMSG variable parameters on the quality of this connection is studied, and further research directions are shown. The proposed thermodynamic approach allows an effective search for solutions for the efficiency improvement of various systems with energy transfer and transformation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0560.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: waste heat recovery technologies; specific energy consumption (SEC),; fish meal production; , energy efficiency practices; environmental sustainability
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:09:45 CEST)
The fishmeal production industry is essential for providing protein for animal feed in the aquaculture sector. However, the industry faces challenges related to energy consumption and environmental sustainability. This study evaluates the energy efficiency and environmental benefits of waste heat recovery (WHR) technologies in a fishmeal production plant in Vietnam. Data were collected from the plant between 2016 and 2022, and a specific energy consumption (SEC) indicator and a comprehensive methodology were utilized. Implementing an economizer as a WHR technology resulted in a 55.5% decrease in SEC compared to the state before installation. The enhanced energy efficiency also translated to reduced energy consumption per output unit. Moreover, the economizer contributed to annual energy savings of 4,537.57 GJ/year and cost savings of $26,474.49. Additionally, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions associated with producing one ton of fishmeal decreased by 58.37%. These findings highlight the potential for WHR technologies to improve energy efficiency and reduce the environmental footprint of fishmeal production. The study's results provide valuable insights for practitioners and policymakers in promoting energy efficiency practices and reducing environmental impact in the industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0200.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: organization; material-energy flows; economics & environment; cost accounting; quantity node; standardization
Online: 4 July 2023 (11:37:06 CEST)
Criticism has been directed towards the traditional methods of management accounting employed by organizations thus far, as they fail to adequately address the growing need for competitiveness and sustainable development in a globalized environment. This criticism stems from both economic factors, such as insufficient monitoring of material, energy, and escalating overhead costs, and environmental concerns, where inadequate attention is given to vital information regarding significant environmental aspects, impacts, risks, and damages arising from the organization's activities and processes. Additionally, these methods do not sufficiently support the implementation of a functional environmental management system (EMS). Drawing upon our research in EMS standardization following the international standards ISO 1400X, as well as our knowledge gained during the development of the Slovak Technical Standard (STN) for ISO 14051, this paper presents an innovative model of environmental management accounting. This model is based on the cost accounting of material and energy flows within organizations. It serves as an enhancement framework for organizations with an existing EMS built according to the EN ISO 14001 model, as well as for organizations lacking a formalized EMS based on this standard. Within this paper, we specify, decompose, and apply the new model, focusing on the cost accounting of material-energy flows in a hypothetical organization. We meticulously examine the ten key steps of the model's structure, particularly in terms of costing and the allocation of costs to material, energy, system, and waste management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: creativity; consciousness; energy-efficiency; Kahneman System 1 and 2; counterfactual worlds
Online: 9 February 2020 (17:02:28 CET)
It is proposed that both human creativity and human consciousness are (unintended) consequences of the human brain’s extraordinary energy efficiency. The topics of creativity and consciousness are treated separately, though have a common sub-structure. It is argued that creativity arises from a synergy between two cognitive modes of the human brain (which broadly coincide with Kahneman’s Systems 1 and 2). In the first, available energy is spread across a relatively large network of neurons. As such, the amount of energy per active neuron is so small that the operation of such neurons is susceptible to thermal (ultimately quantum decoherent) noise. In the second, available energy is focussed on a small enough subset of neurons to guarantee a deterministic operation. An illustration of how this synergy can lead to creativity with implications for computing in silicon are discussed. Starting with a discussion of the concept of free will, the notion of consciousness is defined in terms of an awareness of what are perceived to be nearby counterfactual worlds in state space. It is argued that such awareness arises from an interplay between our memories on the one hand, and quantum physical mechanisms (where, unlike in classical physics, nearby counterfactual worlds play an indispensable dynamical role) in the ion channels of neural networks. As with the brain’s susceptibility to noise, it is argued that in situations where quantum physics plays a role in the brain, it does so for reasons of energy efficiency. As an illustration of this definition of consciousness, a novel proposal is outlined as to why quantum entanglement appears so counter-intuitive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0055.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Thermal simulation; Statistics; Heating System; Energy Saving; DOE; House
Online: 3 July 2023 (13:01:19 CEST)
The study of energy sources has been an awareness of the modern world due to constraints on the current energy worldwide supply chain. The complexity of the theme as well as the consciousness of finite sources also the need of saving energy has become a priority. Although many papers have moved in this direction there is no record of papers studying the variables in a house heating system, which represents the highest energy consumption in many cold countries. This paper explores the energy-saving theme by studying the main variables present in houses’ heating systems in the winter season in cold countries like Canada, Russia, Norway, Iceland, Finland, etc. By using a novel combination of numerical thermal simulation by COMSOLTM and statistical analysis by MiniTabTM , it was possible to design an efficient thermal distribution in a house with the variables of the system by determining their significance and interaction qualitatively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0756.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: STEM Education; Energy Efficiency; CO₂ Emissions; APEC databases; Cross-Border classes; Sustainable Development
Online: 30 December 2020 (14:37:12 CET)
Early education is critical for improving energy efficiency. The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility of Interactive Cross-Border Classes to increase awareness of energy efficiency among middle school students. We designed and tested an Interactive Cross-Border class between Chilean and Peruvian 8th-grade classes. The classes were synchronously connected and all students answered open-ended questions on an online platform. Some of the questions were designed to check conceptual understanding while others asked for suggestions of how to develop their economies while keeping CO₂ air concentration at acceptable levels. In real-time, the teacher reviewed the students’ written answers and the concept maps that were automatically generated based on their responses. Students peer-reviewed their classmates’ suggestions. This is part of an Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) STEM Education project on Energy Efficiency using APEC databases. We found high levels of student engagement, where students discussed not only the cross-cutting nature of energy, but also its relation to socioeconomic development and CO₂ emissions, and the need to work together to improve energy efficiency. In conclusion, Interactive Cross-Border classes are a feasible educational alternative, with potential as a scalable public policy strategy for improving awareness of energy efficiency among the population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1520.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: solar energy; High Vacuum Flat Plate Collectors; HVFP; Thermal efficiency model; Solar collector performance evaluation
Online: 24 October 2023 (13:05:02 CEST)
High Vacuum Flat Plate Collectors (HVFPCs) are the only type of Flat Plate Thermal Collectors capable of producing thermal energy for middle-temperature applications (until 180 °C). As the trend of research plans to develop new Selective Solar Absorbers to extend the range of HVFPC application until 250 °C, it is necessary to correctly evaluate the collector efficiency up to such temperature to predict the energy production accurately. We propose an efficiency model for these collectors based on the selective absorber optical properties. The proposed efficiency model explicitly includes the radiative heat exchange with the ambient, which is the main source of thermal losses for evacuated collectors at high temperatures. It also decouples the radiative losses that depend on the optical properties of the absorber adopted from the other thermal losses due to HVFPC architecture. The model has been validated by applying it to MT-Power HVFPC manufactured by TVP-Solar, and it has been used to predict the efficiency and energy production of HVFPC equipped with new, optimized selective solar absorbers developed in recent years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0330.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT); laminated glass; hybrid facade element; thermal performance; energy efficiency; numerical modelling
Online: 23 March 2020 (03:41:03 CET)
Facade elements are known to represent a building component with multiple performance parameters to satisfy. Among others, “advanced facades” take advantage of hybrid solutions, like the assemblage of laminated materials. In addition to enhanced mechanical properties that are typical of optimally composed hybrid structural components, these systems are energy-efficient, durable, and offer lightening comfort and optimal thermal performance. This is the case of the structural solution developed in joint research efforts of the University of Zagreb and the University of Ljubljana, within the Croatian Science Foundation VETROLIGNUM project. The design concept involves the mechanical interaction of timber and glass load-bearing members, without sealing or bonded glass-to-timber surfaces. Laminated glass infilled timber frames are recognized as a new generation of structural members with relevant load-carrying capacity (and especially the enhancement of earthquake resistance of framed systems), but also energy-efficient and cost-effective solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0194.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Solid state transformer; Direct current; Renewable Energy Systems; Ant Lion Optimizer
Online: 14 June 2023 (04:24:41 CEST)
The battle of currents between AC and DC reignited as a result of the development in the field of power electronics. The efficiency of DC distribution systems is highly dependent on the efficiency of distribution converter, which calls for optimized schemes for efficiency enhancement of distribution converters. Modular solid-state transformers play a vital role in DC Distribution Networks and Renewable Energy systems (RES).This paper deals with efficiency-based load distribution for Solid State Transformers (SSTs) in DC distribution networks. Aim is to achieve a set of minimum inputs that are consistent with output while considering constraints and efficiency. As the main feature of modularity is associated with a three-stage structure of SSTs. This modular structure has been optimized using Ant Lion Optimizer (ALO) and validated by applying it EIA (Energy Information Agency) DC Distribution Network which contains SSTs. In the DC distribution grid, modular SSTs provide promising conversion of DC power from medium voltage to lower DC range (400V). The proposed algorithm is simulated in MATLAB and also compared with two other metaheuristic algorithms. The obtained results prove that the proposed method can significantly reduce input requirements for producing the same output while satisfying the specified constraints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2006.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy; combined heat and power engines; anaerobic digestion; digestate valorization; local waste treatment
Online: 28 July 2023 (11:36:02 CEST)
The decentralized treatment of wastes is studied for an urban scenario considering a high-density population of 2500 inhab./km2. Food and garden waste were assumed to be treated in a co-digestion configuration using several mid-size digesters. In contrast biogas and digestate valorization were carried out in a centralized manner. Electricity and thermal energy were produced from this configuration, accounting for 1.3% of residential electricity demand and 3.2% of thermal demand when using double-turbocharged engines. However, the location of the treatment plants is a factor that may raise social discomfort. Rejection of locating the plant in specific sites close to residential neighbors, nuisance due to possible odor and gaseous emissions, and house market distortions are just a few of a long list of problematic aspects that may threaten the decentralized alternative. These factors are of great relevance and must be given a practical solution if the circular economic model is to be implemented by considering the insertion of waste streams into the production system and generating local energy sources and raw materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0068.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: malmquist productivity index; total factor energy efficiency; stochastic input distance function; China’s industry
Online: 13 April 2017 (04:35:55 CEST)
Based on stochastic frontier analysis and translog input distance function, this paper examines the total factor energy efficiency of China’s industry using input-output data of 30 sub-industries from 2002 to 2014, and decomposes the changes in estimated total factor energy efficiency into the effects of technical change, technical efficiency change, scale efficiency change and input-mix effect. The results show that during this period the total factor energy efficiency in China’s industry grows annually at a rate of 3.63%, technical change, technical efficiency change and input-mix effect contribute positively to the change in total factor energy efficiency, while scale efficiency change contributes negatively to it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0136.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: carbon dioxide, energy efficiency, occupancy detection, indoor air quality, measurement, data analysis.
