ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0015.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: cardiac transmural heterogeneity; electromechanical coupling; mechano-calcium-electric feedback; cardiac modeling; cardiomyocyte
Online: 2 November 2016 (06:58:53 CET)
Myocardial heterogeneity is an attribute of the normal heart. We have developed integrative models of cardiomyocytes from the subendocardial (ENDO) and subepicardial (EPI) ventricular regions that take into account experimental data on specific features of intracellular electromechanical coupling in the guinea pig heart. The models adequately simulate experimental data on the action potential and contraction of the ENDO and EPI cells. The modeling results predict that heterogeneity in the parameters of calcium handling and myofilament mechanics in isolated ENDO and EPI cardiomyocytes via cooperative mechanisms of mechano-calcium-electric feedback are essential to produce the differences in Ca2+ transients and contraction profiles and may further enhance transmural differences in the electrical properties between the cells. Simulation results predict that ENDO cells have greater sensitivity to changes in afterload than EPI cells. These data are important for understanding the behavior of cardiomyocytes in the intact heart.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: electric vehicle; battery heat generation; battery degradation; vehicle operation cost; preheating target temperature; heating system
Online: 6 December 2016 (07:46:46 CET)
This paper presents an optimized energy management strategy for Li-ion power batteries used on electric vehicles (EVs) at low temperatures. Under low-temperature environments, EVs suffer a sharp driving range loss resulted from the energy and power capability reduction of the battery. Simultaneously, because of Li plating, battery degradation becomes an increasing concern as temperature drops. All these factors could greatly increase the total vehicle operation cost. Prior to battery charging and vehicle operating, preheating battery to a battery-friendly temperature is an approach to promote energy utilization and reduce total cost. Based on the proposed LiFePO4 battery model, the total vehicle operation cost under certain driving cycles is quantified in the present paper. Then given a certain ambient temperature, a target temperature of preheating is optimized under the principle of minimizing total cost. As for the preheating method, a liquid heating system is also implemented on an electric bus. Simulation results show that the preheating process becomes increasingly necessary with a decreasing ambient temperature; however, the preheating demand declines as driving range grows. Vehicle tests verify that the preheating management strategy proposed in this paper is able to save total vehicle operation cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0030.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microgrid; classification; simulation; optimization; renewable energy sources; storage; electric vehicles
Online: 6 December 2016 (07:52:50 CET)
The expansion of renewable energies is progressing strongly. The influence on the power supply networks by the volatility of the infeed must be met with new concepts. In this paper we investigate the possibilities of integrating microgrids as a cooperating unit in the power supply network to support further expansion of RES power plants. In this paper a differentiation of microgrids from similar network structures is established, a classification of proposed groups is made. Then, after the description of simulation of components in a microgrid, with practical advice, an example model is shown, which aids the dimensioning of the components within a microgrid to achieve a specified goal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electric vehicle (EV); charging station (CS); state of charge (SOC); structured query language (SQL); personal home page (PHP)
Online: 16 March 2017 (06:36:11 CET)
The enormous growth in the penetration of electric vehicles (EVs), has laid the path to advancements in the charging infrastructure. Connectivity between charging stations is an essential prerequisite for future EV adoption to alleviate users’ “range anxiety”. The existing charging stations fail to adopt power provision allocation and scheduling management. To improve the existing charging infrastructure data based on real-time information and availability of reserves at charging stations could be uploaded to the users to help them locate the nearest charging station for an EV. This research article focuses on an a interactive user application developed through SQL and PHP platform to allocate the charging slots based on estimated battery parameters, which uses data communication with charging stations to receive the slot availability information. The proposed server-based real-time forecast charging infrastructure avoids waiting times and its scheduling management efficiently prevents the EV from halting on road due to battery drain out. The proposed model is implemented using a low-cost microcontroller and the system etiquette tested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1335.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: bio-agents rapid detection system; Flashing Ratchet Potential; Electric CurrentSpectroscopy; Thermionic Emission; electron attachment
Online: 20 September 2023 (11:13:01 CEST)
Based on the Flashing Ratchet Potential (FRP) and Electro-Spectroscopy detection techniques, a new detection method was experimentally examined. This method allows the detection of sub-micro particles in the human exhaled air such as viral particles and other biological agents. The detection signal created by this method is carried out by electron current buildup forming an Electric Current-Spectrum (ECS) distinguishing the contents of the exhaled air samples. The detection method was developed based on FRP and a beam of free charges passing through the electrodes of the FRP. The ECS is characterized by low-energy free charges interacting with the medium through which they pass, where numerous free charges are scattered (delayed) as a result of these interactions. The resulting ECS is characterized by FRP's capacity to drift back the delayed free charges to their original starting positions. By comparing the ECS of two exhale air samples, this new technology can be utilized to identify the presence of viral and microorganisms’ particles. The time-escalating ECS difference quickly indicates the presence of such particles. Moreover, the FRP's optimal operating settings was experimentally defined, in addition to the experimental evaluation of its functionality to confirm the FRP's promising sensing capabilities, which were statistically examined several times to ensure the reproducibility of the results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0060.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: elasticbiomass; tubular structure; interconnected porous carbon; electric double layer capacitance
Online: 13 March 2017 (08:01:13 CET)
Biomass materials have received attention for energy storagebecaused of the advantage of low-cost, easy-to-prepare, and eco-friendliness. Three-dimensional carbon materialswith abundant pore structure gradually becomeresearch hotspot in high-performance energy storage. In this study, an easy-to-prepare, green, light and elastic activated carbon was present using the biomass Juncus effusus (JCE) via high-temperature pyrolysis, followed by activation in air. Compared with previously reported bio-carbons, the proposed air-activated bio-carbon contributes in the fabrication of pores to preserve the interconnected, reticular and tubular structure. Moreover, the interconnected porous material also inherits the excellent tenacity of the original JCE such as the material can be bended to below 90o under an external force while maintaining structural integrity. The activated porous carbon material exhibits an enhanced electric double-layer capacitance (~210 F g-1 at 1 A g-1), with capacitance retention of ~78.62% at 10 A g-1. The interconnected porous carbon microtubes electrode as a double-layer symmetric capacitor exhibits considerable capacitance retention (84%) after 2000 cycles at 1 A g-1. The improved energy storage performance was proposed to be attributed to the shortened ionic diffusion distance and sufficient contact between the interface of the carbon electrode and electrolyte, which is resulted from the elastic, undamaged structure and types of pores. These results demonstrated that as-preparedcarbon materials have potentional application in symmetric capacitors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0257.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Light Gradient Boosted; Machine learning; Non-Intrusive Approach; electric load forecasting; Support Vector Machine; Synthetic Load Profile.
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:37:48 CEST)
Due to related uncertainties brought by changes in energy consumption and the integration of rooftop photovoltaic systems, the accuracy and availability of load profiling data are difficult to achieve. However, project managers and planners use a precise load profile as a crucial tool when determining whether the feeder must be updated or de-loaded. The paper aims to create a non-intrusive monitoring system that predicts the synthetic load profiles behavior of energy consumption using a Light Gradient Boosted and Support Vector Machine (SVM) machine learning technique. The most effective ML algorithm is chosen, and it has the potential to be assessed and verified using validation curves, residuals model generation, and prediction error metrics based on the following key statistical indicators: Mean Absolute Error, Mean Square Error, Root Mean Square Error, R-Square, Root Mean Squared Logarithmic Error, and Mean Absolute Percentage Error. The most effective ML has the potential to be assessed and verified using validation curves, residual model generation, and prediction error metrics based on the following key statistical indicators. The result shows that the estimation of the Irms avg -based on LightGBM is more accurate than the SVM because of its quick, economical, and difficult to overfit, particularly with high-dimensional data, speed, and efficiency of the MAE (3.0698), MSE (15.2757), RMSE (3.9020), RMSLE (0.1433), and MAPE (0.0049) respectively. Additionally, the machine learning model shows that, when compared to the SVM, the LightGBM model had the highest accurate prediction, with R-Square values of 89.8%, 90.3%, and 88.5% for Irms_A_avg, Irms_B_avg, and Irms_C_avg, respectively for Brakfontein Substation supply region, and best represents a diverse customer base.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electric Vehicle; internal combustion engine; greenhouse gas; optimization techniques; Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV); Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV); Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV); Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV).
Online: 10 May 2017 (17:44:51 CEST)
Electric vehicles (EV) are getting more commonplace in the transportation sector in recent times. As the present trend suggests, this mode of transport is likely to replace the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in near future. Each of the main EV components has a number of technologies that are currently in use or can become prominent in the future. EVs can cause significant impacts on the environment, power system, and other related sectors. The present power system can face huge instabilities with enough EV penetration; but with proper management and coordination, EVs can be turned into a major contributor to the successful implementation of smart grid. There are possibilities of immense environmental benefits as well, as the EVs can extensively reduce the greenhouse gas emission from the transportation sector. However, there are some major obstacles for EVs to overcome before replacing the ICE vehicles totally. This paper is focused on reviewing all the useful data available on EV configurations, energy sources, motors, charging techniques, optimization techniques, impacts, trends, and possible directions of future developments. Its objective is to provide an overall picture of the current EV technology and ways of future development to assist in future researches in this sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electric mobility; electric vehicle; electrification; airport
Online: 1 July 2021 (22:00:53 CEST)
Following electrification of automotive transport, studies on the penetration of Electric Vehicles (EVs) are widespread, especially in defined contexts, e.g. cities. As major transport hubs, airports fall within contexts worth of interest. In this work, a forecast of the demand for electric mobility in an Italian international airport (Rome, Fiumicino) is presented. First, a wide review of proposed sce-narios on the penetration of EVs at international and national level and available data on local automotive transport are presented, as preliminary study for the definition of reference scenarios for the local context. Then the methodology proposed is presented and applied to the specific case study. Finally, a preliminary sizing of the required charging infrastructure is reported. The proposed approach can be considered as reference for similar studies on electrical mobility in other airport areas around the world.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electric Vehicles; Electric Motors; Batteries; Internal Combustion Engine; Motor Speed
Online: 29 June 2023 (03:05:30 CEST)
The transportation sector is seeing an increased adoption rate of electric vehicles (EV), which comprise battery electric vehicles (BEV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). This mode of transportation is likely to displace automobiles powered by internal combustion engines (ICE) in the nearest future, as indicated by the current trend. Each of the key EC components is home to a variety of technologies that are either currently in use or will be in the near future. Electric vehicles have the potential to have a significant impact on a variety of fields, including the economy, the energy infrastructure, and the natural environment. As a result of the production of carbon dioxide gas from the combustion of fossil fuels, transportation is the sector that is responsible for the second-highest amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Electric vehicles, often known as EVs, are getting a lot of attention as a potentially game-changing solution to this issue. It is possible for electric vehicles to produce fewer emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) than conventional automobiles due to the fact that an electric motor serves as the vehicle's propeller rather than an internal combustion engine. EVs have the potential to become zero-emission vehicles if they are paired with renewable energy sources. This document presents an overview of the numerous types of EV drive circuits, covering their design as well as the benefits and drawbacks associated with each type. The current state of battery technology, particularly that pertaining to the batteries utilized in electronic vehicles, is discussed in this paper. This article also discusses electric motor efficiency, power density, fault tolerance, dependability, cost, and the best electric motor for EVs. Then, a thorough study of future EV implementation's obstacles and prospects is done. Charging times and battery performance are examples of technological challenges, but government regulation of EVs continues to be a substantial non-technical hurdle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1841.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: Electric Vehicle (EV); Electric Vehicle Charging Stations; California; Rebates; Adoption
Online: 4 December 2023 (11:38:26 CET)
Abstract: This study investigates the effect of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations (EVCS) on light-duty Electric Vehicle sales and the Total California rebates. Electric Vehicle Charging Stations (EVCS) are infrastructure facilities that allow for the charging of electric vehicles (EVs). I applied the before and after model with California state county using its community-level attributes and used the difference-in-difference design to identify a strategy for estimating the causal effects of these attributes. These attributes include EVCS installations by time, EV sales by time, rebate applications by time, the number of multi-unit housing units, and the median income levels. The empirical ev-idence of this study shows the estimated relationship between public EV charging installation and EV sales overall by community income level, housing density, and other relevant factors, the result shows that EVCSs is highly correlated with light duty Electric Vehicle adoption. For the investors, policymakers, and other stakeholders, this study provides evidence of a threshold of EVCS on Light Duty Electric Vehicle adoption and rebate in California. Keywords: Electric Vehicle (EV); Electric Vehicle Charging Stations; California; Rebates; Adoption
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1706.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: electric vehicles; charging behavior; private electric mobility.
