ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0387.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: environmental diversity; eco-tourism; Asir region; GIS; RS
Online: 17 September 2020 (08:06:50 CEST)
This is study follows environmental diversity assessment for geotourism development in Asir region. Geotourism seeks to supporting the tourism landscape in its interaction with the historical and archaeological, architectural or immaterial heritage, and requires diversification in terms of product, market and geographical potential. The study is based on various tourist facades and environmental diversity in Asir. As tourism development is a comprehensive undertaking involving many sectors, and these are the challenges to which the country’s tourism industry should respond to promote domestic tourism. quality and spatial pattern of tourism resources, climate comfort, and natural disaster possibility. Based on analyze multi-source datasets collected, geomorphological features of this area, we created a GIS database comprising geologic and topographic maps, and satellite images using these datasets. The findings of the study provided valuable insights into the role of environmental diversity in achieving tourism. The study examined the interrelationship between tourism and environmental diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0496.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: urban parks; urban nature; environmental justice; well-being.
Online: 7 July 2023 (11:49:53 CEST)
The differential distribution, size, and quality of urban green spaces (UGS) among localities generate a differential distribution of benefits provided to users. We analyzed the spatial distribution of five size categories of UGS among 15 municipalities of Mexico City, compared their total surface per capita and associated them with the social marginality index. We found 1,353 UGSs accessible for public use with a total area of 2,643 ha. Seventy-four percent of them had <1 ha of surface area, and 51% were located in only three municipalities that were mostly middle- and high-income. These municipalities concentrated a higher area of green spaces per capita. We found a negative correlation between the marginality index and the area of UGS per municipality; the lower the marginality index, the higher the area of green spaces. We consider this a situation of environmental injustice since urban environmental services are distributed unequally with respect to marginalized populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0045.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Surface Urban heat island; Northeastern region; Sentinel 3; Eco-environmental spaces; Thermal comfort
Online: 4 April 2023 (12:37:09 CEST)
The Surface Urban Heat Island (UHI) is caused by the difference in temperature between the urban and its surrounding areas. However, in the scientific literature, there is no solid methodology defining urban and non-urban areas, which is essential to estimate the SUHI with greater accuracy. This study uses the official national urban areas limit, to obtain the SUHI more accurately on the nine northeastern Brazilian capitals. The land surface temperature was obtained using the Sentinel 3 satellite data for the years 2019 and 2020. Afterward, the maximum and average SUHI, and the complementary indexes were calculated, such as the Urban Thermal Field Variation Index (UTFVI) and the Thermal Discomfort Index (TDI) for the urban areas and their surrounding areas. The Maximum and Average SUHI, obtained values between 1.85 and 8.25 and -4.92 and 2.59 degree difference, respectively, proving the SUHI existence in the study areas. The UTFVI, with values between 0.010 and 0.040, expresses how bad the eco-environmental spaces of urban are. The TDI, with values between 24.61 and 28.89 ºC, expresses the population’s thermal comfort. Therefore, this study provides a better understanding of the surface UHI pioneeringly for the Brazilian Northeast Region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1065.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: environmental health; eco-hydrology; hydrologic model; water quality; soil and water assessment tool (SWAT)
Online: 15 August 2023 (08:14:22 CEST)
Water is one of the most critical factors affecting environmental health. For this reason, estimating and monitoring the behavior of water in nature and preventing water pollution before it occurs are advantageous to avoid problems that may occur in terms of environmental health. In order to predict the behavior of water, the hydrological cycle needs to be evaluated on a basin basis. At this point, hydrological models can be used to make mathematical representations of hydrologi-cal processes. These models play an essential role in predicting and monitoring problems such as poor water quality, pollution, particle and sediment transport, and proliferation of oil and petro-leum derivatives among frequently encountered issues in environmental health. In this study, a 2D surface water model was created using soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) to simulate the lotic ecosystem and existing water quality in Tatlıçay Basin and to propose solutions for im-proving environmental health in Cankiri provincial center in Türkiye. The accuracy of the input data and the validity of the model were checked with the calibration and validation studies by using the monthly or 3-monthly observation data of the General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works’ flow observation & water quality stations from 2016 to 2020. The aim was to provide the opportunity to produce fast, accurate, and practical solutions in the face of negative scenarios with this model. This modelling study obtained successful results in the calibration and valida-tion process with very few observed data. With this study, a significant contribution to the litera-ture on environmental health is made, as there aren't many examples of hydrological modeling from the Middle East.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0468.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: C-V2X; Eco-routing; ITS; CAV; VANET; Smart cities; environmental applications; vehicular networks; V2V; V2I
