ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0098.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Electron Beam Melting; In-Process Monitoring; Quality Control; Electronic Imaging
Online: 10 January 2019 (11:52:10 CET)
Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an increasingly used Additive Manufacturing (AM) technique employed by many industrial sectors, including the medical device and aerospace industries. The application of this technology is, however, challenged by the lack of process monitoring and control system that underpins process repeatability and part quality reproducibility. An electronic imaging system prototype has been developed to serve as an EBM monitoring technique, the capabilities of which have been verified at room temperature and at 320+10°C. Nevertheless, in order to fully assess the applicability of this technique, the image quality needs to be investigated at a range of elevated temperatures to fully understand the influence of thermal noise due to heat. In this paper, electronic imaging pilot trials at elevated temperatures, ranging from room temperature to , were carried out. Image quality measure Q of the digital electron images was evaluated, and the influence of temperature was investigated. In this study, raw electronic images generated at higher temperatures had greater Q values, i.e. better global image quality. It has been demonstrated that, for temperatures between , the influence of temperature on electronic image quality was not adversely affecting the visual clarity of image features. It is envisaged that the prototype has significant potential to contribute to in-process EBM monitoring in many manufacturing sectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0169.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: electron beam melting; in-process monitoring; quality control; electronic imaging; spatial resolution
Online: 17 January 2019 (02:53:17 CET)
Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an increasingly used Additive Manufacturing (AM) technique employed by many industrial sectors, including the medical device and aerospace industries. In-process EBM monitoring for quality assurance purposes has been a popular research area. Electronic imaging has recently been investigated as one of the in-process EBM data collection methods, alongside thermal/ optical imaging techniques. Despite certain capabilities of an electronic imaging system have been investigated, experiments are yet to be carried out to benchmark one of the most important features of any imaging systems – spatial resolution. This article addresses this knowledge gap by: (1) proposing an indicator for the estimation of spatial resolution which includes the Backscattered Electrons (BSE) information depth, (2) estimating the achievable spatial resolution when electronic imaging is carried out inside an Arcam A1 EBM machine, and (3) presenting an experimental method to conduct edge resolution evaluation with the EBM machine. Analyses of experimental results indicated that the spatial resolution was of the order of 0.3mm-0.4mm when electronic imaging was carried out at room temperature. It is believed that by disseminating an analysis and experimental method to estimate and quantify spatial resolution, this study has contributed to the on-going quality assessment research in the field of in-process monitoring of the EBM process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0530.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: graphene; electronic transport; Raman
Online: 27 August 2021 (17:03:07 CEST)
We report morpho-structural properties and charge conduction mechanisms of a foamy “graphene sponge”, having a density as low as ≈ 0.07 kg/m3 and a carbon to oxygen ratio C:O ≃ 13:1. The spongy texture analysed by scanning electron microscopy is made of irregularly-shaped millimetres-sized small flakes, containing small crystallites with a typical size of ≃ 16.3 nm. A defect density as high as ≃ 2.6×1011 cm−2 has been estimated by the Raman intensity of D and G peaks, dominating the spectrum from room temperature down to ≃ 153 K. Despite the high C:O ratio, the graphene sponge exhibits an insulating electrical behavior, with a raise of the resistance value at ≃ 6 K up to 5 orders of magnitude with respect to the room temperature value. A variable range hopping (VRH) conduction, with a strong 2D character, dominates the charge carriers transport, from 300 K down to 20 K. At T< 20 K, graphene sponge resistance tends to saturate, suggesting a temperature-independent quantum tunnelling. The 2D-VRH conduction originates from structural disorder and is consistent with hopping of charge carriers between sp2 defects in the plane, where sp3 clusters related to oxygen functional groups act as potential barriers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0081.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Migration; Health; Electronic health records
Online: 5 October 2021 (11:40:07 CEST)
International migrants comprised 14% of the UK population in 2020, but migrant health in the UK has rarely been studied at a population level using primary care electronic health records (EHRs). Given the difficulty of determining migration status using EHRs, this study developed a migration phenotype and assessed its validity. We developed a phenotyping algorithm using codes for country of birth, visa status, non-English main/first language and non-UK origin. It was applied to a Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) GOLD database of 16,071,111 primary care patients between 1997 and 2018. We compared the completeness and representativeness of the identified migrant population to Office for National Statistics (ONS) country of birth and 2011 census data by year, age, sex, geographic region of birth and ethnicity. Between 1997-2018, 403,768 migrants (2.51% of the CPRD GOLD population) were identified using the phenotype. 178,749 (1.11%) of these migrants were identified by codes indicating foreign country of birth or visa status, 216,731 (1.35%) a non-English main/first language, and 8,288 (0.05%) non-UK origin. The cohort was similarly distributed compared to ONS migration statistics in terms of sex and region of birth. Recording of migration improved from identifying approximately one-tenth of the expected proportion of migrants according to the ONS in 2004 to a quarter in 2018. Younger migrants were better represented than those aged 50 and over. The migration phenotype identified a large number of migrants and can be used to undertake large-scale migration health research in CPRD GOLD to inform healthcare policy, practice and action. While the cohort was representative of the UK migrant population in terms of sex and region of birth, migration status was under-recorded in earlier years and older ages, and future studies for these groups should therefore be interpreted with caution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0451.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: HIV; tobacco; electronic cigarettes; inflammation; biomarkers
Online: 29 September 2022 (03:54:56 CEST)
People with HIV (PWH) experience higher rates of cardiovascular events (CVEs) compared with the general population. A substantial body of evidence supports that select biomarkers of inflammation (soluble CD14 [sCD14], soluble CD163 [sCD163], highly sensitive C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6]), and coagulation (D-dimer) are elevated in PWH and related to increased rates of CVEs. Our previous work showed that smoking compared with nonsmoking was associated with significantly elevated sCD14, a biomarker of monocyte activation. We aimed to explore the effect of electronic cigarette (EC) provision on inflammatory biomarkers in PWH who smoked daily and then switched to an EC. Nineteen PWH were enrolled in a pilot study in which an EC and e-liquid were provided weekly or 8 weeks. Blood specimens for inflammatory biomarker analysis were obtained at baseline (BL) and at week 8. Biomarker levels were high at BL and did not differ significantly at week 8. There were small nonsignificant reductions in sCD163 and CRP levels. Non-significant increases in IL-6, D-dimer and sCD14 levels were also noted. Use of ECs for 8 weeks does not appear to significantly increase or decrease inflammatory biomarker levels in SWH. Further research with larger samples and a control group is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0123.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: CoGa; electronic structure; magnetism; binary alloys
Online: 7 July 2022 (09:44:18 CEST)
The present work reports on the calculated electronic and magnetic structure of the binary Co-Ga system at high Co content. β-CoGa adopts a simple cubic CsCl type structure. Well-ordered CoGa does not exhibit collective magnetism but is a paramagnetic, metallic compound. Neither Co nor Ga deficiency induces magnetic order, however, ferromagnetism is observed for Co-Ga anti-site disorder. The magnetic moment per cell increases up to about 1.2 μB in the completely disordered body centered cubic structure. With increasing Co content, Co1+xGa1−x maintains the CsCl type structure and becomes ferromagnetic. Most important, a discontinuity of the magnetic order with composition is observed at about 10% excess Co, where a change from a low magnetic moment state to a high moment state is observed. This is accompanied by a change in the electronic structure and transport properties. The discontinuity is forced by the increasing exchange splitting related to the localized moment of the additional Co atoms that replace Ga. Subsequently, the magnetic moment increases continuously up to 2.5 μB for x=0.6. For x≳0.6, the structure changes to face centered cubic with random site occupation and the magnetic moment further increases. Above the magnetic discontinuity, the Curie temperature increases linearly with the Co content from the onset of ferromagnetism, until it reaches its maximum in pure Co.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0771.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Electronic Health Record; EHR; Blockchain; Covid-19
Online: 29 April 2021 (10:31:52 CEST)
Electronic Health Record (EHR) is being used in most healthcare institutions to preserve and share health records instead of a paper-based method. Data records must be exchanged amongst various parties and users' privileges to manage access to their records should also be provided. In addition to the basic standards of secrecy, confidentiality and integrity of information, these facts further demonstrate the need for interoperability and consumer control to access their personal data. Electronic Health Record (EHR) system faces issues of protection of data, trust and management issues. In recent Covid-19 pandemic, various applications, tools and websites were launched that stores records. Also, many personal records related to health need to be shared among different parties for early detection, contact tracing, monitoring and the future prediction that requires accurate and reliable data. Simultaneously, the citizens will be hesitant in providing their personal details due to privacy concerns and social stigma. Blockchain technology has arisen as a powerful technology that can offer the immutability, confidentiality and user access properties of stored information and provided distributed storage. This paper analyses the blockchain suitability in EHR and its further applications in efficient Covid-19 pandemic management.