Online: 27 November 2023 (13:21:36 CET)
Electric mobility is one of the ways to contain greenhouse gas and local pollutants emissions in urban areas. Nevertheless, the massive introduction of battery-powered electric vehicles (EVs) brings some concerns related to their energy demand. Modelling vehicle usage and charging behavior is essential for charge demand forecasting and energy consumption estimation. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the charging decisions of EV owners are influenced by different factors, ranging from the charging infrastructure characteristics to the users’ profiles. This review intends to investigate the approaches used to investigate on charging behavior and highlight trends and differences between the results, remarking on any gaps worthy of further investigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0365.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Model predictive control; Mixed-integer linear programming; Multi-objective optimization; Energy storage management; Load management; More electric aircraft; Demand-side flexibility
Online: 25 October 2021 (15:43:38 CEST)
Abstract: Safety issues related to the electrification of more electric aircraft (MEA) need to be addressed because of the increasing complexity of aircraft electrical power systems and the growing number of safety-critical sub-systems that need to be powered. Managing the energy storage systems and the flexibility in the load-side plays an important role in preserving the system’s safety when facing an energy shortage. This paper presents a system-level centralized operation management strategy based on model predictive control (MPC) for MEA to schedule battery systems and exploit flexibility in the demand-side while satisfying time-varying operational requirements. The proposed online control strategy aims to maintain energy storage (ES) and prolong the battery life cycle, while minimizing load shedding, with fewer switching activities to improve devices lifetime and to avoid unnecessary transients. Using a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) formulation, different objective functions are proposed to realize the control targets, with soft constraints improving the robustness of the model. Besides, an evaluation framework is proposed to analyze the effects of various objective functions and the prediction horizon on system performance, which provides the designers and users of MEA and other complex systems with new insights into operation management problem formulation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Review; Electrical Machines; Superconducting Machines; Hybrid-Electric Aircraft; Propulsion Design; All-Electric Aircraft; Specific Power
Online: 6 September 2021 (13:04:15 CEST)
The development of electric aircrafts is becoming an important technology for achieving the goals set by the European Commission for the reduction of gases emissions by 2050 in the aeronautical transportation system. However, there is a gap between the values of specific power in commercial electric machines and the ones required for aeronautical applications. Therefore, the search for alternative materials and non-conventional designs is mandatory. One emergent solution is using superconducting machines and systems to overcome the current limits of conventional electrical machines. This work reviews the new hybrid and all-electric aircraft tendencies, complementing it with recent research on the design and development of high specific power superconducting machines. This includes the main topologies for hybrid and all-electric aircraft, with an overview of the ongoing worldwide projects of these types of aircrafts, systematizing the main characteristics of their propulsion systems. It also includes the research on superconducting machines for the purpose of high specific power, considering the impact on the redesign of aircraft systems in the electrical, cooling, and fuel source sense.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0454.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Review; Electric Field; Ionic wind; Electric assisted combustion; Soot emission
Online: 22 October 2020 (09:54:38 CEST)
Electric field assisted combustion is an important means to improve fuel combustion efficiency. This paper conducts extensive research on flame characteristics under different forms and different application methods of electric fields, emission of soot particles and simulation status. Different flame parameter measurement methods will lead to different degrees of error, and perfect numerical simulation can make simple predictions on experimental data. Most of the current numerical simulations are in two dimensions, and it is necessary to develop a complete and accurate three-dimensional model to simulate and predict the characteristics of the flame under an electric field. The emission of soot particles is also affected by the electric field, and reasonable electric field parameters can greatly reduce the emission of soot particles. It is recommended to conduct centralized measurement of different fuels under the electric field under high pressure and temperature conditions, so as to be able to develop a wider and more accurate flame dynamics and chemical model under the electric field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0411.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: perovskites; neodymium; luminescence; electric transport; magnetization
Online: 19 November 2018 (03:54:34 CET)
Nanocrystalline La1-xNdxFeO3 powders with different concentrations of Nd3+ have been synthesized by modified Pechini method. Their structure was studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). Further, La1-xNdxFeO3 nanoceramics were prepared by high pressure sintering technique. The luminescence spectra of the powders were investigated as a function of concentration of active dopant to check the possible energy transfers observed due to Nd3+ concentration changes. The electrical and magnetic properties of the powders and ceramics were investigated to determine the effect of Nd3+ doping on the dielectric permittivity and magnetization in the wide frequency range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1280.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: electric vehicle; battery; fuel cell; charging
Online: 17 August 2023 (11:54:18 CEST)
Zero-emission trucks for regional and long haul missions are an option for fossil-free freight. The viability of such powertrains and system solutions was studied conceptually in project ESCALATE for trucks with GVW of 40 tonnes and beyond through various prime mover combinations. The study covers battery and fuel cell power sources with different degrees of battery electric as well as H2 and fuel cell operation. As a design basis, two different missions with a single-charge/H2 refill were analysed. The first mission was the VECTO long haul profile repeated up to 750 km, whereas the second was a real 520 km on-road mission in Finland. Based on the simulated energy consumption on the driving cycle, on-board energy demand was estimated, and the initial single-charge operational scenarios were analysed with five different power source topologies. The traction motors of the tractor were dimensioned so that a secondary mission of GVW up to 76 tons on a shorter route can be operated. Based on the powertrain and vehicle model, various infrastructure options for charging and H2 refuelling strategy as well as various operative scenarios with indicative total cost of ownership (TCO) were analysed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0269.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: Electric energy; cosmological inflation; emergence of conductivity
Online: 3 August 2023 (08:44:32 CEST)
Conversion of electromagnetic energy into magnetohydrodynamic energy occurs when the electric conductivity changes from negligible to finite values. This process is relevant during the epoch of reheating of the early Universe at the end of inflation and before the emergence of the radiation-dominated era. We find that conversion into kinetic and thermal energies is primarily the result of electric energy dissipation and that the magnetic energy plays only a secondary role in this process. This means that, since electric energy dominates over magnetic energy during inflation and reheating, significant amounts of electric energy can be converted into magnetohydrodynamic energy when conductivity emerges early enough, before the relevant length scales become stable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1594.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electric vehicles; hydrogen fuel cell vehicles; site selection and fixed capacity; voronoi diagram; electric-hydrogen integrated charging station
Online: 25 November 2023 (14:32:31 CET)
In view of the problem of charging and hydrogen filling facilities construction in the transition from fuel vehicles to electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, in order to meet the electric energy demand of electric vehicles and hydrogen energy demand of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles at the same time, this paper puts forward a method of siting and capacity determination of electric-hydrogen refueling integrated station (EHRIS) based on Voronoi diagram and particle swarm algorithm based on calculating the demand of charging and filling of hydrogen in vehicles. Firstly, OD pair(Origin-Destination) is used to represent the starting point and end point of the car to portray the travel demand of the car, and on the basis of the traffic network model, the shortest driving path of the new energy car is determined by Dijkstra algorithm, and Monte Carlo simulation is used to get the electric-hydrogen energy demand of the car; secondly, the Voronoi diagram is introduced to classify the service scope of the electric-hydrogen charging station to determine the equipment capacity of the electric-hydrogen charging station, while taking into account the electric-hydrogen charging and refueling capacity. Secondly, a Voronoi diagram is introduced to divide the service scope of the EHRIS, determine the capacity of the equipment in the EHRIS, and consider the distance constraints between the sites of EHRIS, so as to make the division of the site and service scope more reasonable. Finally, a dynamic optimal current model framework for distribution networks based on second-order cone relaxation is established, and each element of the active distribution network is planned, so that the distribution network can operate safely and stably after being connected to the EHRIS. With the objective of minimizing the total social cost of EHRIS and considering the constraints of the charging equipment and hydrogen production and injection equipment of the EHRIS, a siting and capacity model to meet the electric-hydrogen energy demand of electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles is developed, and solved by a particle swarm algorithm. Finally, the simulation planning is carried out with Sioux Falls city and IEEE33 network, which ensures the stable operation of the power grid while meeting the energy demand of automobiles, and the results verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Energy Efficiency; Emissions; Tribology; Lubrication; Battery Electric Vehicles; Hybrid Electric Vehicles; Life Cycle Analysis; Thermal Cooling Fluids
Online: 17 June 2021 (10:46:41 CEST)
The motivations for the move to electrified vehicles are discussed with reference to their improved energy efficiency, their potential for lower CO2 emissions (if the electricity system is decarbonized), their lower (or zero) NOx/particulate matter (PM) tailpipe emissions, and the lower overall costs for owners. Some of the assumptions made in life-cycle CO2 emissions calculations are discussed and the effect of these assumptions on the CO2 benefits of electric vehicles are made clear. A number of new tribological challenges have emerged, particularly for hybrid vehicles that have both a conventional internal combustion engine and a battery, such as the need to protect against the much greater number of stop-starts that the engine will have during its lifetime. In addition, new lubricants are required for electric vehicle transmissions systems. Although full battery electric vehicles (BEVs) will not require engine oils (as there is no engine) they will require a system to cool the batteries – alternative cooling systems are discussed, and where these are fluid based, the specific fluid requirements are outlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0300.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: agent-based model; electric vehicles; traffic simulation; energy intake; urban environment; fuel costs; public policy; electric mobility
Online: 29 April 2022 (11:05:15 CEST)
By 2020, over 100 countries expanded electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (EV/PHEV) technologies, with global sales surpassing 7 million units. Governments are adopting cleaner vehicle technologies due to proven environmental and health implications of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), evidenced by the recent COP26 meeting. This article proposes an agent-based model of vehicle activity as a tool for quantifying energy consumption by simulating a fleet of EV/PHEVs within an urban street network at various spatio-temporal resolutions. Driver behaviour plays a significant role in fuel consumption, thus, simulating various levels of individual behaviour enhancing heterogeneity should provide more accurate results of potential energy demand in cities. The study found that 1) energy consumption is lowest when speed limit adherence increases (low variance in behaviour) and is highest when acceleration/deceleration patterns vary (high variance in behaviour) and 2) on average, for tested vehicles, EV/PHEVs were £116.33 cheaper to run than ICEVs across all experiment conditions. The difference in the average fuel costs (electricity and petrol) shrinks at the vehicle level as driver behaviour is less varied (more homogeneous). This research should allow policymakers to quantify the demand for energy and subsequent fuel costs in cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0694.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Electric energy; Occupant behavior; energy efficiency; lecture halls
Online: 29 June 2021 (08:44:05 CEST)
All over the world energy is used for different purposes and hence its continuous high demand which has brought about an increase in crisis and prices of energy. Ghana has faced a lot of supply and high electricity consumption challenges over a period of time. The Energy Commission of Ghana has developed regulations and guidelines to help reduce high consumption challenges among users, these included the replacement of incandescent bulbs with fluorescent bulbs, ban of importation of low energy efficient appliances. In spite of the effort to reduce electricity wastage, there is still a high increase in electricity consumption. The research investigated what contributed to electricity consumption in Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology with the lecture halls as the main focus, the research also analyzed the current occupant behavior characterized by the electrical energy consumption practices. And investigated how the contemporary theories for reducing energy consumption was used in the lecture halls. A questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate occupants on their energy use practices in lecture halls that causes wastages, observation was made to establish relevant data on the use of contemporary theories for energy reduction in lecture halls. In a total of 110 occupants that responded to the questionnaire, 79 occupants almost always turn off electrical fitting and fixtures when not in use. From the responses, a majority of the occupants claimed to comply to best practices of energy use. The research concluded that some contemporary theories to reduce energy consumptions was not used and considered in the lecture halls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0500.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: molecular electric potentials; spatial confinement; intermolecular interactions
Online: 26 August 2021 (07:46:43 CEST)
In this theoretical study we report on molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) of titled molecules confined by repulsive potentials of cylindrical symmetry mimicking a topology. Our calculations show that the spatial restriction significantly changes the picture of MEP of molecules in quantitative and qualitative sense. In particular, the drastic changes of MEP as a function of the strength of spatial confinement are observed for the BrCN molecule. This preliminary study is the first step in the investigations of the behavior of MEP of molecular systems under the orbital compression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0108.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Space Science Keywords: Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC); Prompt Penetration of Magnetospheric Convection Electric Field; Disturbance Dynamo Electric Field (DDEF); DP2; Ddyn
Online: 3 October 2023 (04:36:00 CEST)
This study investigates the impact of geomagnetic storms that occurred on June 8, 22-23, and 25, 2015, on the ionosphere in the low-latitude and equatorial regions of Brazil. By examining various data sources, such as solar wind parameters from the ACE satellite, GPS vertical total electron content (VTEC), magnetometer data, and the SAMI2 model, we aimed to simulate the effects of storms on the ionosphere in these regions. Two methods were employed to separate DP2 and Disturbance dynamo (Ddyn) from the ionospheric disturbance current (Diono). Our analysis revealed a positive (negative) ionospheric storm in the VTEC during the main phase (recovery) of the June 22-23 and 25 storms. This observation can be attributed to the combined impact of the eastward prompt penetration of the magnetospheric convection electric field (westward disturbance dynamo electric field) and changes in the storm-time thermospheric [O]/[N_2] ratio based on the GUVI satellite imagery. Notably, the westward disturbance dynamo exhibited a significant amplitude on June 23 in Belem. The amplitude of the D_dyn at Belem (dip lat: - 0.47˚) was greater than that at Alta Floresta (dip lat: - 3.75˚) due to intensified cowling conductivity in Belem. Furthermore, we found that the SAMI2 model provided more accurate results when we replaced the default ExB drift with the vertical drift calculated from the ground-based magnetometer, enabling us to simulate the effect of the westward DDEF on VTEC during daytime.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0316.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: electric vehicles; optimization; renewable energy charging station
Online: 20 June 2018 (08:58:05 CEST)
In recent years, integration of electric vehicles (EVs) has increased dramatically due to their lower carbon emissions and reduced fossil fuel dependency. However, charging EVs could have significant impacts on the electrical grid. One promising method for mitigating these impacts is the use of renewable energy systems. Renewable energy systems can also be useful for charging EVs where there is no local grid. This paper proposes a new strategy for designing a renewable energy charging station consisting of wind turbines, a photovoltaic system, and an energy storage system to avoid the use of diesel generators in remote communities. The objective function is considered to be the minimization of the total net present cost, including energy production, components setup, and financial viability. The proposed approach, using stochastic modeling, can also guarantee profitable operation of EVs and reasonable effects on renewable energy sizing, narrowing the gap between real-life daily operation patterns and the design stage. The proposed strategy should enhance the efficiency of conventional EV charging stations. The key point of this study is the efficient use of excess electricity. The infrastructure of the charging station is optimized and modeled.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0490.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Thermal Runaway; side collision; electric vehicle battery
