ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0648.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Fabrics/Textiles; Polymer fibers; textile composites; conductive nanofiber; Electro-spinning
Online: 25 November 2020 (15:08:15 CET)
Electrospinning polymer fibers for is a well-understood process, primarily resulting in random mats or single strands. More recent systems and methods have allowed for the production of nanofiber yarns (NFY) for ease of use in textiles. This paper presents a method of NFY manufacture using a simplified dry electrospinning system to produce self-assembling functional NFY capable of conducting electrical charge. The polymer is a mixture of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), polyvinyl acrylate (PVA) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). When treated with Ethylene Glycol (EG) to enhance conductivity, fibers touching the collector plate align to the applied electrostatic field and grow, twisting together as additional nanofiber polymer is added by the jet. The longer the electrospinning continues, the longer and more uniformly twisted the NFY becomes. This process has the added benefit of reducing the electric field required for NFY production from >2.43 kV cm-1 to 1.875 kV cm-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0354.v1
Online: 24 October 2022 (07:14:38 CEST)
Spider silk has excellent strength and elasticity in natural, researchers have been working for decades try to achieve natural spider silk outstanding mechanical properties using recombinant spider silk protein (spidroin) through artificial spinning. In this work, we chose wet spinning method to explore the relationship between concentration of coagulation bath and fiber performance. It was found that the concentration of methanol has important effect on fiber continuity, diameter and mechanical properties. Lower concentration favors spinning continuous thinner, fibers with high strain. Secondary stretching benefits spinning silk fibers with stable mechanical properties, and thermal stability. Through applying different methanol concentration and additional stretching, we obtained silk fibers with Young’s modulus of 3.052± 2.626 GPa, stress of 25.3944 ± 17.48 MPa, and strain of 140 ± 95.4%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: blockchain; M2M; CPS; cotton spinning production
Online: 2 August 2017 (12:40:05 CEST)
As the core of intelligent manufacturing, CPS has serious security issues, especially for the communication security of its terminal M2M. In this paper, blockchain technology is introduced to address such a security problem of communications between different types of machines in CPS. According to the principles of blockchain technology, we design a blockchain for secure M2M communications. As a communication system of M2M consists of public network areas, equipment areas and private areas, we design a sophisticated blockchain structure between the public area and private area. For validating our design, we take cotton spinning production as a case study to demonstrate our solution to M2M communication problems under the CPS framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0450.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Wet spinning; Lanthanum oxide; Biochar; Chromate; Adsorption
Online: 22 February 2021 (08:51:53 CET)
Lanthanum chemical compound incorporates a sensible anionic complexing ability, however lacks stability at low pH scale. Biochar fibers will benefit of their massive space and plethoric useful teams on surface to support metal chemical compound. Herein, wet spinning technology was used to load La3+ onto sodium alginate fiber, and convert La3+ into La2O3 through carbonization. The La2O3 modified biochar (La-BC) fiber was characterized by SEM, XRD and XPS, etc. The adsorption experiment proved that La-BC showed excellent adsorption capacity for chromates, and its saturation adsorption capacity was about 104.93mg/g. The information suggested that the adsorption was in step with both Langmuir and Freundlich model, followed pseudo-second-order surface assimilation mechanics, which instructed that the Cr (VI) adsorption was characterized by single-phase and polyphase adsorption, mainly chemical adsorption. Thermodynamic parameter proved that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The mechanistic investigation revealed that the mechanism of adsorption of Cr (VI) by La-BC may include electrostatic interaction, ligand exchange or complexation. Moreover, co-existing anions and regeneration experiments proved that La-BC was recyclable and had a good prospect in the field of chrome-containing wastewater removal.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0057.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: porous fibers; activated carbon; ice-templating; ice segregation induced self-assembly; silk fibroin; wet spinning; solution blow spinning
Online: 5 February 2020 (10:38:29 CET)
Fabrics comprised of porous fibers could provide effective passive protection against chemical and biological (CB) threats whilst maintaining high air permeability (breathability). Here, we fabricate hierarchically porous fibers consisting of regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) and activated-carbon (AC) prepared through two fiber spinning techniques in combination with ice-templating – namely cryogenic solution blow spinning (Cryo-SBS) and cryogenic wet-spinning (Cryo-WS). The Cryo-WS RSF fibers had exceptionally small macropores (as low as 0.1 µm) and high specific surface areas (SSAs) of up to 79 m2 g-1. The incorporation of AC could further increase the SSA to 210 m2 g-1 (25 wt. % loading) whilst also increasing adsorption capacity for volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0266.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Special-shaped spinneret holes; Spinning; Spinnerets; Fluid simulation
Online: 18 March 2022 (09:19:13 CET)
In this paper, a method of direct spinning is proposed for direct spinning of heterogeneous spun wire-blown holes standard parts and the motherboard mounted on the spin board assemblies. The standardization of the spinneret hole was conducive to improving the machining accuracy and efficiency of the pores, and the spinneret holes could be replaced in time when a hole in the spinneret fails. Moreover; on the other hand, according to the needs of the process of spinning, the spinnerets with various cross-sections were combined and installed on the same motherboard for spinning, and the spinning obtained different bionic new functional products. Based on the results, a finite element model of the standard part of the spinneret hole was developed, and the spinnability of the combinable spinnable spinneret board was verified by simulating the melt flow in the spinneret channel through POLYFLOW software. Further, by the processing of the spinneret, the motherboard was installed into a combined spinneret, and the spinneret assembly was installed on the spinning machine for the experiments. Furthermore, the tow section was observed using a microscope, and the results showed the feasibility of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0599.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: polypropylene; suspension grafting; melt-blown spinning; adsorption; aniline
Online: 27 August 2020 (08:27:29 CEST)
This paper uses polypropylene (PP) as the matrix and acrylic acid (AA) and maleic anhydride (MAH) as functional monomers to prepare PP-g-(AA-MAH) fibers by suspension grafting and melt-blown spinning technology that are easy to industrially scale-up. The fibers can be used to adsorb aniline from wastewaters. Results showed that the grafting ratio reached the maximum of 12.47%. The corresponding optimal conditions were grafting time of 3h, AA : MAH = 0.75, total monomer content of 55%, benzoyl peroxide 1.4%, xylene concentration of 6 mL/g PP, and deionized water content of 8 mL/g PP. Owing to its good fluidity and thermal stability, the product of suspension grafting can be used for melt-blown spinning. Infrared spectroscopic and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses indicated that AA and MAH were successfully grafted onto PP fibers. After grafting, the hydrophilicity of PP-g-(AA-MAH) fiber increased. Therefore, it had higher adsorptivity for aniline and the adsorption capacity could reach 42.2 mg/g at 45 min. Moreover, the PP-g-(AA-MAH) fibers showed good regeneration performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0225.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: gelatin; nanofibers; cinnamaldehyde; solution blow spinning; antimicrobial activity
Online: 24 January 2018 (09:03:09 CET)
Cinnamaldehyde, a natural preservative that can non-specifically deactivate foodborne pathogens, was successfully incorporated into fish skin gelatin (FSG) solutions and blow spun into uniform nanofibers. The effects of cinnamaldehyde ratios (5-30%, w/w FSG) on physicochemical properties of fiber-forming emulsions (FFEs) and their nanofibers were investigated. Higher ratios resulted in higher values in particle size and viscosity of FFEs, as well as higher values in diameter of nanofibers. Loss of cinnamaldehyde was observed during solution blow spinning (SBS) process and cinnamaldehyde was mainly located on the surface of resultant nanofibers. Nanofibers all showed antibacterial activity by direct diffusion and vapor release against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes. Inhibition zones increased as cinnamaldehyde ratio increased. Nanofibers showed larger inhibition effects than films prepared by casting method when S. typhimurium was exposed to the released cinnamaldehyde vapor, although films had higher remaining cinnamaldehyde than nanofibers after preparation. Lower temperature was favorable for cinnamaldehyde retention, and nanofibers added with 10% cinnamaldehyde ratio showed the highest retention over eight-weeks of storage. Results suggest that FSG nanofibers can be prepared by SBS as carriers for antimicrobials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0381.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: singlet correlations; twisted Malus law; EPR-B experiments; local hidden variables; spinning coloured disk model; spinning coloured ball model; simulation models
Online: 29 December 2019 (11:28:25 CET)