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Anomalous; correlations; trans-PA; electronic transport; FET
Online: 27 March 2019 (08:41:38 CET)
The electronic transport stability in nanodevices composed by metal/trans-polyacetylene /metal with different long length has contributed greatly for performance, homogeneity, stability, organization of the chains, reproducibility and higher conductivity. In this paper, we present an analytical study of the electronic transport characteristics from dimerized trans-polyacetylene (trans-PA) molecules containing an odd-even number of sites coupled to metal leads (left and right) in T-shaped geometry using the extended Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model based on tight-binding Hamiltonian with the Non-Equilibrium Green´s Function (NEGF) via Heisenberg´s equation of motion and the Keldysh´s formalism. Due to the complexity of the T-shaped odd-even chain, our proposal was to test the effects on the finite-length network for three, four, five sites and furthermore foresee for 17-sites. We show how to tune dimerization strength () coupling to the parameters and T-shaped geometry of the device to which it affects the overlap integral localized at the three endpoints of the T-shaped system, making both the odd and even chains to undergo a metal-insulator transition in their electronic behavior. The results reached through control parity of the chain plane of the parameters governing () the electronic and experimental tunneling allow a better understanding of the subject.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Contractor; Electronic Sales; Information revolution and Communication
Online: 4 March 2019 (10:05:58 CET)
Recently, during the last century, Communication & Information revolution caused an essential dynamic in society, especially in legal issues, This dynamic development of information data through this web, it has an essential effect upon the way of civil treatment, which then called "electronic agreements". The industrial and technological development lad to obvious changes in producing processes either for goods or services and then its distributing methods, through using modern media channels, but this factor has a negative side because there is no legal protection for the contractors. This fact leads to the necessity of publishing certain conditions to protect consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0388.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: biobanks, electronic health records, Michigan Genomics Initiative
Online: 19 September 2018 (14:57:30 CEST)
Biobanks linked to electronic health records provide a rich data resource for health-related research. With the establishment of large-scale infrastructure, the availability and utility of data from biobanks has dramatically increased over time. As more researchers become interested in using biobank data to explore a diverse spectrum of scientific questions, resources guiding the data access, design, and analysis of biobank-based studies will be crucial. The first aim of this review is to characterize the types of biobanks that are discussed in the recent literature and provide detailed descriptions of specific biobanks including their location, size, data access, data linkages and more. The development and accessibility of large-scale biorepositories provide the opportunity to accelerate agnostic searches, new discoveries, and hypothesis-generating studies of disease-treatment, disease-exposure and disease-gene associations. Rather than spending time and money designing and implementing a single study with pre-defined objectives, researchers can use biobanks’ existing data-rich resources to answer scientific questions as quickly as they can analyze them. While the data are becoming increasingly available, additional thought is needed to address issues related to the design of such studies and analysis of these data. In the second aim of this review, we discuss statistical issues related to biobank research in general including study design, sampling strategy, phenotype identification, and missing data. These issues are illustrated using data from the Michigan Genomics Initiative, UK Biobank, and Genes for Good. We summarize the current body of statistical literature aimed at addressing some of these challenges and discuss some of the standing open problems in this area. This work serves to complement and extend recent reviews about biobank-based research and aims to provide a resource catalog with statistical and practical guidance to researchers pursuing biobank-based research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: electronic waste; haematotoxicity; lead; occupationally exposed workers
Online: 2 May 2018 (06:22:44 CEST)
The volume of electronic waste (e-waste) received in Nigeria is reportedly on the increase and the effects on environmental health are yet to be fully ascertained. This study aimed to investigate haematological indices, lead and serum iron levels in workers occupationally exposed to electronic wastes in South-South, Nigeria. In this pilot study, 104 participants were enrolled from Benin City, South-South Nigeria; consisting of 63 E-waste Workers (EW) sex- and aged-matched with 41 Unexposed Participants (Control). Blood levels (5 mL) of the metals (lead and iron) were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry while the haematological parameters [white blood cells (WBC), Lymphocytes ( LY); monocytes (MO), granulocytes(GR), red blood cells (RBC), haemoglobin (Hgb), haematocrit (HCT), mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and platelets (PLT)] were determined using standard methods. Results obtained from this study show a significantly low serum iron (11.5 ± 2.14 µg/dL) in the EW compared with Control (168.9 ± 2.39 µg/dL); while blood lead level in EW (1.07±0.02 µg/dL) was significantly elevated compared with Control (0.72 ± 0.12). Total WBC and RBC, HCT, MO and MCV were all significantly elevated in EW compared with Control while LY and PLT in the EW were significantly decreased compared with Control. This study concludes that chronic occupational e-waste exposure may increase blood lead level, lower serum iron status and may have adversely altered some important haematological parameters in the studied population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0177.v1
Subject: Keywords: Electronic Voting Machine; biometric fingerprint authentication; embedded systems applications; electronic voting technology; user friendly environment; system oriented approach
Online: 9 November 2021 (13:51:17 CET)
A reliable Electronic Voting Machine (EVM) is proposed and implemented in this study, which is integrated with a biometric fingerprint scanner to ensure a secure election process. This biometric EVM includes features such as an interactive user interface, hack-free design and master lock. The EVM system has the capability of registering user data and storing them in a database through proper authentication. Moreover, the system proposed lowers the requirement for human resources. This paper provides a detailed description of the systematic development of the hardware and software used. The software part includes algorithm development and implementation. A thorough and in-depth understanding of the data and the communication protocols along with the pathways used for storage of data in the devices is provided. Additionally, the cost of the system is 62.82% less than the officially existing EVM machines of India. Furthermore, this study seeks to demonstrate the benefits of such an approach from a technological and a social standpoint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0275.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Physics simulations; Neural Networks; Electronic design; Heat equation
Online: 16 December 2021 (14:55:05 CET)
Thermal simulations are an important part in the design of electronic systems, especially as systems with high power density become common. In simulation-based design approaches, a considerable amount of time is spent by repeated simulations. In this work, we present a proof-of-concept study of the application of convolutional neural networks to accelerate those thermal simulations. The goal is not to replace standard simulation tools but to provide a method to quickly select promising samples for more detailed investigations. Based on a training set of randomly generated circuits with corresponding Finite Element solutions, the full 3D steady-state temperature field is estimated using a fully convolutional neural network. A custom network architecture is proposed which captures the long-range correlations present in heat conduction problems. We test the network on a separate dataset and find that the mean relative error is around 2 % and the typical evaluation time is 35 ms per sample ( 2 ms for evaluation, 33 ms for data transfer). The benefit of this neural-network-based approach is that, once training is completed, the network can be applied to any system within the design space spanned by the randomised training dataset (which includes different components, material properties, different positioning of components on a PCB, etc.).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0233.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: electronic nicotine delivery systems; nicotine addiction; vaping; cessation
Online: 9 December 2020 (15:56:46 CET)
Currently 7.6% of the U.S. young adults aged 18-24 years old currently use e-cigarettes. This study piloted three methods of ENDS cessation by measuring cessation rates, motivational techniques that contributed to cessation success, and participants’ changes after decreasing vape use. Participants were randomized into three study arms [nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) + behavioral support, vape-taper + behavioral support, self-guided] in a 1:1:1 ratio. All participants were invited to attend 9 in-person or phone appointments over the 6 month study period. At 12 weeks, 3 of 7 (42.9%) participants in the NRT + behavioral support arm, 6 of 8 (75%) vape-taper + behavioral support arm, and 7 of 9 (77.8%) self-guided arm self-reported being vape- and nicotine-free. At 6 months, 3 of 7 (42.9%) participants in the NRT + behavioral support arm, 6 of 8 (75%) vape-taper + behavioral support arm, 4 of 9 (44.4%) self-guided arm self-reported being vape- and nicotine-free. A challenge to quitting and remain quit is social pressures, but participants identified self-control and establishing new habits to be the best methods to overcome the desire to vape. Participants who received behavioral support and a vape-taper plan from pharmacists were more likely to be vape- and nicotine-free at 6 months.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0309.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: electronic communication; serving documents; public authority; administrative proceedings
Online: 10 November 2020 (12:18:20 CET)
On 14 March 2020 the state of epidemic threat was introduced in Poland applicable until 20 March 2020 when the state of epidemic was introduced in the territory of the Republic of Poland. The situation associated with the growing number of SARS-CoV-2 infections forced ongoing monitoring of the epidemic situation, which entailed an introduction of a number of restrictions and solutions intended to isolate the infected persons on the one hand, and to minimize the risk of development of an epidemic in Poland on the other. Activity of the Polish legislator is also essential, which tried to introduce solutions that would correspond with current expectations and needs. In this paper, the author points to the issues of communication with a public authority by specific reflections on the principles of serving documents on beneficiaries of EU programs under which they were awarded funding for their implementation. The author points to the dynamics of the legislator’s work in this respect by analyzing the rules for serving documents by a public authority on beneficiaries who are public entities and those who are not.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0103.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: university students; electronic cigarettes (ECs); questionnaire survey; Slovakia
Online: 9 February 2020 (14:37:40 CET)
Young adults are more likely to have experimented with electronic cigarettes (EC) and underestimate their risks. The on-line survey adapted from American Survey on Tobacco and Alternative Tobacco Products included questions about the personal use of EC, perceptions about the harms and their role in disease causation, education and cessation training and practices related to classical cigarettes (CC), electronic cigarettes (EC) and alternative tobacco products (ATP). The questionnaire filled in 577 medical students (71.9% women) from Comenius University in Bratislava, the average age was 23±2yrs. The sample comprised of 486 (84.2%) Slovak and 91 (15.8%) foreign students; 385 were (66.7%) non-smokers, 111 (19.3%) ex-smokers and 81 (14 %) current smokers. EC currently use 13.5 % medical students, more males than females (22.2% vs 10.12%; OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.55−4.13), more foreign students than Slovak students (24.2% vs 11.52; OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.41−4.26), more smokers of classical cigarettes than non-smokers (46.9% vs 8.06%; OR 10.07, 95% CI 5.85−17.34). EC seems to be less harmful to 59.97 % students, mostly in the age groups ≤ 24 (61.76% vs 51.49%; OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.03−2.07), 41.25% of students consider EC to be less addictive, 55.6% think they do not get enough education on EC during their medical study. The results show the high consumption of tobacco products and the lack of knowledge and awareness among medical students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0552.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: antiferromagnetism; spintronics; electronic transport; DFT; ab initio calculations
Online: 31 August 2018 (15:55:42 CEST)
We report the electronic, magnetic and transport properties of a prototypical antiferromagnetic (AFM) spintronic device. We chose Cr as the active layer because it is the only room-temperature AFM elemental metal. We sandwiched Cr between two non-magnetic metals (Pt or Au) with large spin-orbit coupling. We also inserted a buffer layer of insulating MgO to mimic the structure and finite resistivity of a real device. We found that, while spin-orbit has a negligible effect on the current flowing through the device, the MgO layer plays a crucial role. Its effect is to decouple the Cr magnetic moment from Pt (or Au) and to develop an overall spin magnetization. We have also calculated the spin-polarized ballistic conductance of the device within the Büttiker-Landauer framework, and we have found that for small applied bias our Pt/Cr/MgO/Pt device presents a spin polarization of the current amounting to ~25%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0195.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: precision agriculture, electronic insect traps, internet of things
Online: 29 May 2017 (10:02:26 CEST)
Τhe concept of remote insect surveillance at large spatial scales for a number of serious insect pests of agricultural and medical importance is introduced in a series of our papers. We augment typical, low-cost plastic traps for many insect pests with the necessary optoelectronic sensors to guard the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and –in relevant cases- identify the species of the incoming insect from their wingbeat. For every important crop pest there are monitoring protocols to be followed in order to decide when to initiate a treatment procedure before a serious infestation occurs. Monitoring protocols are mainly based on specifically designed insect traps. Traditional insect monitoring suffers in that the scope of such monitoring: is curtailed by its cost, requires intensive labor, is time consuming, an expert is often needed for sufficient accuracy and can sometimes raise safety issues for humans. These disadvantages reduce the extent to which manual insect monitoring is applied and therefore its accuracy, which finally results in significant crop loss due to damage caused by pests. With the term ‘surveillance’ we intend to push the monitoring idea to unprecedented levels of information extraction regarding the presence, time-stamping detection events, species identification and population density of targeted insect pests. Insect counts as well as environmental parameters that correlate with insect’s population development are wirelessly transmitted to the central monitoring agency in real time, are visualized and streamed to statistical methods to assist enforcement of security control to insect pests. In this work we emphasize on how the traps can be self-organized in networks that collectively report data at local, regional, country, continental, and global scales using the emerging technology of the Internet of Things (IoT). This research is necessarily interdisciplinary and falls at the intersection of entomology, optoelectronic engineering, data-science and crop science and encompasses the design and implementation of low-cost, low-power technology to help reduce the extent of quantitative and qualitative crop losses by many the most significant agricultural pests. We argue that smart traps communicating through IoT to report in real-time the level of the pest population from the field straight to a human controlled agency can, in the very near future, have a profound impact on the decision making process in crop protection and will be disruptive of existing manual practices. In the present study, three cases are investigated : monitoring Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using a) Picusan and b) Lindgren trap, and c) monitoring various stored grain beetle pests using the pitfall trap.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: electronic cigarette; e-cigarette; smoking; adolescent; frequency; tobacco
Online: 14 March 2017 (07:56:50 CET)
Introduction The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study determines the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Furthermore, it evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods Participants were 68,043 middle and high school students aged 13–18 years from the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey. Of the 68,043 participants, we analyzed 6,655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use. Results The prevalence of ever using and current (past 30 days) use of e-cigarettes was 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever e-cigarette users, approximately 40% used e-cigarettes for ≥1/month and 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. Daily e-cigarettes users were 10 times greater among daily cigarette smokers than among cigarette users for <1/month (18.1% vs. 1.8%) and 16 times more prevalent among those smoking ≥20 cigarettes/day than among those smoking <1 cigarette/month (38.9% vs. 2.4%). The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%), followed by less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%), smoking cessation (13.1%), and indoor use (10.7%). Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, smoking cessation and indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and frequency of e-cigarette use differed according to the reason for the use of e-cigarettes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0175.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Parametric excitation; Dry-Friction; Magnetic Spring Force; Electronic circuit
Online: 12 January 2022 (14:33:34 CET)
In this paper, we have shown the electronic circuit equivalence of a mechanical system consists of two oscillators coupled with each other. The mechanical design has the effects of the magnetic, resistance forces and the spring constant of the system is periodically varying. We have shown that the system’s state variables, such as the displacements and the velocities, under the effects of different forces, lead to some nonlinear behaviors, like a transition from the fixed point attractor to the chaotic attractor through the periodic and quasi-periodic attractors. We have constructed the equivalent electronic circuit of this mechanical system and have verified the numerically obtained behaviors using the electronic circuit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0269.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Hydrogen; DFT; Electronic Properties; Energy Storage; Perovskite type Hydrides
Online: 19 October 2021 (10:37:03 CEST)