Online: 17 July 2023 (02:49:32 CEST)
In current electric vehicles, the traction battery is intended to store energy. When designing this battery different parameters must be taken into account in order to arrange the battery/module/cells in the mechanically and thermally safest configuration. Moreover, the battery layout must have a correct dynamic behavior in possible collisions. In the present study, different battery configurations plus added energy absorbers are analyzed. In order to do that, an internal combustion vehicle modeled with finite elements is applied as the reference model. The structural behavior of the different battery configurations in the event of a side collision is examined. Firstly, the safest arrangement is stablished, both with respect to cabin intrusion and thermal runaway propagation. Secondly, the safest arrangement that guarantees the safety of the occupants in the event of a side collision is analyzed but using the MADYMO. This software includes experimentally validated dummies which allow have an insight in the stresses experienced by occupants. On the one hand, the analysis states that the battery pack inclusion in the vehicle increases the stiffness of the car floor, resulting in fewer intrusions in the passenger compartment. Therefore, a greater safety for the occupants is reached. On the other hand, none of the configurations analyzed has shown enough safety against the phenomenon of Thermal Runaway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1652.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Drones; Photovoltaics; Electric Mobility; Solar Energy; Spatial analysis
Online: 23 May 2023 (11:11:08 CEST)
Electric energy is one of the driving forces in every country. The supply of electrical energy continues to present various challenges, such as high costs associated with procuring raw materials for generation, sparsely populated areas that are not connected to the main grid, and the need for infrastructure to support generation and network delivery. These challenges have contributed to the growing adoption of renewable energy sources, particularly solar photovoltaics (PV).In this study, we have developed a practical method to assess the spatial PV potential in a selected urban area. The methodology combines data collected from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry, Geographic Information System (GIS), and the energy output from three remote photovoltaic systems installed at different locations. The results obtained from this approach not only provide the energy generated per square meter, per year (kWh m-2 yr-1), but also provides a base to calculate the potential distance that electric cars could travel based on the energy generated. To illustrate the application of this method, two practical cases were selected: Senglea, Malta, and Munxar, Gozo. These examples highlight the versatility and effectiveness of our approach for evaluating and harnessing solar energy through photovoltaic panels in different contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0068.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: olfaction, olfactory, odorants, pheromones, smell, electric field, electromagnetic radiation, electric field sensor, insect antennae
Online: 4 September 2018 (14:31:22 CEST)
The olfactory system is capable of distinguishing individual odorants from among a virtually unlimited number. Fish, for example, detect changes in the electric field environment induced by prey and other sources. Floral electric fields exhibit variations in pattern and structure, which can be discriminated by bumblebees. We have constructed an electric field sensor, which, in the course of focussing on achieving maximum sensitivity and consistency, ultimately resembles features of the insect sensorium. A “fingerprint” 3D plot ( time, frequency range, voltage amplitude), representing the emitted electric field profile, is presented for each of a variety of odorants and other chemicals. The substance-specific electric-field emission and identification is not impeded by containers or barriers or distance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0264.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: charging infrastructure; e-mobility; electric vehicle; optimization; private electric car; transport simulation; distribution of charging Infrastructure; battery electric; genetic optimization; high-power charging
Online: 15 November 2022 (01:15:14 CET)
To enable the deployment of battery-electric vehicles (BEV) as passenger cars in the private transport sector, a suitable charging infrastructure is crucial. In this paper a methodology for efficient spatial distribution of charging infrastructure is evaluated by investigating a scenario with a market penetration of BEVs of 100 percent (around 1.3 million vehicles). It aims towards the development of various charging infrastructure scenarios - including public and private charging - which are suitable to cover the charging demand. Therefore, these scenarios are investigated in detail with focus on number of public charging points, their spatial distribution, the available charging power and the necessary capital costs. For the creation of those charging infrastructure scenarios a placement model is developed. It uses the data of a MATSim (Multi-Agent Transport Simulation) traffic simulation of the metropolitan area of Berlin to evaluate and optimize different distributions of charging infrastructure. The model uses a genetic algorithm and the principle of multi-objective optimization. The capital cost of the charging points and the mean detour car drivers must cover additionally are used as optimization criteria. Using these criteria should lead to cost efficient infrastructure solutions which provide high usability at the same time. The main advantage of the method selected is that multiple optimal solutions with different characteristics can be found and suitable solutions can be selected by using other criteria subsequently. The optimized charging infrastructure solutions show capital costs between 624 and 2950 million euro. Users must cover an additionally mean detour of 254m to 590m per charging process to reach an available charging point. According to the results a suitable ratio between charging points and vehicles is between 11:1 and 5:1. A share of fast charging infrastructure (>50kW) of less than ten percent seems to be sufficient, if it is situated at main traffic routes and highly frequented places.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0383.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: Quantum Field Theory, Electric-Magnetic Duality, Spin-Mass Duality
Online: 25 June 2018 (11:14:54 CEST)
Abstract: I present a generalization of quantum electrodynamics which includes Diracmagnetic monop oles and the Salam magnetic photon. This quantum electromagnetodynamics has many attractive features. (1) It explains the quantization of electric charge. (2) It describes symmetrized Maxwell equations. (3) It is manifestly covariant. (4) It describes local four-potentials. (5) It avoids the unphysical Dirac string. (6) It predicts a second kind of electromagnetic radiation which can be veried by a tabletop experiment. An eect of this radiation may have been observed by August Kundt in 1885. Furthermore I discuss a generalization of General Relativity which includes Cartan's torsion. I discuss the mathematical denition, concrete description, and physical meaning of Cartan's torsion. I argue that the electric-magnetic duality of quantum electromagnetodynamics is analogous to the spin-mass duality of Einstein-Cartan theory. A quantum version of this theory requires that the torsion tensor corresponds to a spin-3 boson called tordion which is shown to have a rest mass close to the Planck mass. Moreover I present an empirically satised fundamental equation of unied eld theory which includes the fundamental constants of electromagnetism and gravity. I conclude with the remark that the concepts presented here require neither Grand Unication nor supersymmetry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0171.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: energy consumption; efficiency; EV (electric vehicle); simulation; optimization
Online: 4 December 2023 (10:11:59 CET)
In this study, we focused on the eco-driving of electric vehicles (EVs). The target vehicle is an electric bus developed by our research team. Using the parameters of the bus and speed pattern optimization algorithm, we derived the EV eco-driving speed pattern. Compared to eco-driving of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICVs), we found several different characteristics. We verified these characteristics with actual vehicle driving test data of the target bus, and the results confirmed its rationality. The EV eco-driving method can improve electricity consumption by about 10% - 20% under the same average speed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: microgrid; re-synchronization; voltage stability; electric vehicles; electric vehicles chargers; virtual impedance; particle swarm optimization.
Online: 1 December 2023 (13:30:17 CET)
In this research, the concept of the instability of tension in Microgrid still becomes the focus of study and purpose. Scrutinously, First-Swing Instability occurs in the system in noted changes with properties of making the system unstable or restore to a state of stability. The latter calls itself as a phenomenon of re-synchronization. Allied to aspects of system instability, it is evident that by connecting fast electric chargers for battery-electric vehicles to the distribution system from microgrids, they increase the necessary basic electrical charges and reduce the stability of the electrical energy system. Transient electrical currents have the characteristic of severely impacting microgrids not prepared in connected states or island of the main system. The occurrences of the electromagnetic incompatibility of the inrush current, due to their unpredictability and intermittent characteristic, have complex identification studies. With the elevation of electricity demand by battery-electric vehicle chargers, concerns about the effects of the integration of the electricity grid increase proportionally. The research described in this article emphasizes the influence of fast chargers’ initialization on the power variation related to the re-synchronization phenomenon and its mitigation of the stability of electricity microgrid. An optimization algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) implements the development of virtual impedances. The PSO optimization algorithm analyzes all possible operating points and aims to maximize the stability index of microgrid, maintaining reactive energy incompatibilities at the minimum level supported. The fractional objective function facilitates the service to these goals simultaneously. The optimization algorithm is implemented in a case study and the corresponding virtual impedance is incorporated into the microgrid. Voltage levels are verified as a condition in the optimization process, comparing system effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0174.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: open-source; photovoltaic; mechanical design; electric vehicle; solar energy; solar carport; electric vehicle charging station
Online: 13 September 2022 (10:41:43 CEST)
Solar powering the increasing fleet of electrical vehicles (EV) demands more surface area than may be available for photovoltaic (PV) powered buildings. Parking lot solar canopies can provide the needed area to charge EVs, but are substantially costlier than roof- or ground-mounted PV systems. To provide a lower-cost PV parking lot canopy to supply EV charging beneath them, this study provides a full mechanical and economic analysis on three novel PV canopy systems: (1) exclusively wood, single parking spot spanning system, (2) wood and aluminum double parking spot spanning system, and (3) wood and aluminum cantilevered system for curbside parking. All systems can be scalable to any amount of EV parking spots. The complete designs and bill of materials (BOM) of the canopies are provided along with basic instructions and are released with an open source license that will enable anyone to fabricate them. The results found single-span systems have cost savings of 82%-85%, double-span systems save 43%-50%, and cantilevered systems save 31%-40%. In the first operation year, the PV canopies can provide 157% of energy needed to charge the least efficient EV currently on the market if it is driven the average driving distance in London ON, Canada.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0607.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: Gravitational-electric-magnetic interaction; Controlling permittivity and permeability; Superconductivity
Online: 13 September 2021 (12:31:14 CEST)
Appling the controlling relative permittivity and permeability in the equations for the gravitational-magnetic-electric field interaction, a very large variation of the gravitational acceleration of the Earth by electric/magnetic field could be arrived at. This conclusion may be supported by some of the experiments for the gravitational effect of superconductivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1085.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Jet-mill; Spinach; Lutein; Pasteurization; Pulsed electric fields
Online: 16 November 2023 (11:33:05 CET)
This study aimed to investigate the effects of jet-milling on lutein extraction contents of spinach powder (SP) and pulsed electric fields as a non-thermal pasteurization technology on spinach juice (SJ) to preserve lutein contents. SP particles were divided into SP-coarse (Dv50 = 315.2 μm), SP-fine (Dv50 = 125.20 μm), and SP-superfine (Dv50 = 5.59 μm) fractions and SP-superfine was added to SJ due to the highest contents of lutein extract. The PEF and thermal treatment were applied to evaluate the effects of preserving the lutein content of PEF during storage (25 days). The juice after being designated to untreated (no pasteurization), PEF1,2 (SJ treated with PEF 20 kV/cm 110 kJ/L, 150 kJ/L), Thermal1,2 (SJ treated with 90 ℃, 10 min and 121 ℃, 15 min). The sizes and surface shapes of superfine SP particles were more homogeneous and smoother than the other samples. SJ made with SP-superfine and treated by PEF had the highest lutein content and antioxidant activities among the group. Complex of jet-milling and PEF pasteurization could be great potential technologies to improve the lutein contents of lutein-enriched juice in the food industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0011.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Automotive; Electric Vehicle; Market Strategy; Competitive Advantage; Marketing Strategy
Online: 1 May 2023 (04:07:19 CEST)
With the increased liberation of trade and fierce competition in the automotive industry, Proton needs to embark on a strategic reform to survive and remain relevant in the challenging market. This case study aims to explain the effectiveness of the Post Geely acquisition's ten years master plan to enhance Proton's self-reliance and global competitiveness. This case suggests that while the company's ten-year Master Plan is holistic and shows positive results in the early years, there is a need for a new business strategy, given the challenges imposed by climate change's impact on the automotive industry moving forward. The potentials of the Electric Vehicles (EVs) market and the Internet of Things (IoT) to develop the necessary long-term competitive advantage. A market strategy integrating the 4Ps and 4Cs framework suggests a two-dimensional convergence of the market mix, incorporating the organization's market strategy with a more consumer expectations-centric and user experience. Strategic integration of Geely's technological assets in developing Proton's technical know-how can address Proton's challenges and opportunities ahead.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0334.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Russia; solar power; hydrogen energy; electric vehicle; lithium battery
Online: 28 January 2020 (05:47:34 CET)
With a relatively small population, Russia accesses huge oil, natural gas, coal and uranium resources, and hosts advanced nuclear energy, oil and natural gas industries. However, the combined effect of today’s low cost electricity generation via photovoltaic modules, water and wind turbines and similarly low cost storage in Li-ion battery and solar hydrogen obtained via water electrolysis will have a profound impact on Russia’s energy and automotive industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2053.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: electric mobility; market disruptions; competitive advantage
Online: 1 August 2023 (04:03:52 CEST)
The present study reports a critical review of NIO's business model, considering the evolving landscape of the electric vehicle market and servicing. The objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive framework that facilitates the identification of key elements characterizing a company's business model and highlights ongoing transformations, crucial for adaptation and survival in a rapidly changing environmental context. Focusing on the case study of NIO, a relatively young Chinese original equipment manufacturer (OEM) specializing in high-tech electric cars, the research delves into the challenging scenario of the Chinese electric vehicle market, which has recently faced a bubble in 2023. The market proliferation, supply chain disruptions, and price wars triggered by Tesla have resulted in a survival struggle for numerous automotive startups, leaving larger companies with increasing market shares. Despite facing adversities, NIO managed to secure a promising segment, catering to premium-range battery electric vehicles (BEVs), establishing a competitive advantage through differentiation. By pursuing ambitious investments, the company aims to create economies of scope and achieve cost leadership, venturing into new market sectors and vertically integrating the production chain. Given NIO's agility in adapting to market conditions, aggressive entry into new segments, and a strategic vision for the future, it serves as an excellent candidate for testing and validating the proposed framework. The research sheds light on NIO's trajectory and offers insights into its potential for sustained growth in the dynamic electric vehicle market.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: charge; current; electric field; magnetic field
Online: 21 June 2019 (08:39:42 CEST)
As we all know, contemporary electromagnetic theory is based on the macroscopic electromagnetic theory established by the 19th century. Because of the lack of microscopic cognition in that era, various electromagnetic phenomena could only be explained and described at the macro level, and their origins could not be explained at the micro level. And because of the microscopic understanding of atomic physics in the 20th century, new progress has been made. Considering that it is now the 21st century, this paper attempts to establish a new theory of microscopic interpretation of classical electromagnetic theory based on the new cognition of atomic physics in the 20th century. Starting from the general assumption, the current will be interpreted as the momentum flow produced by the directed collision between electrons; the charge will be interpreted as a form of expression of electron motion; the voltage is interpreted as the potential difference (energy level difference) of the electron orbit. In the end, this paper successfully developed a new microscopic electromagnetic theory by introducing microscopic atomic physics and rigid body mechanics models to Maxwell's macroscopic electromagnetic theory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0583.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Electric vehicles; Shortest path; Points of Interest; Path planner
Online: 19 April 2023 (10:22:41 CEST)