The famous singlet correlations of a composite quantum system consisting of two spatially separated components exhibit notable features of two kinds. The first kind consists of striking certainty relations: perfect correlation and perfect anti-correlation in certain settings. The second kind consists of a number of symmetries, in particular, invariance under rotation, as well as invariance under exchange of components, parity, or chirality. In this note, I investigate the class of correlation functions that can be generated by classical composite physical systems when we restrict attention to systems which reproduce the certainty relations exactly, and for which the rotational invariance of the correlation function is the manifestation of rotational invariance of the underlying classical physics. I call such correlation functions classical EPR-B correlations. It turns out that the other three (binary) symmetries can then be obtained "for free": they are exhibited by the correlation function, and can be imposed on the underlying physics by adding an underlying randomisation level. We end up with a simple probabilistic description of all possible classical EPR-B correlations in terms of a "spinning coloured disk" model, and a research programme: describe these functions in a concise analytic way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0130.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: power transformer; coupled inductor; electro-magnetic modeling
Online: 27 December 2016 (09:43:52 CET)
In power systems there are complex transformer structures, whose accurate analysis is not possible using the techniques available today. This paper presents a systematic data driven analysis method for coupled inductors of arbitrary complexity. The method first establishes a winding matrix N mapping the windings to the limbs of the transformer. A permeance matrix P is created from the reluctance network of the magnetic core. A generalized inductance matrix L mapping currents in the transformer windings to the induced voltages is generated based on the winding (N) and permeance (P) matrices. The inductance matrix representation of a coupled inductor is then transformed to an admittance matrix, which can be integrated to the nodal analysis of the electrical circuit surrounding the coupled inductor. The method presented is validated by simulations with real transformer structures using electromagnetic transient program (EMTP/ATP).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0040.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Lorentz symmetry; massless charged particle; spinning particle; relativistic particle
Online: 6 November 2017 (14:49:29 CET)
We review some properties of a relativistic classical massless charged particle with spin interacting with an external electromagnetic field. We give in particular a proper definition of kinetic energy and total energy, the latter being conserved when the external field is stationary. We find that the particle’s velocity may differ from c as a result of the spin - electromagnetic field interaction, without jeopardizing Lorentz invariance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0870.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Range-gated; lidar; Conoscopic interference; Electro-optic crystal
Online: 25 April 2023 (03:21:09 CEST)
In this paper, a range-gated lidar system utilizing an LN crystal as the electro-optical switch and a SCMOS (Scientific Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) imaging device is designed. To achieve range-gated, we utilize two polarizers and a LN (LiNbO3) crystal to form an electro-optical switch. The optical switch is realized by applying a pulse voltage at both ends of the crystal due to the crystal's conoscopic interference effect and electro-optical effect. The advantage of this system is that low-bandwidth detectors such as CMOS and CCD (Charge-coupled Device) can be used to replace conventional high-bandwidth detectors such as ICCD (Intensified Charge Coupled Device), and time it has better imaging performance under specific conditions at the same. However, after using an electro-optical crystal as an optical switch, a new inhomogeneity error will be introduced due to the conscopic interference effect of the electro-optical crystal, resulting in range error of the lidar system. To reduce the influence of inhomogeneity error on the system, this paper analyzes the sources of inhomogeneity error caused by the electro-optical crystal and gives the crystal inhomo-geneity mathematical expression. A compensation method is proposed based on the above inho-mogeneity mathematical expression. An experimental lidar system is constructed in this paper to verify the validity of the compensation method. The experimental results of the range-gated lidar system show that in a specific field of view (2.6mrad), the lidar system has a good imaging per-formance, its ranging standard deviation is 3.86cm and further decreased to 2.86cm after com-pensation, which verifies the accuracy of the compensation method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0561.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: perfluorooctanoic acid; emerging contaminant; defluorination; platinum; electro-oxidation
Online: 23 July 2020 (12:36:19 CEST)
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), C7F15COOH, has been widely employed over the past fifty years, causing an environmental problem due to its dispersion and low biodegradability. Furthermore, the high stability of this molecule, conferred by the high strength of the C-F bond makes it very difficult to remove. In this work, electrochemical techniques are applied for PFOA degradation in view to study the influence of the cathode on defluorination. For this purpose, boron doped diamond (BDD), Pt, Zr and stainless steel have been tested as cathodes working with BDD anode at low electrolyte concentration (3.5 mM) to degrade PFOA at 100 mg/L. Among these cathodic materials, Pt improves the defluorination reaction. The electro-degradation of a PFOA molecule starts by a direct exchange of one electron at the anode and then follows a complex mechanism involving reaction with hydroxyl radicals and adsorbed hydrogen on the cathode. It is assumed that Pt acts as an electrocatalyst, enhancing PFOA defluorination by the reduction reaction of perfluorinated carbonyl intermediates on the cathode. The defluorinated intermediates are then more easily oxidized by HO• radicals. Hence, high mineralization (xTOC: 76.1%) and defluorination degrees (xF-: 58.6%) were reached with Pt working at current density j = 7.9 mA/cm2. This BDD-Pt system reaches a higher efficiency in terms of defluorination for a given electrical charge than previous works reported in literature. Influence of the electrolyte composition and initial pH are also explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0602.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electro-optic modulator; half-wave voltage-length product; bandwidth
Online: 11 September 2023 (04:53:25 CEST)
Thin-film lithium niobate has gained significant attention in photonics due to its broad optical transparency, high refractive index, nonlinear coefficient, and substantial electro-optic coefficient. It holds great promise for developing electro-optic modulators with low loss, a compact size, and wide bandwidth. This study focuses on a meticulous investigation utilizing microwave photonics to establish a high-performance electro-optic modulator. Specifically, we analyze the optical mode field distribution and traveling wave electrode structure of lithium niobate thin-film materials. The proposed modulator achieves an impressive half-wave voltage-length product of 1.69 V·cm, a negligible metal loss of 0.01 dB/cm, and a substantial 3dB electro-optic bandwidth of 50 GHz. This research successfully realizes low-loss, high-efficiency LNOI electro-optical modulators, providing a strong foundation for large-scale integrated optoelectronic systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1057.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Fuel cells; 2-Propanol electro-oxidation; Pd; Poisoning; Electrocatalyst
Online: 15 May 2023 (15:32:44 CEST)
This study aims at investigating the catalytic performance of Pd, Pd/Pt, and Pd/Au nanocatalysts toward the 2-propanol electro-oxidation reaction (2POR) in an alkaline medium. The catalyst components (Pd, Pt, and Au) were sequentially electrodeposited onto a glassy carbon (GC) electrode surface and further characterized using electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry (CV)) and materials (Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX)) characterization methods. The Pd/Au/GC catalyst showed the highest catalytic activity in terms of the highest oxidation current (0.386 mA) and the highest stability in terms of the highest obtained current after 1800 s of continuous electrolysis. This behaviour was attributed to the enhancement in the charge transfer kinetics where the Pd/Au/GC catalysts acquired the lowest charge transfer resistance (Rct, 1.85 kΩ) during the 2POR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0262.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: lithium niobate; electro-optical modulator; DC-drift; operating point
Online: 15 November 2021 (13:37:11 CET)
This work involves results of research on short-term and long-term DC-drifts in electro-optical modulators based on annealed proton exchange waveguides in LiNbO3 crystals after wafer pre-annealing. The relaxation time of the DC-drift of the operating point for a short-term drift is minutes, and for a long-term drift, hours and days. DC-drift was measured by applying bias voltage and changing crystal temperature. Obtained results shows significant impact on stability of operating point in EO-modulators after treatment of defective structure of the near-surface layer of a LiNbO3 crystal. Treatment of the disturbed near-surface layer of a LiNbO3 crystal results in twice reduction of short-term DC-drift and increase of operation stability of electro-optical modulators during long-term measurement of temperature by activation energy calculation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0193.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: AlSi10Mg; CP-Titanium; Electro-Sinter-Forging; Metal-metal Composites.
