REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: olfactory receptors; glucose metabolism; type 2 diabetes mellitus; lipid metabolism; NAFLD; metabolic syndrome
Online: 2 April 2022 (09:00:47 CEST)
Olfactory Receptors (ORs) are a large family of G protein coupled receptors predominantly expressed by the main olfactory epithelium at nasal level and are responsible for the generation of smelling sense. Microarray and deep sequencing analyses, however, have demonstrated that ORs are ectopically expressed in various human tissues including testis, kidneys, adipose tissue and liver and their biological functions become to be unrevealed. Molecular and pharmacological approaches have shown that some of these ORs modulate glucose and lipid metabolism at multiple interfaces, suggesting that ORs might be part of the large family of nutrient sensors. i.e. molecular/ cellular machines that respond to a specific nutrient component. By using nutrients- derived agonists it has been shown that ORs effectively modulates glucose and lipid metabolism raising interest on their possible therapeutic application in the treatment of metabolic disorders including dyslipidemia, obesity and metabolic syndrome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Organoids; IBD; Inflammation; Target therapy; microbiota; immune system
Online: 4 April 2022 (10:35:01 CEST)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing disease caused by a dysregulated immune response to host intestinal microbiota that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals. IBD encompasses two major clinical entities: ulcerative colitis (UC), which is limited to the colonic mucosa, and Crohn disease (CD), which might affect any segment of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite the prevalence of IBD is increasing worldwide, therapy remains suboptimal, largely because the variability of causative mechanisms, raising the need to develop individualized therapeutic approaches targeted to each individual patient. In this context, patients-derived intestinal organoids represent an effective tool for advancing our understanding on IBD’ s pathogenesis. Organoid 3D culture systems offer a unique model for dissecting epithelial mechanisms involved IBDs and test individualized therapy, although the lack of a functional immune system and a microbiota, two driving components of the IBD pathogenesis, represent a major barrier for their exploitation in clinical medicine. In this review we have examined how to improve the translational utility of intestinal organoids in IBD and how co-coltures of 3D or 2D organoids and immune cells and/or intestinal microbiota might help to overcome these limitations.