A number of decision support tools facilitating the use of Electric Vehicles (EVs) have been recently developed. Due to the EVs’ limited autonomy, routing and path planning are the main challenges treated in such tools. Specifically, determining at which Charging Stations (CSs) to stop, and how much the EV should charge at them is complex. This complexity is further compounded by the fact that charging times depend on the CS technology, the EV characteristics, and follow a nonlinear function. Considering these factors, we propose a path planning methodology for EVs with user preferences, where charging is performed at public CSs. To achieve this, we introduce the Electric Vehicle Shortest Path Problem with time windows and user preferences (EVSPPWP) and propose an efficient solution algorithm for it. Given an origin and a destination, the algorithm prioritizes CSs close to Points of Interest (POIs) that match user inputted preferences, and user-defined time windows are considered for activities such as lunch and spending the night at hotels. The algorithm produces flexible solutions by considering clusters of charging points (CPs) as separate CSs. Furthermore, the algorithm yields resilient paths by ensuring that recommended paths have a minimum number of CSs in their vicinity. The main contributions of our methodology are: modeling user-defined time windows, including user-defined weights for different POI categories, creating CSs based on clusters of CPs with sufficient proximity, using resilient paths, and proposing an efficient algorithm for solving the EVSPPWP. To facilitate the use of our methodology, the algorithm was integrated into a web interface. We illustrate the use of the web interface, giving usage examples and comparing different settings.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0051.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Electric vehicles; Battery thermal management system; Li-Ion batteries
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:39:49 CET)
Electric Vehicles (EVs) are the need of the hour due to growing climate change problems linked with the transportation sector. Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS), which is accountable for certifying safety and performance of lithium-ion batteries (LiB), is the most vital part of an EV. LiB has auspicious gravimetric energy density but the heat generation due to chemical reactions inside a LiB during charging and discharging causes temperature rise which has a direct effect on LiB performance and safety. This study specifically focuses on aircooled BTMS, defines different types of air-cooled BTMS (active and Passive), discusses limitations associated with air-cooled BTMS, and investigates different optimization techniques and parameters to improve performance of air-cooled BTMS. Maintaining temperature within optimum range and uniform temperature distribution between cells of a battery pack are the major design parameters for improving the performance and efficiency of air-cooled BTMS. Various optimization techniques including cell arrangement with a battery pack, air-flow channel optimization, and air inlet/outlet position variations are discussed and each technique is thoroughly reviewed. Finally, it’s noted that passive air-cooled BTMS is not that effective for long-distance vehicles so most researchers shifted their focus toward active air-cooled BTMS. Active air-cooled BTMS requires a lot of power for effective performance. Lastly, the most recent field of air-cooled BTMS technology which is Air-Hybrid BTMS is discussed and declared a very promising solution for overcoming major limitations associated with air-cooled BTMS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0029.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: electric mobility; paratransit; informality; Sustainability transitions; East-Africa; transport
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:23:46 CET)
Electric mobility begins to enter East-African markets. This paper aims to investigate what policy level solutions and stakeholder constellations are established in the context of e-mobility in Dar es Salaam, Kigali, Kisumu and Nairobi and in which ways they attempt to tackle implementation of electric mobility solutions. The study employs two key methods including content analysis of policy and programmatic documents as well as interviews based on purposive sampling ap-proach with stakeholders involved in mobility transitions. The study findings point out that transport operators and their representative associations are less recognized as major players in the transition, far behind new e-mobility players (start-ups) and public authorities. The study further indicates that a set of financial and technical barriers persist such as high upfront invest-ment costs in vehicles and infrastructure, or anxieties regarding competitiveness with fossil fuel vehicles, that constrain the uptake of such private e-mobility initiatives. This study concludes by identifying current gaps that need to be tackled by policy makers and stakeholders in order to implement inclusive electric mobility in East-African cities, considering modalities that include transport providers and address their financial constraints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1716.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electric vehicle; microgrid; renewable generator; V2G; management strategy
Online: 25 May 2023 (03:03:53 CEST)
The energy stored in an electric vehicle's battery would be drawn and distributed to the electrical grid to better drive energy consumption within a microgrid that includes a renewable generator(s) managed by a specific energy management strategy. This concept, known as vehicle-to-grid technology: V2G, makes the energy stored in the electric vehicle's battery more beneficial by discharging it to the public grid during periods of high demand. In this study, we will consider a vehicle system connected to a microgrid, which includes a photovoltaic generator reported from the <<PROPRE.MA>> project in the city of Tangier. We will elaborate the study of a strategy of the car connected to this V2G network. This allows electricity to be stored when rates are low (off-peak hours) and then used when prices rise (peak hours). Otherwise, the solar energy will cover the owner's needs, and the surplus will be injected into the distribution network. This strategy will manage the solar power, the load power, the state of charge of the EV battery, the time of day and the driving scenario. Using two driving profiles, we will show the performance of the proposed energy management strategy and the percentage contribution of the photovoltaic array of the <<PROPRE.MA>> project in the city of Tangier.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1731.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Electric-thermal model; Polarization; Heat Generation; Lithium-ion Battery
Online: 26 September 2023 (09:03:07 CEST)
This paper investigates the polarization and heat generation characteristics of batteries under different ambient temperatures and discharge rates by means of using a coupled electric-thermal model. The study found that the largest percentage of polarization is ohmic polarization, followed by concentration polarization and electrochemical polarization. The values of the three types of polarization are generally small and stable under normal-temperature environments and low-discharge rates. However, they increase significantly in low-temperature environments and high-discharge rates and continue to rise during the discharge process. Additionally, ohmic heat generation and polarization generation also increase significantly under these conditions. Reversible entropy heat is less sensitive to ambient temperature but increases significantly with the increase of the discharge rate. Ohmic heat generation and polarization heat generation contribute to the total heat generation of the battery at any ambient temperature, while reversible entropy heat only contributes to the total heat generation of the battery at the end of discharge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0449.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: head and neck neoplasms; electric stimulation; chemoradiotherapy; swallowing; dysphagia
Online: 6 June 2023 (11:37:29 CEST)
Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is the standard treatment for locally advanced head and neck cancer; however, CRT may cause post-treatment dysphagia. Transcutaneous electrical sensory stimulation (TESS), developed in recent years for swallowing rehabilitation, has been used at many medical facilities. Although TESS has been used for dysphagia in several fields, its safety and efficacy in patients with head and neck cancer remain to be clarified. Therefore, this study evaluated the safety of TESS in ten patients with head and neck cancers undergoing CRT. Swallowing rehabilitation intervention and TESS implementation were performed for all patients during CRT. Non-blood toxicity adverse events (AEs), such as dermatitis and mucositis, occurred during CRT; however, the severity was less than Grade 3. No patient experienced pain due to TESS. As survival time analysis using the Kaplan–Meier method for interferential current device implementation rates revealed a feasibility of 100% for up to 60 Gy and a feasibility of 78% for up to 70 Gy, it concludes that TESS was feasible until 70 Gy. This study confirmed the feasibility and safety of TESS in the head and neck region, even during CRT. Although the precise mechanism of TESS on dysphagia is not yet clear, its continued use has great potential for improving sensory disturbance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0012.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: lithium-ion battery; battery recycling; battery electric vehicle; circular economy
Online: 5 May 2019 (11:10:23 CEST)
Driven by the rapid uptake of battery electric vehicles, Li-ion power batteries are increasingly reused in stationary energy storage systems, and eventually recycled to recover all the valued components. Offering an updated global perspective, this study provides a circular economy insight on lithium-ion battery reuse and recycling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0209.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: space weather; global electric circuit; fair weather; electric field; current density; solar proton events; coronal mass ejection
Online: 4 October 2023 (05:20:52 CEST)
We report on ground-based measurements of the atmospheric electric field (Ez= -Potential Gradient (PG)) and current density (Jz) that were conducted at two locations in Israel. One is the Emilio Segre cosmic ray station located on Mt. Hermon (34.45 N, 2020 m AMSL) located in northern Israel near the Syrian-Lebanon border and at the other at the Wise astronomical observatory in the Negev desert highland plateau of southern Israel (31.18 N, 870 m AMSL). We searched for possible effects of strong, short-term solar events on the potential gradient and the vertical current density, as disruption to the Global Electric Circuit are often observed following strong solar events. The first case study (St. Patrick Day, 17 March 2015) was classified as the strongest event of 2015. The second case study (8 Sep 2017) was categorized as the strongest event of 2017 and one of the twenty strongest events on record to date. The results show that the electrical parameters measured at ground level at both stations were not affected during the two massive proton events and the ensuing geomagnetic storms. The magnetospheric shielding in lower latitudes is strong enough to shield against flux of energetic particles from solar events, obscuring any impact that may be noticeable above the local daily variations induced by local meteorological conditions (aerosol concentrations, clouds, high humidity, and wind speed) which were investigated as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0116.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: thermal runaway; big-data platform; battery systems; electric vehicles; National Service and Management Center for Electric Vehicles
Online: 16 May 2017 (03:18:57 CEST)
This paper presents a thermal runaway prognosis scheme based on the big-data platform and entropy method for battery systems in electric vehicles. It can simultaneously realize the diagnosis and prognosis of thermal runaway caused by the temperature fault through monitoring battery temperature during vehicular operations. A vast quantity of real-time voltage monitoring data was collected in the National Service and Management Center for Electric Vehicles (NSMC-EV) in Beijing to verify the effectiveness of the presented method. The results show that the proposed method can accurately forecast both the time and location of the temperature fault within battery packs. Furthermore, a temperature security management strategy for thermal runaway is proposed on the basis of the Z-score approach and the abnormity coefficient is set to make real-time precaution of temperature abnormity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0823.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Electric transport; technology readiness; political readiness; societal readiness; economic readiness.
Online: 13 September 2023 (07:20:44 CEST)
The main objective of this paper is to develop a readiness index model that can serve as an analytical tool for exploring the achievements of electrification of transportation systems. We have applied this readiness index model to evaluate the readiness positioning of China, Norway, and Sweden to-wards transport electrification. We have chosen these three countries as they represent diversity among countries that are in the process of adopting electric transport system solutions. Our developed readiness index model has four key dimensions, technological readiness, political readiness, societal readiness, and economic readiness. The embeddedness of all four dimensions in one model provides a multi-perspective way of analyzing and evaluating the readiness levels of countries moving towards transforming the transportation system. Therefore, we named the model a “multidimensional readiness index.” Our main conclusions are that the political processes and political decisiveness involved are the most important factors followed by the societal needs and economic ability, with the current technology available as the fourth. Without the participation of dedicated and determined political decision-makers being involved, the other three factors are challenging to obtain. Political decision-makers need to facilitate the use of economic means to support the transformation in the society and affected industries to balance the initial economic disadvantages of the electrically powered systems until they pass the cost disadvantage turning point. The development of the relevant technology is no longer a great barrier as it was at the beginning of this transformation, about 20 years ago. The technology for electrically powered transportation systems and devices is widely available now, although it is continuously evolving and being improved. Associated industries cannot be expected to initiate, finance, take the risk, and take the lead in this global societal transformation without clear and strong political support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0988.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: load forecast; electrification; heat pumps; electric vehicles; solar; Alaska; Railbelt
Online: 14 July 2023 (09:03:00 CEST)
Load forecasting is an important component of power system and resource planning for electrical grids. The adoption of electric vehicles (EVs), behind-the-meter (BTM) solar, and heat pumps will significant change the amount and variability of loads. Electrification adoption and load forecasting in arctic regions and Alaska is limited. This paper provides the first load and electrification adoption forecast for the Alaska Railbelt transmission system, including yearly adoption rates of EVs, BTM solar, and heat pumps and hourly load data. Adoption rates are based on available historical data and compared to other regional and national trends. Two forecasts are created: 1) a moderate adoption forecast based on projections from current adoption rates and comparisons to other projections, and 2) an aggressive forecast, which provides a bookend comparison at the high adoption rate of 90% for all technologies. The results of these forecasts demonstrate a significant increase in both energy, 80% and 116% for moderate and aggressive, respectively and peak load demand, 113% and 219% for moderate and aggressive, respectively. Additionally, the results indicate a maximum hourly load change of 260% and 381% for the moderate and aggressive forecasts, respectively. These findings highlight a need for resource planning, which accounts for increases in demand and suggests that significant demand management is needed to smooth and control the load fluctuations as a result of the adoption of EVs, BTM solar, and heat pumps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0600.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: Hybrid Electric Vehicles; Vehicles models; VSP analyses
Online: 9 November 2023 (07:17:49 CET)
Hybrid electric vehicles are certainly one of the key solutions for improving fuel efficiency and reducing emissions, especially in special vehicle application and with the use of CO2 neutral fuels. Determining the energy management strategy and finding the optimal solution with regard to the aforementioned goals re-mains the one of the main challenges in the design of HEV. This paper presents a new vehicle modeling method, with an emphasis on HEVs, which is based on the frequency analysis of emissions and consumption according to the current specific traction power of the vehicle. The evaluation of the newly introduced model in the RDE, NEDC and WLTP cycle was performed and the results were compared with the standard verified vehicle model that was created in AVL's CruiseM software package. Positive traction energies have positive deviations of between 0.35% and 2.85%. The largest deviation in CO2 emissions was recorded for the HEV model in the RDE cycle and in the non-hybrid model in the WLTP cycle of 3.79% and 4.4% respectively, all other combinations of cycle and vehicles had deviations of up to about 1%. As expected, the largest relative deviations were recorded for NOx emissions from 0.13% to 9.62% for HEV in the WLTP cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1971.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Energy efficiency; optimization; electric vehicle; M-EAD
Online: 29 August 2023 (10:32:36 CEST)
The predominance of traffic lights in urban settings often induces fluctuations in traffic patterns and energy utilization among vehicles. To counteract the adverse effects of traffic lights on the energy efficiency of electric vehicles (EVs), a Multi-Intersections-Based Eco-Approach and Departure strategy (M-EAD) is proposed. This strategy aims to enhance vehicle energy efficiency, traffic flow, and battery longevity, all while upholding satisfactory driving comfort. The M-EAD strategy unfolds in two distinct stages: the optimization of an eco-friendly green signal window and the refinement of speed trajectories. The initial stage tackles the optimization of traffic light green signal windows, underpinned by the minimization of travel delays via solving the shortest path problem. In the subsequent stage, a receding horizon framework takes center stage, leveraging an iterative dynamic programming algorithm to tackle the speed optimization challenge. The objective here is to curtail energy consumption and reduce battery wear by finding an optimal speed trajectory. Furthermore, the real-world efficacy of this approach is substantiated through on-road vehicle tests, attesting to its viability in actual road scenarios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0230.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: cardiac arrhythmia; mechano-electric feedback; Piezo1 channel
Online: 14 February 2023 (03:30:10 CET)