Online: 9 July 2019 (14:37:10 CEST)
The problem of real-time estimation of occupancy of buildings (number of people in various zones at every time instant) is relevant to a number of emerging applications that achieve high energy efficiency through feedback control. The measurement of CO2 concentration can be considered an important indicator that allows to define the occupation of closed and crowded spaces. Interesting cases can be school buildings and other buildings used in civil and residential (shopping centres, hospitals, etc.). This paper, starting from an experimental analysis in different classrooms of a University campus in real operating conditions, in different period of the year, proposes a possible correlation between CO2 concentration and the occupancy profile of the spaces. The acquired data are used to present some graphical correlations and to understand the most important variables or combination of them. Starting from an accurate analysis of the data, attempts are made to define a preliminary estimation method through the development of a mathematical models of occupancy dynamics in a building, which show interesting results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0181.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: renewable energy; neural networks (NNs); adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS); least square support vector machine (LSSVM); photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T); hybrid machine learning model
Online: 14 February 2020 (02:53:47 CET)
Solar energy is a renewable resource of energy that is broadly utilized and has the least emissions among the renewable energies. In this study, machine learning methods of artificial neural networks (ANNs), least squares support vector machines (LSSVM), and neuro-fuzzy are used for advancing prediction models for thermal performance of a photovoltaic-thermal solar collector (PV/T). In the proposed models, the inlet temperature, flow rate, heat, solar radiation, and the sun heat have been considered as the inputs variables. Data set has been extracted through experimental measurements from a novel solar collector system. Different analyses are performed to examine the credibility of the introduced approaches and evaluate their performance. The proposed LSSVM model outperformed ANFIS and ANNs models. LSSVM model is reported suitable when the laboratory measurements are costly and time-consuming, or achieving such values requires sophisticated interpretations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0455.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy modeling; biomass transformation efficiency; global change assessment model; integrated assessment model; cooking fuel
Online: 31 January 2022 (12:45:00 CET)
The building sector of most tropical countries still use predominantly primary biomass as the principal fuel. This has adverse effects like CO2 emission and deforestation and is associated with issues like poverty, ill-health, and low standard of living. Therefore, energy policies try to improve on the efficiency of firewood and charcoal end-use technologies, to palliate the negative effects. In this research, the global change assessment model (GCAM) is used, to investigate the impact of efficiency improvement on the energy consumption pattern of the building sector of developing countries. The aim of the study is to provide empirical data that would better inform policymakers on the effects of modernizing these primary fuels. The study developed three scenarios with different levels of efficiency improvements. The results show that efficiency improvement rather increases primary biomass consumption and CO2 emission. However, there is a fall in the consumption of traditional biomass in the second half of the modelling period. The increase in biomass-based fuels consumption was seen to be linked to their affordability. Therefore, policymakers need not only elaborate policies that improve biomass efficiency, but also introduce and motivate other clean cooking fuels like butane, biogas, and electricity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0230.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: overall energy efficiency score; energetic intensity; non-extensive cross-entropy econometrics; stochastic inverse problems; regional innovation
Online: 4 October 2023 (10:22:50 CEST)
This paper proposes a non-extensive entropy econometric technique to predict energy efficiency at province (NUT-2) level based on imperfect knowledge of the national overall efficiency in the sectors of industry, transport, households and services. The model is applied to the polish case. As acknowledged in recent literature, non-extensive entropy model should remain a valuable device for econometric modelling even in the case of low frequency series since outputs provided by the Gibbs-Shannon entropy approach correspond to the Tsallis entropy limiting case of the Gaussian law when the Tsallis q-parameter converges to unity. Therefore, we set up a q-Tsallis-Kullback-Leibler entropy criterion function with a priori consistency moment and model data constraints, including province energy intensity (known with uncertainty), regional climate differentiation and regular conditions. The model outputs continue to conform to empirical expectations. In spite of the close to unity q-Tsallis parameter, this Tsallis related approach reflects higher stability for parameter computation in comparison with the Shannon-Gibbs entropy econometrics technique. The proposed technique can be applied in different EU countries and elsewhere for example in the context of experimental official statistics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0214.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: data center; green data center; sustainability; energy efficiency; energy saving; ICT.
Online: 14 April 2021 (12:59:53 CEST)
Information and communication technologies (ICT) are increasingly permeating our daily life and we ever more commit our data to the cloud. Events like the COVID-19 pandemic put an exceptional burden upon ICT infrastructures. This involves increasing implementation and use of data centers, which increased energy use and environmental impact. The scope of this work is to take stock on data center impact, opportunities, and assessment. First, we estimate impact entity. Then, we review strategies for efficiency and energy conservation in data centers. Energy use pertain to power distribution, IT-equipment, and non-IT equipment (e.g. cooling): Existing and prospected strategies and initiatives in these sectors are identified. Among key elements are innovative cooling techniques, natural resources, automation, low-power electronics, and equipment with extended thermal limits. Research perspectives are identified and estimates of improvement opportunities are presented. Finally, we present an overview on existing metrics, regulatory framework, and bodies concerned.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1904.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: energy efficiency; managing power supply systems; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC); reliability; frequency converters; higher harmonics; interharmonics; resonance phenomena
Online: 28 September 2023 (04:07:31 CEST)
The paper proposes an innovative solution for managing and ensuring high energy efficiency of power supply systems at high non-linear loads. This is realized by maintaining optimal value of reliability indicators and high quality of power supply. The validation is carried out using analyzes and tests of quality of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) for increased number of powered frequency converters. It has been proven that the effective use and reduction of energy consumption can be achieved thanks to the unique technological features of the employed electrical devices. This enables a normal operation of the system with decreased power and adequate control of energy processes. The problem of predicting power losses under changing conditions in a decentralized electrical network has been solved based on the theory of electromagnetic compatibility. The influence of the mains mode parameters and the indices of instantaneous distortion of current and voltage waveforms caused by the operation of converters on the resonance phenomena in power supply systems were investigated. Recommendations were developed for the selection of proper parameters of compensators for 6-10 kV and 0.4-0.66 kV circuits based on the analysis of the optimization problem when minimizing active power losses. Results of our findings may aid parties involved in designing and maintaining power networks in various applications, such as mines, etc.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Energy Efficiency; Emissions; Tribology; Lubrication; Battery Electric Vehicles; Hybrid Electric Vehicles; Life Cycle Analysis; Thermal Cooling Fluids
Online: 17 June 2021 (10:46:41 CEST)
The motivations for the move to electrified vehicles are discussed with reference to their improved energy efficiency, their potential for lower CO2 emissions (if the electricity system is decarbonized), their lower (or zero) NOx/particulate matter (PM) tailpipe emissions, and the lower overall costs for owners. Some of the assumptions made in life-cycle CO2 emissions calculations are discussed and the effect of these assumptions on the CO2 benefits of electric vehicles are made clear. A number of new tribological challenges have emerged, particularly for hybrid vehicles that have both a conventional internal combustion engine and a battery, such as the need to protect against the much greater number of stop-starts that the engine will have during its lifetime. In addition, new lubricants are required for electric vehicle transmissions systems. Although full battery electric vehicles (BEVs) will not require engine oils (as there is no engine) they will require a system to cool the batteries – alternative cooling systems are discussed, and where these are fluid based, the specific fluid requirements are outlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0353.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: big data; big data system; energy; district heating; reinforcement learning
Online: 24 May 2018 (16:05:27 CEST)
This paper presents a study on the thermal efficiency improvement of the user equipment room in the district heating system based on reinforcement learning , and suggests a general method of constructing a learning network(DQN) using deep Q learning, which is a reinforcement learning algorithm that does not specify a model. In addition, we introduce the big data platform system and the integrated heat management system for the energy field in the massive data processing from the IoT sensor installed in large number of thermal energy control facilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0591.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Lead-free ceramic capacitors; Dielectric; Relaxor ferroelectric; Domain engineering; Energy storage
Online: 8 June 2023 (04:52:57 CEST)
In this work, we report the electric energy storage properties of (1-x)Bi0.5(Na0.8K0.2)0.5TiO3-xBi0.2Sr0.7TiO3 (BNKT-BST; x = 0.15-0.50) relaxor ferroelectric ceramics enhanced via a domain engineering method. A rhombohedral–tetragonal phase, the formation of highly dynamic PNRs, and a dense microstructure are confirmed from XRD, Raman vibrational spectra, and microscopic investigations. The relative dielectric permittivity (2664 at 1 kHz) and loss factor (0.058) were gradually improved with BST (x=0.45). The incorporation of BST into BNKT can disturb the long-range ferroelectric order, lowering the dielectric maximum temperature Tm and inducing the formation of highly dynamic polar nano-regions. In addition, the Tm shifts toward high temperature with frequency and a diffuse phase transition, indicating relaxor ferroelectric characteristics of BNKT-BST ceramics, which is confirmed by the modified Curie Weiss law (γ=1.83). The rhombohedral–tetragonal phase, fine grain size, and lowered Tm with relaxor properties synergistically contribute to a high recoverable energy density Wrec of 0.81 J/cm3 and a high energy efficiency η of 86.95% at 90 kV/cm for x = 0.45.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0649.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Binary switches; benchmarking; energy-delay product; reliability
Online: 26 May 2021 (15:14:15 CEST)
Binary switches, which are the primitive units of all digital computing and information processing hardware, are usually benchmarked on the basis of their ‘energy-delay product’ which is the product of the energy dissipated in completing the switching action and the time it takes to complete that action. The lower the energy-delay product, the better the switch (supposedly). This approach ignores the fact that lower energy dissipation and faster switching usually come at the cost of poorer reliability (i. e. higher switching error rate) and hence the energy-delay product alone cannot be a good metric for benchmarking switches. Here, we show the trade-off between energy dissipation, energy-delay product and error-probability, for both an electronic switch (a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) and a magnetic switch (a magnetic tunnel junction switched with spin transfer torque). As expected, reducing energy dissipation and/or energy-delay-product generally results in increased switching error probability and reduced reliability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0547.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: wireless sensor network; compressive sensing; short word-length; sensor tracking; delta modulation; sigma-delta modulation; communication energy efficiency.