Online: 13 October 2021 (10:23:10 CEST)
Metal/metal composites represent a particular class of materials showing innovative mechanical and electrical properties. Conventionally, such materials are produced by severely plastically deforming two ductile phases via rolling or extruding, swaging, and wire drawing. This study presents the feasibility of producing metal/metal composites via a capacitive discharge-assisted sintering process named electro-sinter-forging. Two different metal/metal composites with CP-Ti/AlSi10Mg ratios (20/80 and 80/20 %vol) are evaluated, and the effects of the starting compositions on the microstructural and compositional properties of the materials are presented. Bi-phasic metal/metal composites constituted by isolated α-Ti and AlSi10Mg domains with a microhardness of 113 ± 13 HV0.025 for the Ti20-AlSi and 244 ± 35 HV0.025 for the Ti80-AlSi are produced. The effect of the applied current is crucial to obtain high theoretical density, but too high currents may result in Ti dissolution in the Ti80-AlSi composite. Massive phase transformations due to the formation of AlTiSi based intermetallic compounds are observed through thermal analysis and confirmed by morphological and compositional observation. Finally, a possible explanation for the mechanisms regulating densification is proposed accounting for current and pressure synergistic effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0375.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) Theory; Spiral Galaxy; Galaxy Cluster; Dark Matter; Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND)
Online: 20 July 2023 (10:50:24 CEST)
A unified electro-gravity (UEG) theory, which has been successfully used for modeling an elementary particle, is applied in this paper to model gravitation in spiral galaxies. The new UEG model would explain the "flat rotation curves'' commonly observed in the spiral galaxies, without need for any hypothetical dark matter. The UEG theory is implemented in a somewhat different manner for a spiral galaxy, as compared to the simple application of the UEG theory to an elementary particle. This is because the spiral galaxy, unlike the elementary particle, is not spherically symmetric. The UEG constant $\gamma$, required in the new model to support the galaxies' flat rotation speeds, is estimated using measured data from a galaxy survey, as well as for a selected galaxy for illustration. The estimates are compared with the $\gamma$ derived from the UEG model of an elementary particle. The UEG model for the galaxy is shown to explain the empirical Tully-Fisher Relationship (TFR), is consistent with the Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), and is also independently supported by measured trends of galaxy thickness with surface brightness and rotation speed. The UEG theory may similarly be extended to emulate the hypothetical dark matter in galaxy clusters as well as in cosmology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0364.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: electro sinter forging; powder metallurgy; capacitor discharge sintering; 100Cr6
Online: 16 September 2020 (12:13:25 CEST)
In this study one of the most innovative sintering techniques up to date was evaluated: Electro-Sinter-Forging (ESF). Despite it has been proved to be effective in densifying several different metallic materials and composites, bearing steels such as 100Cr6 have never been processed so far. Pre-alloyed Astaloy CrM powders have been ad-mixed with either graphite or graphene and then processed by ESF to produce a 100Cr6 equivalent composition. Porosity has been evaluated by optical microscopy and compared to that one of 100Cr6 commercial samples. Mechanical properties such as hardness and transverse rupture strength were tested on samples produced by employing different process parameters and then submitted to different treatments (machining, heat treatment). The experimental characterization highlighted that porosity is the factor mostly affecting mechanical resistance of the samples, correlating linearly to the transverse rupture strength. Hardness on the other side does not correlate to the mechanical resistance because process related cracking has a higher effect on the final properties. Promising results were obtained that give room to the sinterability by ESF of materials difficult to sinter by conventional press and sinter techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0685.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: microresonators; lithium niobate; electro-optical tuning; chemo-mechanical etching
Online: 28 July 2020 (13:58:37 CEST)
We demonstrate high quality (intrinsic Q factor ~2.8×106) racetrack microresonators fabricated on lithium niobate (LN) thin film with a free spectral range (FSR) of ~86.38 pm. By integrating microelectrodes alongside the two straight arms of the racetrack resonator, the resonance wavelength around the 1550 nm can be red shifted by 92 pm when the electric voltage is raised from -100 V to 100 V. The microresonators of the tuning range spanning over a full FSR is fabricated using photolithography assisted chemo-mechanical etching (photolithography assisted chemo-mechanical etching, PLACE).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0062.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: electro-hydrodynamics; constant vorticity; Burns condition; weakly nonlinear analysis
Online: 15 April 2020 (10:05:39 CEST)
In 1895, Korteweg and de Vries (KdV), derived their celebrated equation describing the motion of waves of long wavelength in shallow water. In doing so they made a number of quite reasonable assumptions, incompressibility of the water and irrotational fluid. The resulting equation, the celebrated KdV equation, has been shown to be a very reasonable description of real water waves. However there are other phenomena which have an impact on the shape of the wave, that of vorticity and viscosity. This paper examines how a constant vorticity affects the shape of waves in electrohydrodynamics. For constant vorticity, the vertical component of the velocity obeys a Laplace equation and also has the usual lower boundary condition. In making the vertical component of the velocity take central stage, the Burns condition can be thus bypassed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0279.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: Antimicrobial Properties; Nanocomposites; Copper; Melt Blowing; Melt Spinning; Textiles; Personal Protective Equipment
Online: 6 November 2023 (08:11:52 CET)
With the growing demand for personal protective equipment (PPE) in the face of the pandemic events caused by SARS-COV-2, the opportunity arises for the development of materials with characteristics such as antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal activity, etc. The use of polymeric nanocomposites based on polyester/copper offers an alternative of great interest due to the versatility of the raw material and the high efficiency of copper as an antimicrobial additive. In this study, textile fibers prototypes with different Cu nanoparticles (CuNP) content were produced using melt-spinning to obtain bi-component multifilament fibers, and melt-blowing to obtain non-woven fabrics. The prototypes were tested against different pathogenic microorganisms such as S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans. It was shown that bi-component fibers offer more excellent protection against pathogens, while non-woven fabric only shows activity against E. coli. It was possible to identify that the CuNP were confined exclusively in the outer cover of the bi-component fibers, using different analytical techniques, which may be associated with the increase in antimicrobial activity, compared to the fibers present in the non-woven fabric, even when they present the same CuNP content.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0134.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Methylcellulose; cellulose nanocrystal; hydrogel; birefringence; wet-spinning; optical fiber; thermoresponsive; LCST; nanocomposite
Online: 5 August 2021 (10:15:49 CEST)
Chemical modification of cellulose offers routes for structurally and functionally diverse biopolymer derivatives for numerous industrial applications. Among cellulose derivatives, cellulose ethers have found extensive use, such as emulsifiers, in food industries and biotechnology. Methylcellulose, one of the simplest cellulose derivatives, has been utilized for biomedical, construction materials and cell culture applications. Its improved water solubility, thermoresponsive gelation, and the ability to act as a matrix for various dopants also offer routes for cellulose-based functional materials. There has been a renewed interest in understanding the structural, mechanical, and optical properties of methylcellulose and its composites. This review focuses on the recent development in optically and mechanically tunable hydrogels derived from methylcellulose and methylcellulose-cellulose nanocrystal composites. We further discuss the application of the gels for preparing highly ductile and strong fibers. Finally, the emerging application of methylcellulose-based fibers as optical fibers and their application potentials are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0147.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: wastewater recovery; innovative treatment technologies; electro-flotation; reverse logistics system
Online: 21 December 2017 (03:55:44 CET)