The structural, elastic, anisotropic elastic, electronic, vibrational and properties of the Perovskite type Hydrides RbXH3 (X = Be, Ca, Mg) were performed via Vienna Ab – initio Simulation Pac-kage (VASP) based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). Our results have exhibited a well-agreement with previous calculations and experiments for each compound. In order to de-termine physical properties of RbXH3 has been used the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) with Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) functional at this study. Present compounds were found to be mechanically stable as well as their gravimetric hydrogen storage capacities has been investigated. The Perovskite type Hydrides RbBeH3 and RbMgH3 has an indirect bandgap of 0.274 eV and 2.209 eV while RbCaH3 has a direct bandgap of 3.274 eV respectively and therefo-re these compounds has shown a semiconductor behaviour at equilibrium. Besides directional dependence of anisotropic properties was visualized by representing them with maximum - mi-nimum points..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0446.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: electronic waste recycling; occupational health; public health; injuries; stress
Online: 19 November 2018 (10:23:06 CET)
Little research has been done on occupational health ramifications of informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling work, which is increasingly common in low- and middle-income countries, and very little is known about this in high-income countries. Our study evaluated informal and formal e-waste recycling workers in Chile, which was recently recognized as a high-income country. In 2017 we recruited 78 informal recycling workers from two cities, and 15 formal e-waste recycling workers from one recycling facility. Participants completed a questionnaire and health assessment regarding their involvement in, and potential impacts of, e-waste recycling, among other measures. Participants were primarily male, middle-aged, married with children, and had worked in e-waste recycling for an average of 12 years. Participants generally reported good health status, and chronic disease prevalence was similar to the national prevalence. Workers commonly reported exposures to several occupational stressors, including mental health stressors and noise, as well as insufficient income. Occupational injuries were common and use of safety equipment was low. No significant differences were found between informal and formal workers. Informal e-waste workers in Chile face occupational health challenges. The extent to which these issues impact the health of informal Chilean e-waste workers is unclear and warrants further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0101.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: E raining; digital learning objects; electronic assessment; tablets; smartphones
Online: 7 May 2018 (06:09:24 CEST)
This research assess the effects of training program based on the usage of the digital learning objects in teaching practice at the Northern Borders University staff. E Assessment through the tablets and smart phones and the teachers’ attitudes towards such way of evaluation is the major objective of this study as the researcher expects that the assessment mechanism in the university through utilization of tablets and smart phones and its application will inevitably bring in a systematic improvement in the assessment and evaluation process of the curricula. Moreover, making use of the e learning objects in training will make a significant change in e training program of the university. Hence, the researcher has chosen voluntary random samples from the university teaching staff (men\women) from various different faculties (medicine, medical sciences, science, education and arts, business administration, home economics, and science and literature). These samples included 300 members of the teaching staff. In a group of 20 to 25 members, a personal training was conducted regarding the usage of tablets and smart phones and its applications in the assessment process. Each group participated by producing a complete e-assessment for their students in the Northern Borders University and by the e learning system i.e. Blackboard and Question Mark. The research also depends on the semi-experimental design of multiple groups and on testing the groups’ pre and post achievement tests. In addition, the research identifies the level of the university teaching staff in using the tablets and the smartphones and its applications in the assessment process by the note card that the individuals have during the test.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0359.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: 6H-SiC; the first principles; copper matrix composites; electronic properties
Online: 22 December 2021 (12:06:53 CET)
The interfacial mechanics and electrical properties of the SiC reinforced copper matrix composites were studied via the first principles method. The work of adhesion (Wad) and the interfacial energies were calculated to evaluate the stabilities of the SiC/Cu interfacial models. The carbon terminated (CT)-SiC/Cu interfaces were predicted more stable than those of the silicon terminated (ST)-SiC/Cu from the results of the Wad and interfacial energies. The interfacial electron properties of SiC/Cu were studied via the charge density distribution, charge density difference, electron localized functions and partial density of the state. The covalent C-Cu bonds were formed based on the results of the electron properties, which further explained the fact that the interfaces of the CT-SiC/Cu are stable than those of the ST-SiC/Cu. The interfacial mechanics of the SiC/Cu were investigated via the interfacial fracture toughness and ultimate tensile stress, and the results indicate that both CT- and ST-SiC/Cu interfaces are hard to fracture. The ultimate tensile stress of the CT-SiC/Cu is nearly 23GPa, which is smaller than those of the ST-SiC/Cu of 25 GPa. The strains corresponding to their ultimate tensile stresses of the CT- and ST-SiC/Cu are about 0.28 and 0.26, respectively. The higher strains of CT-SiC/Cu indicate their stronger plastic properties on the interfaces of the composites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0281.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: coil resistance; ecigarette; electronic nicotine delivery system; pod-style; atomizer
Online: 13 September 2020 (11:56:34 CEST)
In Electronic Nicotine Delivery System (ENDS), coil resistance is an important factor in the generation of heat energy used to change e-liquid into vapor. An accurate and unbiased method for testing coil resistance is vital for understanding its effect on emissions and reporting results that are comparable across different types and brands of ENDS and measured in different laboratories. This study proposes a robust, accurate and unbiased method for measuring coil resistance. An apparatus is used which mimics the geometric configuration and assembly of ENDS pods and power control units. The method is demonstrated on two commonly used ENDS devices, the ALTO by Vuse and JUUL. Analysis shows that the proposed method is stable and reliable. The two-wire configuration introduced a positive measurement bias of 0.086 [ohm], which is a significant error for sub-ohm coil designs. The four-wire configuration is far less prone to bias error. We observed a significant difference in coil resistance of 0.593 [ohm] (p<0.001) between the two products tested. The mean resistance and standard deviation of the pod coil assemblies was shown to be 1.031 (0.067) [ohm] for ALTO and 1.624 (0.033) [ohm] for JUUL. The variation in coil resistance between products and within products can have significant impacts on aerosol emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0304.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: electronic nose; wireless system; gas sensors; coal mines; processing; wireless
Online: 15 October 2018 (11:30:07 CEST)
This study describes the design and implementation of an electronic nose, which was applied to classify and identify hazardous gases generated in underground coal mines. For this purpose, an electrochemical sensor array was used to detect a set of toxic gases. This work illustrates the electronic components of a wireless multisensory system for the toxic gases detection on indoor environments (i.e., underground mines), which was performed with reduced size, low cost and low electrical consumption, in order to detect different compounds using the basic principle of operation of each component to be applied to the target gas. Furthermore, the sample collection, data communication and data processing in real time obtained an excellent performance for gas sensing and even to measure the concentration level of the chemical volatile compounds transmitted from different points of the detection zone. The results demonstrated that using a wireless electronic nose for toxic gases detection was possible to reach a success rate of discrimination of 97%, using principal components analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0491.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: electronic tongue; milk; galactose; phthalocyanine; chitosan; ionic liquid; LbL sensor
Online: 25 July 2018 (15:50:19 CEST)
A nanostructured electrochemical bi-sensor system for analysis of milks has been developed using the Layer by Layer technique. The non-enzymatic sensor [CHI+IL/CuPcS]2, is a layered material containing a negative film of the anionic sulfonated copper phthalocyanine (CuPcS) acting as electrocatalytic material, and a cationic layer containing a mixture of an ionic liquid (IL) (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) that enhances the conductivity and chitosan (CHI) that facilitates the enzyme immobilization. The biosensor ([CHI+IL/CuPcS]2-GAO) results from the immobilization of galactose oxidase on the top of the LbL layers. FTIR, UV-vis and AFM have confirmed the proposed structure and cyclic voltammetry has demonstrated the amplification caused by the combination of materials in the film. Sensors have been combined to form an electronic tongue for milk analysis. Principal Component Analysis has revealed the ability of the sensor system to discriminate between milk samples with different lactose content. Using PLS-1 calibration models, correlations have been found between the voltammetric signals and chemical parameters measured by classical methods. PLS-1 models provide excellent correlations with lactose content. Additional information about other components such as fats, proteins and acidity can also be obtained. The method developed is simple and the short response time permits its use in assaying milk samples on-line.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0191.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: public health; asylum seeker; electronic health insurance card; refugee; Germany
Online: 22 March 2018 (03:38:12 CET)
Objectives Asylum seekers in Germany represent a highly vulnerable group from a health perspective due to a variety of risk factors. At the same time their access to healthcare is restricted. While the introduction of the Electronic Health Insurance Card (EHIC) for asylum seekers instead of healthcare-vouchers is discussed controversially using politico-economic reasons, there is hardly any empirical evidence on its actual impact on the use of medical services Study design Thus, the aim of this study is to examine the influence of the possession of the EHIC on the use of medical services by asylum seekers as measured by their consultation rate of ambulant physicians (CR). For this purpose, a standardized survey was carried out to 260 asylum seekers in different municipalities of which some have introduced the EHIC for asylum seekers, while others have not. Methods Various CR were differentiated considering possible third variables as well as confounding factors. The period prevalence was compared between the groups "with EHIC" and "without EHIC" using a two-sided t-test. Multivariate analysis was done using a linear OLS regression model. Results Asylum seekers who are in possession of the EHIC are significantly more likely to seek ambulant medical care than those receiving healthcare-vouchers. Their CR, however, does not differ significantly from the age-corrected CR of the autochtonous population. Taking into account relevant covariables, the possession of the EHIC can be viewed as an independent influencing factor on the asylum seekers' use of medical care. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that having to ask for healthcare-vouchers at the social security office could be a relevant barrier for asylum seekers. Nevertheless, the ownership of the EHIC does not seem to lead to an overuse of medical services.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0021.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: electrical and electronic waste; recycling; legislative frameworks; environmental management; landfilling
Online: 3 August 2016 (12:33:45 CEST)
Households and businesses are generating unprecedented levels of electrical and electronic wastes (e-waste), fueled by modernisation and rapid obsolescence. While the challenges imposed by e-waste are similar everywhere in the world, disparities in progress to deal with it exists; with developing nations such as South Africa lagging. The increase in e-waste generation increases the need to formulate strategies to manage it. This paper presents an overview of e-waste management on a global and South African scenarios with a specific case for Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) waste management practices in South Africa. CRTs present the biggest problem for recyclers and policy makers because they contain hazardous elements such as lead and antimony. Common disposal practices have been either landfilling or incineration. The research into the South African practices with regards to CRT waste management showed that there is still more to be done to effectively manage this waste stream. This is despite clear waste regulatory frameworks in the country. However, recent developments have placed e-waste as a priority waste stream, which should lead to intensified efforts in dealing with it. Overall, these efforts should aim to maximise diversion from landfilling and to create value-addition opportunities, leading to social and environmental benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0012.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Flammulina velutipes; fermentation broth; umami taste; nutrients; electronic tongue; mushroom byproducts
Online: 4 May 2022 (14:14:18 CEST)
As one of the most appealing edible mushrooms, the quality of Flammulina velutipes can be affected by the cultivation substrate, which has an impact on the mushroom umami taste and nutrients. In our study, the effect of mushroom root fermentation broth (MRFB) based substrate on umami taste and nutrients of F. velutipes were evaluated; four proportions of MRFB was conducted (CK 0%, E1 6.7%, E2 13.4%, E3 20.1%). Results indicated that MRFB was an effective nutrient supplement for mushroom cultivation substrate. E2 and E3 showed higher crude fiber, crude fat, soluble protein, and soluble sugar. Compared to CK, the content of monosodium glutamate-like (MSG-like) amino acids, essential amino acids, total amino acids and total 5'-nucleotides in E2 and E3 were higher. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) values in E1, E2 and E3 were 1.70, 2.43 and 1.56 times of CK, respectively. Higher umami, saltness and sweetness taste values were found in E2. Thereby, it signified that better umami and richer nutrients were achieved by using substrate with proper volume of MRFB, especially, E2 with 13.4% of MRFB. Overall, better mushroom quality could be derived from the application of MRFB in cultivation. MRFB was a favorable nutrient supplement for Flammulina velutipes cultivation substrate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0101.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: electronic paste; organic vehicle; mixed-solvents; solubility parameter; low residual rate
Online: 7 December 2021 (11:46:21 CET)
The copper end paste used in multilayer ceramic capacitors sintered in nitrogen atmosphere will lead to carbon residue of organic vehicle, which will lead to the reduction of electrode conduc-tivity and high scrap rate. With an attempt to leave no residue in the sintering, the compatibility of solvents and thickeners should be improved because it has an important influence on the hi-erarchical volatilization and carbon residue of organic vehicles. In this work, the volatility of different solvents was compared and several solvents were mixed in a definite proportion to prepare an organic vehicle with polyacrylate resins. The hierarchical volatility and solubility parameters of mixed solvents were adjusted effectively by changing proportions of different components, the thermogravimetric curves of resins and organic vehicles were measured by thermogravimetric analyzer, the effect of solubility parameter on the dissolvability of resins in the solvent and the residual of organic vehicles were studied. Results showed that the hierar-chical volatilization of solvents can be obtained by mixing different solvents; the intrinsic vis-cosity of the organic vehicle is higher and the thermal decomposition residue of polyacrylate resins is lower when the solubility parameters of mixed solvents and polyacrylate resins are closer. The low residual sintering of organic vehicles can be achieved by using the mixed solvent with hierarchical volatility and approximate solubility parameters as resins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0486.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Filter; face masks; penetrometer; electronic cigarette; COVID-19; light scattering detector
Online: 21 December 2020 (09:34:50 CET)
During the COVID-19 pandemic face masks grew in importance as their use by the general population was recommended by health officials in order to minimize the risk of infection and prevent further spread of the virus. To ensure health protection of medical personal and other system relevant staff, it is of considerable interest to quickly test if a certain lot of filtering facepiece masks meets the requirements or if the permeability changes under different conditions. As certified penetrometers are rather expensive and were difficult to obtain during the COVID-19 pandemic, we describe two quite simple and cheap methods to quickly test the filter permeability based on an electronic cigarette. The first method uses a precision scale, the second method uses a light scattering detector to measure the filter penetration. To make sure these two methods yield reliable results, both were tested with freshly cut filter samples covering the range of approx. 7% to 60% permeability and compared to the results of a certified penetrometer. The comparison of the two methods with the certified penetrometer showed a good correlation and therefore allow a quick and rather reliable estimation of the permeability. Several examples about the use of faulty masks and the resulting health risks show that simple, fast, cheap and broadly available methods for filter characterization might be useful in these days.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0480.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Electronic Commerce Industry; Economic Impact; Computalble General Equilibrium Model; COVID-19
Online: 18 November 2020 (14:10:11 CET)
(1)Background: To perform a simulation-based analysis of 2019 COVID-19 outbreak and how would the electronic commerce indursty help China’s economy resilient. (2)Methods: As the epidemic continues, it is possible to use Computable General Equilibrium model to simulate the economic consequences and analyse the role of electronic commerce industy in COVID-19 outbreak. (3)Results: Estimates and models produced at the time of the outbreak suggested that COVID-19 could have a catastrophic effect on China’s economy. National statistics were examined for anomalies that corresponded to the timing of COVID-19 outbreak and, where possible, the size of any gain or loss found estimated. Our analysis suggests that the electronic commerce industry could help China’s economy to recover by stimulating consumption, improving technological level and expanding investment. (4)Conclusions: This exercise holds important lessons for estimating the electronic commerce’s role of similar events – such as pandemic influenza – and measures to recover the economy. We suggest that electronic commerce industry should be paid more attention in economic development, especially in epidemic time. The implications of our findings are discussed in the light of a prospective epidemic.