Online: 30 August 2021 (14:24:44 CEST)
This work combines compressive sensing and short word-length techniques to achieve localization and target tracking in wireless sensor networks with energy-efficient communication between the network anchors and the fusion center. Gradient descent localization is performed using time-of-arrival (TOA) data which are indicative of the distance between anchors and the target thereby achieving range-based localization. The short word-length techniques considered are delta modulation and sigma-delta modulation. The energy efficiency is due to the reduction of the data volume transmitted from anchors to the fusion center by employing any of the two delta modulation variants with compressive sensing techniques. Delta modulation allows the transmission of one bit per TOA sample. The communication energy efficiency is increased by RⱮ, R≥1, where R is the sample reduction ratio of compressive sensing and Ɱ is the number of bits originally present in a TOA-sample word. It is found that the localization system involving sigma-delta modulation has a superior performance to that using delta-modulation or pure compressive sampling alone, in terms of both energy efficiency and localization error in the presence of TOA measurement noise, owing to the noise shaping property of sigma-delta modulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0477.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT); laminated glass; hybrid façade element; thermal performance; energy efficiency; numerical modelling
Online: 27 April 2020 (03:59:57 CEST)
Façade elements are a building component that satisfies multiple performance parameters. Among other things, “advanced façades” take advantage of hybrid solutions, such as assembling laminated materials. In addition to the enhanced mechanical properties that are typical of optimally composed hybrid structural components, these systems are energy-efficient, durable, and offer lighting comfort and optimal thermal performance, an example of which is the structural solution developed in collaboration with the University of Zagreb and the University of Ljubljana within the Croatian Science Foundation VETROLIGNUM project. The design concept involves the mechanical interaction of timber and glass load-bearing members without sealing or bonding the glass-to-timber surfaces. Following earlier research efforts devoted to the structural analysis and optimization of thus-assembled hybrid Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT)-glass façade elements, in this paper, special focus is given to a thermal and energy performance investigation under ordinary operational conditions. A simplified numerical model representative of a full-size building is first presented by taking advantage of continuous ambient records from a Live-Lab mock-up facility in Zagreb. Afterwards, a more detailed Finite Element (FE) numerical analysis is carried out at the component level to further explore the potential of CLT–glass façade elements. The collected numerical results show that CLT–glass composite panels can offer stable and promising thermal performance for façades similar to national and European standard requirements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0049.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: HVAC; air handling unit; energy efficiency; exergy efficiency; produced entropy; variable reference temperature; coenthalpy
Online: 5 February 2019 (10:08:03 CET)
The continuous energy transformation processes in heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems of buildings are responsible for 36% of global final energy consumption. Tighter thermal insulation requirements for buildings have significantly reduced heat transfer losses. Unfortunately, this has little effect on energy demand for ventilation. On the basis of the First and the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the concepts of entropy and exergy are applied to the analysis of ventilation air handling unit (AHU) with a heat pump in this paper. This study aims to develop a consistent approach for this purpose, taking into account the variations of reference temperature and temperatures of working fluids. An analytical investigation on entropy generation and exergy analysis are used, when exergy is determined by calculating coenthalpies and evaluating exergy flows and their directions. The results show that each component of the AHU has its individual character of generated entropy, destroyed exergy and exergy efficiency variation. However, the evaporator of heat pump and fans have unabated quantities of exergy destruction. The exergy efficiency of AHU decreases from 45-55% to 12-15% when outdoor air temperature is within the range of –30°C…+10°C, respectively. This helps to determine conditions and components of improving the exergy efficiency of the AHU at variable real-world local climate conditions. The presented methodological approach could be used in the dynamic modelling software and contribute to a wider application of the Second Law of Thermodynamics in practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1489.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: CO2 concentration; living walls; fresh air energy consumption; Energyplus; indoor air quality
Online: 21 June 2023 (07:13:19 CEST)
Elevated indoor CO2 levels might have adverse effects on human health. However, the introduction of outdoor air to lower indoor CO2 concentrations results in significant HVAC energy consumption. Aligning with office hours and the natural light cycle, the utilization of photosynthesis in living walls offers an energy-efficient and sustainable solution for the mitigation of high CO2 levels in office spaces. This study experimentally investigates the impacts of the carbon fixation pathways, light intensity, and substrate moisture content on the CO2 removal rate of living walls at the room scale. Furthermore, the fresh air energy-saving effects of living walls under different scenarios are accurately simulated in EnergyPlus. The results demonstrate that choosing C3 plants over CAM plants in living walls yields higher CO2 removal efficiency. In a 30-m2 office room accommodating 2-3 occupants, living walls can reduce the demand for fresh air by 12.3%-27.8% and decrease fresh air energy consumption by 11.2%-28.2%. The city with the highest energy savings has energy savings that are 4.5 times greater than those of the city with the lowest energy savings. The findings of this research promote the application and development of living walls, thus providing a viable solution for improving indoor air quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0141.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: heat pump; dynamic test method; seasonal performance factor; variable frequency drive; field approximation; energy label; air source heat pump; ground source heat pump
Online: 15 March 2019 (04:40:11 CET)
The growing market penetration of heat pumps indicates the need for a performance test method which better reflects the dynamic behavior of heat pumps. In this contribution, we developed and implemented a dynamic test method for the evaluation of the seasonal performance of heat pumps by means of laboratory testing. Current standards force the heat pump control inactive by fixing the compressor speed. In contrast, during dynamic testing, the compressor runs unfixed while the heat pump is subjected to a temperature profile. The profile consists of the different outdoor temperatures of a typical heating season based on the average European climate and also includes temperature changes to reflect the dynamic behavior of the heat pump. The seasonal performance can be directly obtained from the measured heating energy and electricity consumption making subsequent data interpolation and recalculation with correction factors obsolete. The method delivers results with high precision and high reproducibility and could be an appropriate method for a fair rating of heat pumps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0155.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: environmental efficiency; energy; economic; PV installation; modernization; economic analysis; ecological effect,
Online: 3 November 2020 (14:13:39 CET)
The paper addresses an analysis of the efficiency and profitability of the operation of a photovoltaic installation located in the geometric centre of Europe (near Białystok, Poland), where the intensity of solar irradiation is not too high compared to other European countries. It is calculated that in that place average solar irradiation being lower even by approx. 26 kWh than that for the whole Europe, which results in a 26% drop in the economic potential of the utilisation of solar energy for its conversion. A case study and an economic analysis show that without minimum funding amounting to 50% of the investment costs paid for the modernisation of a central heating system assisted by PV cells, the time of return of pecuniary expenditures exceeds 7 years. Apart from the Simple Pay-Back Time SPBT, discount indicators determined in the paper also include the net present value NPV and the internal rate of return IRR. Moreover, a direct ecological effect has been determined for such an investment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0344.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: conversion efficiency; energy harvesting or generation; hot water treatment; nanorods; solar cells; surface etching; surface morphology
Online: 21 May 2020 (10:08:55 CEST)
Zinc-oxide (ZnO) nanostructures including nanorods are currently considered as a pioneer research of interest world-wide due to their excellent application potentials in various applied fields especially for the improvement of energy harvesting photovoltaic solar cells (PSC). We report on the growth and morphological properties of zinc-oxide (ZnO) nanorods grown on the surface of plain zinc (non-etched and chemically etched) plates by using a simple, economical, and environment-friendly technique. We apply hot water treatment (HWT) technique to grow the ZnO nanorods and varies the process parameters, such as temperature and the process time duration. The morphological, and elemental analysis confirm the agglomeration of multiple ZnO nanorods with its proper stoichiometry. The obtained nanostructures for different temperatures with different time duration showed the variation in uniformity, density, thickness and nanonorods size. The ZnO nanorods produced on the etched zinc surface were found thicker and uniform as compared to those grown on the non-etched zinc surface. This chemically etched Zinc plates preparation can be an easy solution to grow ZnO nanorods with high density and uniformity suitable for PSC applications such as to enhance the energy conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic (PV) solar cells towards the future sustainable green earth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0140.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: detection efficiency; effective detection range; abundance; tidal energy; MHK turbine; fish-turbine encounter
Online: 3 May 2023 (10:56:44 CEST)