Proper management of water is a challenge for every individual but especially for companies. Nowadays also legislation obliges companies to clean the wastewater before being discharged into municipal public sewer especially if they use some chemicals or oily elements in their production process. Construction of the wastewater cleaner depends directly on the way of pollution, the amount of contaminated water and the energy demand of the cleaning process. The paper deals with the construction of the wastewater cleaner, which is based on the technology of electro-flotation for the treatment of water contaminated with disperse colorants. The experimental work as well as the modelling using the statistical methods proved the suitability of the chosen technology. Also, each colour combination requires a specific time period for the water treatment. The authors determined the time interval for cleaning the wastewater that was polluted with yellow colour to 33 minutes. Finally, the wastewater cleaner that is based on the electro-flotation technology was included in the company’s reverse logistics system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2147.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics Keywords: AC electro-kinetics; electro-kinetic object manipulation; inhomogeneous object polarization; microchambers; micro-systems; object manipulation; field-cage; μTAS; MatLab® model; thermodynamics; energy dissipation; LMEP
Online: 30 September 2023 (07:40:23 CEST)
In two previous papers, we calculated the dielectrophoresis (DEP) force and corresponding trajectories of high- and low-conductance 200-µm 2D spheres in a square 1x1mm chamber with plane-versus-pointed, plane-versus-plane and pointed-versus-pointed electrode configurations by applying the law of maximum entropy production (LMEP) to the system. Here, we complete these considerations for configurations with four-pointed electrodes centered on the chamber edges. The four electrodes were operated in either object-shift mode (two adjacent electrodes opposite the other two adjacent electrodes), DEP mode (one electrode versus the other three electrodes), or field-cage mode (two electrodes on opposite edges versus the two electrodes on the other two opposite edges). As in previous work, we have assumed DC properties for the object and the external media for simplicity. Nevertheless, every possible polarization ratio of the two media can be modeled this way. The trajectories of the spherical centers and the corresponding DEP forces were calculated from the gradients of the system’s total energy dissipation, described by numerically-derived conductance fields. In each of the three drive modes, very high attractive and repulsive forces were found in front of pointed electrodes for the high and low-conductance spheres, respectively. The conductance fields predict bifurcation points, watersheds, and trajectories with multiple endpoints. The high and low-conductance spheres usually follow similar trajectories, albeit with reversed orientations. In DEP drive mode, the four-point electrode chamber provides a similar area for DEP measurements as the classical plane-versus-pointed electrode chamber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0207.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: shape memory polymer fiber; two-way shape memory effect; melt spinning; UV curing
Online: 18 September 2019 (13:00:34 CEST)
One-dimensional shape memory polymer fibers (SMPFs) have obvious advantages in mechanical properties, dispersion properties and weavability. In this work, a method for fabricating semi-crystallization ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) fiber with two-way shape memory effect by melt spinning and ultraviolet (UV) curing was developed. Here, the effect of crosslink density on its performance was systematically analyzed by gel fraction measurement, tensile tests, DSC and TMA analysis. The results showed that the crosslink density and shape memory properties of EVA fiber could be facilely adjusted by controlling UV curing time. The resulting EVA fiber with cylindrical structure had a diameter of 247.13 ± 10.07 μm, and its mechanical strength and elongation at break were 64.46 MPa and 114.33%, respectively. The critical impact of the crosslink density and applied constant stress on the two-way shape memory effect were analyzed. Moreover, the single EVA fiber could lift more than 143 times its own weight and achieve 9% reversible actuation strain. The reversible actuation capability was significantly enhanced by a simple winding design of the single EVA fiber, which provided great potential applications in smart textiles, flexible actuators and artificial muscles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0069.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electronic, Optical And Magnetic Materials Keywords: Fe–6.5 wt.% Si; ribbon; melt spinning; ac iron loss prediction; magnetic properties
Online: 9 March 2018 (05:07:06 CET)
Ultra-thin Fe–6.5wt.%Si ribbons with 35 μm in thickness were prepared by melt-spinning. The magnetic properties were investigated before and after annealing 1000 ºC. DC properties and low-frequency (400 Hz ~ 10 kHz) iron losses have significantly improved after heat treatment. A simplified formula based on Steinmetz law which can be used to predict the AC iron loss is presented. According to the results of some iron losses data, a simplified formula has been determined, and the extent of AC iron losses can be predicted. The results obtained from the formula predict AC iron loss to a good degree. The method developed in this work could be extended to other magnetic materials for predicting AC iron loss with greater ease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0077.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: parametric conversion of photons; optically linear and electro-optic parametric interactions
Online: 8 August 2016 (12:12:35 CEST)
An approximation-free and fully quantum optic formalism for parametric processes is presented. Phase-dependent gain coefficients and related phase-pulling effects are identified for quantum Rayleigh emission and the electro-optic conversion of photons providing parametric amplification in small scale integration of photonic devices. These mechanisms can be manipulated to deliver, simultaneously, sub-Poissonian distributions of photons as well as phase-dependent amplification in the same optical quadrature of a signal field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1300.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: heavy metal; chromium ions; contaminated sludge; electro kinetic remediation; fixed anode; membrane.
Online: 18 August 2023 (07:52:57 CEST)
Abstract Aims: In recent years, electro kinetic (EK) remediation has become more popular as a novel method for removing chromium contamination from soil. This approach, however, is ineffective since it uses both cationic and anionic forms of chromium. In this work, a membrane –based technique was employed to increase the efficiency of the electro kinetic removal of chromium. Methods: Chromium removal from polluted sludge was studied in four bench-scale experiments, two of which used distilled water (EK-1, EK2 & Membrane) and two of which used acetic acid as a catholyte (EK-3, EK4 &Membrane). Results: The pH, total chromium, and fractionation of chromium in the sludge were measured after remediation. In the EK-1, EK-2 & Membrane and EK-3, EK-4 & Membrane trials, the average removal efficiency of total chromium was 47.6%, 58.6%, and 74.4%, 79.6%, respectively. Conclusion: In contrast to the electro kinetic remediation strategy, which left approximately 80% of the sludge neutral or alkaline after treatment, the use of the membrane created acidic soil conditions throughout the sludge. For example, the high field intensity used in the membrane tests may have helped to facilitate chromium desorption, dissolution and separation from the sludge, as well as enhance chromium mobility. The findings show that the membrane can improve the effectiveness of chromium removal from sludge when utilized in the EK remediation process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0476.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Lightning strike; CFRPs; Electro-thermal simulation; Progressive damage modeling; Finite element analysis
Online: 28 August 2018 (14:53:44 CEST)
Lightning strike can cause a considerable damage in aircraft parts made from semiconducting materials such as Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRPs). Therefore, in recent years, the lightning strike phenomenon has attracted the interest of the academic community and the aircraft industry. Until now, the problem has been addressed mainly experimentally, while the reported numerical works are very limited. In the present work, a coupled electro-thermal FE model has been developed using the ANSYS commercial FE code to simulate the lightning strike damage in unidirectional CFRP laminates due to the Joule heat flux phenomenon. The model is based on the SOLID69 thermoelectric element and applies a non-linear, time-transient analysis. The main input to the model is the thermal-electrical properties of the composite material which vary with temperature. Using the model, a parametric study on the effect of mesh density and peak intensity on the thermal damage has been performed. Three electrical lightning strikes of low (10 kA), medium (30 kA) and high peak intensity (40 kA) have been applied according to the SAE ARP 5412 standard. The electro-thermal model has been validated against a numerical model from the literature. The numerical results reveal that the increase of peak intensity leads to the increase of the area and penetration depth of matrix thermal damage (pyrolysis) as well as to the increase of the area of fiber damage (deterioration and ablation). Through progressive damage modeling, the residual tensile strength of the CFRP plate after being subjected to lightning strike of different peak intensity has been predicted. Lightning strike initial damage has been simulated by translating the thermal field into degradation of elastic properties of the lamina. The results show an increase in the accumulated matrix damage and a decrease of tensile strength due to the initial lightning strike damage. For the maximum peak intensity of 40 kA, a decrease in tensile strength of 4.8% has been predicted
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2072.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Electro-optic modulator, silicon photonics, silicon-organic hybrid, Mach-Zehnder modulator, slot waveguide
Online: 3 October 2023 (03:23:17 CEST)