The rhythmical nature of the cardiovascular system constantly generates dynamic mechanical forces. At the center of this system is the heart which must detect these changes and adjust its performance accordingly. Mechano-electric feedback provides a rapid mechanism for detecting even subtle changes in the mechanical environment and transducing these signals into electrical responses which can adjust a variety of cardiac parameters such as heart rate and contractility. However, pathological conditions can disrupt this intricate mechanosensory system and manifest as potentially life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. Mechanosensitive ion channels are thought to be the main proponents of mechano-electric feedback as they provide a rapid response to mechanical stimulation and can directly affect cardiac electrical activity. Here we demonstrate that the mechanosensitive ion channel Piezo1 is expressed in zebrafish cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, chemically prolonging Piezo1 activation in zebrafish results in cardiac arrhythmias indicating that this ion channel plays an important role in mechano-electric feedback. This also raises the possibility that Piezo1 gain of function mutations could be linked to heritable cardiac arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation in humans.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0337.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fast-charging; electric vehicles; infrastructure; electrode materials; Li-ion batteries
Online: 30 September 2019 (03:29:10 CEST)
Electric vehicles (EVs) are being endorsed as the uppermost successor to fuel-powered cars, with timetables for banning the sale of petrol-fueled vehicles announced in many countries. However, the range and charging times of EVs are still considerable concerns. Fast charging could be a solution to consumers' range anxiety and the acceptance of EVs. Nevertheless, it is a complicated and systematized challenge to realize the fast charging of EVs because it includes the coordinated development of battery cells, including electrode materials, EV battery power systems, charging piles, electric grids, etc. This paper aims to serve as an analysis for the development of fast-charging technology, with a discussion of the current situation, constraints and development direction of EV fast-charging technologies from the macroscale and microscale perspectives of fast-charging challenges. It is emphasized that to essentially solve the problem of fast charging, the development of new battery materials, especially anode materials with improved lithium ion diffusion coefficients, is the key. It is highlighted that red phosphorus is the most promising anode that can simultaneously satisfy the double standards of high-energy density and fast-charging performance to a maximum degree.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Smart scheduling; Smart Reservations; Reinforcement Learning; Electric vehicle charging; Electric Vehicle Charging Management platform; DQN Reinforcement Learning algorithm
Online: 7 March 2022 (09:20:13 CET)
Abstract: As the policies and regulations currently in place concentrate on environmental protection and greenhouse gas reduction, we are steadily witnessing a shift in the transportation industry towards electromobility. There are, though, several issues that need to be addressed to encourage the adoption of EVs at a larger scale. To this end, we propose a solution capable of addressing multiple EV charging scheduling issues, such as congestion management, scheduling a charging station in advance, and allowing EV drivers to plan optimized long trips using their EVs. The smart charging scheduling system we propose considers a variety of factors such as battery charge level, trip distance, nearby charging stations, other appointments, and average speed. Given the scarcity of data sets required to train the Reinforcement Learning algorithms, the novelty of the recommended solution lies in the scenario simulator, which generates the labelled datasets needed to train the algorithm. Based on the generated scenarios, we created and trained a neural network that uses a history of previous situations to identify the optimal charging station and time interval for recharging. The results are promising and for future work we are planning to train the DQN model using real-world data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0326.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: air pollution; transportation policy; vehicle fleet projections; electric vehicles; exponential smoothing; Greece
Online: 21 December 2021 (12:26:52 CET)
This study provides a thorough review and analysis of the evolution of the Greek vehicle fleet over the last ~30 years, which is next used for the generation of high granularity fleet projections and for the estimation of relevant environmental benefits by 2030. The integrated methodology developed takes also into account vehicle clustering and the Brown’s Double Simple Exponential Smoothing technique that together with the adoption of COPERT based emission factors allow for the estimation of the anticipated emissions in 2030. Expected 2030 emissions levels suggest a reduction across all pollutants in comparison to 2018, ranging from 3.7% for PM10 to 54.5% for NMVOC (and 46% for CO, 14% for SO2, 28% for NOX and 21% for CO2). We find that Greece is on track with national goals concerning the reduction of air pollution from the transportation sector, stressing the positive contribution of EVs and new, "greener" vehicles, and setting new challenges for the further improvement of the sector beyond the 2030 outlook.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: multiferroics; metal-organic perovskites; magneto-electric effect; magnetic anisotropy, canted antiferromagnet
Online: 18 February 2021 (10:36:42 CET)
Hybrid metal-organic compounds as relatively new and prosperous magnetoelectric multiferroics provide opportunities to improve the polarization, magnetization and magneto-electric coupling at the same time, which usually have some limitations in the common type-I and type-II multiferroics. In this work we investigate the crystal of guanidinium copper(II) formate [C(NH2)3]Cu(HCOO)3 and give novel insights concerning the structure, magnetic, electric and magneto-electric behaviour of this interesting material. Detailed analysis of crystal structure at 100 K is given. Magnetization points to the copper(II)-formate spin-chain phase that becomes ordered below 4.6 K into the canted antiferromagnetic (AFM) state, as a result of super-exchange interaction over different formate bridges. The performed ab-initio colinear density functional theory (DFT) calculation confirm the AFM-like ground state as a first approximation and explain the coupling of spin-chains into the AFM ordered lattice. In versatile measurements of magnetization of a crystal, including transverse component besides the longitudinal one, very large anisotropy is found that might originate from canting of the coordination octahedra around copper(II) in cooperation with the canted AFM order. With cooling down in zero fields the generation of spontaneous polarization is observed step-wise below 270 K and 210 K and the effect of magnetic field on its value is observed also in the paramagnetic phase. Measured polarization is somewhat smaller than the DFT value in the c-direction, possibly due to twin domains present in the crystal. The considerable magneto-electric coupling below the magnetic transition temperature is measured with different orientations of the crystal in magnetic field, giving altogether the new light onto the magneto-electric effect in this material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1875.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Battery enclosure; electric two-wheeler; structural analysis; material selection; failure analysis.
Online: 28 September 2023 (05:02:07 CEST)
Recently, Electric Two-Wheelers ETW are changing the face of the global automotive market. This study focused on selecting proper material and mechanical isolation gap to design a protective enclosure for the battery pack of ETW. The integration of the Failure, Modes, Mechanism and Effect Analysis (FMMEA) method is utilized to develop the interface matrix and the severity index of different components of the enclosure. By analyzing different forces from the road conditions, dynamics during turn, acceleration, and deceleration with the enclosure, it becomes a crucial load-bearing element. Employing Finite Element Modeling (FEM), structural strength using materials like AL6061, Q235, C22000, DC 01 and Teflon are assessed under varying static, dynamic and thermal conditions. Modal analysis is conducted to observe the excitation frequencies where the maximum deformation for the metal enclosure is observed beyond 500Hz. AL6061 material that can withstand the stresses and deformations that are under allowable stress limits with negligible deformation is most preferable material based on the results. Minimal of 2.5 mm gap to be provided in case of metal casing and 10mm in case of Teflon is proven.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: electric vehicles; fuel cell vehicles; sustainable mobility; mobility habits; sustainable urban transportation
Online: 11 April 2018 (05:29:14 CEST)
As the emission regulations get more and more stringent in the different fields of energy and environmental systems, the electric and fuel cell vehicles (FCV) have attracted growing attention by automakers, governments, and customers. Research and development efforts have been focused on devising novel concepts, low-cost systems, and reliable electric/fuel cell powertrain. In fact, electric and fuel cell vehicles coupled with low-carbon electricity sources offer the potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and exposure to tailpipe emissions from personal transportation. In particular, Pedal Assisted Bicycles (PAB) popularity is rising in urban areas due to their low energy consumption and environmental impact. In fact, when electrically moved, they are zero emission vehicles with very low noise emissions, as well. These positive characteristics could be even improved by coupling a PAB with a fuel cell based power generation system, thus increasing the vehicle autonomy without influencing their emissions and consumption performances. In this paper, four types of vehicles are compared from an environmental and accessibility point of view: conventional car, bus, electric PAB and hydrogen fuel cell PAB; for such vehicles, the respective utilization stages are accounted for, i.e. without considering the manufacturing process. The analysis has been carried out comparing different vehicles performance along different routes of an Italian middle-size city, Viterbo, which represents a very good pilot case as its Municipality is adopting many solutions suggested by European Union (EU) through the planning tool called Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP). The comparison is based on an ad-hoc developed mathematical procedure, which includes environmental (greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions), health (pollutants toxicity levels) and accessibility time (waiting times) indicators. According to this analysis, electric and fuel cell PAB exhibit interesting advantages over the other vehicles. However, the global economic efficiency of electric or fuel cell apparatus depends substantially on the exploited source of electrical energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0268.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: electric field; oxidative dehydrogenation; LPG, Cr-/HZSM-5; electrical properties
Online: 21 May 2018 (11:32:11 CEST)
CrHZSM-5 was placed in an electric field with appropriate strength in a quartz packed bed reactor with CO2 as oxidant to analyze its catalytic activity. Olefin yield increases with decrease in band gap since lattice oxygen mobility increases by reducing band gap. Fermi level change at the catalyst surface affects the catalytic activity. One way to change Fermi level is use electric field. In high voltage electric field, energy band was curved, bending of the energy band promoted the activity and Fermi level position is increasing. The CCD experiments were carried out with Design-Expert 7.3 software to determine the interaction between four operating variables, namely: temperature, electrical current, gap distance and metal loading. The levels of the independent variables were: temperature (550-700 °C), electrical current (0-12 mA), gap distance (6-14 mm), metal loading (0.5-7.5 %wt.). The conversion of LPG (Liquefied petroleum gas) was greatly increased by weak and effective application of an electric field to the catalyst bed. The obtained results indicated that the maximum yield value (46.94%) can be achieved under 673.66 °C, input electrical current of 11.01 mA, gap distance of 6.55 mm and metal loading of 3.98 wt.%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0281.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM); low-sampling load disaggregation; statistical analysis; machine learning algorithms; electric baseboards; electric water heaters
Online: 3 August 2023 (06:29:07 CEST)
For many years, energy monitoring at the most disaggregate level has been mainly sought through the idea of Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM). Nevertheless, a practical application of this concept in the residential sector should address the underlying concerns raised by the technical specifications of case studies. From one side, such an operation must handle common matters related to the essence of any NILM system. Although this aspect has been thoroughly investigated by basic research, it is limited to the properties of public datasets. On the other side, it must deal with specific concerns corresponding to uncommon situations. These circumstances impose further restrictions on existent NILM schemes, however, they have been overlooked due to the lack of pertinent databases to scrutinize. Accordingly, this paper presents applied research on a potential solution to NILM for Quebec residences. It carries out a relevant investigation into the multi-faceted nature of this problem in order to reveal barriers to feasible implementations in the context of Quebec. This work commences with a concise discussion about the NILM idea to highlight its essential requirements for a fruitful practice. Afterward, it provides a comparative statistical analysis to represent the specificity and potential challenges of the case study in accordance with NILM necessities. For this purpose, the examination exploits data from real-world measurement systems in the same and European regions. Subsequently, this study focuses on a load identification exercise by proposing a combinatory approach that utilizes the promise of sub-meter smart technologies to integrate the intrusive aspect of load monitoring with the non-intrusive one. The former is aimed at extracting overall heating demand from the aggregate one by a supervised procedure based on Deep Learning (DL) models while the latter is designed for disaggregating the residual load through an unsupervised process on the basis of clustering techniques. The results demonstrate that geographically-dependent cases create electricity consumption scenarios under which existing NILM methods can be questioned. From a realistic standpoint, this research elaborates on critical remarks to realize viable NILM systems, particularly, in Quebec houses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0224.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: steel slag; EOS (Electric Arc Furnace Oxidizing Slag); ERS (Electric Arc Furnace Reduction Slag); cement mortar; Length change rate
Online: 24 January 2018 (08:04:44 CET)
Recently many researches of EOS (Electric Arc Furnace Oxidizing Slag) on application to construction industry have been carried out with increasing its production and limited reclamation site. EOS can be used as a fine aggregate for construction material, however, its engineering properties vary with the manufacturing process and producing district, causing a quality differences in material performance. In the work, EOS is obtained from steel manufacturing plants in South Korea and the engineering properties are evaluated for EOS and the cement mortar with EOS, respectively. From the tests, EOS is mainly made up of CaO, SiO2, and FeO with 18.2% of larnite which has a crystal structure of β-C2S with similar cement mineral. EOS mortar shows an increasing compressive strength with more EOS content, which is affected by a considerable amount of larnite (β-C2S) in EOS. The EOS based mortar with ERS (Electric Arc Furnace Reduction Slag) shows unsatisfactory results over the criteria for rate of change, which implies that more consideration must be taken for the usage of the mixed ERS and EOS for cement mortar due to swelling effect of ERS on dimensional stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0418.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Direct electric curing; Steam curing; Mechanical properties; Microstructure; Joule heat; Energy consumption
Online: 27 October 2021 (14:25:44 CEST)
Direct electric curing (EC) is a new green curing method for cement-based materials that improves the early mechanical properties via the uniform high temperature produced by Joule heating. To understand the effects of EC and steam curing (SC) on the mechanical properties and microstructure of cement-based materials, the mortar was cured at different temperature-controlled curing regimes (40°C, 60°C and 80°C). Meanwhile, mechanical properties, hydrate phase and pore structure of specimens were investigated. The energy consumption of two curing methods was compared and analyzed. The results show that the EC specimens have better and more stable growth of mechanical strength. The pore structure of EC specimen is also better than that of SC specimen at different maintenance ages. However, the hydration degree and products of samples cured by EC are similar to that SC samples. The energy consumption of EC is lower than SC. This study provides an important technical support for the EC in the production of energy-saving and high early-strength concrete precast components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1512.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: shared electric vehicle; mobile charging vehicle; fixed charging station; cooperative charging
Online: 24 October 2023 (10:29:08 CEST)
Facing the charging difficulties of free-floating shared electric vehicle and the high cost of mobile charging for single demand, this article proposes a collaborative charging planning method based on the complementary advantages of fixed charging stations and mobile charging vehicles, which can charge shared electric vehicles more efficiently and reduce the charging cost at the same time. A bi-level programming model for fixed and mobile cooperative charging is constructed. The upper level of the model is the minimization model of system charging total cost, seeking the optimal charging scheme and the number of mobile charging vehicles. The lower model is a fixed and mobile cooperative charging path planning model, which calculates the optimal routes for mobile charging vehicles and the shared electric vehicles that need to be transferred to the fixed charging station. The example results show that the cost of the proposed fixed-mobile cooperative charging scheme is reduced by 12.6% compared with the pure fixed charging scheme and 14.9% compared with the pure mobile charging scheme
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0245.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electric Vehicle; Power Grid; Carbon Reduction Benefit; Multi-objective Optimization Model
Online: 18 October 2021 (13:12:29 CEST)
Under the goal of carbon peak and carbon neutrality, the carbon emission reduction of the automobile industry has attracted more and more attention in recent years. Electric vehicle has the dual attributes of power load and energy storage unit. With the increase of the number of electric vehicles, reducing carbon emissions through the collaborative interaction between electric vehicle and power network will become an important way to control carbon emissions in the automotive field. In this study, an optimization model of emission reduction benefits based on integrated development of electric vehicle and power grid is proposed, which explores the best technical way of synergy between power grid and electric vehicle, achieves the best carbon reduction effect and provides a model basis for large-scale demonstration application. Numerical simulations based on the real case in Beijing are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0385.v2