Semidiurnal tidal currents can exceed 5 ms−1 in Minas Passage, Bay of Fundy, where a tidal energy demonstration area has been designated to generate electricity using marine hydrokinetic turbines. The risk of harmful fish-turbine interaction cannot be dismissed for either migratory or local fish populations. Individuals belonging to several fish populations have been acoustically-tagged and monitored by using acoustic receivers moored within Minas Passage. Detection efficiency ρ is required as the first step to estimate probability of fish-turbine encounter. Moored Innovasea HR2 receivers and high residency (HR) tags were used to obtain detection efficiency ρ as a function of range and current speed, for near-seafloor signal paths within the tidal energy development area. Strong tidal currents moved moorings so HR tag signals, and their reflections from the sea surface, were used to measure ranges from tags to receivers. HR2 self-signals that reflected off the sea surface showed which moorings were displaced to lower and higher levels on the seafloor. Some of the range testing paths had anomalously low ρ which might be attributed to variable bathymetry blocking the line of sight signal path. Clear and blocked signal paths accord with mooring levels. Application of ρ is demonstrated for calculation of abundance, effective detection range, and detection-positive intervals. High residency signals were better detected than pulse position modulation (PPM) signals. Providing the presently obtained ρ applies to tagged fish that swim higher in the water column, there is a reasonable prospect that probability of fish-turbine encounter can be estimated by monitoring fish that carry HR tags.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0033.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computational Mathematics Keywords: PV/T collector; electrical efficiency; renewable energy; intelligent models; optimization; machine learning; multilayer perceptron (MLP), artificial neural network (ANN); adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS); least squares support vector machine (LSSVM); photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T)
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:10:59 CEST)
Solar energy is a renewable resources of energy which is broadly utilized and have the least pollution impact between the available alternatives of fossil fuels. In this investigation, machine leaening approaches of neural networks (NN), neuro-fuzzy and least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) are used to build the models for prediction of the thermal performance of a photovoltaic-thermal solar collector (PV/T) by estimating its efficiency as an output of the model while inlet temperature, flow rate, heat, solar radiation, and heat of sun are input of the designed model. Experimental measurements was prepared by designing a solar collector system and 100 data extracted. Different analyses are also performed to examine the credibility of the introduced approaches revealing great performance. The suggested LSSVM model represented the best performance regarding the mean squared error (MSE) of 0.003 and correlation coefficient (R2) value of 0.99, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1457.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Efficiency analysis; biogas-powered cooling system; energy and exergy analysis; small-scale plant; absorption cooling system; triple-effect; ECOP; animal species; methane content
Online: 22 May 2023 (03:43:46 CEST)
This study investigates the efficiency of a biogas-powered cooling system through the utilization of energy and exergy calculations. Biogas, which can be generated and stored in small-scale plants as needed, serves as a viable fuel source for absorption cooling systems. The present research focuses on the biogas consumption of a triple-effect absorption cooling system, specifically designed to supply a fixed cooling load of 100 kW under varying operational conditions. The study highlights the COP (Coefficient of Performance) and ECOP (Exergetic Coefficient of Performance) values of the system, along with the exergy destruction rates of its individual components, at the optimal temperatures of operation. Furthermore, to determine the necessary biogas consumption, the study explores the establishment of dedicated farms for various animal species, ensuring an adequate number of animals for biogas production. The findings reveal a COP of 1.78 and an ECOP of 35.4% at the optimized operating temperatures. The minimum mass flow rate of biogas is determined to be 0.0034 kg/s, facilitating the operation of the boiler with a methane content of 65%. The study concludes that a total of 290 head of cattle is required to generate the annual biogas consumption necessary for the cooling system. Also, number of the cattle is enough to establish 284 biogas plants in Bursa province in Türkiye.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0223.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: carbon emissions; energy consumption; technology efficiency; Gini index; generalised entropy index; fossil fuels; non-fossil fuels; petroleum; coal; natural gas
Online: 16 February 2020 (15:20:21 CET)
Primary energy consumption is one of the key drivers of global CO2 emissions that, in turn, heavily depend on the efficiency of involved technologies. Either the improvement in technology efficiency or the expansion of non-fossil fuel consumption require large investments. The planning and financing of such investments, by policy makers or global energy firms, require, in turn, reliable measures of associated global spreads and their evolution in time. In this paper, our main contribution is the introduction of index measures for accessing global spreads (that is, measures of inequality or inhomogeneity in the statistical distribution of a related quantity of interest) of technology efficiency and CO2 emission in primary energy consumption. These indexes are based on the Gini index, as used in economical sciences, and generalised entropy measures. Regarding primary energy sources, we consider petroleum, coal, natural gas and non-fossil fuels. Between our findings, we attest some stable relations in the evolution of global spreads of technology efficiency and CO2 emission, and a positive relation between changes in global spreads of technology efficiency and use of non-fossil fuel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Ceramic capacitors; Donor-acceptor complex; Defect dipole engineering; Dielectric and ferroelectric properties; Energy storage density and efficiency
Online: 15 September 2023 (07:10:40 CEST)
In this paper, we investigate the structural, microstructural, dielectric, and energy storage properties of Nd and Mn co-doped Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 [(Ba0.7Sr0.3)1-xNdxTi1-yMnyO3 (BSNTM) ceramics (x = 0, 0.005, and y = 0, 0.0025, 0.005, and 0.01)] via a defect dipole engineering method. The complex defect dipoles (MnTi"-VO∙∙)∙ and (MnTi"-VO∙∙) between acceptor ions and oxygen vacancies capture electrons, enhancing the breakdown electric field and energy storage performances. XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and microscopic investigations of BSNTM ceramics revealed the formation of a tetragonal phase, increased oxygen vacancies, and reduced grain size with Mn dopant, respectively. The BSNTM ceramics with x=0.005 and y=0 exhibit a high dielectric constant of 2058 and a dielectric loss of 0.026 at 1 kHz. These values gradually decreased to 1876 and 0.019 for x=0.005 and y=0.01 due to the Mn2+ ions at Ti4+-site, which facilitates the formation of oxygen vacancies, and prevents the decrease of Ti4+. In addition, the defect dipoles act as a driving force for depolarization to tailor the domain formation energy and domain wall energy, which provides a high difference between the maximum polarization of Pmax and remnant polarization of Pr (ΔP=10.39 µC/cm2). Moreover, the complex defect dipoles with optimum oxygen vacancies in BSNTM ceramics can provide not only a high ΔP but also reduce grain size, which together improve the breakdown strength from 60.4 to 110.6 kV/cm, giving rise to a high energy storage density of 0.41 J/cm3 and high efficiency of 84.6% for x=0.005 and y=0.01. These findings demonstrate that defect dipoles engineering is an effective method to enhance the energy storage performance of dielectrics for capacitor applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0319.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Energy efficiency; single-phase active energy; kWh; electricity saving; Fan Affinity Law
Online: 19 December 2022 (04:02:27 CET)
This paper proposes how to reduce the consumption of active electrical energy (kwh) by 90.3% while maintaining the same mechanical work speed (RPM) at variable torque loads (fans or air-fluid blowers, centrifugal pumps are not included). of water and similar fluids), by using the “Fan Law” in an innovative way in PMSM-type synchronous motors (a comparative study never before carried out on the Fan Law). The work is carried out comparatively between brushless a-synchronous motors with starting loop (or motor with a short-circuited loop) versus brushed a-synchronous motors and PMSM-type synchronous motors without the need to use VDF (variable frequency drives), simplifying technology (electronics) and saving costs in an innovative way (R+D+i). The case study was developed on a design applied to a centrifugal air extractor/blower with PMSM/IPM type synchronous motor. Applying one of the fan affinity laws –with the impeller diameter 10.5 (mm) constant- the electrical power absorbed by the blower motor is proportional to the cube of the shaft speed: . Being “P” power (Watts) and “N” speed (RPM). Carrying out a comparative study between power (watts), active energy consumption (kwh) and rotational speed (RPM). This has a direct impact on the costs of residential and commercial single-phase active electrical energy consumption, measured in kilowatt-hours (kwh). Carrying out a comparative study between three (3) types of alternating current (AC) electrical machines, according to the NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association); AC motors fall into three (3) categories. One (1), synchronous motors (Syncrhonous Motor) of three types: (1a) excitation by DC (DC Excited Motor), (1b) permanent magnet (Permanent Magnet Motor) and (1c) reluctance motor (Reluctance Motor) or motor Step by Step. Two (2), asynchronous induction motors of two types: (2a) Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor and (2b) Wound-Rotor Induction Motor. Three (3) series-wound motor (Series-Wound Motor) also called universal motor (they have carbons).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0433.v2
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: pile-rock breakwater; wave transmission; wave reflection; energy dissipation; physical model; East Sea of Mekong Delta
Online: 8 November 2022 (06:44:38 CET)