Electro-optic modulator (EOM) is one of the key devices of high-speed optical fiber communication system and ultra-wideband microwave photonic system. Silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) integration platform combines the advantages of silicon photonics and organic materials, providing a high electro-optic effect and compact structure for photonic integrated devices. In this paper we present a SOH integrated EOM with comprehensive investigation of EOM structure design, silicon waveguide fabrication with Slot structure, on-chip poling of organic electro-optic material, and characterization of EO modulation response. The SOH integrated EOM is measured with 3dB-bandwidth of over 50 GHz and half-wave voltage length product of 0.26 V·cm. Furthermore, we demonstrate a microwave photonics phase shifter by using the fabricated SOH integrated dual parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator. The phase shift range of 410 degree is completed from 8 GHz to 26 GHz with a power consumption of less than 38 mW.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Electro-dynamic suspension; HTS magnets; no-insulation; closed-loop coils; persistent current model
Online: 13 July 2021 (10:08:02 CEST)
Null-flux Electro-dynamic suspension (EDS) system promises to be one of the feasible high-speed maglev systems above 600 km/h. On account of its greater current-carrying capacity, superconducting magnet can provide super-magnetomotive force that is required for null-flux EDS system and cannot be provided by electromagnets and permanent magnets. There is already a relatively mature high-speed maglev technology with low temperature superconducting (LTS) magnets as the core, which works in the liquid helium temperature region (T≤4.2 K). 2-Generation high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet winded by REBa2Cu3O7−δ (REBCO, RE=rare earth) tapes works above 20 K region and do not need to count on liquid helium which is rare on earth. This paper designed HTS no-insulation closed-loop coils applied for EDS system and energized with persistent current switch. The coils can work at persistent current model and has premier thermal quench self-protection. Besides, a full size double-pancake module was designed and manufactured in this paper, and it was tested in liquid nitrogen. The double-pancake module’s critical current is about 54 A and it is capable of working at persistent current model, whose average decay rate measured in 12 hours is 0.58%/day.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: magic-angle spinning; solid-state NMR; membrane protein; beta barrel; transmembrane; proton detection; high magnetic field
Online: 29 March 2021 (12:49:07 CEST)
The available magnetic field strength for high resolution NMR in persistent superconducting magnets has recently improved from 23.5 to 28 Tesla, increasing the proton resonance frequency from 1 to 1.2 GHz. For magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR, this is expected to improve resolution, provided the sample preparation results in homogeneous broadening. We compare two-dimensional (2D) proton detected MAS NMR spectra of four membrane proteins at 950 and 1.2 GHz. We find a consistent improvement in resolution that scales superlinearly with the increase in magnetic field for three of the four examples. In 3D and 4D spectra, which are now routinely acquired, this improvement indicates the ability to resolve at least 2 and 2.5 times as many signals, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0044.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Electro Hydrostatic Actuator; Fusion Convolutional Neural Networks; Particle Swarm Optimization; Gram Angle Difference Field
Online: 2 August 2022 (07:45:42 CEST)
Contrapose the highly integrated, multiple types of faults and complex working conditions of aircraft Electro Hydrostatic Actuator (EHA), to effectively identify its typical faults, we propose a fault diagnosis method based on the fusion convolutional neural networks (FCNN). First, the aircraft EHA fault data is encoded by GADF to obtain the fault feature images. Then we build an FCNN model that integrates the 1DCNN and 2DCNN, where the original 1D fault data is the input of the 1DCNN model, and the feature images obtained by GADF transformation are used as the input of 2DCNN. Multiple convolution and pooling operations are performed on each of these inputs to extract the features, next these feature vectors are spliced in the convergence layer, and the fully connected layers and the Softmax layers are finally used to attain the classification of aircraft EHA faults. Furthermore, the multi-strategy hybrid particle swarm optimization (MSPSO) algorithm is applied to optimize the FCNN to obtain a better combination of FCNN hyperparameters; MSPSO incorporates various strategies, including an initialization strategy based on homogenization and randomization, and an adaptive inertia weighting strategy, etc. The experimental result indicates that the FCNN model optimized by MSPSO achieves an accuracy of 96.86% for identifying typical faults of the aircraft EHA, respectively higher than the 1DCNN and the 2DCNN about 16.5% and 5.7%. Additionally, the FCNN model improved by MSPSO has a higher accuracy rate when compared to PSO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0386.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Nematic liquid crystal MBDA; core/shell QDs (CSQDs); Dielectric, electro optical parameters; photonic displays
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:41:41 CET)
We report the effect of doping Cd1-xZnxS/ZnS core/shell quantum dot (CSQDs) in nematic liquid crystal p-methoxybenzylidene p-decylaniline (MBDA) at 0.05 wt/wt%, 0.1 wt/wt%, 0.15 wt/wt%, 0.2 wt/wt%, 0.25 wt/wt% and 0.3 wt/wt% concentrations of CSQDs in MBDA. Dielectric parameters with and without bias with respect to frequency has been investigated. The change in electro - optical parameters with temperature has also been demonstrated. The increase in the mean dielectric permittivity has been found due to large dipole moment of CSQDs which impose stronger interactions with the liquid crystal molecules. The dielectric anisotropy changes sign on doping CSQDs in MBDA liquid crystal. It was concluded that the CSQDs doping noticeably increases the dielectric permittivity of nematic MBDA in the presence of electric field. The doping of CSQDs in nematic MBDA liquid crystal reduces the ion screening effect effectively. This phenomenon is attributed to the competition between the generated ionic impurities during assembling process and the ion trapping effect of the CSQDs. The rotational viscosity of nematic liquid crystal decreases with increasing concentration of the CSQDs with faster response time observed for 0.05 wt/wt% concentration. The birefringence of the doped system increases with the inclusion of CSQDs in MBDA. These results find application in the field of display devices, phase shifters, industries and projectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0052.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: Electron, Fine-Structure Constant, Unified Electro-Gravity, Non Linear Free-Space Model, Elementary Particles
Online: 13 August 2019 (09:52:54 CEST)
A rigorous model for the electron is presented by generalizing the Coulomb's Law or Gauss's Law of electrostatics, using a unified theory of electricity and gravity. The permittivity of the free-space is allowed to be variable, dependent on the energy density associated with the electric field at a given location, employing generalized concepts of gravity and mass/energy density. The electric field becomes a non-linear function of the source charge, where concept of the energy density needs to be properly defined. Stable solutions are derived for a spherically symmetric, surface-charge distribution of an elementary charge. This is implemented by assuming that the gravitational field and its equivalent permittivity function is proportional to the energy density, as a simple first-order approximation, with the constant of proportionality referred to as the Unifield Electro-Gravity (UEG) constant. The stable solution with the lowest mass/energy is assumed to represent a ``static'' electron without any spin. Further, assuming that the mass/energy of a static electron is half of the total mass/energy of an electron including its spin contribution, the required UEG constant is estimated. More fundamentally, the lowest stable mass of a static elementary charged particle, its associated classical radius, and the UEG constant are related to each other by a dimensionless constant, independent of any specific value of the charge or mass of the particle. This dimensionless constant is numerologically found to be closely related to the the fine structure constant. This possible origin of the fine structure constant is further strengthened by applying the proposed theory to successfully model the Casimir effect, from which approximately the same above relationship between the UEG constant, electron's mass and classical radius, and the fine structure constant, emerges.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0266.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: microchannel; micro-array; microstructure; biofilms; polydimethylsiloxane; Micro-PCR; reynolds number; micro electro mechanical systems
Online: 15 August 2018 (05:37:59 CEST)
Micro-technology has played a substantial role in bioscience, biomedical and biotechnological research due to its core advantages in modern science and engineering. It has created unique development in various sectors of bio-research and upsurges the efficacy of research at the molecular level in recent years. Microfluidic technology makes it possible to manipulate sample volumes at the micro- and nano-level (called nanofluidics) with terrific control outside in vivo cellular microenvironment, enabling the reduction of discrepancies between in vivo and in vitro environments as well as reducing reaction time and cost. In this review, we discuss various effective integrations of microfluidic technologies into biotechnology and its paradigmatic significance in bio-research, supporting mechanical and chemical in vitro cellular micro-environment. Specific innovations relating to the application of microfluidics to advance microbial life, solitary and co-cultures along with a multiple-type cell culturing, cellular communications, cellular interactions and population dynamics are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1945.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Display dynamics; hydraulic jetting; spinning multi-nozzle jet bit; high efficient rock breaking; dynamic rock-breaking drilling