Online: 26 January 2023 (04:11:31 CET)
Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything (C-V2X) is a communication technology that supports various safety, mobility, and environmental applications given its higher reliability properties compared to other communication technologies. The performance of these C-V2X-enabled Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) applications is affected by the performance of the C-V2X communication technology (mainly packet loss). Similarly, the performance of the C-V2X communication is dependent on the vehicular traffic density which is affected by the traffic mobility patterns, and vehicle routing strategies. Consequently, it is critical to develop a tool that can simulate, analyze, and evaluate the mutual interactions of the transportation and communication systems at the application level and to the evaluate the benefits of the C-V2X enabled ITS applications. In this paper, we demonstrate the benefits gained when using C-V2X Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication technology in an energy-efficient dynamic routing application. Specifically, we develop a Connected Energy-Efficient Dynamic Routing (C-EEDR) application using C-V2X as a communication medium in an integrated vehicular traffic and communication simulator (INTEGRATION). The results demonstrate that the C-EEDR application achieves fuel savings of up to 16.6% and 14.7% in the IDEAL and C-V2X communication cases, respectively for a peak hour demand on the downtown Los Angeles network considering a 50% level of market penetration of connected vehicles. The results demonstrate that the fuel savings increase with increasing levels of market penetration at lower traffic demand levels (25% and 50% the peak demand). At higher traffic demand levels (75% and 100%) the fuel savings increase with increasing levels of market penetration with maximum benefits at a 50% market penetration rate. Although the communication system is affected by the high density of vehicles at the high traffic demand levels (75% and 100% the peak demand), the C-EEDR application manages to perform reliably producing system-wide fuel consumption savings.The C-EEDR application achieves fuel savings of 15.2% and 11.7% for the IDEAL communication and 14% and 9% for the C-V2X communication at the 75% and 100% market penetration rates, respectively. Finally, the paper demonstrates that the C-V2X communication constraints only affect the performance of the C-EEDR application at the full demand level when the market penetration of connected vehicles exceeds 25%. This degradation, however is minimal (less than a 2.5% reduction in fuel savings).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0424.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: curing conditions; carbonated recycled concrere aggregate; eco-efficiency indexes; eco-efficient index
Online: 26 May 2020 (08:18:52 CEST)
The paper presents the influence of different curing conditions – wet, dry and protection against water evaporation on selected properties of concretes with different amount of recycled concrete aggregate previously subjected to atmospheric CO2 sequestration. Additionally, the eco-efficiency bi and ci indexes as well as eco-durability S-CO2 index were calculated. It was found that dry conditions deteriorate the properties of concrete, especially made of blast furnace slag cement, while protection against evaporation allows to achieve results comparable to wet conditions. Moreover, for series with the highest amount of coarse recycled aggregate and after longer period of curing, the difference between the effects of wet curing and protection against water evaporation disappears. The eco-efficiency and eco-durability indexes approach confirms the beneficial effect of blast-furnace slag cement used as a binder but on condition of proper way of curing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: M.E.N. (MEGA-ECO-NEGA) ecoenergetical paradigm; eco-energetic efficiency; ecological coefficient; eco-energetical chains; sustenability; circular economy model; ecoenergetic diagram
Online: 4 February 2017 (08:48:33 CET)