The coastline in the Ca Mau and the Kien Giang provinces of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta has been severely eroded in recent decades. Pile-Rock Breakwaters (PRBW) are one of the most widely adopted structures for controlling shoreline erosion in this region. These structures are effective for wave energy dissipation, stimulating sediment accumulation, and facilitating the restoration of mangrove forests. These breakwaters are generally considered to be best-engineering practice however there is currently insufficient scientific evidence with regard to specific structural design aspects. This can lead to PRBW structures being compromised when deployed in the field. This study uses a physical model of a PRBW in a laboratory to investigate several design parameters, including crest width and working states (i.e. submerged, transition, and emerged), and investigates their relationship with the wave transmission coefficient, wave reflection coefficient, and wave energy dissipation. To investigate these relationships further, empirical formulas were derived for PRBWs under different sea states and crest widths to aid the design process. The results showed that PRBW width had a significant influence on the wave energy coefficients. The findings revealed that the crest width of the breakwater is inversely proportional to the wave transmission coefficient (Kt) under the emerged state. The crest width is also proportional to the wave reduction efficiency and wave energy dissipation in both working states (i.e., submerged and emerged states). The front wave disturbance coefficient (Kf) was found to be proportional to the wave reflection coefficient, and the wave height in front of the structure was found to increase by up to 1.4 times in the emerged state. The wave reflection coefficient requires special consideration to reduce the toe erosion in the structure. Lastly, empirical equations including linear and non-linear formulas were compared with previous studies for different classes of breakwaters. These empirical equations will be useful for understanding the wave transmission efficiency of PRBWs. The findings of this study provide important guidance for PRBW design in the coastal area of the Mekong Delta.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0310.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Internet of Health Things; edge computing; fog and cloud computing; mist computing; energy efficiency; fuzzy logic; computing capacity; load balancing
Online: 4 August 2023 (09:37:36 CEST)
In the realm of the Internet of Things (IoT), a network of sensors and actuators collaborates to fulfill specific tasks. As the demand for IoT networks continues to rise, it becomes crucial to ensure the stability of this technology and adapt it for further expansion. Through an analysis of related works including Feedback-based Optimized Fuzzy Scheduling Approach (FOFSA) algorithm, Adaptive Task Allocation Technique (ATAT) and Osmosis Load Balancing algorithm (OLB), we identify their limitations in achieving optimal energy efficiency and fast decision-making. To address these limitations, this research introduces a novel approach to enhance the processing time and energy efficiency of IoT networks. The proposed approach achieves this by efficiently allocating IoT data resources in the Mist layer during the early stages. We apply the approach to our proposed system known as the Mist-based Fuzzy Healthcare System (MFHS) that demonstrates promising potential to overcome the existing challenges and pave the way for efficient Industrial Internet of Healthcare Things (IIoHT) of the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1314.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: RBFOpt model-based optimization; genetic algorithms; multi-objective optimization; Energy Use Intensity optimization; spatial Daylight Autonomy optimization; office building; layout optimization
Online: 18 May 2023 (09:37:53 CEST)
Advancements in Parametric Design, Generative Design, and automation in Building Information Modelling (BIM) have opened new opportunities for architects and engineers working on complex buildings, such as offices. These developments allow designers to enhance their designs, increase project efficiency, improve performance, and reduce project time and costs. To address conflicting objectives that arise during the design process, genetic algorithms with multi-objective optimization (MOO) have been employed in architectural design. The GENIUS project aims to optimize building shape, apertures, and shading systems in the concept and design stages, with a focus on energy and daylight performance. The project integrates BIM and visual programming tools with Artificial Intelligence techniques like Genetic Algorithms and RBFOpt model-based optimization. Optimization algorithms are used to identify the best solutions that meet all design objectives, helping architects optimize their designs and achieve desired outcomes. The workflow was tested on a case study of a large office building, with MOO focused on maximizing daylight performance using Spatial Daylight Autonomy metric and minimizing energy consumption using Energy Use Intensity metric. The project provides architects with a method to improve their designs using Algorithm Aided Design tools, which help identify the best solutions for complex design problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0226.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: energy efficiency; electric drive; electric motor control; frequency converter; Industrial Internet of Things; edge computing; Big Data; Key Performance Indicators; KPI; dashboard
Online: 8 September 2021 (13:15:18 CEST)
The article presents a method of generating Key Performance Indicators related to electric motor energy efficiency on the basis of Big Data gathered and processed in frequency converter. The authors proved that using the proposed solution it is possible to specify the relation between the control mode of an electric drive and the control quality-energy consumption ratio in the start-up phase as well as in the steady operation with various mechanical loads. The tests were carried out on a stand equipped with two electric motors (one driving, the other used to apply the load by adjusting the parameters of the built-in brake). The measurements were made in two load cases, for motor control modes available in industrially applied frequency converters (scalar V/f, vector Voltage Flux Control without encoder, vector Voltage Flux Control with encoder, vector Current Flux Control and Vector Current Flux Control with torque control). During the experiments values of current intensities (active and output), the actual frequency value, IxT utilization factor, relative torque and the current rotational speed were measured and processed. Based on the data the level of the energy efficiency was determined for various control modes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0055.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle; Concentrating Solar Power (CSP); Lead Fast Reactor (LFR), Cogeneration, Complimentary Cycle, Thermal Energy Storage (TES)
Online: 4 October 2021 (12:18:47 CEST)
Solar power innately has issues with weather, grid demand and time of day, which for the case of concentrating solar power (CSP) can be mitigated through use of thermal energy storage. Nuclear reactors, including lead-cooled fast reactors (LFRs), can load follow, but have high fixed and low operating costs which can make this economically unattractive. We investigate potential synergies through coupling CSP and LFR together in a single supercritical CO$_2$ Brayton cycle and/or using the same thermal energy storage. Combining these cycles allows for the LFR to thermally charge the salt storage in the CSP cycle during low demand periods to be dispatched when grid demand increases. The LFR/CSP coupling into one cycle is modeled to find the preferred location of the LFR heat exchanger, CSP heat exchanger, sCO$_2$-to-salt heat exchanger (C2S), turbines, and recuperators within the supercritical CO$_2$ Brayton cycle. Three cycle configurations have been studied: two-cycle configuration, which uses CSP and LFR heat for dedicated turbocompressors, has the highest efficiencies but with less component synergies; a combined cycle with CSP and LFR heat sources in parallel is the simplest with the lowest efficiencies; and a combined cycle with separate high temperature recuperators for both the CSP and LFR is a compromise between efficiency and component synergies. Additionally, four thermal energy storage charging techniques are studied: the turbine positioned before C2S, requiring a high LFR outlet temperature for viability; the turbine after the C2S, reducing turbine inlet temperature and therefore power; the turbine parallel to the C2S producing moderate efficiency; and a dedicated circulator loop. While all configurations have pros and cons, use of a single cycle offers component synergies with limited efficiency penalty. Using a turbine in parallel with the C2S heat exchanger is feasible but results in a low charging efficiency, while a dedicated circulator loop offers flexibility and near perfect heat storage efficiency but increasing cost with additional cycle components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0204.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: fish meal; soy protein concentrate; feed efficiency; tissue growth; protein requirement; energy budget; juvenile crab; Scylla serrata
Online: 14 October 2022 (05:31:13 CEST)
Three isoenergetic diets differing on their fishmeal/ soy protein concentrate (SPC) ratio were assessed on tissue growth and energy budget of juvenile crabs Scylla serrata in postmolt stages (PMolt) and in intermolt stages (IMolt). The average growth rate on dry matter basis, were 2.064 ± 0.324% and 0.492 ± 0.08% initial BW.day-1 during PMolt and IMolt stages respectively. The efficiency in feed conversion (FCE, %), protein retention (PRE, %) and energy retention (ERE, %) were similar for the 3 experimental diets. However, FCE, PRE and ERE in PMolt stages were 4 to 5 times higher than in IMolt stages. Feed intake, energy and protein required for growth in PMolt stages were obviously higher than in IMolt stages. The energy budgets (%total energy intake) were marginally affected by diet but were significantly affected by the molt stage. Maintenance energy was lower in PMolt stages (49.84 ± 4.9%) than in IMolt stages (83.33 ± 2.45%). The excess of maintenance energy in IMolt stages represents the portion set aside for next molt: shell energy content (4.97 ± 0.31%) and energy for ecdysis (± 28%). Conversely, recovery energy was significantly higher in PMolt stages (34.39 ± 0.99%) than in IMolt stages (8.33 ± 1.7%). In conclusion SPC sustained good tissue growth and good feed utilization and can be used as a main source of dietary protein for crab juveniles in captivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0283.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: energy policy; energy economics; renewable energy; fossil energy; nuclear energy; hybrid energy; teaching
Online: 23 May 2022 (03:33:09 CEST)
Issues related to safe and abundant energy production have been prominent in recent years. This is particularly tr ue when society considers how to increase the quality of life by providing low-cost energy to citizens. A significant concern of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) relates to the environmental effects of energy production and energy use associated with climate change. Efforts to reduce fossil fuel use and increase the use of renewable energy, together with the price volatility of fossil fuels, have seriously impacted the economics of many of the oil-producing countries, particularly the Gulf States, which has led to efforts to make their economies more diverse and less dependent on oil production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2079.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Energy literacy; energy reviews; energy-related knowledge; energy transitions; energy education.