Online: 28 June 2023 (04:42:56 CEST)
High-efficiency rock breaking by hydraulic jetting is the key to radial horizontal drilling technology. In order to improve the drilling efficiency of hydraulic jet rock breaking in radial horizontal wells, based on LS-Dyna display dynamics, a numerical simulation model of single nozzle jet rock breaking is established to analyze the influence of different nozzle parameters on rock breaking effect. Then, the numerical simulation model of the spin multi-nozzle jet bit is established, and the influence of different rotation speeds on the rock breaking effect of the jet bit is analyzed. Finally, the rock breaking drilling characteristics of the spin multi-nozzle jet bit and the conventional multi-nozzle jet bit are compared and analyzed. The results show that when the jet impacts the rock surface, the larger the inclination angle is, the larger the rock breaking width formed by the jet is. The smaller the dip angle, the greater the rock breaking depth. When the inclination angle is greater than 60 °, it is difficult to meet the needs of reaming. The width and depth of the nozzle gradually increase with the increase of the diameter. When the nozzle diameter is greater than 1.3mm, the growth rate of rock breaking depth begins to decrease. The optimum nozzle diameter is 1.3 mm. When v = 50m / s, the damage caused by the jet to the rock surface is very small, because the condition of rock fracture is not reached at this time. This shows that there is a critical value of the water jet impact velocity, and only when the velocity is reached, the rock will break. When the velocity is v = 150m / s, v = 200m / s, v = 250m / s, v = 300m / s, the rock breaks. At the same time, the higher the speed, the higher the degree of rock fracture, the greater the fracture depth, the greater the fracture area, the better the fracture effect. The tangential and radial velocity of the jet increases the shear and tensile failure rate of the sample, and improves the rock breaking efficiency of the jet, which has certain guiding significance for improving the rock breaking drilling efficiency of radial horizontal well drilling.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0312.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Infrared spectroscopy; Magic-Angle-Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Raman spectroscopy; saponite, synthesis; X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Online: 10 November 2020 (13:00:59 CET)
Saponite is a trioctahedral 2:1 smectite with the ideal composition MxMg3AlxSi4-xO10(OH,F)2.nH2O (M = interlayer cation). Both the success of the saponite synthesis and the determination of its applications depends on robust knowledge of the structure and composition of saponite. Among the routine characterization techniques spectroscopic methods are the most common. This review, thus, provides an overview of various spectroscopic methods to characterize natural and synthetic saponite with focus on the extensive work by one of the authors (JTK). The IR and Raman spectra of natural and synthetic saponites are discussed in detail including the assignment of the observed bands. The crystallization of saponite is discussed based on the changes in the IR and Raman spectra and a possible crystallization model is provided. Infrared emission spectroscopy has been used to study the thermal changes of saponite in-situ including the dehydration and (partial) dehydroxylation up to 750˚C. 27Al and 29Si Magic-Angle-Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy is discussed (as well as 11B and 71Ga for B- and Ga-Si substitution) with respect to, in particular, Al(IV)/Al(VI) and Si/Al(IV) ratios. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy provides besides chemical information also some information related to the local environments of the different elements in the saponite structure as reflected by their binding energies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0039.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: quantum dot light-emitting diode; ZnMgO nanoparticles; electro electron injection layer; charge balance; exciton quenching
Online: 1 November 2023 (09:40:36 CET)
Zn0.9Mg0.1O nanoparticle (NP) were employed as electron transport layers (ETLs) with varying thicknesses to investigate their influence on the efficiency of the top-emission quantum dot light-emitting diodes (TE-QLEDs) fabricated inside the bank. An increase in the thickness of the Zn0.9Mg0.1O NP ETL led to a decrease in the concentration of oxygen vacancies, reducing the conductivity of the Zn0.9Mg0.1O and resulting in lower current density in the TE-QLEDs. The decrease in conductivity of Zn0.9Mg0.1O NP ETL was confirmed through electron-only device (EOD) characterization. Furthermore, it was noted that when the thickness of Zn0.9Mg0.1O NP ETL was 30 nm, the concentration of hydroxyl species reached its minimum. By minimizing the presence of hydroxyl species, exciton quenching at the quantum dot (QD) and Zn0.9Mg0.1O NP ETL interface was minimized, enhancing charge balance within the QD, significantly improving the efficiency of QLED. We successfully demonstrated that TE-QLED with a 30 nm-thick Zn0.9Mg0.1O NP ETL exhibits outstanding performance, achieving a maximum current efficiency of 91.92 cd/A and a maximum external quantum efficiency of 21.66%. These results suggest that Zn0.9Mg0.1O NP ETL, when tailored to an appropriate thickness, can serve as an ETL for TE-QLEDs, effectively suppressing exciton quenching and enhancing the charge balance in the TE-QLEDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC earth electrode; electro-thermal coupling; abnormal resistance region (ARR); shell theory, finite element method
Online: 5 April 2017 (15:04:47 CEST)
During HVDC earth return operation systems, a high magnitude current will be injected into soil through earth electrode, the potential on the surface would change widely and produce unfavorable effects on the AC systems around. This paper presents an effective finite element method (FEM) coupling electric field with thermal field to evaluate the electrical field induced by the injected DC current. Firstly, owe to the characteristic of FEM, this method can consider arbitrary soil and earth electrode structure. Secondly, by setting the electrical and thermal parameters of soil as a function of temperature at the same time, the dynamic coupling process of electric field and thermal field is simulated accurately. Thirdly, to deal with the singular point in FEM subdivision and the huge computation in traditional three-dimensional FEM, the FEM coupling 2-D earth electrode with 3-D soil based on "shell" theory is introduced. Finally, based on the suggested method, the effect of abnormal resistance region (ARR) near DC earth electrode on electric field distribution is analyzed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0976.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: bioelectrochemical systems (BES); microbial electrolysis cells (MEC); reactor configurations; electro-fermentation; biomethane; direct electron transfer (DIET)
Online: 14 June 2023 (04:02:51 CEST)
Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) have great potential in renewable energy production technologies. BES can generate electricity via Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) or use the electric current for the synthesis of valuable commodities in Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs). The number of various reactor configurations and operational protocols increasing rapidly although, the industrial scale operation is still facing difficulties. This article reviews the recent BES related to literature, with special attention to electrosynthesis and the most promising reactor configurations. We also attempted to clarify the numerous definitions proposed for BESs. The main components of BES are highlighted. Although the comparison of the various fermentation systems is we collected useful and generally applicable operational parameters to be used for comparative studies. A brief overview to link the appropriate microbes to the optimal reactor design is given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0466.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: γδT, gamma delta T; tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes; TIL; cell therapy; cancer immunotherapy; hyperthermia; modulated electro-hyperthermia
Online: 25 November 2022 (03:15:21 CET)
γδT have functions of innate and adaptive immunity, with the potential to induce durable responses while being well-tolerated, with limited adverse effects, making it attractive as a tool for immunotherapy. γδT faces challenges as a frontline tool in clinical oncology, with limited response rates due to difficulties in reaching tumor sites with consistent cytotoxic activity and strength. Modulated Electro-hyperthermia (mEHT) is a loco-regional treatment, whereby energy-transmission from an electromagnetic field selectively targets the plasma membrane of tumor cells, inducing apoptosis and activating immune cells. We hypothesized that mEHT could enhance therapeutic effects by drawing γδT to tumor cells, while also rendering tumor cells to be more susceptible to cytotoxic effects. In this study, NOD/SCID mice harboring subcutaneous human HepG2 tumors were treated with intravenous injections of γδT after mEHT treatment. This method increased infiltration of γδT into the tumor site, significantly inhibiting tumor growth as compared to monotherapy with either modality. These data suggest that γδT could mediate a potent anti-tumor effect when combined with mEHT, and provide a strong rationale for combining these modalities in clinical application for cancer treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0732.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: biomedical engineering; breathing simulation; electro-mechanical lung simulator, patient-ventilator interactions; rapidly manufactured ventilator systems testing