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: organic semiconductor; electronic polarization; GW approximation; electrostatic interaction; molecular orientation dependence
Online: 27 November 2019 (05:18:10 CET)
I demonstrate that the ionization energy (IE) and the electron affinity (EA) of organic molecular crystals can be predicted from first-principles. Here, I describe the induced electronic polarization and the electrostatic effects upon crystalline IE and EA. I also demonstrate that the electronic polarization mainly originates from the screened coulomb interaction inside the crystalline bulk phase, and that the electrostatic contribution to IE and EA crucially depends on the orientation of the molecule at the surface. The former is well described by the GW approximation, while the latter is reasonably estimated by the difference in frontier orbital energy between the gas phase and the surface at the level of a generalized gradient approximation to the density functional theory. The present methodology enables to demonstrate the impact of the electrostatic effect upon the energy level of the injected charge at a multi-monolayer surface of an organic semiconductor thin film.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0138.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: metal-oxides nanowires; chemical sensing; sensor array; electronic noses, food preservation
Online: 13 May 2019 (01:44:13 CEST)
Food preservatives are compound that are used for the treatment of food to improve the shelf life. In the food industry, is necessary to monitor all processes, for both safety and quality of the product. An electronic nose (or e-nose) is a biomimetic olfactory system that could find numerous industrial applications, including food quality control. Commercial electronic noses are based on sensor arrays composed by a combination of different sensors, which include conductometric metal oxide devices. Metal oxide nanowires are considered among the most promising materials for the fabrication of novel sensing devices, which can enhance the overall performances of e-noses in food applications. In the present work, is reported the fabrication of a novel sensor array based on SnO2, CuO and WO3 nanowires deposited on top of commercial μHPs, provided by ams Sensor Solutions Germany GmbH. The array was tested for the discrimination of four typical compounds added to food products or used for their treatment to increase the shelf life: ethanol, acetone, nitrogen dioxide and ozone. Results are very promising: the sensors array was able to operate for long time consuming less than 50mW for each single sensor, and PCA analysis confirms that the device was able to discriminate between different compounds.
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Electronic nose; apple; mildew; pattern recognition; artificial neural network; nondestructive examination
Online: 21 March 2019 (09:54:00 CET)
In this paper, PEN3 electronic nose was used to detect and recognize fresh and moldy apples (inoculated with Penicillium expansum and Aspergillusniger) taken Golden Delicious apples as model subject. Firstly, the apples were divided into two groups: apples only inoculated with different molds (Group A) and mixed apples of inoculated apples with fresh apples (Group B). Then the characteristic gas sensors of the PEN3 electronic nose that were most closely correlated with the flavor information of the moldy apples were optimized and determined, which can simplify the analysis process and improve the accuracy of results. Four pattern recognition methods, including linear discriminant analysis (LDA), backpropagation neural network (BPNN), support vector machines (SVM) and radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), were then applied to analyze the data obtained from the characteristic sensors, respectively, aiming at establishing the prediction model of flavor information and fresh/moldy apples. The results showed that only the gas sensors of W1S, W2S, W5S, W1W and W2W in the PEN3 electronic nose exhibited strong signal response to the flavor information, indicating were most closely correlated with the characteristic flavor of apples and thus the data obtained from these characteristic sensors was used for modeling. The results of the four pattern recognition methods showed that BPNN presented the best prediction performance for the training and validation sets for both the Group A and Group B, with prediction accuracies of 96.29% and 90.00% (Group A), 77.70% and 72.00% (Group B), respectively. Therefore, it first demonstrated that PEN3 electronic nose can not only effectively detect and recognize the fresh and moldy apples, but also can distinguish apples inoculated with different molds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; Electron Beam Melting; Electronic Imaging; Image Generation; STL Model
Online: 14 January 2019 (12:39:08 CET)
Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an increasingly used Additive Manufacturing (AM) technique employed by many industrial sectors, including the medical device and aerospace industries. In EBM process monitoring, data analysis for processed layer quality evaluation is currently focused on the extraction of information from the raw data collected in-EBM process, i.e. thermal/ optical / electronic images, and the comparison between the collected data and the Computed Tomography (CT)/ microscopy images generated post-EBM process. This article postulates that a stack of bitmaps could be generated from the 3D model at a range of Z heights during file preparation of the EBM process, and serve as a reference image set. In-EBM process comparison between that and the workpiece images collected during the EBM process could then be used for quality assessment purposes. In addition, despite the extensive literature on 3D model slicing and contour generation for AM process preparation, no methods regarding image generation from cross sections of the 3D models have been disseminated in details. This article aims to address this by presenting a piece of 3D model-image generation software. The software is capable of generating binary 3D model reference images with user-defined Region-of-Interest (ROI) of the processing area, and Z heights of the model. It is envisaged that this 3D model-reference image generation ability opens up new opportunities in quality assessment for the in-process monitoring of the EBM process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0057.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: metal-insulator transitions; electronic transport in interface structures; quantum hall effects
Online: 4 September 2018 (06:03:44 CEST)
The apparent metal-insulator transition (MIT) in two-dimension (2D) was discovered by Kravchenko et al.  more than two decades ago in strongly interacting 2D electrons residing in a Si-metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (Si-MOSFET). Its origin remains unresolved. Recently, low magnetic field reentrant insulating phases (RIPs), which dwell between the zero-field (B=0) metallic state and the integer quantum Hall (QH) states where the Landau-level filling factor υ > 1, have been observed in strongly correlated 2D GaAs hole systems with large interaction parameter rs (~20-40) and high purity. A new complex phase diagram was proposed, which includes zero field MIT, low magnetic field RIPs, integer QH states, fractional QH states, high field RIPs and insulating phases (HFIPs) with υ < 1 in which the insulating phases are explained by the formation of Wigner crystal. Furthermore, evidences of new intermediate phases were reported. All contribute to the further understandings of the puzzle. This review article serves the purpose of summarizing those recent experimental findings and theoretical endeavors, to foster future research efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0013.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: temperature modulation; gas sensors; volatile organic compounds; electronic nose; conditioning circuit
Online: 23 April 2018 (11:47:33 CEST)
This paper consists of the design and implementation of a simple conditioning circuit to optimize the electronic nose performance, where a temperature modulation method was applied to the heating resistor to study the sensor’s response and confirm whether they are able to make the discrimination when exposed to different volatile organic compounds (VOC’s). This study was based on determining the efficiency of the gas sensors with the aim to perform an electronic nose, improving the sensitivity, selectivity and repeatability of the measuring system, selecting the type of modulation (e.g., pulse width modulation) for the analytes detection (i.e., Moscatel wine samples (2% of alcohol) and ethyl alcohol (70%)). The results demonstrated that by using temperature modulation technique to the heating resistors, it is possible to realize the discrimination of VOC’s in fast and easy way through a chemical sensors array. Therefore, a discrimination model based on principal component analysis (PCA) was implemented to each sensor, with data responses obtaining a variance of 94.5% and accuracy of 100%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0112.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: transition radiation; Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle; electronic charge; size of the universe
Online: 19 July 2017 (08:57:09 CEST)
The energy, momentum and the action associated with the time domain transition radiation fields are investigated. The results show that for a charged particle moving with speed , the longitudinal momentum associated with the transition radiation is approximately equal to for values of smaller than about 10-3 where is the total radiated energy and c is the speed of light in free space. The action of the transition radiation, defined as the product of the energy dissipated and the duration of the emission, increases as decreases and, for an electron, it becomes equal to when where is the speed associated with the lowest energy state of a particle confined inside the universe and h is the Plank constant. Combining these results with Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, an expression for the electronic charge based on other fundamental physical constants is derived. The best agreement between the experimentally observed electronic charge and the theoretical prediction is obtained when one assumes that the actual size of the universe is about 250 times larger than the visible universe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: SNA; Foreign Trade; Social network analysis; Electronic integrated circuits; UCINET; COVID-19
Online: 22 September 2022 (11:26:03 CEST)
Social network analysis (SNA) is an effective method for characterizing networks from various specific perspectives. Global trade contracted sharply in 2020 owing to the COVID-19 pandemic, and growth is expected to be lower than the pre-pandemic trends. This study takes countries worldwide as the primary unit of analysis and uses different procedures of social network analysis (SNA), including network density, centrality, and core-periphery structure, and applies them to the field of trade in electronic integrated circuit products (ICPT). In addition to static and descriptive analysis, this study also uses of tools such as Ucinet 6.732 for visual analysis, visual analysis, and more convenient and precise display of the network structure of ICPT. The important countries play a central role in determining the overall structural features. The core-periphery structure in the network from both spatial and temporal perspectives, data on electronic integrated circuit products for the period 2015-2021 were used in SNA. This study found that the ICPT network became denser from 2015 to 2021 but declined and picked up in 2018 and 2020. Moreover, the core-peripheral structure exists in the ICPT network. The main core network countries are Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, mainland China, Malaysia, Japan, the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, and other Asian countries, including the United States and Germany.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0091.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Chiral Materials; Chiral Space Groups; Chirality; Chirality measure; Electronic structure; Circular Dichroism
Online: 6 July 2022 (08:55:56 CEST)
Chirality depends on particular symmetries. For crystal structures it describes the absence of mirror planes and inversion centers, and in addition to translations, only rotations are allowed as symmetry elements. However, chiral space groups have additional restrictions on the allowed screw rotations as a symmetry element, because they always appear in enantiomorphous pairs. This study classifies and distinguishes the chiral structures and space groups. The chirality is quantified using Hausdorff distances and continuous chirality measures and selected crystal structures are reported. The chirality is discussed for bulk solids and their surfaces. Moreover, the band structure, and thus, the density of states, is found to be affected by the same crystal parameters as the chirality. However, it is independent of handedness. The Berry curvature, as a topological measure of the electronic structure, depends on the handedness, but is not a proof for the chirality because it responds on the inversion of a structure. For molecules, optical circular dichroism is one of the most important measures for the chirality. Thus, it is proposed in this study that the circular dichroism in the angular distribution of photoelectrons in high symmetry configurations can be used to distinguish the handedness of chiral solids and their surfaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0042.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: e-record; COVID-19 era; electronic memorandum; e-memo; ICT; university administration
Online: 4 July 2022 (08:51:23 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0624.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: knowledge representation; electronic health records; health information systems; content identification; visual interface
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:42:49 CEST)
Medical records contain many terms which are difficult to process. Our aim in this study is to allow the visual exploration of the information in medical databases where the texts presents a large number of syntactic variations and abbreviations, through an interface which facilitates content identification, navigation and information retrieval. We propose the use of multi-term tag clouds as content representation tools and as assistants for the browsing and querying tasks. The tag cloud generation is achieved through a novelty mathematical method that allows related terms to remain grouped together within the tags To evaluate this proposal, we have used a database with 24,481 records. 23 expert users in the medical field were tasked to complete a survey to evaluate the generated tag clouds properties and we obtained a precision of 0.990, a recall of 0.870 and a F1score of 0.904 in the evaluation of the tag cloud as an information retrieval tool. The main contribution of this approach is that we automatically generate a visual interface over the text capable of capturing the semantics of the information and facilitating access to medical records.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0649.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: text mining; natural language processing; electronic health records; clinical text; machine learning
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:31:14 CET)
Electronic health records (EHRs) are becoming a vital source of data for healthcare quality improvement, research, and operations. However, much of the most valuable information contained in EHRs remains buried in unstructured text. The field of clinical text mining has advanced rapidly in recent years, transitioning from rule-based approaches to machine learning and, more recently, deep learning. With new methods come new challenges, however, especially for those new to the field. This review provides an overview of clinical text mining for those who are encountering it for the first time (e.g. physician researchers, operational analytics teams, machine learning scientists from other domains). While not a comprehensive survey, it describes the state of the art, with a particular focus on new tasks and methods developed over the past few years. It also identifies key barriers between these remarkable technical advances and the practical realities of implementation at health systems and in industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0567.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Wide band gap semiconductor; Elastic modulus; Optic-electronic properties; Ab–initio calculations
Online: 26 August 2020 (08:57:57 CEST)
The electronic structure and some of its derived properties of Li2CaGeO4 compound have been investigated. The calculations have been performed using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals method and ultra-soft pseudo-potentials . The optimized lattice parameters are found to be ingood accord with experiment. Features such as bulk modulus and its pressure derivative, electronic band structure and density of states are reported. The elastic anisotropy of the crystal is discussed and visualized. Moreover, the optical properties reveal that Li2CaGeO4 compound are suitable candidates for optoelectronic devices in the visible and ultraviolet (UV) regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0139.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Silicon clathrates; Electronic structure; Elastic constants; High pressure; Density Functional Theory; Castep
Online: 8 November 2018 (14:08:28 CET)
By means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have investigated the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the structural, electronic and elastic properties of the barium-doped silicon clathrate Ba8Si46 in the type-VIII structure (α phase). Physical properties are calculated under different conditions of pressure (0 GPa to 45 GPa) using the GGA-PBE functional, those calculations have been performed using the Cambridge serial total energy package CASTEP code within the Materials Studio package. Electronic properties have shown that the type-VIII Ba8Si46 has metal-like properties with a fundamental bandgap of 1 eV. Under pressure the fundamental bandgap increases slightly and the positions of the valence band maximum VBM and the conduction band minimum CBM remain unchanged. We found that the compound is mechanically stable under the pressure range, but this needs to be confirmed experimentally through synthesis, a comparison with the type-I and the guest-free counterparts has exhibited promising features for the type-VIII Ba8Si46.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0568.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: essential oils; VOCs; GC-MS SPME; electronic nose; nanowire gas sensors; ANOVA.