Online: 3 October 2023 (03:21:33 CEST)
The world is facing an energy crisis. Governments are seeking to provide universal energy access and guarantee energy security while trying to mitigate climate change. One possible solution is energy transitions towards low carbon energy systems. Among other things (physical infrastructure, public policy and regulatory enablers and knowledge and capacities) changes in the energy systems require a well informed and participative citizenship. Within this context the concept of energy literacy appears. Energy literacy is the understanding of how energy is generated, transported, stored, distributed and used, awareness about its environmental and social impacts and the knowledge to use it efficiently in the different sectors of the economy. This paper provides a systematic literature review in the Web of Science’s Core Collection. Most of the work done around energy literacy addresses its evaluation among different groups, particularly students at different levels, and the construction, application and evaluation of tools for improving energy literacy. Other frequently studied issues are the influence of energy literacy in decision making, its drivers and conceptual research about the topic. Energy enables citizens to effectively contribute to energy efficiency and sustainable development, nevertheless energy literacy is not strongly correlated to energy consumption habits.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0294.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: Dark Energy; Entropic Energy; Suprathermal Energy
Online: 17 January 2023 (01:53:59 CET)
The Universe at last scattering is locally treated as an unbound gas. The internal kinetic energy of the gas effectively constitutes a scalar energy field. The gas’s adiabatic expansion is entropic, giving repulsive entropic pressure. Gas kinetic energy is converted into entropic energy gain (63%) and isoentropic work against gravity (37%) at a constant 63:37 ratio. A three-term expression of the gas’s Hubble parameter is derived and found to be exclusively dependent on its mass density. At last scattering, this model gives a Hubble constant that is 125% of the value found from the ΛCDM model. After partition of Universal mass into the cosmic web of galaxies and the intergalactic medium (IGM), expansion came mostly from the IGM, presently comprising about 84% of total Universal mass and 90% of its volume. The onset of star formation within the cosmic web increased the IGM’s kinetic energy through the action of starlight, giving free electrons as an additional repository. Many of these free electrons are suprathermal. Suprathermal energy from both electrons and protons comprises about half of the IGM’s total kinetic energy and is expressed in the ΛCDM model as “dark energy” Λ. Entropic pressure derives from thermodynamic laws not found within general relativity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0054.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy poverty; primary energy; renewable energy; distributed generation; energy storage
Online: 5 February 2020 (03:31:29 CET)
Following an updated outlook of global energy production and utilization, we show through selected examples from both developing and developed countries how distributed generation from renewable energy sources, and from solar energy in particular, is the key solution to ending energy poverty across the world. Guidelines aimed at policy makers suggest a systems view of energy that will be instrumental in guiding the transition from fossil fuels to combustion-free renewable energy for all energy end uses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: water–energy nexus; energy use; energy intensity
Online: 27 November 2019 (03:44:36 CET)
The water and wastewater sectors are energy-intensive, and so a growing number of utility companies are seeking to identify opportunities to reduce energy use. Though England’s water sector is of international interest, in particular due to the early experience with privatisation, for the time being very little published data on energy usage exists. We analyse telemetry data from Thames Water Utilities Ltd. (TWUL), which is the largest water and wastewater company in the UK and serves one of the largest mega-cities in the world, London. In our analysis, we (1) break down sectoral energy use into their components, (2) present a statistical method to analyse the long-term trends in use, as well as the seasonality and irregular effects in the data, (3) derive energy-intensity (kWh m3) figures for the system, and (4) compare the energy-intensity of the network against other regions in the world. Our results show that electricity use grew during the period 2009 to 2014 due to capacity expansions to deal with growing water demand and storm water flooding. The energy-intensity of the system is within the range of reported figures for systems in other OECD countries. Plans to improve the efficiency of the system could yield benefits in lower the energy-intensity, but the overall energy saving would be temporary as external pressures from population and climate change are driving up water and energy use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0241.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: electric vehicle; energy harvesting; thermal energy; mechanical energy
Online: 5 June 2023 (07:09:42 CEST)
The evolution of transportation has been inextricably tied to the progress of civilization. Through innovation, the automobile business has been working to improve safety, quality, and compliance with environmental regulations. Electric vehicles have made significant strides in this area, but optimizing their efficiency requires a special focus because they expend energy that can be recovered in a variety of ways. Energy harvesting, a cutting-edge technology that captures wasted energy from vehicles, has recently received a lot of attention as it constitutes a means to improve the efficiency of electric vehicles. Dissipated energy can be converted into electricity using regenerative energy recovery systems and put to various uses. This study tenders a thorough examination into energy recovery technologies which could be applied to the various types of energy dissipated in electric vehicles. Firstly, the paper investigates the possible sources of energy recoverable from an electric vehicle, as well as the various types of energy dissipated. Secondly, the article examines the energy recovery technologies most frequently used in vehicles, categorizing them according to the type of energy and application. Finally, it determines that with further research and development, energy harvesting holds considerable potential for improving the energy efficiency of electric vehicles. New and innovative methods for capturing and utilizing wasted energy in electric vehicles can be established. The potential benefits of applying energy recovery systems in electric vehicles is a vital issue for the automobile industry to focus on due to the potential benefits involved. The ongoing progress currently being made in this field is expected to play a significant role in shaping the future of transportation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0116.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: solar energy; BIPV; energy transition; energy efficiency; photovoltaics
Online: 12 January 2018 (10:23:45 CET)
Large-scale integration of solar energy technologies in Rome’s built environment epitomizes the needed general adoption of distributed generation via functionalization of buildings of all size and end use across the world, to become active energy generators and no longer energy users only. This paper identifies selected technology solutions and critical policy and educational initiatives to effectively achieve within the next decade (2018-2027) the widespread uptake of decentralized solar energy systems in the built environment on a global scale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0406.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: nuclear energy; renewable energy; fossil energy; small modular reactors; resilience; hybrid energy
Online: 31 May 2022 (03:13:28 CEST)
Small modular reactors (SMR) (<300 MW) offer a potentially attractive nuclear energy option for the middle-east region (MER). Currently, the MER uses a significant amount of fossil fuel to process heat applications such as water desalination and in petroleum refineries and chemical plants, besides generating electricity. SMR technologies represent an opportunity to meet future energy demand in the MER. This paper discusses issues related to the future development and use of SMR technology in nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems for application in the middle east. SMRs have also been examined as part of a resilient hybrid energy system that combines nuclear energy with renewable energy and traditional fossil energy to produce chemicals, fuels, and electricity. This paper presents the results of a techno-economic analysis of a Nuclear-Renewable-Conventional Hybrid Energy System. The paper concludes that SMR technology will be an essential feature of future hybrid energy systems for the MER.
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Energy System Modelling; Energy Optimization; Energy Simulation; Multi Energy Systems Simulator (MESS)
Online: 21 July 2021 (14:50:24 CEST)
Energy system modelling is an essential practice to assist a set of heterogeneous stakeholders in the process of defining an effective and efficient energy transition. From the analysis of a set of open source energy system models, it has emerged that most models employ an approach directed at finding the optimal solution for a given set of constraints. On the contrary, a simulation model is a representation of a system that is used to reproduce and understand its behaviour under given conditions, without seeking an optimal solution. Given the lack of simulation models that are also fully open source, in this paper a new open source energy system model is presented. The developed tool, called Multi Energy Systems Simulator (MESS), is a modular, multi-node model that allows to investigate non optimal solutions by simulating the energy system. The model has been built having in mind urban level analyses. However, each node can represent larger regions allowing wider spatial scales to be be represented as well. MESS is capable of performing analysis on systems composed by multiple energy carriers (e.g. electricity, heat, fuels). In this work, the tool’s features will be presented by a comparison between MESS itself and an optimization model, in order to analyze and highlight the differences between the two approaches, the potentialities of a simulation tool and possible areas for further development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1567.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: energy balance; energy expenditure; energy intake; energy imbalance gap; underweight; overweight; Latin America
Online: 26 November 2023 (05:24:43 CET)
Energy imbalance gap (EIG) is defined as the average daily difference between energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE). This study aimed to examine the associations between EIG and sociodemographic and anthropometric variables in the adolescent population of eight Latin American countries. A total of 680 adolescents aged 15 to 18 were included in this study. EI was estimated using two non-consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. EE was predicted from Schofield equations using physical activity levels obtained through the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Sociodemographic data and anthropometric measurements were also obtained. A descriptive analysis and multilevel linear regression models were used to examine associations between variables. The mean EI, EE, and EIG were 2091.3 kcal, 2067.8 kcal, and 23.5 kcal, respectively. Argentina and Colombia had the highest EI and EIG, whereas Chile and Costa Rica had the lowest EI and EIG. Males had a higher EI (2262.4 kcal) and EE (2172.2 kcal) than females (1930.1 kcal and 2084.5 kcal), respectively (p<0,05). Overweight subjects had a lower EIG than did underweight and normal-weight subjects (p<0,05). Subjects with high SES had a lower EE (2047.0 kcal) than those with low SES (1963.7 kcal) (p<0,05). Sex and BMI were associated with EIG in adolescents from Latin America.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0311.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: sustainability; energy transition; nautical tourism; energy independence; renewable energy
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:45:09 CEST)
In the last 20 years, the share of renewable energy sources in the production of electricity in the European Union has doubled, from about 15% to almost 35%. The main driver of this development has been the increase in the share of wind energy and solar photovoltaic energy. The authors aim to analyze the influencing factors that affect the energy transition process applied to nautical tourism, from polluting energy to renewable solar energy. The authors' research approach consists in using the framework offered by the energy transition process from the perspective of the socio-technical and economic approach, by applying the qualitative research method with a deductive approach. The tool used to achieve the objective was the semi-structured interview. The research unitarily, holistically, and specifically approaches the problem of energy transition from polluting sources to renewable ones offered by solar energy, in the case of nautical tourism with direct implications on the specific industry in the Netherlands. The research results are structured in the fields of technology, governance, economics, and user preferences. This research has the potential to provide support to find optimal solutions that encourage users to accelerate the energy transition process by adopting sustainable solutions for nautical tourism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0198.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Sustainability; energy sources; renewable sources; energy efficiency; energy demand
Online: 31 October 2017 (16:12:05 CET)
Sustainability of current energy policies and known mid-term policies are analised in their multiple facets. First an overview is given about the trend of global energy demand and energy production, analysing the share of energy sources and the geographic distribution of demand, on the basis of statistics and projections published by major agencies. The issue of sustainability of the energy cycle is finally addressed, with specific reference to systems with high share of renewable energy and storage capability, highlighting some promising energy sources and storage approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0279.v1
Online: 15 August 2018 (16:06:52 CEST)
Paper presents the energy policy of the Republic of Serbia with special attention to the energy situation on the government controlled territory. South Serbian autonomous province of Kosovo and Metohija is under UN jurisdiction since the 1999 according to UNSC Resolution 1244. Renewable energy sources are rarely used in Serbia with exception of energy from hydropower plants, but in this sector priorities in geothermal and energy coming from biomass recently increased. In natural gas sector, Serbia has the deal with Russia for construction of South Stream gas-line through Serbia and for construction of the first underground storage in depleted gas reservoir in Banatski Dvor. In 2008, Serbia also sold 51% of the government founded petroleum industry – NIS which has exclusive monopoly for exploitation of crude oil. Serbian government has complete monopoly in electric power sector. Electric power infrastructure became technologically obsolete, and operative efficiency is at very low level. Serbia has not yet decided whether Serbian Electric Power Industry – EPS will be privatized. District heating sector mostly natural gas fuelled is highly inefficient and it is in jurisdiction of local municipalities but also has social component dictated by central government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1236.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Compressed Air Energy Storage; Hydrogen; Photovoltaic; Energy Storage; Power flexibility; Ancillary services; Renewable; Energy Shift; Energy Independence; Energy Transition
Online: 19 September 2023 (04:36:46 CEST)