The paper combines two new original concepts about eco-energetic systems. The first one is related to the M.E.N. (Mega-Eco-Nega-Watt) paradigm, which is based on three different but complementary ecological economic spaces: MEGAWATT, as needed energy, ECOWATT, as ecological energy, and NEGAWATT, as preserved energy, even the renewable energies and technologies, in the context of electrical energy production. The second concept presented in this paper is the eco-energetic efficiency, introduced in order to facilitate a correlation between the energetic efficiency of the system and a necessary, new defined ecological coefficient. The proposed formula for eco-energetic efficiency enables an interesting form of reporting to the different situations in which the input energy, output energy, lost energy and externalities, involved in an energetic process interact to produce energy in a specific energetic system, in connection with the circular economy model. Finally, is presented an original diagram of the energetic chains to produce electricity in a resilience regim, with high eco-energetic efficiency from originating in different primary energetic sources as external (gravitation & solar sources), fuels (classical & radioactive), internal sources and others. Even what kind of energetic sources are used to obtain electricity, as coals, gas, wood, hydropower, nuclear power, wind power, biomass, solar systems, and others, the entire process should be sustainable in what is the transdisciplinary integration of the different representative spheres as energy, socio-economy, ecology (environment), with the main core, sustainable education, inclueding the law and administrative aspects, as necessary fields of the knowledge based society/economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0209.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Urban green areas; health; urban health; emotional health; physical health; well-being; nature; environmental medicine; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; Vienna; Austria, environmental perception; pandemic; human nature relationship; recreation; age
Online: 14 September 2022 (12:08:02 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic drew public attention back to the living conditions related to housing, access to green areas in close neighbourhood and nearby recreation. Several studies confirm that visiting green spaces improved the health and wellbeing in times of crisis. This representative study for the metropolitan area of Vienna, Austria’s capital, confirms the high relevance of contact with nature, particularly for citizens to cope with the negative consequences and perceived stress, anxiety, nervousness and many other negative symptoms experienced during the health crisis. It highlights the importance of nearby smaller but also medium to large scale green areas in cities for health and wellbeing of the population. Moreover, it specifically adds novel insights on age effects in use and perception of urban green spaces during COVID-19 pandemic. The online panel survey (n=1012) was conducted in summer 2021. In order to obtain a representative sample reflective of the population’s characteristics, a (stratified) random sample was selected by applying the quota method. The objective was to obtain a sample which represented gender, age and regional distribution of the population of the City of Vienna as well as the immediately surrounding local communities. Interestingly, particularly young people spent more time outside in green areas during the pandemic, discovered novel spaces for the first time and stated a high relevance of contact with nature for their wellbeing. Elderly people above sixty five, on the contrary, stayed more frequently at home. Significant differences are visible between the age groups also with regard to negative symptoms experienced in case of restricted access to green areas due to strict pandemic measures such as lockdowns and quarantine. All age groups, however, similarly acknowledged the importance of green areas for their physical, mental and emotional health in general during the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0926.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: eco-friendly behavior; sustainability; systems dynamic; systemic model; dental environmentalism; green dentistry; sustainable dentistry; holistic approach; pro-environmental behavior
Online: 14 September 2023 (03:35:33 CEST)
Climate changes challenges people’s life and sustainability. Environmental problems seem to derive from human behavior. Dentistry has a high environmental footprint that needs to be controlled worldwide. Thus, the change of behavior of dentists is a necessary condition to improve the environmental situation. In this study we use a system dynamics approach to analyze pro-environmental behavior in dentists. Systemic modelling in this case, allow us to make a clear prediction of how the population of non-eco dentists will change in the future if certain factors will be affected and how much time will be needed by the system of a group of dental professionals to become eco- dentists. The ECODENT model was designed with Vensim software. It was based on the influence of WOM (word of mouth) spread of information among colleagues and stakeholders (e.g. patients, auxiliary staff and community) and other factors such as dental income, state support, CaPex and OpEx, education hours, level of urbanization and time to react. By changing each one of them we can observe the changes in the groups of non-eco and eco dentists as well as the flow of the phenomenon. It is tested that by augmenting WOM parameter, state economic support or education hours, while diminishing CaPex and OpEx, changes in pro-environmental behaviors of dentist will be reported in a shorter time. The ECODENT model can be used to further study pro-environmentalism in different dental groups and associations and design relevant eco-friendly educational programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0198.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: eco-driving; GLOSA; signalized intersection; diesel bus; eco-cooperative adaptive cruise control; fuel consumption model; field test
Online: 13 December 2021 (12:34:52 CET)