Online: 28 September 2018 (13:22:44 CEST)
Essential oils are mixtures of compounds obtained from plants, including flowers, roots, bark, leaves, seeds,peel, fruits, wood, that have risen up in the last decades thanks to their beneficial properties as antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory agents. The aim of this study was to characterize and analyze 13 different commercial essential oils with two different techniques. The first is GC-MS, coupled with SPME, thanks to which 204 different VOCs have been identified. The results show that a total of 95 compounds was found only in one oil, while the others were found with different frequencies in many of them. The most represented class is that of terpenes, as widely reported in literature. The second technique is based on an array of chemical gas sensors. This system was used to investigate whether sensors are able to identify these products. It turned out that basil, cinnamon and carnation are the most identifiable oils with different number and typology of sensors, especially tin oxide and copper oxide nanowires, while cayeput and thyme are more mistakable samples. Thanks to this detailed study, it has been possible to reach and obtain novel insights for the future development of this type of research.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0353.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: macromolecular crystallography; X-ray diffraction; radiation damage; absorption; electronic excitations; quantum chemistry
Online: 22 June 2018 (08:15:27 CEST)
Macromolecular crystallography at cryogenic temperatures has so far provided the majority of the experimental evidence that underpins the determination of the atomic structures of proteins and other biomolecular assemblies by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments. One of the core limitations of the current methods is that crystal samples degrade as they are subject to X-rays, and two broad groups of effects are observed: global and specific damage. While the currently successful approach is to operate outside the range where global damage is observed, specific damage is not well understood and may lead to poor interpretation of the chemistry and biology of the system under study. In this work, we present a phenomenological model in which specific damage is understood as the result of a single process, the steady excitation of crystal electrons caused by X-ray absorption, which acts as a trigger for the bulk effects that manifest themselves in the form of global damage and obscure the interpretation of chemical information from XFEL and synchrotron structural research.
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Peroxy radicals, near-infrared spectroscopy, Ã←X electronic transition, cavity ring down spectroscopy
Online: 21 July 2021 (16:19:16 CEST)
The absolute absorption cross section of the ethyl peroxy radical, C2H5O2, in the Ã←X ̃ electronic transition with the peak wavelength at 7596 cm-1, has been determined by the method of dual wavelengths time resolved continuous wave cavity ring down spectroscopy. C2H5O2 radicals were generated from pulsed 351 nm photolysis of C2H6/Cl2 mixture in presence of O2 and detected on one of the CRDS paths. Two methods have been applied for the determination of the C2H5O2 absorption cross section: (i) based on Cl-atoms being converted alternatively to either C2H5O2 by adding C2H6 or to hydro peroxy radicals, HO2, by adding CH3OH to the mixture, whereby HO2 was reliably quantified on the second CRDS path in the 21 vibrational overtone at 6638.2 cm-1 (ii) based on the reaction of C2H5O2 with HO2, measured under either excess HO2 or under excess C2H5O2 concentration. Both methods lead to the same peak absorption cross section of C2H5O2,7596 cm-1 = (1.0±0.2) × 10-20 cm2. The rate constant for the cross reaction between of C2H5O2 and HO2 has been measured to be (6.5±1.6) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0028.v11
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Heat energy; Photons; Fundamental forces; Electron dynamics; Atomic scale phenomenon; Electronic scale phenomenon
Online: 19 January 2021 (10:57:31 CET)
Misconception in using terms photon and electron exists in science. When the electron of outer ring in silicon atom executes interstate dynamics for only one cycle, it generates force and energy for the unit photon. Interstate dynamics of the electron for one forward and reverse cycle generate the overt photon having the least measured length. When the photon of suitable length interacts with the side of laterally orientated electron of an atom, it converts into the heat energy. Under the approximate angle of 90º, when a photon interacts with the tip of laterally orientated electron, it divides into the bits of energy having a shape like integral symbols. In the neutral state silicon atom, the centre acts as the reference point for electrons executing interstate dynamics and the lateral lengths of the electrons remains along the north-south poles. Under the availability of energy and force, the energy wraps around the force shaping along the tracing trajectory of electron dynamics in a silicon atom. A force is being shaped from the sides of electron not experiencing the exertions of forces. In interstate dynamics, electron of the outer ring first reaches the ‘maximum limit point’, where energy of one bit is utilized wrapping around the shaping force along its tracing trajectory. From the ‘maximum limit point’, electron completes the second half cycle dealing with relevant forces, where again energy of one bit is wrapped around the shaping force along the tracing trajectory. The shape of unit photon is like ‘Gaussian distribution of turned ends’. Under the uninterrupted heat energy for the silicon atom, an electron dynamics generates the photon having a shape like wave. Path independent but interstate dependent forces take over the control of electron. That electron executes dynamics nearly in the speed of light. In confined interstate dynamics, naturally viable conservative forces exert to the position-acquiring electron. A photon can be in the continuous and unending length if the electron dynamics remains uninterrupted. Having not made contact with states limiting the forces at work, the changing aspect of electron recalls auxiliary moment of inertia at each point of turning. By executing electron dynamics, atoms under neutral states generate photons of different shapes, so revealing the phenomena of heat and photon energy.
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS), Manganese Mn-doped GaN (Mn.Gac.N), Spintronic, Opto-electronic devices
Online: 17 May 2019 (16:16:22 CEST)
Sensors became integrated through the control condition arrangement, either for visual, mechanical, biological, or chemical applications. New stuff is designed for detection, as Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS), and are considered attractive candidates that consist of a traditional 111- V, II-VI, or group IV semiconductor. Manganese Mn-doped GaN (Mn.Gac.N) epitaxial velum has a unique magnetic, visual and chemical properties in order to control system intelligent for detector design. The subject area of the magnetic properties of MnxGal-xN is on a large scale available, there are only a few studies on the visual properties and electrochemical properties of MnxGal-xN epitaxial velums. Where MnGaN velums were used in spintronic and opto-electronic applications according to their magnetic characterization and constructed MnGaN electrode are drop fabric potential for potentiometric sensor applications since they have good performance as ion-selective electrodes. The electrical and magnetic properties that allow the control of electron spin as well as complaint period, makes the materials ideal for spintronic applications. Designing such spintronic and optoelectronic devices based on MnxGal-xN requires a broader agreement of physical, visual, electrical and chemical properties epitaxial velums that are still seldom in the literature. This bailiwick displays the potential use of MnGaN semiconductor as an all solid-state potentiometric sensor for measuring anions in solutions in the control engineering field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0100.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Al wire, free air ball (FAB),electronic flame-off (EFO), coating, bias test
Online: 18 November 2016 (15:03:34 CET)
Aluminum wire is a common material for wire bonding due to its resistance to oxidation and low price. It does not melt when becoming a free air ball (FAB) during the electronic flame-off (EFO) process with wettability, and is applied by wedge bonding. This study used 20μm Zn-Coated Al-0.5wt.%Si (ZAS) wires to improve the FAB shape after the EFO process, while maintaining stability of the mechanical properties, including the interface bonding strength and hardness. In order to test circuit stability after ball bonding, the current-tensile test was performed. During the experiment, it was found that 80nm ZAS with wire bonding has lower resistance and higher fusing current. For the bias tensile test, the thicker Zn film diffused into the Al-Si matrix easily, after which the strength was reduced. The ball-bond interfaces had no change in their condition before and after the bias. Accordingly, ZAS could be a promising candidate for ball bonding in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0034.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Natural cork stoppers; Corky off-flavors; Electronic nose; Machine learning algorithms; Artificial neural networks
Online: 5 May 2022 (10:45:17 CEST)
This article discusses the use of a hand held electronic nose to obtain information on the presence of some aromatic defects in natural cork stoppers, such as haloanisoles, alkylmethoxypyrazines and ketones. The proposed prototype has been developed as an instrumentation system with up to eight commercial gas sensors. Machine learning algorithms such as k-nearest neighbors and artificial neural networks has been used. The use of this system tries to improve the current aromatic defect detection process in the cork stopper industry, which is done by gas chromatography or human test panels.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: room-temperature superconductivity; thermodynamics; Electronic structure; Effects of material synthesis; crystal structure; chemical composition
Online: 4 February 2021 (11:20:12 CET)
By taking advantage of a stability criterion established recently, the critical temperature Tc is reckoned with help of the microscopic parameters, characterising the normal and superconducting electrons, namely the independent-electron band structure and a repulsive two-electron force. The emphasis is laid on the sharp Tc dependence upon electron concentration and inter-electron coupling, which might offer a practical route toward higher Tc values and help to understand why high-Tc compounds exhibit such remarkable properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0337.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Information and Communication Technology; Digital Economy; Electronic Tourism; Principle Factors Analysis; Dynamic Panel Data
Online: 28 June 2020 (10:12:42 CEST)
As we know, the economy of science is to achieve optimal gains using scarce resources. Similarly, a problem where economies of the world are trying to resolve it is the issue of how to achieve an optimal economic contribution from limited tourism resources. According to the fact that global studies and statistics indicate that good governance is considered as the most important factor in developing countries and is considered as a strong governance of the development and as Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is effective in the interactions and economic and social exchanges of any society, it is the link between the tourism industry and the technology under the form of a robust tool and utilitarian in the tourism process called E-tourism can play a significant role. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of network Readiness Index and good governance on income from tourism industry. In this study, data and information about 14 selected countries were collected from Southwest Asia in the annual period of 2016-2011 in the form of panel data and the proposed model was used and estimated by the generalized torques system method. The estimated results of the model indicate that both hypotheses have a positive and significant impact on the amount of Network Readiness Index in the income of tourism industry, as well as the positive and significant effect of the index the amount of income from the tourism industry is confirmed, and their impact has been positive and significant, as well as exchange rate variables, revenue and commercial openness, also have a positive and significant effect on revenues of the tourism industry.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0073.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: deep behavioral covariates; clinical informatics; predictive modeling; electronic medical records; machine-learning; data-mining
Online: 7 November 2019 (09:25:04 CET)
Deep behavioral covariates (DBCs) introduced in this perspective form a new class of covariates that have the potential to enhance the performance of predictive models and improve analytics in clinical decision support applications. DBCs can measure how engaged a patient tends to be and how he or she tends to respond to events, and they may be highly predictive of the patient’s outcomes for a planned treatment. DBCs may potentially serve as a standard to measure patient engagement and activation and may form highly efficient mechanisms for improving patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0791.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Mint; Plant volatiles; Electronic Nose; Principal Component Analysis; Linear Discriminant Analysis; k-Nearest-Neighbors Analysis
Online: 31 December 2020 (11:45:40 CET)
Mints emit diverse scents that exert specific biological functions and are relevance for applications. The current work strives to develop electronic noses that can electronically discriminate the scents emitted by different species of Mint as alternative to conventional profiling by gas chromatography. Here, 12 different sensing materials including 4 different metal oxide nanoparticle dispersions (AZO, ZnO, SnO2, ITO), one Metal-Organic Frame as Cu(BPDC), and 7 different polymer films including PVA, PEDOT: PSS, PFO, SB, SW, SG, PB were used for functionalizing of QCM sensors. The purpose was to discriminate six economically relevant Mint species (Mentha x piperita, Mentha spicata, Mentha spicata ssp. crispa, Mentha longifolia, Agastache rugosa, and Nepeta cataria). The adsorption and desorption datasets obtained from each modified QCM sensor were processed by three different classification models including Principal Component Analy-sis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), and k-Nearest Neighbor Analysis (k-NN). This allowed discriminating the different Mints with classification accuracies of 97.2% (PCA), 100% (LDA), and 99.9% (k-NN), respectively. Prediction accuracies with a repeating test measurement reached up to 90.6% for LDA, and 85.6% for k-NN. These data demonstrate that this electronic nose can discriminate different Mint scents in a reliable and efficient manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0199.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Chalcogenide crystals, electronic structure, optical properties, mechanical properties, total bond order density, density functional theory.
