REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0278.v1
Online: 11 February 2021 (11:04:50 CET)
Discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) twenty years ago, has advocated a new era of “Molecular Genetics”. About 2000 miRNAs are present, that regulate one third of the genome. MiRNAs dysregulated expression may contribute to several diseases including tumor growth. Their presence in body fluids, reflecting levels alteration in various cancers, merit circulating miRNAs as the “next generation biomarkers” for early stages tumor diagnosis and/or prognosis. Herein, we performed a comprehensive literature search focusing on the origin, biosynthesis and role of miRNAs and summarized the foremost studies centering on miRs value as non-invasive biomarkers in different non-communicable diseases, including various cancer types. Moreover, during chemotherapy many miRNAs were linked to multidrug resistance, via modulating numerous biological processes and/or pathways that will be highlighted as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0324.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: T cytotoxic cells; Leukocyte-associated Immunoglobulin-like Receptor-1; LAIR-1; Hepatitis C virus genotype 4; HCV G4; hepatocellular carcinoma; cirrhosis; immune inhibitory checkpoints; inflammation; prognosis; insulin resistance
Online: 17 August 2022 (11:38:10 CEST)
Background and Aim. Since virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis involves liver inflammation, therefore, post-hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection would be a cause for liver cirrhosis that would progress to HCC. Cytotoxic T cells (Tc) are known to be involved in post-HCV complications and HCC pathogenesis. The inhibitory checkpoint Leukocyte-Associated Immunoglobulin-like Receptor-1 (LAIR-1) is expressed on Tc. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether the Tc expression level of LAIR-1 is associated with HCC progression post-HCV and moreover, to evaluate LAIR-1 expression as a non-invasive biomarker for HCC progression in the context of liver cirrhosis post-HCV genotype 4 (G4) in Egyptian patients’ peripheral venous blood liquid biopsy. We studied LAIR-1 expression on Tc related to the progression of liver cirrhosis in a case-controlled study enrolled 64 patients with post-HCV G4-HCC and 37 patients with post-HCV G4-liver cirrhosis. Methods: LAIR-1 expression was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: LAIR-1 expression on Tc and the percentage of Tc positive for LAIR-1 (LAIR-1+Tc %) were significantly higher in the post-HCV G4-HCC group compared to the post-HCV G4-liver cirrhosis