This paper develops a Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory (GLOSA) system for buses (B-GLOSA). The proposed B-GLOSA system is implemented on diesel buses, and field tested to validate and quantify the potential real-world benefits. The developed system includes a simple and easy to calibrate fuel consumption model that computes instantaneous diesel bus fuel consumption rates. The bus fuel consumption model, a vehicle dynamics model, the traffic signal timings, and the re-lationship between vehicle speed and distance to the intersection are used to construct an optimi-zation problem. A moving-horizon dynamic programming problem solved using the A-star algo-rithm is used to compute the energy-optimized vehicle trajectory through signalized intersections. The Virginia Smart Road test facility was used to conduct the field test on 30 participants. Each participant drove three scenarios including a base case uninformed drive, an informed drive with signal timing information communicated to the driver, and an informed drive with the recom-mended speed computed by the B-GLOSA system. The field test investigated the performance of using the developed B-GLOSA system considering different impact factors, including road grades and red indication offsets, using a split-split-plot experimental design. The test results demonstrated that the proposed B-GLOSA system can produce smoother bus trajectories through signalized in-tersections producing fuel consumption and travel time savings. Specifically, compared to the uninformed drive, the B-GLOSA system produces fuel and travel time savings of 22.1% and 6.1% on average, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0479.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: sanitary; menstrual; female; waste; management; eco-friendly
Online: 22 February 2021 (14:56:22 CET)
Sherubtse College under Royal University of Bhutan has a total of 1582 students, where 787 0f them are female. They suffer from menstrual and menstrual cramps every month and they use napkins to stay clean and healthy. As all the college girls are educated on the norms and use of sanitary napkins, the proper management of the waste generated is lacking. The disposal of used sanitary napkins and management is a challenge to the college management. This small research aims to investigate on how girls in college campus manage the menstural waste and the amount of sanitary napkins used. The lack of proper dumping areas leads to the improper sanitary waste management and sometimes the waste generated from the sanitary napkins are toxic and unhealthy. It is very important to initate some ways to dump the pads and its related problem should be seriously addressed by the college management. It is also important to come up with different soultion and management of these wastes for sustainable environment. Therefore, this research will be mainly mentioning about the suggestions and how the sanitary waste is being managed in Sherubtse College campus and the amount of sanitary pads used in a month or an year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1599.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: environmental education; environmental attitude; environmental knowledge; pro-environmental behavior
Online: 23 August 2023 (02:56:50 CEST)
The demand for industries to enhance sustainability is rising in response to climate change worries. A pervasive and intensifying worldwide environmental problem, plastic pollution has a particularly severe impact on climate change. The production of significant volumes of plastic garbage occurs mostly in Asian regions. So, it's commonplace to talk about pro-environmental conduct nowadays. Indonesia and Taiwan are chosen as case studies of developed and developing regions, respectively. The cultural differences between the two areas do, however, exist in terms of environmental values, and this further influences consumer behavior. In order to understand how environmental education has influenced pro-environmental behavior, this study examines how environmental attitude, knowledge, motivation, and intention have changed as a result of environmental education. By sending electronic questionnaires to a sample of 235 respondents (110 Indonesian and 125 Taiwanese), gathered between March 11 and April 30, 2023, we employ quantitative approaches and data-gathering procedures. The CB-Structural Equation Modelling with AMOS analytical tool is used to examine the data. We are able to draw important conclusions from the study of differences between Indonesian and Taiwanese and make suggestions for more research as well as theoretical and managerial ramifications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0039.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: global environmental concerns; domestic environmental concerns; environmental attitudes; environmental responsibility
Online: 5 January 2020 (15:33:53 CET)