Online: 20 June 2019 (11:40:05 CEST)
Materials design for processing and application requires fundamental understanding of their properties based interatomic interaction. The use of the novel concept of total bond order density (TBOD) as a single quantum mechanical metric to characterize the internal cohesion of a crystal and correlate with the calculated physical properties is particularly appealing. This requires detailed first-principles calculation of the electronic structure, interatomic bonding and related properties. In this article, we use this new concept and apply it to chalcogenide crystals based on data obtained from 25 crystals: Ag2S, Ag2Se, Ag2Te, As2S3, As2Se3, As2Te3, As4Se4, Cu2S, Cu2Se, Cu2Te, Cu4GeS4, Cu2SnS3, Cu2SnSe3, GeS2, GeSe2, Ge4Se9, Sb2S3, Sb2Se3, Sb2Te3, SnS, SnSe, CdSe, CdTe, ZnSe, and ZnTe. Together with the calculated optical and mechanical properties, we demonstrate the efficacy of using this novel approach for materials design that could facilitate the exploration and development of new chalcogenide crystals and glasses. Moreover, the TBOD and its partial components (PBOD) could be the key descriptors in machine learning protocol for broader scale design when a large database is available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0441.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: graphene synthesis; silicon carbide; thin film; high-power impulse magnetron sputtering; thermal decomposition, electronic devices
Online: 30 May 2018 (08:22:05 CEST)
This article reports a novel and efficient method to synthesize graphene by thermal decomposition process. In this method, silicon carbide (SiC) thin films grown on Si(100) wafers with an AlN buffer layer were used as substrates. A CO2 laser beam heating without vacuum or controlled atmosphere was applied for SiC thermal decomposition. The physical, chemical, morphological, and electrical properties of the laser-produced graphene were investigated for different laser energy densities. The results demonstrate that graphene was produced in form of small islands with quality, density and properties depending on the applied laser energy density. Furthermore, the produced graphene exhibits a sheet resistance characteristic similar to graphene grown on mono-crystalline SiC wafer, which indicates its potential for electronic device applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0278.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Basil; Mint; Plant volatiles; Electronic Nose; Principal Component Analysis,; Linear Discriminant Analysis; k-Nearest-Neighbors Analysis.
Online: 10 June 2021 (08:09:36 CEST)
The Lamiaceae belong to the species-richest families of flowering plants and harbor many species used as herbs or for medicinal applications, such as Basils or Mints. Evolution of this group has been driven by chemical speciation, mainly of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). The commercial use of these plants is characterized by a large extent of adulteration and surrogation. To authenticate and discern the species, is, thus, relevant for consumer safety, but usually requires cumbersome analytics, such as Gas Chromatography, often to be coupled with Mass Spectroscopy. We demon-strate here that quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM)-based electronic noses provide a very cost-efficient alternative, allowing for a fast, automated discrimination of scents emitted from leaves of different plants. To explore the range of this strategy, we used leaf material from four genera of Lamiaceae along with Lemongrass as similarly scented, but non-related outgroup. In order to unambiguously differentiate the scents from the different plants, the output of the 6 different SURMOF/QCM sensors was analyzed using machine learning (ML) methods, together with a thorough statistical analysis. The exposure and purging datasets (4 cycles) obtained from a QCM-based, low-cost homemade portable e-Nose were analyzed with Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) classification model. Prediction accuracies with repeating test measurements reached values of up to 90%. We show that it is not only possible to discern and identify plants on the genus level, but even to discriminate closely related sister clades within a genus (Basil), demonstrating that e-Noses are a powerful technology to safeguard consumer safety against the challenges of globalized trade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0490.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Fano’s interaction; Auger spectroscopy; Ozone; Electronic correlation; Hartree-Fock; Configuration Interaction; Continuum wavefunction; Projected potential method
Online: 22 February 2021 (15:33:34 CET)
In this work we outline a general method for calculating Auger spectra in molecules, which accounts for the underlying symmetry of the system. This theory starts from Fano’s formulation of the interaction between discrete and continuum states and generalizes this formalism to deal with the simultaneous presence of several intermediate quasi-bound states and several non-interacting decay channels. Our theoretical description is specifically tailored to resonant autoionization and Auger processes, and includes explicitly the incoming wave boundary conditions for the continuum states and an accurate treatment of the Coulomb repulsion. This approach is implemented and applied to the calculation of the K−LL Auger and autoionization spectra of ozone, which is a C2v symmetric molecule, whose importance in our atmosphere to filter out radiation has been widely confirmed. We also show the effect that the molecular point group, and in particular the localization of the core-hole in the oxygen atoms related by symmetry operations, has on the electronic structure of the Auger states and on the spectral lineshape by comparing our results with experimental data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0184.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: particulate pollution; air quality; deposition flux; geostatistics; ordinary kriging; urban-industrial; elemental identification; electronic scanning microscopy
Online: 11 September 2020 (06:01:45 CEST)
This work aimed to assess and characterize the air quality in what concerns particulate pollution in urban-industrial environments. The main objectives were to study the spatial variability of the deposition flux of particulate pollution identifying areas with higher deposition, associate the variability with climatological variables and with possible surrounding emitting sources. The method for collecting the deposited particles was based on the standard NF X 43-007. Sampling for particulate pollution took place between April 2015 and February 2016, through seven sampling campaigns. Maps of the spatial dispersion for the particulate pollution were obtained through statistics and geostatistics techniques. Elemental identification by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also used but only in two sampling campaigns. The results show that the sampling campaigns that took place during hot and dry periods, 2nd and 3rd, present higher deposition flux: 2.04 g/(m2 x month) and 1.72 g/(m2 x month), respectively. Lower deposition fluxes were registered in the 6th and 7th campaigns: 0.23 g/(m2 x month) and 0.24 g/(m2 x month), respectively. It was also observed a recurrent high deposition at specific sampling points which may be due to both the nearby road traffic and the presence of chimneys. SEM analysis allowed to associate repetitive element deposition, at the same sampling point, to the same emitting source.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0161.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: electronic nose; nanowire gas sensors; food quality control; Parmigiano Reggiano; multivariate data analysis; artificial neural network
Online: 12 April 2018 (06:25:29 CEST)
Parmigiano Reggiano cheese is one of the most appreciated and consumed food worldwide, especially in Italy, for its high content of nutrients and for its taste. However, these characteristics make this product subject to counterfeiting in different forms. In this study, a novel method based on an electronic nose has been developed in order to investigate the potentiality of this tool to distinguish rind percentage in grated Parmigiano Reggiano packages that should be lower than 18%. Different samples in terms of percentage, seasoning and rind working process were considered to tackle the problem at 360°. In parallel, GC-MS technique was used to give a name to the compounds that characterize Parmigiano and to relate them with sensors responses. Data analysis consisted of two stages: multivariate analysis (PLS) and classification made in a hierarchical way with PLS-DA ad ANNs. Results are promising in terms of correct classification of the samples. The classification rate is higher for ANNs than PLS-DA, reaching also 100% values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: estimated cardiorespiratory fitness; physical activity; prediabetes; diabetes; abnormal blood glucose; electronic health records; epidemiology; prevention; primary care
Online: 13 December 2022 (02:15:06 CET)
Background. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a predictor of chronic disease that is impractical to routinely measure in primary care settings. We used a new estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF) algorithm that uses information routinely documented in electronic health care records to predict abnormal blood glucose incidence. Methods: Participants were adults (17.8% female) 20-81 years old at baseline from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study between 1979 and 2006. eCRF was based on sex, age, body mass index, resting heart rate, resting blood pressure, and smoking status. CRF was measured by maximal treadmill testing. Cox proportional hazards regression models were established using eCRF and CRF as independent variables predicting the abnormal blood glucose incidence while adjusting for covariates. Results: Of 8,602 participants at risk at baseline, 3,580 (41.6%) developed abnormal blood glucose during an average of 4.9 years follow-up. The average eCRF of 12.03 ± 1.75 METs was equivalent to the CRF of 12.15 ± 2.40 METs within the 10% equivalence limit. In fully adjusted models, the estimated risks were the same (HRs = 0.96), eCRF (95% CIs = 0.93−0.99), and CRF (95% CI of 0.94−0.98). Each 1-MET increase was associated with a 4% reduced risk. Conclusion: Higher eCRF is associated with a lower risk of abnormal glucose. eCRF can be a vital sign used for research and prevention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0391.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Antibiotic prescription; Outpatients; AWaRe classification; Ghana; SORT IT; Antimicrobial stewardship; Electronic Medical Records; Operational research; Antimicrobial resistance
Online: 26 July 2022 (07:47:52 CEST)
Background: Monitoring of antibiotic prescription practices in hospitals is essential to assess and facilitate appropriate use. This is relevant to halt the progression of antimicrobial resistance. Methods: Assessment of antibiotic prescribing patterns and completeness of antibiotic prescriptions among out-patients in 2021 was conducted at the University Hospital of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in the Ashanti region of Ghana. We reviewed electronic medical records (EMR) of 49,660 patients who had 110,280 encounters in the year. Results: The patient encounters yielded 350,149 prescriptions. Every month, 33-36% of patient encounters resulted in antibiotic prescription, higher than the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recommended optimum of 27%. Almost half of the antibiotics prescribed belonged to WHO’s Watch group. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (50%), azithromycin (29%), ciprofloxacin (28%), metronidazole (21%), and cefuroxime (20%) were the most prescribed antibiotics. Antibiotic prescribing parameters (indication, name of drug, duration, dose, route and frequency) were documented in almost all prescriptions. Conclusions: Extending antimicrobial stewardship to the out-patient settings by developing standard treatment guidelines, an out-patient specific drug formulary and antibiograms can promote rational antibiotic use at the hospital. The EMR system of the hospital is a valuable tool for monitoring prescriptions that can be leveraged for future audits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0115.v1
Subject: Chemistry, General & Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: boron; fullerenes; chemical bond; electronic structure; DFT; localization; bond order; QTAIM; ELF; Hückeloid model; heat of formation
Online: 13 April 2022 (04:30:00 CEST)
The one-to-one structural correspondence between any conjugated hydrocarbon CnHm and the borane BnHm+n is extended here, with the B3LYP/cc-pVDZ model, to pure conjugated carbon systems with the example of buckminsterfullerene C60 with the corresponding icosahedral isoelectronic system closo-borane B60H60, and the fluorine substituted systems B60F30H30 and B60F60 , all with icosahedral Ih symmetry. All systems correspond to energy minima in the potential energy hypersurface, except for B60(F30)in(H30)out . Selected electronic structure methods are used to characterize all systems: molecular electrostatic potentials (MEP), atomic charges, bond orders, and topological properties of the electron density within quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules (QTAIM) and electron-localization function (ELF) theory. In the particular case of B60H60 we use the recently developed Hückeloid model to characterize this system. The stability of the energy minimum icosahedral structure B60F60 could have an origin in F···F attractive interactions of the inner fluorine atoms of the cage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0109.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: photoinduced electron transfer; triplet state formation; charge recombination; charge separation; intersystem crossing; SOCT-ISC; SOCME; electronic coupling
Online: 16 December 2021 (14:21:43 CET)
The conformational dependence of the matrix element for spin-orbit coupling and of the electronic coupling for charge separation are determined for an electron donor-acceptor system containing a pyrene acceptor and a dimethylaniline donor. Different kinetic and energetic aspects that play a role in the spin-orbit charge transfer intersystem crossing (SOCT-ISC) mechanism are discussed. This includes parameters related to initial charge separation and the charge recombination pathways using the (Semi-Classical) Marcus Theory for electron transfer. The spin-orbit coupling, which plays a significant role in charge recombination to the triplet state can be probed by (TD-)DFT, using the latter as a tool to understand and predict the SOCT-ISC mechanism. The matrix elements for spin-orbit coupling for acetone and 4-thio-thymine are used for benchmarking. (Time Dependent-) Density Functional Theory (DFT and TD-DFT) calculations are applied using the quantum chemical program Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0055.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: magnetic microwires; magnetic bistability; magnetic tag; electronic surveillance; domain wall propagation; post-processing; magnetic anisotropy; magnetostatic interaction.
