REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1442.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: COVID-19; co-infection; secondary infection; multidrug resistance; alternative strategies
Online: 19 May 2023 (12:02:20 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a potentially serious acute respiratory infection caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a global pandemic, the virus has spread to more than 200 countries with more than 500 million cases and more than 6 million deaths reported globally. It has long been known that viral respiratory tract infections predispose patients to bacterial infections and that these co-infections often have an unfavourable clinical outcome. Moreover, nosocomial infections, also known as health care-associated infections (HAIs), are those infections that are absent at the time of admission and acquired after hospitalization. However, the impact of coinfections or secondary infections on the progression of COVID-19 disease and its lethal outcome is still debated. The aim of this review was to assess the literature on the incidence of bacterial co-infections and superinfections in patients with COVID-19. The review also highlights the importance of the rational use of antibiotics in patients with COVID-19 and the need to implement antimicrobial stewardship principles to prevent the transmission of drug-resistant organisms in healthcare settings. Finally, alternative antimicrobial agents to counter the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria causing healthcare-associated infections in COVID-19 patients will also be discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2059.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: M.tb pathogenesis; MDR-TB; XDR-TB; drug tolerance; new approaches
Online: 30 August 2023 (11:20:12 CEST)
Antibiotics have played a crucial role in the reduction of TB incidence globally as evidenced by the fact that before the mid-20th century, the mortality rate within five years of the onset of the disease was 50%. The use of antibiotics has eliminated TB as a devastating disease, but the challenge of resistance to anti-TB drugs, which had already been described at the time of the introduction of streptomycin, has become a major global issue in disease management. Mismanagement of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases, resulting from intermittent drug use, prescription errors and non-compliance of patients, has been identified as a critical risk factor for the development of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in TB is a multi-factorial, complex problem of microbes evolving to escape antibiotics, the gradual decline of antibiotic development, and different economic and social conditions. In this review, we summarise recent advances in our understanding of how Mycobacterium tuberculosis evolves drug resistance. We also highlight the importance of developing shorter regimens that rapidly reach bacteria in diverse host environments, eradicating all mycobacterial populations and preventing the evolution of drug resistance. Lastly, we also emphasise that the current burden of this ancient disease is driven by a combination of complex interactions between mycobacterial and host factors, and that only a holistic approach that effectively addresses all the critical issues associated with drug resistance will limit the further spread of drug-resistant strains throught the community.