Recently, both global and domestic environmental events have been occurring more frequently, bringing catastrophic consequences to humans and the environment. These adverse events have caused widespread concern among the general public. In positive terms, these devastating events could potentially enhance people’s environmental awareness, which, in turn, could instill a greater sense of environmental responsibility. This study aims to investigate how university students concern themselves with global and domestic catastrophic environmental events and to examine how global and domestic environmental concerns mediate the effect of environmental knowledge and attitudes on university students’ environmental responsibility. Students of King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi in Bangkok, Thailand were selected as the participants. A simple random technique was applied to select the research participants. Questionnaire surveys with 863 students were carried out during September–October 2019. A path analysis was performed to test how global and local environmental concerns mediate the effect of environmental knowledge and attitudes on university students’ environmental responsibility. The results demonstrated that domestic environmental concerns, taken alone, contributed less to the students’ sense of environmental responsibility. Domestic environmental concerns had a stronger effect on environmental responsibility when taken together with global environmental concerns. In addition, both domestic and global environmental concerns could help transform environmental knowledge and attitudes into environmental responsibility. Only environmental attitudes had no direct effect on responsibility. These results show that domestic and global catastrophic environmental events could raise students’ levels of concern for the environment, and, ultimately, enhance their sense of responsibility to protect the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: Recycling; DL-Malic Acid; WEEE; eco-friendly; pretreatment
Online: 1 May 2023 (03:41:58 CEST)
The lithium-ion batteries are widely used as a power source for portable devices, including cell phones. The useful life is about 2 years or 500 cycles, contributing to the generation of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Mining of lithium and cobalt damages the environment and is onerous; therefore, sustainable alternatives, such as obtaining these elements from secondary sources as recycling of lithium-ion batteries, are essential to provide the inputs used in the sector. However, the metallurgical route which will used to recovering them must be considered, due to this work aims for a more environmentally favorable process using DL-malic acid 1.5 M and instead of compared with sulfuric acid 2 M, heat pretreatment of 1 h and 3 h, and for all conditions, experiments were carried out with and without adding the oxidizing agent hydrogen peroxide. The best yields occurred in presence of H2O2 10 % v/v, and heat pretreatment of 1 h: 33.49 % Co and 4.63 % Li, and 29.78 % Co e 3.44 % Li were recovered by sulfuric acid and DL-malic acid, respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0152.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Natural surfactants; plants; saponins; eco-friendly; synthetic surfactants
Online: 6 August 2021 (08:15:01 CEST)
Increasing environmental concern and consumer demand for natural, sustainable and eco-friendly products have prompted the replacement of synthetic surfactants with their natural plant-based alternatives. Saponins are the plant based natural surfactants characterized by their foam forming properties in aqueous solution. Their natural origin makes them eco-friendly, bio-degradable and non-toxic. Further, they possess better physicochemical properties than the syn-thetic ones. They are also reported to exhibit a lot of useful biological activities such as anti-cancer, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cholesterol-lowering properties. Because of their excellent surface activity, biological activities and wide distribution in nature, saponin rich plants deserve deeper insight as a sustainable source of natural surfactants as they possess the potential to replace toxic synthetic surfactants abundant today. This review article is intended to provide a brief overview on the saponins with a special notion on their surface-active properties. It encourages further studies on development of commercial formulations based on saponins for the complete replacement of the synthetic counter parts, making better use of plants sources thereby contributing to global agenda of green environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1195.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Sulfolane; environmental analysis; environmental pollution
Online: 20 November 2023 (03:17:40 CET)
Sulfolane, a highly water-soluble industrial solvent, has raised environmental concerns due to its persistence once released into the environment. To assess the extent of contamination effectively, reliable analytical methods are essential. In this review, we delve into the published literature on sulfolane analytical procedures. Existing guidelines for sampling from environmental matrices provide a solid foundation for sul-folane analysis. Notably, there is little variation in the choice of determination method, with GC-MS or GC-FID being favored across studies. However, substantial variability emerges in sample prep-aration methods. Many procedures rely on large quantities of environmentally hazardous solvents, such as dichloromethane, during extraction. Nevertheless, by incorporating extraction enhancement techniques proposed in various studies, it is possible to develop more eco-friendly extraction processes. Overall, this field calls for further re-search to devise efficient and environmentally sustainable analytical methods for sulfolane analysis. Through this review, insights into the challenges at hand and potential solutions can be gained, offering a foundation for the development of novel sulfolane analysis methods applicable to a range of environmental matrices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0003.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eco-friendly; water-based nanolubricant; industrial-scale; hot rolling
Online: 1 October 2020 (08:52:21 CEST)