Online: 4 January 2021 (16:18:01 CET)
Applications in security and electronic surveillance require combination of excellent magnetic softness with good mechanical and anti-corrosive properties and low dimensionality. We overviewed the properties of soft magnetic glass-coated microwires and different post-processing making them quite attractive for electronic article surveillance and security applications. We studied the magnetostatic interaction between the microwires and routes to tune the non-linear hysteresis loops by using the arrays of different types of amorphous microwires. The presence of neighbouring microwire (either Fe or Co-based) significantly affects the hysteresis loop of the whole microwires array. In a microwires array containing magnetically bistable microwires we observed splitting of the initially rectangular hysteresis loop with a number of Barkhausen jumps correlated with the number of magnetically bistable microwires. Essentially, non-linear and irregular hysteresis loops have been observed in mixed arrays containing Fe and Co-rich microwires. The observed non-linearity in hysteresis loops allowed to increase the harmonics and tune their magnetic field dependencies. Non-linear hysteresis loops have been also observed upon devitrification of amorphous microwires. On the other hand, several routes allowing to tune the switching field by either post-processing or modifying the magnetoelastic anisotropy have been reviewed. Observed unique combination of magnetic properties together with thin dimensions and excellent mechanical and anti-corrosive properties provide excellent perspectives for the use of glass-coated microwires for security and electronic surveillance applications.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0178.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: ecological monitoring methods; vegetation composition; vegetation cover; vegetation structure; soil sampling methods; sample management; electronic data collection
Online: 15 November 2019 (08:56:27 CET)
Ecosystem surveillance monitoring is critical to managing natural resources and especially so under changing environments. Despite this importance, the design and implementation of monitoring programs across large temporal and spatial scales has been hampered by the lack of appropriately standardised methods and data streams. To address this gap, we outline a surveillance monitoring method based on permanent plots and voucher samples suited to rangeland environments around the world that is repeatable, cost-effective, appropriate for large-scale comparisons and adaptable to other global biomes. The method provides comprehensive data on vegetation composition and structure along with soil attributes relevant to plant growth, delivered as a combination of modules that can be targeted for different purposes or available resources. Plots are located in a stratified design across vegetation units, landforms and climates to enhance continental and global comparisons. Changes are investigated through revisits. Vegetation is measured to inform on composition, cover and structure. Samples of vegetation and soils are collected and tracked by barcode labels and stored long-term for subsequent analysis. Technology is used to enhance the accuracy of field methods, including differential GPS r plot locations, instrument based Leaf Area Index (LAI) measures, and three dimensional photo-panoramas for advanced analysis. A key feature of the method is the use of electronic field data collection to enhance data delivery into a publicly-accessible database.Our method is pragmatic, whilst still providing consistent data, information and samples on key vegetation and soil attributes. The method is operational and has been applied at more than 704 field locations across the Australian rangelands as part of the Ecosystem Surveillance program of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN). The methodology enables continental analyses, and has been tested in communities broadly representative of rangelands globally, with components being applicable to other biomes. Here we also recommend the consultative process and guiding principles that drove the development of this method as an approach for development of the method into other biomes. The consistent, standardised and objective method enables continental, and potentially global analyses than were not previously possible with disparate programs and datasets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0104.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: information and communication technology; electronic health record (HER); entropy; region of interest; region of non-interest; telemedicine
Online: 11 January 2018 (18:26:28 CET)
Telemedicine is the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for clinical health care from a distance. The exchange of radiographic images and electronic patient health information/records (ePHI/R) for diagnostic purposes has the risk of confidentiality, ownership identity, and authenticity. In this paper, a data hiding technique for ePHI/R is proposed. The color information in the cover image is used for key generation, and stego-images are produced with ideal case. As a result, the whole stego-system is perfectly secure. This method includes the features of watermarking and steganography techniques. The method is applied to radiographic images. For the radiographic images, this method resembles watermarking, which is an ePHI/R data system. Experiments show promising results for the application of this method to radiographic images in ePHI/R for both transmission and storage purpose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0232.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Drug use review; Outpatients; Ghana; SORT IT; Quality indicators; Electronic Medical Records; Operational research; Rational use of medicines
Online: 15 September 2022 (13:39:06 CEST)
(1) Background: Rational use of medicines (RUM) and their assessment is important to ensure optimal use of resources and patient care in hospitals. These assessments are essential to identifying practice gaps for quality improvement. (2) Methods: Assessment of adherence to WHO/ International Network for Rational Use of Drugs core prescribing indicators among out-patients in 2021 was conducted at the University Hospital of the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in the Ashanti region of Ghana. We reviewed electronic medical records (EMR) of 110,280 patient encounters in the year which resulted in 336,087 medicines prescribed. (3) Results: The average number of medicines prescribed per encounter was 3 with generics being prescribed in 76% of prescriptions. Injections were prescribed in 7% of encounters while 90% of medicines were from Ghana’s Essential Medicines List 2017. (4) Conclusions: With the exception of patient encounters with injections, all prescribing indicators assessed in this study did not meet WHO optimum levels providing targets for quality improvement in RUM. Implementing prescribing guides and policies, regular audits and feedback as well as continuous professional development training may help to improve prescribing practices in the hospital.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0352.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Health record; electronic health record; e-health record; the history of medicine; the economy of the healthcare system
Online: 22 May 2020 (10:48:18 CEST)
The history of health records (later also called medical records), including ones regarding individual patients, is thousands of years old. It finds it roots in the first ancient civilisations. Up until the 19th century the records’ purpose was mainly an educational one. In the 19th and 20th century they started becoming significant in other roles as well, including those not strictly limited to medicine. In particular, to account for medical procedures, insurance proceeds or legal action. Currently we are living in a revolutionary era when it comes to health records, in which their character has changed from a “paper-based” to an electronic one. This paper presents the development of health records from the ancient to modern times, mainly in Europe and North America. Other cultures and civilisations, including China and India, are not discussed. An analysis of available sources was conducted, inter alia digital versions of manuscripts up to hundreds of years old. The analysis was based on PubMed and Google Scholar (several key words, all the available sources). Sources published in non-international languages (e.g. Dutch) were also investigated. Overall, approximately 600 articles were analysed, 158 of which were used and cited in this paper. The conclusions drawn from the analysis are as follows: (1) Health records, priorly used mostly for educational purposes, for about 100 years now have acquired a fully formal status. (2) We are currently facing the most revolutionary changes regarding the transformation of paper-based records into electronic ones. (3) The consequences of this process include systematic applications of solutions within the area of e-health, which allow us to make medical services more flexible, improve the health of individual patients and entire populations and potentially limit expenditure. (4) In the light of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, introducing electronic health records could be beneficial in terms of limiting the potential sources of contamination (physical copies of health records), saving time and resources, and improving the network of communication between medical centres.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0132.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Tobacco Free Nicotine (TFN); Synthetic Nicotine; Tobacco-derived Nicotine; vape-bar; Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems; Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
Online: 9 February 2022 (10:37:28 CET)
Tobacco Free Nicotine (TFN) Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) are yet to be classified as tobacco products; consequently, there is ambiguity over whether Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority can be extended to include TFN e-cigarettes. In recent years, a more significant number of e-cigarette companies have been manufacturing TFN-containing e-cigarettes and e-liquids to circumvent FDA regulations. While studies have shown that aerosols generated from tobacco-derived nicotine-containing e-cigarettes contain significant Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels, no comparison studies have been conducted using TFN e-cigarettes. This study uses a single puff aerosol generator to aerosolize TFN and tobacco-derived nicotine-containing vape-products and subsequently involves semi-quantifying ROS generated by these vape products in H2O2 equivalents. We found that the differences between ROS levels generated from TFN and tobacco-derived nicotine-containing vape products vary by flavor. TFN tobacco flavors and fruit flavors are more toxic in terms of ROS generation than menthol/ice and drink/beverage flavored products using TFN. The type of salt nicotine used in vape products, TFN or tobacco-derived nicotine, impacts the level of ROS generated from flavored vape products. Thus, a better understanding of the type of salt nicotine used in e-cigarettes (tobacco-derived or synthetic), has modulating effect on lung oxidative stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0363.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Periodontal Disease; Electronic Dental Record; Longitudinal Data; Data Quality; Dental Infor-matics; Clinical Course of Periodontal Disease; Periodontal Cohort Generation
Online: 19 January 2023 (13:01:27 CET)
Objective: Determine the feasibility of utilizing longitudinal electronic dental record (EDR) data to track change over time in patient periodontal disease (PD) and to generate three patient cohorts: 1) patients whose disease did not change over time, 2) patients whose PD progressed, and 3) patients whose disease improved over time using informatics approaches. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 28,908 patients who received a comprehensive oral evaluation between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014, at the Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD) clinics. We developed and tested three automated computer applications to: 1) diagnose periodontitis cases from periodontal charting, 2) retrieve clinician-documented diagnoses from clinical notes, and 3) track disease change over time. We also evaluated the density of longi-tudinal EDR data for the following follow-up times: 1) none, 2) up to 5 years, 3) >5 and <=10 years, and 4) >10 and <=15 years Results: Thirty-four percent (n=9,954) of the study cohort had up to five years of follow-up visits with an average of 2.78 visits with periodontal charting information. An average of three patient visits per year that contained periodontal charts (63,552) were utilized to obtain a diagnosis, which is considered excellent. For clinician-documented diagnoses from clinical notes, 42% of patients (n=5,562) had at least two PD diagnoses to determine their disease change. In this cohort with cli-nician-documented diagnoses, 72% percent of patients (n=3,919) did not have a disease status change between their first and last visits, 669 (13%) patients' disease status progressed, and 589 (11%) patients’ disease improved. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing longitudinal EDR data to track disease changes over 15 years during the observation study period. We found excellent longitudinal data when diagnoses generated from periodontal charting were considered (three visits per pa-tient). This information can be now utilized for studying the clinical course of periodontitis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Diabetic foot; Diabetic neuropathies; Peripheral arterial disease; Foot ulcer; Gait; Walking; Postural balance; Wearable electronic devices; Gait analysis; Digital technology
Online: 13 September 2022 (09:28:22 CEST)
People with diabetic foot frequently exhibit poor gait and balance. However, there is no review to inform digital biomarkers of poor gait and balance related to diabetic foot, measurable by wearables outside traditional gait laboratories. Such information could assist in designing remote patient monitoring platform to track changes in gait and balance dysfunction among people with diabetic foot for timely referral and intervention. Accordingly, we conducted a web-based review using PubMed. Our search was limited to human subjects and English-written papers published in peer-reviewed journals. We identified 20 papers in this review. We found preliminary evidence of digital biomarkers of gait and balance dysfunction in people with diabetic foot, measured by wearables, such as slow gait speed, large gait variability, unstable gait initiation, and large body sway. However, due to heterogeneities in included papers in terms of study design, movement tasks, and small sample size, more studies are recommended to confirm this preliminary evidence. Additionally, based on our review, we recommend establishing appropriate strategies to successfully implement wearable-based assessment into clinical practice for diabetic foot care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: second-hand smoke; cardiovascular disease; third-hand smoke; passive vaping; electronic cigarettes; heated tobacco; water pipe; myocardial infarction; stroke; diabetes