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: low carbon island; electric motorcycles; green transport; battery exchange; carbon emissions
Online: 5 September 2018 (16:23:53 CEST)
Global warming and climate change have led to extreme changes in climatic conditions in recent years. The Taiwan government designates the construction of the Kinmen County as low carbon islands, to promote the operation of 100 electric motorcycles and battery demonstration. This study combined with island tourism, after boarding the island, visitors can rent electric motorcycles from the passenger service center and coordinate with the island tour map to show the location of the battery exchange points, so as to facilitate the search. During the operation, the amount of electric motorcycle lease is 15,551 times, the total mileage of motor vehicle is 284,404 km, the number of battery exchange is 622 times, the lease income is about NT$900,000. To reduce carbon and economic benefits of the assessment, compared to the motorcycles (50 c.c), electric motorcycles (EM 100) can reduce the carbon emissions by 8,726 kg, reducing energy costs of NT$422,594.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0087.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: millet porridge; electric cooker; nutritional composition; principal component analysis; cluster analysis
Online: 6 July 2022 (04:38:57 CEST)
(1) Background: In order to study the effects of different electric cookers on the nutritional components of millet porridge, five different electric cookers were selected to cook millet porridge, and sensory and nutritional components in millet porridge, millet soup, and millet grains were analyzed. (2) Methods: Using principal component and cluster analysis, a variety of nutritional components were comprehensively compared. (3) Results: The results showed that among the different cooked samples, the content of amylose and reducing sugar was the highest in the samples cooked by electric cooker no. 3. The electric cooker no. 4 samples had the highest sensory evaluation score, crude fat, and protein content. The contents of ash, fatty acids, bound amino acids, and minerals were the highest in the electric cooker no. 5 samples. The sensory evaluation score and content of crude fat, ash, reducing sugar, direct starch, and Cu were higher in millet grains than in millet soup or porridge. The content of fatty acid, protein, amino acid, Zn, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Ca was highest in millet soup. Different electric cookers produced millet porridge with varying nutritional levels. (4) Conclusions: This study provides a reference for the further development of new electric cookers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0386.v2
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: micromobility; sustainable transport; electric vehicles; active travel; LEV; so-cio-technical analysis
Online: 28 June 2023 (02:20:07 CEST)
Micromobility has gained attention from policymakers, industry stakeholders, and academia; however, a comprehensive conceptualization of micromobility is still missing. Existing definitions are largely vehicle-centric: either listing modes or detailing vehicle characteristics. This paper addresses this gap by developing a ‘beyond vehicles’, multi-dimensional conceptualization of micromobility, accompanied by a novel socio-technical definition. Through a review of related concepts, combined with an analysis of the use and definitions of the term micromobility in publications, this study establishes a new conceptualization of micromobility. It incorporates human, social, and cultural dimensions, considers environmental, economic, infrastructure, vehicle technology, regulatory and policy aspects, and considerations for public health. Our definition of micromobility encompasses a wide range of mobility options typically used for shorter trips and manoeuvrable by an individual without motor assistance, at least for short distances. These modes are characterized by their ‘micro’ attributes, including low energy demand, environmental impact, and road space use relative to automobility. The conceptualization incorporates a range of micromobility modes, including fully human-powered (including walking), partially motor-assisted, and fully powered options. These modes typically operate at speeds not exceeding 25 to 32 kilometres per hour (or 45 km/h for faster options), weigh (typically substantially) below 350 kilograms and often yield significant (public) health benefits. Trip length is generally less than 15 kilometres, and daily distances under 80 kilometres. Importantly, our definition includes the practices, policies, cultures, and infrastructures that emerge around the use of micromobility options and shape their uptake. This proposed conceptualization significantly broadens the prevailing vehicle-focus in micromobility debates towards a socio-technical perspective. Embracing a widely accepted conceptualisation of micromobility would offer several advantages, including robust design standards, legislation, and evaluation metrics and methods. Additionally, this paper highlights the pivotal role micromobilities can play in transcending the limitations of automobility, towards more sustainable and equitable mobility futures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0241.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: electric vehicle; energy harvesting; thermal energy; mechanical energy
Online: 5 June 2023 (07:09:42 CEST)
The evolution of transportation has been inextricably tied to the progress of civilization. Through innovation, the automobile business has been working to improve safety, quality, and compliance with environmental regulations. Electric vehicles have made significant strides in this area, but optimizing their efficiency requires a special focus because they expend energy that can be recovered in a variety of ways. Energy harvesting, a cutting-edge technology that captures wasted energy from vehicles, has recently received a lot of attention as it constitutes a means to improve the efficiency of electric vehicles. Dissipated energy can be converted into electricity using regenerative energy recovery systems and put to various uses. This study tenders a thorough examination into energy recovery technologies which could be applied to the various types of energy dissipated in electric vehicles. Firstly, the paper investigates the possible sources of energy recoverable from an electric vehicle, as well as the various types of energy dissipated. Secondly, the article examines the energy recovery technologies most frequently used in vehicles, categorizing them according to the type of energy and application. Finally, it determines that with further research and development, energy harvesting holds considerable potential for improving the energy efficiency of electric vehicles. New and innovative methods for capturing and utilizing wasted energy in electric vehicles can be established. The potential benefits of applying energy recovery systems in electric vehicles is a vital issue for the automobile industry to focus on due to the potential benefits involved. The ongoing progress currently being made in this field is expected to play a significant role in shaping the future of transportation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0142.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Aeroacoustics; Electric ducted fan; Microperforated plate absorbers; eVTOL
Online: 8 March 2023 (02:58:56 CET)
New innovative green concepts in electrified vertical take-off and landing vehicles currently emerge as a revolution to urban mobility going into the third dimension (vertically). The high population density of cities makes the market share highly attractive while posing an extraordinary challenge for community acceptance due to the increasing and possibly noisier commuter traffic. In addition to passenger transport, package deliveries to customers by drones may enter the market. The new challenges associated with this increasing transportation need in urban, rural and populated areas pose challenges for established companies and startups to deliver low-noise emission products. The article's objective is to revisit the benefits and drawbacks of an affordable acoustic measurement campaign focused on early prototyping. In the very early phase of product development, often considerably limited resources are available. With this in mind, the article discusses the sound power results using the enveloping surface method in a typically available low-reflection room with a reflecting floor according to DIN EN ISO 3744:2011-02. The method is applied to a subsonic electric ducted fan (EDF) unit of a 1:2 scaled electrified vertical take-off and landing vehicle. The results show that considerable information at low costs can be gained for the early prototyping stage, despite this easy-to-use, easy-to-realize, and not fine-tuned measurement setup. Furthermore, the limitations and improvements to a possible experimental setup are presented to discuss a potentially more ideal measurement environment. Measurements at discrete operating points and transient measurements across the total operating range were conducted to provide complete information on the EDF's acoustic behavior. The rotor-self noise and the rotor-stator interaction were identified as primary tonal sound sources, along with the highest broadband noise sources located on the rotor. Based on engineering experience, a first acoustic improvement treatment is also quantified with a sound power level reduction of 4dB(A). In conclusion, the presented method is a beneficial first measurement campaign to quantify the acoustic properties of an electric ducted fan unit at minimal resources in a reasonable time of several weeks when starting from scratch.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0068.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: electric charge; electricity; electron; elementary particle; gravity; matter; unification
Online: 10 January 2023 (09:56:45 CET)
Dirac’s equation depicts electron mass as either positive or negative. Taken as correct description of nature, the equation identifies electron mass as ‘electrically active’ and therefore fundamentally different from the ordinary, ‘electrically passive’ mass. Following this cue, I demonstrate that electron mass (me) is the natural elementary mass: positive (me+) and negative (me–) elementary masses neutralise to an elementary unit of the electrically passive mass (2me0). Further, I show that electron mass (me± ) and the electrostatic field (ef±) surrounding it compose an elementary charge (e±), thereby relating charge to mass. Two plain principles underlie these findings. 1) Electric charge and gravitational mass have a common root: positive (e+) and negative (e–) charges coexist as neutral charge (2e0), which is the quantum of gravitational mass. 2) Charge is a static (nonrelativistic) ‘atom of electricity’ and obeys the laws of electrostatics; electron is the same ‘atom of electricity’ at ultrahigh (relativistic) speed and obeys the laws of electrodynamics. That is, charges are electricity at rest; electrons are electricity in motion – ‘same physical entities two behavioural identities.’ A decisive proof that this paradigm shift correctly portrays is that it verifiably unifies Newton’s law of gravity and Coulomb’s law of electrostatics to: 8G/mpme = K/e2; where G and K are the respective constants, mp the proton mass, me the electron mass, and e the elementary charge. Ultimately, the insights simplify matter to pure ‘atoms’ of positive and negative electricity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0150.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: China; Electric vehicle; Development bottleneck; French Standardization; Enlightenment
Online: 8 November 2022 (09:18:21 CET)
The problems of operating range and costs are the two most critical bottlenecks restricting the extensive application of electric vehicles at home and abroad. There are also some prominent problems in China's electric vehicles, such as slow improvement of electric vehicle's operating range, difficulty in charging, slow charging, low utilization efficiency of charging resources, and high battery cost for electric vehicles, which lead to poor competitiveness of electric vehicles compared with traditional internal combustion engine (I.C.E.) vehicles. This paper analyzes the key factors restricting the development and popularization of electric vehicles in China from the aspects of strategic policy, sales situation and self problems. Through summarizing the experience and lessons of French standardization development strategy and electric vehicle development mode, this paper puts forward the hypothesis leading the development of electric vehicles through standardization to enhance their competitiveness, gives the specific suggestions, and briefly analyzes the feasibility from the aspects of product situation. The research content of this paper provides a certain basis and ideas for the future research work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0080.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: cannabidiol; electric cell-substrate impedance sensing; oral cancer
Online: 7 October 2022 (14:32:52 CEST)
Cannabidiol (CBD) is an active diterpenoid compound that is extracted from the leaves and stem of Cannabis sativa. Previous studies show that CBD is a non-psychotropic compound with significant anti-cancer effects. This study determines its cytotoxic effect on oral cancer cells and OECM1 cells and compares the outcomes with a chemotherapeutic drug, cisplatin. This study determines the effect of CBD on the viability, apoptosis, morphology and migration of OECM1 cells. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) is used to measure the change in cell impedance for cells that are treated with a series concentration of CBD for 24 hours. AlamarBlue and annexin V/7-AAD staining assays show that CBD has a cytotoxic effect on cell viability and induces cell apoptosis. ECIS analysis shows that CBD decreases the overall resistance and morphological parameters at 4 kHz in a concentration-dependent manner. There is a significant reduction in the wound-healing recovery rate for cells that are treated with 30 μM CBD. This study demonstrates that ECIS can be used for in vitro screening of anticancer drugs and is more sensitive, functional and comprehensive than traditional biochemical assays. CBD also increases cytotoxicity on cell survival and the migration of oral cancer cells, so it may be a therapeutic drug for oral cancer
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0144.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: Plasmonic nanoantenna; Electric field norm; Tilted light incidence
Online: 8 October 2021 (13:43:07 CEST)
We study the effect of oblique illumination on the functioning of a plasmonic nanoantenna for chiral light. The antenna is designed to receive a structured beam of light and produce a nanosized near-field distribution that possesses non-zero orbital angular momentum. The design consists of metal (gold) micro-rods laid on a dielectric surface and is compatible with well-developed nanofabrication techniques. Experimental arrangements often require such an antenna to operate in a tilted geometry, where input light is incident on the antenna at an oblique angle. We analyze the limitations that the angled illumination imposes and discuss approaches to mitigate these limitations. Through our numerical simulations, we find that tilt angles larger than 30 degrees require modifications to the antenna design. Our analysis guides current and future experimental configurations to pushing the limits of resolution and sensitivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0275.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: anomalous electric dipole moment; isospin; gravitational Dirac particle
Online: 26 July 2021 (12:07:54 CEST)
An analysis is presented of the possible existence of a second anomalous dipole moment of Dirac’s particle next to the one associated with the angular momentum. It includes a discussion why, in spite of his own derivation, Dirac has doubted about its relevancy. It is shown why since then it has been overlooked and why it has vanished from leading textbooks. A critical survey is given on the reasons of its reject, including the failure of attempts to measure and the perceived violations of time reversal symmetry and charge-parity symmetry. It is emphasized that the anomalous electric dipole moment of the pointlike electron (AEDM) is fundamentally different from the quantum field type electric dipole moment of an electron (eEDM) as defined in the standard model of particle physics. The analysis has resulted into the identification of a third type Dirac particle, next to the electron type and the Majorana particle. It is shown that, unlike as in the case of the electron type, its second anomalous dipole moment is real valued and is therefore subject to polarization in a vector field. Examples are given that it may have a possible impact in the nuclear domain and in the gravitational domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0475.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: axon, neuron, electric circuit, capacitance , biophysics, HH model
Online: 18 June 2021 (11:08:11 CEST)
The most common and taught membrane theory assumes that the membrane behaves as a kind of electrical capacitance that is exposed to an electrical current generated by an ionic flow. If this statement is verifiable, it can be confirmed by the laws of physics, mathematics and in particular electricity. We will demonstrate that this hypothesis is not verified and that it is necessary to modify biophysics according to already established and experimentally verified principles of physics.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC microgrid; electric vehicles; optimal sizing; station commitment
Online: 22 March 2019 (10:23:14 CET)
The diffusion of electric vehicles (EVs) can be sustained by the presence of integrated solutions offering parking and clean power supply. The recourse to DC systems allows to better integrate EV bidirectional energy exchange, photovoltaic panels and energy storage. In this paper, a methodology for optimal techno-economic sizing of a DC-microgrid for covering EV mobility needs is carried out. It is based on the definition of different scenarios of operation, according to typical EV usage outlooks and environmental conditions. In each scenario, optimal operation is carried out by means of a specific approach for EV commitment on different stations. The sizing procedure is able to handle the modular structure of microgrid devices. The proposed approach is applied to a case study of envisaged EV service fleet for Bari port authority.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: smart scheduling; smart reservations; reinforcement learning; electric vehicle charging; electric vehicle charging management platform; neural network; DQN reinforcement Learning algorithm
Online: 8 March 2022 (08:54:48 CET)
The widespread adoption of electromobility constitutes one of the measures designed to reduce air pollution caused by traditional fossil fuels. However, several factors are currently impending this process, ranging from insufficient charging infrastructure, battery capacity, long queueing and charging time, to psychological factors. On top of range anxiety, the frustration of the EV drivers is further fueled by the lack the uncertainty of finding an available charging point on their route. To address this issue, we propose a solution that comes to bypass the limitations of the Reserve now function of the OCPP standard, enabling drivers to make charging reservations for the upcoming days, especially when planning a longer trip. We created an algorithm that generates reservation intervals based on the charging station's reservation and transaction history. Subsequently, we ran a series of test cases that yielded promising results, with no overlapping reservations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0028.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Integrated Electric Power and Natural Gas Network, Optimal Power Flow, Genetic Algorithm.