Eco-friendly and low-cost water-based nanolubricants containing rutile TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were developed for accelerating their applications in industrial-scale hot steel rolling. The lubrication performance of developed nanolubricants was evaluated in a 2-high Hille 100 experimental rolling mill at a rolling temperature of 850 ℃ in comparison to that of pure water. The results indicate that the use of nanolubricant enables to decrease the rolling force, reduce the surface roughness and the oxide scale thickness, and enhance the surface hardness. In particular, the nanolubricant consisting of 4 wt% TiO2, 10 wt% glycerol, 0.2 wt% sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and 1 wt% Snailcool exhibits the best lubrication performance by lowering the rolling force, surface roughness and oxide scale thickness up to 8.1%, 53.7% and 50%, respectively. The surface hardness is increased by 4.4%. The corresponding lubrication mechanisms are attributed to its superior wettability and thermal conductivity associated with the synergistic effect of rolling, mending and laminae forming that are contributed by TiO2 NPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0036.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: conservation; governance; habitat loss; livelihood; eco-tourism; carbon credits
Online: 7 December 2016 (11:13:38 CET)
Establishment of protected areas (PAs) is one of the key global conservation strategies that currently cover approximately 15% of the earth’s land surface. Globally, PA networks are designed to curb the growing anthropogenic pressures in areas with high biological diversity. Despite the importance of PAs in conserving the vanishing biodiversity and unique habitats, many of them are in critical condition due to poor governance thus functioning below the expected level. Moreover, in many developing countries, the PA coverage is below the global standard. Recognizing their contemporary role in conservation, governments have recently agreed to expand the global PA coverage to 17% by the year 2020 (Aichi target 11). This book with eight chapters from different regions of the world provides an overview of the PAs governance, institutional mechanisms, conservation benefits, limitations and challenges associated with their respective policy discourse, integrated management, and functional attributes. Protected areas expect to to play an important role in the long rn in conservation and protection of biodiversity and ecosystems particularly in countries where population pressure and habitat loss are high. Regular intervention, political commitment, and effective governance are essential for the sustainability of PAs across the world. Here, we also attempted to shed some light on future development clues for the sustainable management and monitoring of PAs worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0342.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Environmental Manager, Maturity, Ecodesign, Environmental Decoupling
Online: 21 June 2018 (15:35:39 CEST)
The research investigates the role the environmental manager plays to ensure a successful (or not) implementation of environmental performance within an organization. It is based on interviews of 5-7 actors per company within a sample of 7 companies (42 interviews). We build upon bias of perception of the various actors interviewed within each company to define 4 paradoxes related to the roles and mission of the environmental manager that hinder proper efficiency of environmental management at company level. Paradox 1 is that no one takes ownership of environmental performance within the organization. Paradox 2 is that the environmental manager is in an awkward situation vis-à-vis his boss. Paradox 3 is that the role of the environmental manager is ambiguous vis-à-vis employees. Paradox 4 is that corporate and product approaches are decoupled. We suggest that these paradoxes interact and form a vicious cycle that may in part be responsible for the environmental decoupling phenomenon – the fact that companies often adopt a sustainability policy symbolically without implementing it substantively. Our research suggests that, by leveraging the leadership of the environmental manager through organizational and motivational measures, the vicious cycle can be transformed into a virtuous cycle and the human motivation can become a driver for green change within corporations. We proposed the SEA (Shaping Environmental Action) model based of 4 pillars: information, motivation, organization and strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0167.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: green hotel; environmental awareness; environmental knowledge
Online: 18 August 2016 (05:12:57 CEST)
There has been a growing awareness of the need to implement environmentally friendly operations in the hotel industry, but most studies focus on guest behaviors. Only a few studies investigate employees’ willingness to comply with hotels’ green practices. This study seeks to further the investigation from the human resource perspective. Using alumni from a tourism and hospitality programs, this study collected 233 responses. The study hypothesizes that the employees’ green ability consisting of environmental awareness, environmental knowledge, and environmental skill creates a positive impact on hotels’ green ability. The results indicate that employees contribute approximately a fifth of hotels’ ability to implement greener practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0342.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: bio-waste; material development; engineering; architecture; eco-friendly dry wall