Online: 3 April 2019 (10:07:13 CEST)
In deaths and diseases attributed to tobacco smoke cardiovascular events exceed cancer and respiratory diseases. Second hand smoke (SHS) promotes the development of arteriosclerosis and can also trigger acute changes of endothelial function and of blood coagulability. Indoor smoking bans reduced coronary syndrome and myocardial infarction 10-20% within one year and were followed by sustainable decreases of stroke and diabetes. With a smoke-free hospitality industry people recognized tobacco smoke as an air pollutant, smoking in public was denormalized and social acceptance of smoking in front of children and pregnant women decreased also in homes and in cars. Combined effects with ambient air pollution are proven for active smoking and suspected for SHS. Contamination with third hand smoke (THS, “cold smoke”) persists for months in homes and cars, creating secondary pollutants that in some cases are more toxic (e.g., tobacco-specific nitrosamines). Remnants found in air, dust, and on surfaces (carpets, wallpapers, upholstery, soft toys) were associated with their metabolites in saliva and urine of children and with elevated levels of nicotine on hands and cotinine in urine of nonsmokers residing in homes previously occupied by smokers. In animal experiments effects of THS were found on thrombogenesis, insulin resistance through oxidative stress, on the developing immune system, lipid metabolism and alterations in liver, lung, skin and behavior. Much less is known about health effects for bystanders from the aerosols exhaled during “vaping” of e-cigarettes, but nicotine and other toxins from e-cigarettes are certainly a hazard, which should be prevented by the use of dermal and oral nicotine products, which are safer for nicotine replacement and without risk for bystanders.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0581.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Healthcare; Internet of Things; Smart hospitals; Big data; Cloud computing; Blockchain; Electronic health records; Smart-health; IOT-Healthcare; Healthcare sensors; Remote health monitoring; Healthcare
Online: 24 May 2021 (15:10:31 CEST)
In this ‘New Normal' post-COVID-19 modern world, people's health is becoming increasingly important to track. An advanced technology that uses sensory instruments to track and record critical parameters and communicates with others is the need of the time. It's difficult to keep track of all of the medical parameters and post-operative data of people with non-communicable diseases like diabetes and heart disease on a continuous basis. The system discussed here to be designed for patients who are confined to their homes, particularly when going out and being exposed to the outer world is prohibited. This paper proposed a groundbreaking health management system based on the Internet of Things (IoT) for accessing patient medical parameters in both local and remote areas. When a person's wellbeing becomes urgent, this initiative seeks to send an emergency alert to family members or loved ones. A cloud server records data from the patient's temperature sensor and pulse sensor; the data is analyzed using support vector machine algorithms to identify irregular conditions, and an emergency message is sent to the rest of the family via a mobile application, as well as a warning message to the nearest hospital.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0530.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: generalized relativistic pseudopotentials; molecular integrals; Gaussian basis functions; relativistic coupled cluster theory; excited states; heavy-element compounds; high-precision electronic structure modeling; thorium oxide; uranium dioxide.
Online: 28 December 2022 (07:57:51 CET)
Generalized relativistic pseudopotentials (GRPP) of atomic cores implying the use of different potentials for atomic electronic shells with different principal quantum numbers give rise to accurate and reliable relativistic electronic structure models of atoms, molecules, clusters, and solids. These models readily incorporate the effects of Breit electron-electron interactions and one-loop quantum electrodynamics effects. Here we report the computational procedure for evaluating one-electron integrals of GRPP over contracted Gaussian functions. This procedure was implemented in a library of routines named LIBGRPP, which can be integrated into existing quantum chemistry software, thus enabling the application of various methods to solve the many-electron problem with GRPPs. Pilot applications to electronic transitions in the ThO and UO2 molecules using the new library and intermediate-Hamiltonian Fock space relativistic coupled cluster method are presented. The results clearly demonstrate that rather economical tiny-core GRPP models can exceed in accuracy relativistic all-electron models defined by Dirac-Coulomb and Dirac-Coulomb-Gaunt Hamiltonians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0068.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Cross-Border Electronic Commerce (CBEC); Export Marketing Strategy (EMS); International Dynamic Marketing Capability (IDMC); Dynamic Managerial Capability (DMC); Entrepreneuri-al Orientation; Networking Capability; Versatile Dynamic Capability
Online: 4 January 2022 (20:26:24 CET)
For better export marketing strategies (EMS), companies mobilize their internal resources, which are managerial commitment, firm experience, and product uniqueness. However, Small businesses with constrained resources cannot be well explained with this view. So, more research on how small business come up with EMS have been called for. To explain how resource-restricted firms which rely heavely on entrepreneur, this study adopted the concept of dynamic managerial capabilities (DMCs) and resource versatility to better explain small business exports. We analyzed small businesses in Mongolia with qualitative research methods, including interviews with entrepreneurs and support organizations, site visits, and group discussions. We suggest international dynamic marketing capabilities (IDMCs), which are entrepreneurial orientation, networking capability, and versatile dynamic capability for small business. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0322.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Smart power management; smart grid; distributed energy resources; energy storage systems; power electronic converters; micro-grids; renewable energy resources; smart meters; electric vehicle infrastructures; SWOT-AHP; MCDM; AHP-WASPAS; AHP-TOPSIS; OIC countries.
Online: 16 August 2021 (11:16:09 CEST)
A conventional electrical grid mostly depends on the electrical power generated from fossil fuels. However, the pollutants from fossil fuels are the key factors for adverse climate change. Most of the developed countries of the world have already recognized the fact that the energy mix requires to be diversified by incorporating renewable energy. This is especially relevant for many of the member countries of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), consisting of 57 countries, whose abundance of fossil fuel reserve indicates that much of their electric power is still generated from fossil fuels. In order to integrate renewable energy sources into the hybrid energy mix, an existing conventional grid needs to undergo drastic changes. Alongside this, the population boom in the OIC member countries has caused higher demand for a steady supply of electricity that the conventional grids have long been struggling to cope with. With a view to solving this multifaceted problem, incorporation of the smart power management schemes is indispensable using a smart electrical grid, where information and communications technology is integrated into its major building blocks. This allows advanced applications of a grid, such as the formation of micro-grids, demand-side management, energy storage, high-tech power electronic converters, etc. As the smart grids are being adopted by many developed countries, it is high time for the OIC member countries to pay due attention to this development, if they have not already done so. This paper explains, with special focus on the OIC member countries, the various smart power management technologies, their operations and applications, and the benefits and challenges. Then it goes on to carry out the Strength-Weakness-Opportunity-Threat with Analytical-Heuristic-Procedure (SWOT-AHP) analysis to evaluate its feasibility of incorporation and the underlying strategies appropriate for its implementation. Furthermore, a Hybrid Multi-Criteria-Decision-Making (MCDM) analysis is performed to evaluate the sequence of the emphasis that should be given on each of the technologies from those available for the smart power management initiative. Finally, the study reinforces the stance by drawing parallels from the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and highlights the importance of the smart grid in line with the global vision of SDG. This paper aims at assisting the decision-makers in implementing smart power management schemes in the OIC member countries, in particular, and other countries of the world, in general.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI); Distributed Energy Resources (DER); Distribution Management System (DMS); Graph Reduction In Parallel (GRIP); Intelligent Electronic Device (IED); Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI); Service Oriented Architecture (SOA); Ultra Large Scale System (ULSS)
Online: 19 March 2018 (11:42:42 CET)
Smart grid software interconnects multiple Engineering disciplines (power systems, communication, software and hardware technology, instrumentation, big data, etc.). The software architecture is an evolving concept in smart grid systems in which systematic architecture development is a challenging process. The architecture has to realize the complex legacy power grid systems and cope up with current Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). The distributed generation in smart grid environment expects the software architecture to be distributed and to enable local control. Smart grid architecture should also be modular, flexible and adaptable to technology upgrades. In this paper, the authors have made a comprehensive review on architecture for smart grids. An in depth analysis of layered and agent based architectures is presented and compared under various domains.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: quantum mechanics; algebraic geometry; commutative algebra; Grönber basis; primary ideal decomposition; eigenvalue problem in quantum mechanics; molecular orbital theory; quantum chemistry; first principles electronic structure calculation; symbolic computation; symbolic-numeric solving; Hartree-Fock theory; molecular integral; Taylor series; polynomial approximation; algebraic molecular orbital equation
Online: 26 December 2019 (02:17:44 CET)
A new framework in quantum chemistry has been proposed recently ("An approach to first principles electronic structure calculation by symbolic-numeric computation'' by A. Kikuchi). It is based on the modern technique of computational algebraic geometry, viz. the symbolic computation of polynomial systems. Although this framework belongs to molecular orbital theory, it fully adopts the symbolic method. The analytic integrals in the secular equations are approximated by the polynomials. The indeterminate variables of polynomials represent the wave-functions and other parameters for the optimization, such as atomic positions and contraction coefficients of atomic orbitals. Then the symbolic computation digests and decomposes the polynomials into a tame form of the set of equations, to which numerical computations are easily applied. The key technique is Grröbner basis theory, by which one can investigate the electronic structure by unraveling the entangled relations of the involved variables. In this article, at first, we demonstrate the featured result of this new theory. Next, we expound the mathematical basics concerning computational algebraic geometry, which are necessitated in our study. We will see how highly abstract ideas of polynomial algebra would be applied to the solution of the definite problems in quantum mechanics. We solve simple problems in "quantum chemistry in algebraic variety'' by means of algebraic approach. Finally, we review several topics related to polynomial computation, whereby we shall have an outlook for the future direction of the research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0347.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: structural health monitoring (SHM); acoustic emission, guided waves, Lamb waves, sensors, ultrasound, piezoelectric, composites, piezopolymers, PVDF, interdigital transducer (IDT), PWAS, C-MUT, CMUT, mems, analog electronic front end; analog signal processing, impact localization, impact detection, sensor node, wireless sensor networks (WSN), IoT, aerospace, automotive, infrastructure, condition monitoring.
Online: 7 April 2021 (17:03:14 CEST)
This review article is focused on the analysis of the state of the art of sensors for guided 9 ultrasonic waves for the detection and localization of impacts, therefore of interest for the structural 10 health monitoring (SHM). The recent developments in sensor technologies are then reported and 11 discussed through the many references in recent scientific literature. The physical phenomena re-12 lated to impact event and the main physical quantities are then introduced to discuss their im-13 portance in the development of the hardware and software components for SHM systems. An im-14 portant aspect of the article is the description of the different ultrasonic sensor technologies cur-15 rently present in the literature and what advantages and disadvantages they could bring, in relation 16 to the various phenomena investigated. In this context, the analysis of the front-end electronics is 17 deepened, the type of data transmission both in terms of wired and wireless technology and in terms 18 of online and offline signal processing. The integration aspects of sensors for the creation of net-19 works with autonomous nodes with the possibility of powering through energy harvesting devices 20 and the embedded processing capacity is also studied. Finally, the emerging sector of processing 21 techniques using deep learning and artificial intelligence concludes the review by indicating the 22 potential for the detection and autonomous characterization of the impacts.