Online: 5 October 2017 (09:41:12 CEST)
This paper proposes a method based on genetic algorithm (GA) for the security-constrained optimal dispatch of integrated natural gas and electricity networks, considering operating scenarios in both energy systems. The mathematical formulation of the optimization problem consists of a multi-objective function which aims to minimize both cost of thermal generation (diesel and natural gas) as well as the production and transportation of natural gas. The joint gas-electricity system is modeled by two separate groups of nonlinear equation, which are solved by the combination of Newton's method with the GA. The applicability of the proposed method is tested in the Belgian gas network integrated with the IEEE 14-bus test system and a 15-node natural gas network integrated with the IEEE 118-bus test system. The results demonstrate that the proposed method provides efficient and secure solutions for different operating scenarios in both energy systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0445.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: electric vehicles; public charging infrastructure; neighborhood charging; reservation system; urban; city; Hamburg
Online: 29 July 2022 (03:35:48 CEST)
Electric vehicles offer a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in passenger transport. The availability of reliable charging infrastructure is crucial for the successful uptake of electric vehicles in dense urban areas. In a pilot project in the city of Hamburg, Germany, public charging infrastructure is equipped with a reservation option providing exclusive access for local residents and businesses. The present paper combines quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the effects of the newly introduced neighborhood charging concept. We use a methodology combining a quantitative questionnaire survey and qualitative focus group discussions as well as the analyses of charging infrastructure utilization data. Results show that inner-city charging and parking options are of key importance for (potential) users of electric vehicles. Hence, the neighborhood concept is rated very positively. Providing guaranteed charging and parking facilities are therefore likely to increase the stock of EVs. On the other hand, these could to a large extent be additional cars with consequential disadvantages. The study shows that openly accessible infrastructure is presently utilized much more intense than the exclusive option. Consequentially, the concept evaluated should be part of an integrated approach managing parking and supporting efficient concepts like car sharing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0542.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Automotive Engineering, Electric Bus, CFD, Numerical Fluid Mechanics, Electromobility, Noise, Eco-Design
Online: 26 January 2021 (15:23:24 CET)
The dynamic development of electromobility poses challenges to designers regarding not only the efficiency of energy transformation but also the battery life, which is influenced by the stability of its operating temperature. Designing cooling systems is connected not only with the optimization of energy management but also with other environmental parameters, such as noise emission. The paper presents the numerical optimization of an innovative radiator for use in electric buses in terms of energy consumption and noise emission. The results of the numerical studies were verified in laboratory and field conditions, showing a very good convergence of the model with the results of the experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: hybrid - electric vehicle; emerging technology; sustainable mobility and transportation; consumer perception; consumer purchase intention
Online: 30 August 2023 (10:30:01 CEST)
Existence of hybrid electric vehicles nowadays is one of the emerging technologies worldwide. Different countries are using this technology on their transportation, and nowadays, a lot of other countries are gradually adapting on using this kind of innovation in their transport system. Philippines is among these countries which aims to have a sustainable mobility by embracing the use of hybrid - electric vehicles but still lots of consumers are lacking awareness on this technology. Lack of information on the social, environmental, and economic potential benefits are among the main issues of Philippines consumers that really affect its uptake. The goal of this study was to evaluate the consumer’s perception and purchase intention on the transition of hybrid - electric vehicles for sustainable mobility and transportation here in the Philippines. It aimed to assess consumer awareness with hybrid - electric vehicles and its potential benefits to human beings in terms of social, environmental, and economic aspects. The study also gauged the impact of this perception on consumer’s purchase intention on hybrid - electric vehicles. These objectives were attained using the Descriptive Statistics and Correlation Analysis. Using these methods, the results revealed that majority of the consumers believed on the positive benefits of transitioning to hybrid - electric vehicles in terms of social, environmental, and economic aspects. This study also showed that these benefits have high impact on the consumer’s intention of buying or having a hybrid – electric vehicle. Electric vehicle is one of the most effective measure of decarbonizing the transport system. Furthermore, government and automotive businesses must strengthen their drive in spreading awareness of hybrid – electric vehicle’s benefits to consumers to further support country’s effort for development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0046.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: DSC; DSM; BIPV; buildings; photovoltaic; thermal properties; electric properties; glazing; energy efficiency
Online: 7 December 2017 (15:12:19 CET)
Dye sensitized solar cell technology is having an important role in renewable energy research due to its features and low cost manufacturing processes. Devices based on this technology appear very well suited for integration into glazing systems due to their characteristics of transparency, color tuning and manufacturing directly on glass substrates. Field data of thermal and electrical characteristics of dye sensitized solar modules (DSM) are important since they can be used as input of building simulation models for the evaluation of their energy saving potential when integrated into buildings. However still few works in the literature provide this information. The study here presented wants to contribute to fill this gap providing a thermal and electrical characterization of a DSM in real operating conditions using a method developed in house. This method uses experimental data coming from test boxes exposed outdoor and dynamic simulation to provide thermal transmittance and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of a DSM prototype. The device exhibits an U-value of 3.6 W/m2K, confirmed by an additional measurement carried on in the lab using a heat flux meter, and a SHGC of 0.2, value compliant with literature results. Electrical characterization evidences an increase of module power with respect to temperature causing DSM suitable for integration in building facades.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1778.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Renewable Energy; Concentrating Solar Power; Hydrogen Storage; Just Transition; Electric Grid; Caribbean
Online: 26 June 2023 (09:59:31 CEST)
The present study describes the development and application of a computer model of the national electricity system for the Caribbean dual-island nation of Antigua and Barbuda to investigate the cost-optimal mix of solar photovoltaics (PV), wind, and in the most novel contribution, concentrating solar power (CSP). These technologies, together with battery and hydrogen energy storage, can enable the aim of achieving 100% renewable electricity and zero carbon emissions. The motivation for this study was that while most nations in the Caribbean rely largely on diesel fuel or heavy fuel oil for grid electricity generation, many countries have renewable resources beyond wind and solar energy. Antigua and Barbuda generates 93% of its electricity from diesel-fueled generators and has set targets of becoming a net-zero nation by 2040 and having 86% renewable energy generation in the electricity sector by 2030, but the nation has no hydroelectric or geothermal resources. The modeled, optimal mix of renewable energy technologies presented here was found for Antigua and Barbuda by assessing the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for systems comprising various combinations of energy technologies and storage. Other factors were also considered, such as land use and job creation. It was found that 100% renewable electricity systems are viable and significantly less costly than current power systems, and that there is no single defined pathway towards a 100% renewable energy grid, but several options are available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0322.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: fluctuations; noise spectra; longitudinal and transverse electric fields; Nyquist noise; photon number noise
Online: 17 January 2022 (09:04:34 CET)
We derive the thermal noise spectrum of the Fourier transform of the electric field operator of a given wave vector starting from the quantum-statistical definitions and relate it to the complex frequency and wave vector dependent complex conductivity in a homogeneous, isotropic system of electromagnetic interacting electrons. We analyze separately the longitudinal and transverse case with their peculiarities. The Nyquist formula for vanishing frequency and wave vector, as well as its modification for non-vanishing frequencies and wave vectors follow immediately. Furthermore we discuss also the noise of the photon occupation numbers. It is important to stress that no additional assumptions at all were used in this straightforward proof.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0856.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Mitragyna speciosa; mitragynine; novel technology; energy consumption; pulsed electric field; ultrasound extraction
Online: 13 July 2023 (05:06:28 CEST)
The aim of this work was to determine the potential of using a pulsed electric field (PEF) and ultra-sound (US) apparatus to produce mitragynine extracts from Mitragyna speciosa dried leaves. Four modes of the device were tested: PEF, US, US + PEF, and PEF + US. The results were compared with extracts obtained using a conventional technique (maceration, as the control). Changes in the mitragynine content were determined with the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The LC-MS/MS analysis showed that the mitragynine contents from kratom extracts using four different modes were different. The highest extraction (106.63 ± 0.85 mg/L) of mitragynine was achieved by the PEF + US procedure, followed by US + PEF (97.27 ± 1.33 mg/L), with increased extraction efficiencies of 45.81 ± 0.59% and 33.00 ± 1.85%, respectively. Moreover, the total energy consumption under the combination technique was 25.0% lower than that with PEF assistance. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) provided confirmatory evidence for the extraction of M. speciosa by the prototype. This study confirmed that PEF and US devices can be considered a green alternative method and may contribute to the application of agricultural products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1375.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Electric vehicles; Internal combustion engine; Voltage profile improvement; Load Profile; Power Grid
Online: 19 May 2023 (04:31:44 CEST)
Electric vehicles (EVs) will have a greater need for the amount of electricity needed to charge them as their popularity grows. It is anticipated that in order to accomplish this objective, it will be essential to implement a variety of solutions for grid transportation that are designed to complement one another and to make significant changes to the transmission infrastructure. It is possible to reduce the amount of energy that is lost on the power network through strategic planning and control, which may include economic models and methods to engage and reward users. This would eliminate the need for grid upgrades. Charging electric vehicles can also assist alleviate problems with transmission systems that are caused by the allocation of electric vehicles (EVs) using bidirectional charging method. The most significant problems that can occur with a transmission network are power loss and unstable voltage. Adding EV units to the transmission network is typically an effective method for resolving these challenges. As a result, EVs need to have the appropriate arrangement and dimensions. This research establishes where and how many electric vehicles (EVs) should be in a radial transmission network both before and after the adjustment is made. An artificially intelligent (AI) approach, known as a hybrid genetic algorithm particle swarm optimization (HGAIPSO), is used both before and after the radial network modification to find the optimal EV location and size. When electric vehicles are coordinated in an active transmission network, power losses are decreased, voltage profiles are raised, and system stability is increased. These benefits can be attributed to the greater use of electric vehicles. The simulation found that incorporating EVs into the testing system resulted in a considerable decrease in the quantity of power that was wasted. The minimal bus voltage of the system also undergoes similar kinds of enhancements. According to the findings of the comparative study, the proposed method mitigates both the voltage fluctuations and the power losses that occur in the transmission system. For type 1, type 2, and type 3 EV allocations, the IEEE-30 bus test system reduced real power loss by 40.70%, 36.24%, and 42.94%, respectively. IEEE-30 bus voltage reaches 1.01 pu.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0391.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: full electric aircraft; hybrid aircraft; energy and mass balance equations; conceptual design; constraints
Online: 22 August 2018 (05:13:14 CEST)
Nowadays, all the stakeholders, policy makers, regulators, aircraft designers, producers, operators, etc.) are intensively working on development of the aircraft with full electric and hybrid propulsion systems. However, the technical, technological constrains (like limit on accumulator energy density) require introducing a new approach to conceptual design of such aircraft. The new methods is based on energy and mass balance evaluation. This paper analyses the identified constrains; integrates the energy and mass balance equations into the preliminary definition and calculations of the aircraft performance. By this way, the technological constrains might be transferred into the limitation on the aircraft energy and mass breakdown, that initiates a new approach to aircraft conceptual design uses the knowledge based multidisciplinary optimization. The paper describes the developed methodology for conceptual design of aircraft. It show results of implementing this new development philosophy to conceptual design of a four-seat small electric/hybrid aircraft and a special hybrid cargo UAV. The discussion of the results including got by using the emerging and enabling new technologies and new methods and solutions (including for example distributed propulsion system, unconventional forms, morphing, biomimics, etc.), demonstrates the possible implementation of the new development philosophy, new approach to aircraft conceptual design.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1977.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: alternative fuels; biofuels; electric vehicles; natural gas; road transportation
Online: 28 September 2023 (09:29:42 CEST)
Human beings naturally move from one location to another in search of basic necessities. Road transportation is a low-cost, versatile, and widely accessible mode of transportation worldwide. However, using fossil-based (FB) fuels in transportation vehicles is inefficient, generates hazardous gases, and worsens environmental degradation. The current work assesses the application of clean fuels such as biofuels, natural gas, electricity, propane, and other emerging fuels to replace FB fuels in transport vehicles. Unlike FB fuels, the use of biohydrogen, biomethane, biodiesel, and bioethanol in transport vehicles resulted in emission reduction by 70 %, 63 %, 41 %, and 54 %, respectively, while electric vehicles lower maintenance costs, ensuring better engine performance, and better engine efficiency. The adoption of natural gas and propane as alternative fuels for transport vehicles is cost-effective, and promotes environmental sustainability. There is a need for targeted financial, infrastructural, and technical investments to further promote the application of these clean fuels for road transport application. The outcome of the study provides updated information and sensitizes automobile engineers, environmentalists, transport fleet operators, governments, and other stakeholders on the benefits derivable in the adoption of clean fuels as alternatives to FB fuels as transport vehicles fuel.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: EBCMOS; Monte Carlo; electric field distribution; charge collection efficiency