Online: 3 August 2023 (11:11:19 CEST)
Amidst the strong demand for wood-based products, and the clamor of environmental consciousness, more functional and green solutions arise to meet both of these goals. Pursuant to this, the study looked into the potential of a bio-waste taken from Cocos nucifera tree known as phellem—the tree’s outermost skin made of dead tissues, to be a main component of a new construction material. This study builds on existing research showing phellem is impermeable, buoyant, elastic, has a slow burn rate, and repels water during precipitation, which supports the hypothesis that phellem may be a potential substitute material for dry wall boards. To test this, three (3) formulations were developed as experimental setups to test the physico-mechanical properties of coconut palm phellem (COPAP): Formulation A (40% COPAP and 60% cement); Formulation B ( 25% COPAP and 75% cement); and lastly, Formulation C that was (10% COPAP and 90% cement). The study tested (1) which among these formulations exhibited the best physico-mechanical properties, then it (2) compared the formulations with common dry wall products available in the market, and subsequently, (3) identified the possible architectural applications of COPAP board as a new building material. Of the three setups, Formulation C exhibited the best physico-mechanical properties in terms of compressive and flexural strength, fire resistivity, and water absorption. It fared better than the particle board in terms of compressive strength, better than wafer and particle board in fire resistivity, performed best in the water absorption test, and was almost equivalent in flexural strength to fiber cement board. With these findings, the study concluded that COPAP board can be used for projects that entail a high number of interior partitions, such as offices, BPO firms and commercial stalls in shopping malls, etc. The findings were conclusive only for interior applications, as the results clearly suggest that the COPAP boards are not load-bearing. Future investigations may explore and assess other properties of COPAP boards like thermal and sound insulation, resistance to rot and other properties that may prove its competitive advantage as a construction material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0382.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: anti fouling; eco-friendly; coating; pull-off; crosscut test; rheology
Online: 17 April 2023 (03:25:50 CEST)
in this work formulations of "environmentally compatible" silicone-based antifouling synthesized in the laboratory and based on copper and silver on silica/titania oxides have been characterized, capable of replacing the non-ecological antifouling paints currently on the market. The texture properties and the morphological analysis of these powders with an antifouling action indicate that their activity is linked to the nanometric size of the particles and to the homogeneous dispersion of the metal on the substrate. The presence of two metal species on the same support limits the for-mation of nanometric species and therefore the formation of homogeneous compounds. The presence of the antifouling filler (specifically the one based on TiO2 and Ag) facilitates the achievement of a higher degree of cross-linking of the pure resin, and therefore a better compactness and completeness of the coating. This leads to a consequent better degree of adhesion to the tie-coat and therefore to the steel support used for the construction of the boats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0285.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Environmental Sensitivity; Modeling; Environmental Quality; Cloud computing
Online: 6 September 2023 (14:50:48 CEST)
Many factors drive land desertification, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. However, the numerous driving factors of desertification make analyses computer expensive. Cloud computing comes along to address this problem, especially in developing countries. The objective of this work was to assess the sensitivity of the East Atlantic Basin, Brazil, to desertification using the Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use (MEDALUS) model and Google Earth Engine (GEE). The model is composed of four environmental Quality Indices (QIs) associated with soil (SQI), vegetation (VQI), climate (CQI) and management (MQI), and contains factors influencing the desertification process. Digital databases of the factors were pre-processed and uploaded to GEE for analysis. We report Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) and Environmentally Critical Factors (ECF) maps of the East Atlantic Basin, which showed that most of the basin is in either critical (49.4%) or fragile (35.7%) state of sensitivity. In contrast, only a smaller portion of the area is unaffected (5%) or potentially affected (10.1%). Sensitivity to desertification was inversely correlated with the presence of vigorous vegetation. A joint analysis of ESAs and ECF shed light on the importance of each factor in the sensitivity to desertification. The East Atlantic Basin shows a high degree of sensitivity to desertification, thereby demanding more attention and establishment of measures to mitigate the negative impacts of the desertification process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0316.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Environmental Sensitivity; Modeling; Environmental Quality; Cloud computing
Online: 6 September 2023 (13:53:12 CEST)