Online: 30 March 2021 (11:34:05 CEST)
During mechanical ventilation, a disparity between flow, pressure or volume demands of the patient and the assistance delivered by the mechanical ventilator often occurs. Asynchrony effect and ventilator performance are frequently studied from ICU datasets or using commercially available lung simulators and test lungs. This paper introduces an alternative approach of simulating and evaluating patient-ventilator interactions with high fidelity using the electro-mechanical lung simulator xPULM™ under selected conditions. The xPULM™ approximates respiratory activities of a patient during alternating phases of spontaneous breathing and apnoea intervals while connected to a mechanical ventilator. Focusing on different triggering events, volume assist-controlled (V/A-C) and pressure support ventilation (PSV) modes were chosen to test patient-ventilator interactions. In V/A-C mode a double-triggering was detected every third breathing cycle leading to an asynchrony index of 16.67%, being classified as severe. This asynchrony causes a major increase of Peak Inspiratory Pressure PIP = 12.80 ± 1.39 cmH2O and Peak Expiratory Flow PEF = -18.33 ± 1.13 L/min when compared to synchronous phases of the breathing simulation. Additionally, events of premature cycling were observed during PSV mode. In this mode, the peak delivered volume during simulated spontaneous breathing phases almost doubles compared to apnoea phases. The presented approach demonstrates the possibility of simulating and evaluating disparities in fundamental ventilation characteristics caused by double-triggering and premature cycling under V/A-C and PSV ventilation modes. Various dynamic clinical situations can be approximated and could help to identify undesired patient-ventilation interactions in the future. Rapidly manufactured ventilator systems could also be tested using this approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0030.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: transfer learning; convolutional neural network; electro-optical imaging; synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging; optimal transport metric
Online: 6 May 2019 (06:28:04 CEST)
Reemergence of deep Neural Networks (CNNs) has lead to high-performance supervised learning algorithms for the Electro-Optical (EO) domain classification and detection problems. This success is possible because generating huge labeled datasets has become possible using modern crowdsourcing labeling platforms such as Amazon Mechanical Turk that recruit ordinary people to label data. Unlike the EO domain, labeling the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) domain data can be a lot more challenging and for various reasons using crowdsourcing platforms is not feasible for labeling the SAR domain data. As a result, training deep networks using supervised learning is more challenging in the SAR domain. In the paper,we present a new framework to train a deep neural network for classifying Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images by eliminating the need for huge labeled dataset. Our idea is based on transferring knowledge from a related EO domain problem, where labeled data is easy to obtain. We transfer knowledge from the EO domain through learning a shared invariant cross-domain embedding space that is also discriminative for classification. To this end, we train two deep encoders that are coupled through their last year to map data points from the EO and the SAR domains to the shared embedding space such that the distance between the distributions of the two domains is minimized in the latent embedding space. We use the Sliced Wasserstein Distance (SWD) to measure and minimize the distance between these two distributions and use a limited number of SAR label data points to match the distributions class-conditionally. As a result of this training procedure, a classifier trained from the embedding space to the label space using mostly the EO data would generalize well on the SAR domain. We provide theoretical analysis to demonstrate why our approach is effective and validate our algorithm on the problem of ship classification in the SAR domain by comparing against several other learning competing approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: final control element; electro-pneumatic transducer, controller effort, control quality factors, wear, mean-time-between-failures
Online: 3 January 2019 (08:45:42 CET)
For many years, the programmable positioners have been widely applied in structures of modern electro-pneumatic final control elements. The positioner consists of an electro-pneumatic transducer, embedded controller and measuring instrumentation. Electro-pneumatic transducers that are used in positioners are characterized by a relatively short mean time-to-failure. The practical and economical method of a reasonable prolongation of this time is proposed in this paper. It is principally based on assessment and minimizing the effort of the embedded controller. For this purpose, were introduced: the control value variability, mean-time and the cumulative controller's effort. The diminishing of controller effort has significant practical repercussions, because it reduces the intensity of mechanical wear of the final control element components. On the other hand, the reduction of the cumulative effort is important in the context of process economy due to limitation of the consumption of energy of compressed air supplying the final control element. Therefore, the minimization of introduced effort factors has an impact on increasing the functional safety and economics of the controlled process. As a result of the performed simulations, the recommendations regarding the selection of the structure and tuning of positioner controller were elaborated. The simulations were performed in the Matlab-Simulink environment with the use of the liquid level control system in which a phenomenological model of a final control element was deployed. It has been proven that under appropriate conditions, it is possible to extend significantly the lifetime of the final control element and simultaneously enhance the control quality factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0842.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: underwater 3D imaging; self-rotating; line laser scanning; refraction error compensation algorithm; fixed light window and laser spinning(FWLS)
Online: 13 November 2023 (17:02:12 CET)
Laser scanning 3D imaging technology, because it can get accurate three-dimensional surface data, has been widely used in the search for wrecks and rescue operations, underwater resource development, and other fields. At present, the conventional underwater rotating laser scanning imaging system maintains a relatively fixed light window. However, in low-light situations underwater, the rotation of the scanning device causes some degree of water fluctuation, which warps the light strip data that the system sensor receives about the object's surface. To solve the problem, this research studies an underwater 3D scanning and imaging system that makes use of a fixed-light window and a spinning laser (FWLS). A refraction error compensation algorithm is investigated that is based on the fundamentals of linear laser scanning imaging and the dynamic refraction mathematical model is established by the motion of the imaging device. During the imaging process, the incident angle between the laser and the light window varies due to the scanning mode of the system. The experimental results show that the reconstruction radius error is reduced by 60% (from 2.5 mm to about 1 mm) when the measurement data for a standard sphere with a radius of 20 mm are compensated. Moreover, the compensated point cloud data exhibits a higher degree of correspondence with the model of the standard spherical point cloud. This study has a specific reference value for the refractive error analysis of an underwater laser scanning imaging system, and it provides certain research ideas for the subsequent refractive error analysis of various scanning imaging modalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0464.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: harmonic identification; adaptive linear neutral network; least mean M-estimate; electro-hydraulic servo shaking table; harmonic distortion
Online: 28 June 2018 (10:55:10 CEST)
Since the electro-hydraulic servo shaking table exists many nonlinear elements, such as, dead zone, friction and blacklash, its acceleration response has higher harmonics which result in acceleration harmonic distortion, when the electro-hydraulic system is excited by sinusoidal signal. For suppressing the harmonic distortion and precisely identify harmonics, a combination of the adaptive linear neural network and least mean M-estimate (ADALINE-LMM), is proposed to identify the amplitude and phase of each harmonic component. Namely, the Hampel’s three-part M-estimator is applied to provide thresholds for detecting and suppressing the error signal. Harmonic generators are used by this harmonic identification scheme to create input vectors and the value of the identified acceleration signal is subtracted from the true value of the system acceleration response to construct the criterion function. The weight vector of the ADALINE is updated iteratively by the LMM algorithm, and the amplitude and phase of each harmonic, even the results of harmonic components, can be computed directly online. The simulation and experiment are performed to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm. According to the experiment result, the above method of harmonic identification possesses great real-time performance and it has not only good convergence performance but also high identification precision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: personalized medicine; "cyberphysical system; biocybernetic complexes; electro-biopotentials; ECG measurement; the quality of registration of an integral ECG