The integration of the increasing share of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) requires the availability of suitable energy storage systems to improve the grid flexibility, and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems could be a promising option. In this study, a CO2-free Diabatic CAES system is proposed and analysed. The plant configuration is derived from a down-scaled version of the McIntosh diabatic CAES plant, where the natural gas is replaced with green hydrogen, produced on site by a Proton Exchange Membrane electrolyser powered by a Photovoltaic power plant. In this study, the components of the hydrogen production system are sized to maximize the Self-Consumption share of PV energy generation and the effect of the design parameters on the H2-CAES plant performance are analysed on a yearly basis. Moreover, a comparison between the use of natural gas and hydrogen in terms of energy consumption and CO2 emissions is discussed. The results show that the proposed hydrogen fuelled CAES can effectively match the generation profile and the yearly production of the natural gas fuelled plant by using all the PV energy production, while producing zero CO2 emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0693.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wind energy; solar energy; renewable energy; machine learning; forecasting ensembles
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:56:29 CEST)
In this paper, solar irradiance and wind speed forecasts were performed considering time horizons ranging from 10 min to 60 min, under a 10 min time-step. Global horizontal irradiance (GHI) and wind speed were computed using four forecasting models (Random Forest, k-Nearest Neighbours, Support Vector Regression, and Elastic Net) to compare their performance against two alternative dynamic ensemble methods (windowing and arbitrating). Forecasting models and dynamic forecasting ensembles were implemented in Python for performance evaluation. The performance comparison between the prediction models and the dynamic ensemble methods was carried out by evaluating the RMSE, MAE, R² and MAPE, to evaluate whether the dynamic ensemble forecasting method obtained greater. According to the results obtained windowing dynamic ensemble method was the most efficient among the tested. For the wind speed data, by varying its parameter λ (from 1 to 100), a variable performance profile was obtained, where from λ =1 to λ = 74, windowing proved to be the most efficient, reaching maximum efficiency for λ = 19. Windowing was the best method for the GHI analysis, reaching its best performance for λ = 1. The efficiency gain using windowing was 0.56% when using the wind speed model and 1.96% for GHI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0413.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: geothermal energy; life cycle analysis; solar photovoltaic energy; wind energy
Online: 28 February 2020 (01:34:44 CET)
A Life Cycle Analysis was performed considering three existing power plants of comparable size operating with different sources of renewable energy: geothermal, solar and wind. Primary data were used for building the life cycle inventories. The geothermal power plant includes emissions treatment for removal of hydrogen sulfide and mercury. The scenario about the substitution of natural emissions from geothermal energy, with specific reference to the greenhouse effect, is also investigated performing a sensitivity analysis. The results are characterized employing a wide portfolio of environmental indicators employing the Recipe 2016 and the ILCD 2011 Midpoint+ methods; normalization and weighting are also applied using the Recipe 2016 method at endpoint level. The results demonstrate a good eco-profile of geothermal power plant with respect to other renewable energy systems and allow for a critical analysis to support potential improvements of the environmental performances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0299.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Energy Consumption, Saudi Arabia, Renewable Energy, Building Envelope, Energy Efficiency
Online: 28 June 2019 (12:37:43 CEST)
In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), residential buildings’ energy consumption accounts for almost 50% of the building stock electricity consumption. The electricity generation consumes over one-third of the daily oil production. KSA was ranked as one of the highest countries in fossil fuel consumption per capita in 2014. Moreover, the KSA’s economy heavily relies on fossil fuel sources, namely oil reservoirs, whereby depletion will negatively affect the future development of the country. The total electricity consumption is annually growing by approximately 5-8%, which would lead to identical oil consumption to oil production in 2035. Currently, the KSA government is concerned to generate more renewable energy using large renewable energy plants. The government is investing in energy generation through renewable sources, by financing large scale photovoltaic farms to stop an economic crisis that may occur in 2035. The existing building stock consumes around 80% of the total current Saudi electricity that is generated. According to the Saudi energy efficiency report, the primary energy consumption per capita is over three times higher than the world average. Therefore, the residential buildings need further assessment as to their current energy consumption. This research used a survey to explore current user behaviour in residential buildings energy performance in the city of Jeddah, KSA. The findings of the survey showed: • The buildings thermal properties were found to be poorly designed • The majority of users within the buildings prefer a room temperature of below 24 °C, which requires a massive amount of cooling • Due to the climate conditions and the cultural aspects of KSA, housing units are occupied for more than 18 hours per day • An increase in user awareness has helped to slightly improve residential buildings energy efficiency Knowing the current high energy consumption sources and causes and being able to define available opportunities for further developments on building thermal properties enhancements and how to increase user awareness to reach self-sustaining buildings is essential.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0358.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy diagnosis; energy efficiency; UNAM; IER; energy consumption and demand
Online: 19 July 2018 (11:36:57 CEST)
An energy diagnosis is a tool used to seek the improvement of energy saving measures, environmental conservation and energy efficiency, making relevant its implementation in any kind of buildings. For this article, an energy diagnosis of third level was carried out in buildings of the Instituto de Energías Renovables (IER) from Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) through survey and census of the 36 buildings in the IER, in order to characterize current patterns of energy consumption and demand, and generating specific strategies towards savings and energy efficiency, such as indicators and corrective proposals within and non-financial investment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0582.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: energy harvesting; triboelectric nanogenerators; vibration energy
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:26:44 CEST)
In this study, we propose a module-type triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) capable of harvesting power from a variety of mechanical energy sources. The potential energy and kinetic energy of water are used for the rotational motion of the generator module, and electricity is generated by the contact/separation generation mode between the two triboelectric surfaces inside the rotating TENG. Through the parametric design of the internal friction surface structure and mass ball, we optimized the output of the proposed structure. To magnify the power, experiments were conducted to optimize the electrical output of the series of TENG units. The electrical signal generated by the module-type TENG can be used as a sensor to recognize the strength and direction of various physical quantities, such as wind or earthquake vibrations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0313.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: sustainability; solar energy; photovoltaic energy; renewable energy; self-consumption; rooftop pv
Online: 17 September 2021 (12:29:01 CEST)
This article has been developed to assess the economic feasibility of a roof-top photovoltaic installation of industrial self-consumption. Numerical models that enable an interested person to obtain the main expected parameters will be generated. To do this, a calculation methodology will be generated through which the reader, knowing the location of the facility and dimensions of the roof, will be able to calculate the maximum installable power, the main parameters related to production, the cost of the installation, and the LCOE of the plant. The use of actual costs will be facilitated in case they are known, but it will remain possible to apply the costs of the major equipment (modules, inverter, and structure) considered throughout the article. This developed calculation methodology will also allow a quick comparison of the forecasts of production, CAPEX, and LCOE of plants designed with different inclinations and different types of modules. Consequently, it will be especially useful for decision-making before developing the plant's basic engineering. Moreover, the calculations used for modeling the LCOE will be analyzed in depth. This analysis will allow evaluating how the different technical variables affect the profitability of a photovoltaic installation, such as the selected tilt, the location, the module's technology, or the available area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: building energy modeling; energy systems; energy demand; future climate; weather files
Online: 7 October 2019 (12:19:24 CEST)
The building sector accounts for nearly 40% of total primary energy consumption in the U.S. and E.U. and 20% of worldwide delivered energy consumption. Climate projections predict an increase of average annual temperatures between 1.1-5.4°C by 2100. As urbanization is expected to continue increasing at a rapid pace, the energy consumption of buildings is likely to play a pivotal role in the overall energy budget. In this study we used EnergyPlus building energy models to estimate the future energy demands of commercial buildings in Salt Lake County, Utah, USA, using locally-derived climate projections. We found significant variability in the energy demand profiles when simulating the study buildings under different climate scenarios, based on the energy standard the building was designed to meet, with reductions ranging from 10% to 60% in natural gas consumption for heating and increases ranging from 10% to 30% in electricity consumption for cooling. A case study, using projected 2040 building stock, showed a weighted average decrease in heating energy of 25% and an increase of 15% in cooling energy. We also found that building standards between ASHRAE 90.1-2004 and 90.1-2016 play a comparatively smaller role than variation in climate scenarios on the energy demand variability within building types. Our findings underscore the large range of potential future building energy consumption which depend on climatic conditions, as well as building types and standards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: hydro-power; hydro-power plant; micro-energy; renewable energy; water energy
Online: 11 February 2019 (09:05:34 CET)
The conceptual reconstruction of Neiwan powerhouse is one of the key activities under the current ongoing mapping project of Taiwanese hydropower plants that mainly took place between 2013 and 2015 and is now focused on micro, pico, and historical power plants. Judging from the fact that the oldest hydropower plant in Taiwan named Guishan starts its operation in 1905, Neiwan powerhouse was among the very first powerhouses that were built across the island to support the electrification of Taiwan. However, the main function of the single turbine equipped Neiwan micro powerhouse was to support mainly the military needs and protect the territories occupied by Japanese troops. Since the powerhouse was built in 1909 and operates only something about 10 year there are very little physical materials or evidence along with contemporaries. Therefore the further reconstruction is based mainly on physical observation of the remains located at the site, old photographs, related articles, treatises and typology of mechanical and civil constructions of other hydropower plant cases in Taiwan hence this paper´s main intention is to pitch a concept reconstruction rather than definite conclusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0127.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: hydro-power; hydro-power plant; micro-energy; renewable energy; water energy
Online: 11 December 2018 (10:46:08 CET)
This research paper is part of the wider project concerning the very first detailed mapping of the overall Taiwanese hydro-power plants that took place from 2013 up to 2015 and it is currently in evaluation and finalization stage. The case of Shanping hydro-power plant has been carefully studied, photographed, documented and mapped in situ. It was one of the isolated hydro-power plant projects originally built to supply the remote area with the specific designation. Shanping hydro-power plant, as well as the other units from the early hydro-power generation era in Taiwan, are considered to be the technological heritage of civil and mechanical engineering that reflects later in all the further projects up to nowadays modern Taiwanese hydro-power plants. Unfortunately, most of the hydro-power houses from the older periods were severely damaged or destroyed by natural causes which were also the case of Shanping unit. The research is trying to reconstruct the original location of the powerhouse and its supporting structures based on available historical documents, previous studies, comparative methodology, and the current on-site observation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0568.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy transition; sustainable development; efficiency energy; renewable energy; marine natural resources
Online: 26 November 2018 (03:50:26 CET)
The current energy policy recommends the idea of energy efficiency over fossil energy as a primary matter for the coming years. The kingdom of Morocco requires restructuring of its power equipment by increasing the percentage of renewable energy supplies, optimizing their systems and power storage. Therefore, increasing energy efficiency is an as important obligation as reducing the overall energy consumption. The purpose of this research is to present the energy transition in Morocco towards renewable energies and to assess the diversity of available marine natural resources. Recent research in conversion of ocean thermal energy, wave energy, tidal energy, offshore wind energy, and osmotic energy into power supply has started to encourage different technologies. This research has led to commercial deployment in some cases such as our 550 km long Mediterranean coast and 3000 km long Atlantic. This does not only result in fossil energies independency but also provides advantages like less cost and no pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0381.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy internet; multi-energy complementary; integrated energy systems; distribution network planning
Online: 19 September 2018 (10:22:42 CEST)
Many research work has demonstrated that taken the Combined Cooling Heating and Power system (CCHP) as the core equipment, the integrated energy system (IES) can bring obvious benefit to energy efficiency, CO2 emission reduction and operation economy in urban areas. Compared with isolated IES, integrated energy micro-grid (IEMG) which is formed by connecting multiple regions IES together, through distribution and thermal network, can further improve the reliability, flexibility, cleanliness and economy of regional energy supply. Based on the existing IES model, this paper describes the basic structure of IEMG and built a IEMG planning model. The planning based on the mixed integer linear programming, and economically construction planning scheme are calculated by using known electricity, heating and cooling loads information and the given multiple equipment selection schemes. At last, the model is validated by a case study. The results show that the application of IEMG can effectively improve the economy of regional energy supply.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0514.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: photovoltaic systems; pumped hydroelectric; energy storage systems; annual energy production-energy demand.