Online: 11 July 2023 (13:03:43 CEST)
In order to improve the charge collection efficiency, we simulated and experimentally tested the doping structure of the electron multiplication layer in EBCMOS. In this paper, we simulate the charge collection efficiency of EBCMOS under different doping methods by modeling the collisional scattering of electrons with solid atoms in semiconductor materials and combining the transport trajectories of electrons in the electron multiplication layer, the simulation results indicate that using a layered doping structure to reduce the thickness of the index heavily doped layer can effectively optimize the electric field distribution in the electron multiplier layer and reduce the recombination rate of electrons. The optimized doping structure has a significant effect on improving charge collection efficiency. Based on the simulation results, doped samples were prepared and tested. The test results showed that the charge collection efficiency obtained under the condition of a P-type silicon substrate thickness of 7μm and an index heavily doped layer thickness of 1μm was 72.65%, reducing the thickness of the index heavily doped layer to 0.1μm, the charge collection efficiency obtained can reach 86.27%, which proves that reducing the thickness of the index heavily doped layer can effectively improve the charge collection efficiency of EBCMOS devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0047.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: colorectal neoplasm; nutrition assessment; body composition; electric impedance; prognosis
Online: 5 September 2022 (07:33:30 CEST)
Background: Some studies have shown that an increase in visceral fat is associated with postoperative clinical and oncologic outcomes. However, no studies have used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to determine the effects of visceral fat on the oncologic outcomes of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between visceral fat area (VFA) and clinical, and oncologic outcomes in CRC. Methods: This study included 203 patients who underwent anthropometric measurements by BIA before surgical treatment for CRC between January 2016 and June 2020. Results: According to the cutoff level of VFA by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 85 (40.5%) patients had a low VFA, and 119 (59.5%) had a high VFA. Multivariate analysis found that preoperative CRP (hazard ratio [HR], 3.882; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001–15.051; p=0.050) and nodal stage (HR, 7.996; 95% CI, 1.414–45.209; p=0.019) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival, while sex (HR, 0.110; 95% CI, 0.013–0.905; p=0.040), lymphovascular invasion (HR, 3.560; 95% CI, 1.098–11.544; p=0.034), and VFA (HR, 4.263; 95% CI, 1.280–14.196; p=0.040) were independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS). Conclusion: High VFA preoperatively measured by BIA was associated with inflammations and was an independent prognostic factor for DFS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0247.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: cost estimation; all-electric aircraft; European air traffic network
Online: 17 March 2022 (09:04:29 CET)
Aircraft emissions represent a relevant amount of human induced CO2. Globally, up to 2.5 per cent of such emissions stem from the aviation industry. In order to investigate the effects within the atmosphere, realistic flight profiles are necessary to provide quantitatively tangible values of emissions. The flight profiles and the according fuel consumption can be calculated by using waypoints from flight plans and Base of Aircraft Data (BADA). This paper presents an approach to refine the fuel consumption by integrating the passenger load into the calculation. Since effects of emissions have to be assessed on a greater scale, such as on the European air traffic network, the presented approach provides cost functions for CO2 emissions for different aircraft types and load factors. The cost functions were derived by means of regression analyses of BADA based calculated flight profiles with a step size of one second. The calculations are based on real historic traffic scenarios of several days. The derived aircraft specific fuel burn coefficients enable a simple and efficient integration of CO2 estimations depending on the flight distance, load factor and aircraft type. This can be applied to large traffic scenarios to also study different set-ups such as travel restrictions, other disruptions or an alteration in the traffic system as a whole. In order to enable the assessment of further aspects of such changes to the European air traffic system at large and to foster reproducibility and comparability of related studies, we provide further general-purpose cost estimation functions for several important key characteristics. Besides fuel consumption, we develop cost estimations for air navigation fees and maintenance for conventional aircraft. Those functions are also provided for the design concept of a short-range all-electric aircraft. This propeller aircraft features game-changing technologies such as active laminar flow control, active load alleviation and advanced materials and structure concepts. The approaches discussed in this paper will focus on the generic aspects of aircraft related costs, which can be derived from general available data. For the sake of reproducibility, the results will be made publicly available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: efficiency; electric vehicle; finite element analysis; inductive charger; optimization
Online: 13 September 2021 (15:57:55 CEST)
Energy efficiency and leakage magnetic field (LMF) are two important issues in electric vehicle inductive chargers. In this work, the maximum achievable coil efficiency and the corresponding LMF strength are formulated as functions of hardware parameters, and figure of merits (FOM) are proposed for assessing the efficiency and LMF performance of the coil assembly pair. The impacts of the coil assemblies’ geometric parameters on both FOMs are examined with the aid of finite element analysis (FEA), and measures to improve the FOMs are extracted from FEA results. A coil assembly pair is manually optimized within given dimensional limits. Compared with the initial design, the optimized one achieves higher efficiency and lower LMF strength while consuming less copper. The performance improvement is verified by FEA results and experimental data measured on an 85 kHz electric vehicle inductive charger prototype. The key measures for coil assembly optimization are summarized.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Leptin, Animal Communication, Electric Fish, Singing Mice, Metabolism, Energetics
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:11:15 CEST)
Animal communication signals are regulated by multiple hormonal axes that ensure appropriate signal targeting, timing, and information content. The regulatory roles of steroid hormones and many peptide hormones are well understood and documented across a wide range of vertebrate taxa. Two recent studies have reported a novel function for leptin, a peptide hormone central to energy balance regulation: regulating communication signals of weakly electric fish and singing mice. With only limited evidence available at this time, a key question is just how widespread leptinergic regulation of communication signals is within and across taxa. A second important question is what features of communication signals are subject to leptinergic regulation. Here we consider the functional significance of leptinergic regulation of animal communication signals in the context of both direct and indirect signal metabolic costs. Direct costs arise from metabolic investment in signal production, while indirect costs arise from the predation and social conflict consequences of the signal’s information content. We propose a preliminary conceptual framework for predicting which species will exhibit leptinergic regulation of their communication signals and which signal features leptin will regulate. This framework suggests a number of directly testable predictions within and across taxa. Accounting for additional factors such as life history and reproductive strategies will likely require modification or elaboration of this model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0323.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: nematic interaction; Coulomb fluids; nematic wetting; electric double layer
Online: 14 December 2020 (10:52:32 CET)
A field theoretic representation of the classical partition function is derived for a system composed of a mixture of anisotropic and isotropic mobile charges that interact via long range Coulomb and short range nematic interactions. The field theory is then solved on a saddle-point approximation level, leading to a coupled system of Poisson-Boltzmann and Maier-Saupe equations. Explicit solutions are finally obtained for a calamitic counterion-only system in proximity of a charged planar wall. The nematic order parameter profile, the counterion density profile and the electrostatic potential profile are interpreted within the framework of a nematic-isotropic wetting phase with a Donnan potential difference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0452.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: IPMSM; compressor; V-shaped PM; electric vehicle; Air conditioner
Online: 17 November 2020 (14:05:17 CET)
Air conditioning system of electric vehicles has new change as the internal combustion engine is being replaced with electrified AC motor. With large amount of batteries installed at the bottom of frame, the conventional compressor which is belt-driven can be removed and another AC motor can play the role for air conditioning in electric vehicles. From this change, the system efficiency would be improved since it is possible to control the electrified compressor independently from traction system in contrast with the belt-driven compressor. As a result, by applying the electrified compressor for air conditioning system, the whole system can achieve better efficiency and longer driving distance, which is most important in electric vehicles. In this paper, 3-phase interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM) was designed using lumped-parameter model and finite element method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0287.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wheelchair; hybrid manual-electric drives; drives supporting the movement
Online: 24 January 2020 (15:00:13 CET)
Overcoming terrain obstacles presents a major problem for people with disabilities or with limited mobility who are dependent on wheelchairs. An engineering solution designed to facilitate the use of wheelchairs are assisted propulsion systems. The objective of the research described in this article is to analyse the impact of the hybrid manual-electric wheelchair propulsion system on the kinematics of the anthropotechnical system when climbing hills. The tests were carried out on a wheelchair ramp with an incline degree of 4°, using a prototype wheelchair with a hybrid manual-electric propulsion system in accordance with the patent application P.427855. The test subjects were three people whose task was to propel the wheelchair in two assistance modes supporting manual propulsion. The first mode is hill climbing assistance, while the second one is assistance with propulsion torque in the propulsive phase. During the tests, a number of kinematic parameters of the wheelchair were monitored. An in-depth analysis was performed for the amplitude of speed during a hill climb and the number of propulsive cycles performed on a hill. The tests performed showed that when propelling the wheelchair only using the hand rims, the subject needed an average of 13 pushes on the uphill slope, and their speed amplitude was 1.8 km/h with an average speed of 1.73 km/h. The climbing assistance mode reduced the speed amplitude to 0.76 km/h, while the torque assisted mode in the propulsive phase reduced the number of cycles required to climb the hill from 13 to 6. The tests were carried out at various values of assistance and assistance amplification coefficient, and the most optimally selected parameters of this coefficient were presented in the results. The tests proved that electric propulsion assistance has a beneficial and significant impact on the kinematics of manual wheelchair propulsion when compared to a classic manual propulsion system when overcoming hills. In addition, assistance and assistance amplification coefficient were proved to be correlated to operating conditions and the user's individual characteristics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0256.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: electric field screen; pest management; photo-selective nets; whiteflies
Online: 21 May 2019 (09:08:24 CEST)
Applied electrostatic engineering can be used to construct greenhouses that prevent entry of insect pests. Two types of electric field screen were used to exclude pests from the greenhouse: single- and double-charged dipolar electric field screens (S- and D-screen, respectively). The S-screen consisted of iron insulated conductor wires (ICWs) arrayed in parallel (ICW-layer), a grounded metal net on either side of the ICW-layer, and a direct current voltage generator. S-screens were attached to the side windows of the greenhouse to repel whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) that approached the nets. The D-screen was installed in a small anteroom at the greenhouse entrance to capture whiteflies entering through it. The ICW-layers of the D-screen were oppositely charged with equal voltages and arrayed alternately, and an insulator board or grounded metal net was placed on one side of the ICW-layer. The ICW-layers captured whiteflies entering the electric field of the double-charged dipolar electric field. Three screens equipped with yellow or gray boards or a grounded metal net were installed in the anteroom based on the airflow inside the room, as most whiteflies were brought in by air when the door was opened. Two D-screens with boards were useful for directing the airflow toward the wall with the netted D-screen. This screen eliminated the insects and the pest-free air was circulated inside the greenhouse. The D-screen with the yellow board attracted the whiteflies and was effective for trapping them when there was no wind. Our method kept the greenhouse pest-free throughout the entire period of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0174.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Robotic Hands, Grasping, Electric Power Quality, Voltage Dips effects
Online: 19 February 2019 (10:48:50 CET)
This paper addresses the effects of electric power quality on robotics operation. A general overview is reported to highlight the main characteristics of electric power quality and their effects on a powered system by considering an end-users viewpoint. Then, authors outline the influence of voltage dip effects by focusing at robotic grasping applications. A specific case of study is reported as referring to LARM Hand IV, a three-fingers robotic hand, which has been designed and built at LARM in Cassino. A dedicated test rig has been settled up for generating predefined voltage dips. Experimental tests are carried out for evaluating the effects of different types of voltage dips on the grasping of objects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0124.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: partial discharge; Weibull distribution; XLPE cable; electric tree; diagnosis
Online: 25 September 2017 (16:47:35 CEST)
The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate electrical treeing degradation for cable insulation. To effectively deal with the currently facing issues, I endeavor to find the most optimal methods by means of applying signal process. First, we made three type models of electrical tree for PD generation to show the distribution characteristics and applied voltage to acquire data by using a PD detecting system. These acquired data presented distribution and four 2D distributions. Hn(q), Hn(), Hqn(), and Hqmax() were derived from the distribution of partial discharge. From the analysis of these distributions, each PD model is proved to hold its unique characteristics and the results were then applied as basic specific qualities for insulation conditions. In order to recognize the progresses of an electrical tree, we proposed methods using scale parameter by means of Weibull distribution. We measured the time of tree propagation for 16 specimens of each model from initiation stage, middle stage, and breakdown respectively, using these breakdown data, we estimated the shape parameter, scale parameter and MTTF(Mean Time To Failure). The results of this study recognize the sources of PD by applying acquired data from PD signals to pre-acquired data. If the cause of PD is degradation, in other words, electrical tree, we can determine the replacement time of devices at the initiation stage of tree growth progress or no later than the middle stage and use it as a basic methods analysis diagnosis system. That is, pattern recognition and Weibull distribution can be employed to get the reliability of diagnosis.