Online: 1 October 2020 (13:23:17 CEST)
One of the rapidly developing research areas is the creation of systems. which are commonly referred to as cyberphysical complexes. In such systems, devices and complexes interact with a completely different physical nature. The role of a person in such systems usually consists in the formation of final tasks for “artificial intelligence” and executive mechanisms. The functioning of actuators is controlled by accurate information systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0053.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Electro-Rheological fluid; Semi-active vibration control; tunable vibration absorber; type-1 fuzzy control; interval type-2 fuzzy control
Online: 23 May 2017 (15:58:35 CEST)
This study presents a vibration control using actively tunable vibration absorbers (ATVA) to suppress vibration of a thin plate. The ATVA’s is made of a sandwich hollow structure embedded with the electrorheological fluid (ERF). ERF is considered to be one of the most important smart fluids and it is suitable to be embedded in a smart structure due to its controllable viscosity property. ERF’s apparent viscosity can be controlled in response to the electric field and the change is reversible in 10 microseconds. Therefore, the physical properties of the ERF-embedded smart structure, such as the stiffness and damping coefficients, can be changed in response to the applied electric field. A mathematical model is difficult to be obtained to describe the exact characteristics of the ERF embedded ATVA because of the nonlinearity of ERF’s viscosity. Therefore, a fuzzy modeling and experimental validations of ERF-based ATVA from stationary random vibrations of thin plates are presented in this study. Because Type-2 fuzzy sets generalize Type-1 fuzzy sets so that more modelling uncertainties can be handled, a semi-active vibration controller is proposed based on Type-2 fuzzy sets. To investigate the different performances by using different types of fuzzy controllers, the experimental measurements employing type-1 fuzzy and interval type-2 fuzzy controllers are implemented by the Compact RIO embedded system. The fuzzy modeling framework and solution methods presented in this work can be used for design, performance analysis, and optimization of ATVA from stationary random vibration of thin plates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1735.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Mine electric trackless rubber-tired vehicle; Brake-by-wire; Electro-Mechanical Brake actuator; Active braking system; Force/Position switch strategy
Online: 24 August 2023 (09:57:10 CEST)
Electro-mechanical braking(EMB) which represents development direction of autonomous and intelligent braking plays very useful role on enhancing the braking response performance and intelligence level for mine underground electric trackless rubber-tired vehicle (ETRV). However,there is no Electro-Mechanical Brake system applied practically in coal mine UTRV until now.The accurate control of braking clamping force can determine the length and precision of braking distance of mine ETRV.In addition,because of poor working conditions in underground coal mine tunnel ,braking clamping force sensor may be easy to occur failure,which may cause vital accident.Therefore,A cascaded three-closed-loop EMB system with a positive clamping force sensor or force estimator built for ETRV is established to achieve autonomous elimination and reset of braking clearance and reliable braking force tracking ability via utilizing the electro motor rotor angle displacement and hysteresis effect of mechanical components in this EMB.The results of simulation and experiment indicate that clamping force response is faster than traditional hydraulic disk braking system and proposed force estimator presents good fault-tolerant ability when sensor is fault.This EMB can replace the current hydraulic brake system to enhance automation level of braking control for ETRVs and braking force response performance, reduce oil pollution and cost of maintenance, which is also key technology support for really precise motion control of mine autonomous driving vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0344.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: diet quality; neighborhood deprivation; Japanese areal deprivation index; neighborhood socioeconomic status; hazard ratios; mortality; Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top; well-balanced diet; early death
Online: 31 July 2019 (04:26:11 CEST)
Individuals residing in more deprived areas have a lower diet quality. While several studies have shown that individuals with a lower diet quality have a higher mortality risk, a low quality diet might also lead to poor health in highly deprived areas. We aimed to examine the association between deprivation within an area and all-cause mortality risk according to diet quality. Methods: We conducted a population-based prospective study on 27994 men and 33273 women aged 45–75 years. Neighborhood deprivation was assessed using the Japanese areal deprivation index (ADI). Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated 147-item food frequency questionnaire. Subsequently, Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top scores were calculated. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of mortality were calculated according to tertiles of ADI by diet quality score. Results: Individuals residing in the most deprived area had the lowest dietary scores. During the 16.7-year follow-up, compared to individuals with a high quality diet residing in the least deprived area, individuals with a low quality diet had a higher risk of mortality according to increment of ADI (P trend = 0.02); the multivariate adjusted HR (95% CI) was 1.07 (1.00-1.15), 1.15 (1.07-1.24), and 1.18 (1.08-1.29) in those residing in the lowest through the highest third of ADI, respectively. However, individuals with a high quality diet had no significant association between ADI and mortality (P trend =0.87). Conclusion: A well-balanced diet may prevent early death associated with neighborhood socioeconomic status among those residing in highly deprived areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0190.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: inhomogeneous object polarization; AC electro-kinetics; high force; DEP trajectory; micro-fluidics; MatLab® model; mirror charges; edge effects; LMEP; μTAS
Online: 10 February 2023 (09:27:28 CET)
The DEP force is usually calculated from the object’s point of view using the interaction of the object’s induced dipole moment with the inducing field. Recently, we described the DEP behavior of high- and low-conductive 200-µm 2D spheres in a square 1x1mm chamber with a plane-versus-plane electrode configuration from the system’s point of view. Here we extend our previous considerations to the plane-versus-plane and pointed-versus-pointed electrode configurations. The trajectories of the sphere center and the corresponding DEP forces were calculated from the gradient of the system’s overall energy dissipation for given starting points. The dissipation’s dependence on the sphere’s position in the chamber is described by the numerical “conductance field”, which is the DC equivalent of the capacitive charge-work field. While the plane-versus-plane electrode configuration is field-gradient free without an object, the presence of the highly or low-conductive spheres generates structures in the conductance fields, which result in very similar DEP trajectories. For both electrode configurations, the model describes trajectories with multiple endpoints, watersheds, and saddle points, very high attractive and repulsive forces in front of pointed electrodes, and the effect of mirror charges. Because the model accounts for inhomogeneous polarization within the objects, the approach allows the modeling of the complicated interplay of attractive and repulsive forces near electrode surfaces and chamber edges. Non-reversible DEP forces or asymmetric magnitudes for the highly and low-conductive spheres in large areas of the chamber indicate the presence of higher-order moments, mirror charges, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0703.v5
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: aether; hypoatom; neutrino; inflation; gravity; negative pressure; dark energy; dark matter; black hole; spinning universe; quantum mechanics; first galaxies; spin-1/2 particle; matter-antimatter asymmetry; baryogenesis-through-leptogenesis; fabric of space; conformal cyclic cosmology; center of the universe; fate of the universe; general theory of relativity; parity non-conservation in weak interactions
Online: 4 January 2023 (02:26:55 CET)
There are unsolved problems related to inflation, gravity, dark matter, dark energy, missing antimatter, and the birth of the universe. Some of them can be better answered by assuming the existence of aether and hypoatoms. Both were created during the inflation in the very early universe. While aether forms vacuum, hypoatoms, composed of both matter and antimatter and believed to be neutrinos, form all observable matter. In vacuum, aether exists between the particle-antiparticle dark matter form and the dark energy form in a dynamic equilibrium: A + A-bar = gamma + gamma. The same reaction stabilizes hypoatoms and generates a 3-dimensional sink flow of aether that causes gravity. Based on the hypoatom structure, the singularity does not exist inside a black hole; the core of the black hole is a hypoatom star or neutrino star. By gaining enough mass, ca. 3 X 1022 Msun, to exceed neutrino degeneracy pressure, the black hole collapses or annihilates into the singularity, thus turning itself into a white hole or a Big Bang. The universe is anisotropic. Its center, or where the Big Bang happened, is at 0.66+0.03-0.01 times the radius of the observable universe at Galactic coordinates (l, b) = (286+10-10, -43+7-6). If we look from the Local Group to the center of the universe, the universe is rotating clockwise.