Online: 11 July 2023 (10:17:09 CEST)
This paper focuses on designing and assessing Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage Systems (PHES), connected to the grid and PV system for self-consumption structured at Mutah university in an area of high solar potential. In focusing on PHES and PV literature was made to have data on the field, based on the grid code needed in Jordan. Next, a prospection to find the proper location for the installation was done. Afterward, a load profile was inserted to know the energy demand of the university. Then The productivity of the solar power plant of Mutah University was included. Finally, MATLAB software was used to realize the amount of energy to be stored, this data was used to implement the system which was chosen and sized. PHES layout was created to find the most accurate values for parameters to optimize the system performance, and to investigate the loss analysis. The system attains 9230.89 MWh/year. An annual load yields 4430 MWh/year, which covers the Mutah university demand with an estimated saving of 2039773 JD.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: energy deficiency; energy balance; energy flux; terminology; mitochondrial diseases; glycogen storage diseases
Online: 1 June 2023 (07:26:40 CEST)
This brief commentary challenges the use of the term "energy deficiency" in nutrition and metabolism, providing a critical examination of its scientific and philosophical aspects. It emphasizes the need to consider rare diseases associated with actual energy deficiency, which extend beyond the scope of everyday tiredness or fatigue. By analyzing energy balance and its complexities, this critique underscores the oversimplification associated with the term and its potential for misleading implications. It highlights the dynamic nature of energy metabolism and the intricate mechanisms involved in maintaining energy equilibrium, including the impact of rare genetic and physiological abnormalities. In addition to the discussion on energy balance, this commentary explores the manifestation of rare diseases that disrupt energy production, utilization, or hormonal regulation. Conditions such as mitochondrial diseases, glycogen storage diseases, adrenal insufficiency, and Prader-Willi syndrome are examined, shedding light on their profound impact on individuals' energy levels and overall health. The distinct time courses, underlying mechanisms, and clinical implications of protein deficiency, energy deficiency, and vitamin C deficiency are also compared, further emphasizing the complexity of energy metabolism and its relationship with various nutrient deficiencies. To foster a more comprehensive understanding of energy metabolism and enhance clarity in communication within the field, the commentary proposes the adoption of alternative terminology, such as "energy flux," to capture the multifaceted nature of energy balance more accurately. By reevaluating the terminology employed, researchers and healthcare professionals can better convey the intricate dynamics of energy metabolism and address the unique challenges faced by individuals with rare diseases causing actual energy deficiency. In conclusion, this commentary serves as a thought-provoking exploration of the concept of energy deficiency in nutrition and metabolism. It highlights the limitations of the term in capturing the complexities of energy balance, particularly in the context of rare diseases. By broadening the discussion to include these rare conditions, it encourages a more comprehensive understanding of energy metabolism and calls for precise and nuanced terminology to facilitate effective communication and advancements in the field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0662.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: renewable energy; future perspectives; renewable energy sources; Romania energy structure; exploratory study
Online: 29 October 2018 (07:22:02 CET)
In 2015, Romania was the first country in Europe that achieved EU targets regarding the share of renewables in the generation mix, far ahead of the 2020 deadline. Starting with the energy structure in Romania, the paper: (1) analyses the evolution of the main indicators in the renewable energy sector, (2) discloses the perspectives of renewable energy in Romania synthesizing the main trends of development in the field and (3) analyses the challenges facing with the development of renewable energy in Romania. Based on analyzing the exploratory data, the paper makes a preliminary prediction of the development of the sector for the future decades and proposes targeted countermeasures and suggestions. Romania still has unexploited potential concerning renewable energy sources. Because Romania registered a continuous economic growth, the demand for electricity is steadily growing, and this trend is expected to continue. Also, Romania could introduce a support mechanism for developing the potential of unexploited potential. The results of the present study may be useful for further research regarding public policies for the development of renewable energy. Also, it can represent a useful analysis in order to identify the future trends of renewable energy in Romania.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0253.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy diagnosis; close-range photogrammetry; energy efficiency; visualization of information; energy feedback
Online: 17 May 2018 (13:31:05 CEST)
Owing to the large ratio of consumption in the building sector, energy saving strategies are required. Energy feedback is an energy-saving strategy that consumers to change their energy-consumption behaviors. The strategy has been principally focused on providing energy-consumption information. However, realization of energy savings using only consumption information remains limited. In this paper, a building-energy three-dimensional (3D) visualization solution is thus proposed. This solution includes the process of diagnosing a building and providing prediction of energy requirements if a building improvement is undertaken. Accurate diagnostic information is provided by real-time measurement data from sensors and building models using a close-range photogrammetry (CRP) method without depending on blueprints. The information is provided by employing visualization effects to increase the energy-feedback efficiency. The proposed strategy is implemented on two testbeds, and building diagnostics are performed accordingly. For the first testbed, the predicted energy improvement amount resulting from the facility upgrade is provided. The second testbed is provided with a 3D visualization of the energy information. The aim is to determine if the building manager will replace the facility after our recommendation is given to improve the building energy efficiency driven from the energy information. Unlike existing systems, which provide only ambiguous data that lack quantitative information, this study is meaningful because it provides energy information with the aid of visualization effects before and after building improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy infrastructure design; system architecture; energy transition; district heating systems (DHS); energy hubs; distributed multigeneration (DMG); multi-energy systems (MES); urban energy systems (UES); community energy; societal prospects
Online: 22 February 2018 (12:47:01 CET)
Energy conversion and distribution (heat and electricity) is characterized by long planning horizons, investment periods and depreciation times, and it is thus difficult to plan and tell the technology that optimally fits for decades. Uncertainties include future energy prices, applicable subsidies, regulation, and even the evolution of market designs. To achieve higher adaptability to arbitrary transition paths, a technical concept based on integrated energy systems is envisioned and described. The problem of intermediate steps of evolution is tackled by introducing a novel paradigm in urban infrastructure design.It builds on standardization, modularization and economies of scale for underlying conversion units. Building on conceptual arguments for such a platform, it is then argued how actors like (among others) municipalities and district heating system operators can use this as a practical starting point for a manageable and smooth transition towards more environmental friendly supply technologies, and to commit to their own pace of transition (bearable investment/risk). environmental friendly supply technologies. Merits are not only supported by technical arguments but also by strategical and societal prospects like technology neutrality and availability of real options.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0194.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: sufficiency; energy crises; energy poverty; policy instruments
Online: 2 August 2023 (08:37:06 CEST)
In 2021 an acute energy crisis inflicted severe damage on the global economy, leading to escalated prices for electricity, gas, and fuel. In order to shield individuals and businesses from the mounting energy expenses, governments have been compelled to implement policy measures, including tax reductions, price restrictions or discounts, and subsidies. This research paper examines these policy responses through the lens of energy sufficiency. Energy poverty poses a significant threat to social cohesion and support for climate-related initiatives. Therefore, it is imperative to employ compensatory measures. However, the design of such solutions must carefully consider the incentives to reduce energy consumption and associated carbon emissions. The findings of the analysis demonstrate that the escalation of energy costs holds promise for achieving energy sufficiency. Nevertheless, the government's response to the surge in energy prices and energy poverty falls short and lacks precision. Most of the policy changes primarily focus on regressive energy cost subsidies and nudging households away from fossil fuels, but they fail to generate the necessary impetus for achieving energy sufficiency, which involves the elimination of energy poverty and excessive energy consumption.