Many factors drive land desertification, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. However, the numerous driving factors of desertification make analyses computer expensive. Cloud computing comes along to address this problem, especially in developing countries. The objective of this work was to assess the sensitivity of the East Atlantic Basin, Brazil, to desertification using the Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use (MEDALUS) model and Google Earth Engine (GEE). The model is composed of four environmental Quality Indices (QIs) associated with soil (SQI), vegetation (VQI), climate (CQI) and management (MQI), and contains factors influencing the desertification process. Digital databases of the factors were pre-processed and uploaded to GEE for analysis. We report Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) and Environmentally Critical Factors (ECF) maps of the East Atlantic Basin, which showed that most of the basin is in either critical (49.4%) or fragile (35.7%) state of sensitivity. In contrast, only a smaller portion of the area is unaffected (5%) or potentially affected (10.1%). Sensitivity to desertification was inversely correlated with the presence of vigorous vegetation. A joint analysis of ESAs and ECF shed light on the importance of each factor in the sensitivity to desertification. The East Atlantic Basin shows a high degree of sensitivity to desertification, thereby demanding more attention and establishment of measures to mitigate the negative impacts of the desertification process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0375.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: environmental literacy; environmental pollution; awareness; attitude; Yazd
Online: 16 November 2018 (05:19:57 CET)
Introduction: Different factors such as rapid growth of population, urbanization and industrialization of communities have detrimental effects on the environment. In regard to the importance of the environment and its fundamental role in sustainable development along with the awareness and attitude of the people of Yazd which has not yet been assessed, this study aims to assess the level of awareness, attitude and environmental literacy of the people of Yazd in relation to environmental issues and challenges in the year 2017. Materials and methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, the sample size was obtained from 410 Yazd city residents through prior studies and the Cochran formula. The sample was then selected by the stratified random sampling method. The data selection tool was a questionnaire with questions on demographic characteristics, awareness level, attitude and practices in relation to menopause. The data was analyzed upon collection by the SPSS-20 software and Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and Chi-Square non-parametric tests along with the Spearman correlation test. In this study, the significance level was considered as 0.05. Results: In this study, a total of 404 questionnaires were completed and evaluated. Based on the obtained results, 224 individuals (55.4%) male, 53.3% married, 31.2% had at least a bachelor’s degree and the majority of individuals (40.1%) were in the 18-27 age group. In terms of area of residence, 64.1% reside in region 2. From all the participants, 51.3% of the participants believed that the main environmental issue in Yazd was water deficiency and pollution. The awareness score was statistically significant with the age, education level and employment status variables. Attitude only had significant relationship with the employment status variable. The relationship between the practices score was statistically significant with the age, marital status, and area of residence variables. There is a significant relation between age, income level and knowledge level but there is no significant relation with attitude levels. There is no significant relation between gender, education level, marital status, area of residence, awareness and attitude levels (p-value > 0.05). There is a positive correlation between awareness, attitude and practices scores. The results indicated that the attitude score of most participants (51.5%) was lower than the average score but the awareness and practices score of most participants was average. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, although the awareness of Yazdi citizens on some environmental issues and institutions that are active in the environmental pollution control field in the country appears low, but in general, the awareness of the people of Yazd, specifically regarding health issues stemming from pollution was assessed as adequate. Considering the importance of environmental factors’ role in communities’ health and its continuous improvement, due to the expansion of automated life namely in large cities within the country, it is necessary to conduct various researches to identify and control these factors and to carry out interventional studies to determine suitable solutions before implementing them.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1092.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Micro-plastics; routes of MPs; eco-toxicology; aquatic organisms; human exposure
Online: 17 November 2023 (02:27:47 CET)
Micro-plastics (MPs) become significantly important to society since their commercial manufacture began in the 1950s because of their low production costs, stability, light weight, and adaptability. Plastic was produced in 400 million tons worldwide in 2020, compared to 1.5 million tons just 60 years earlier. Scientists predict that by 2050, plastic production would increase to 33 billion tons. MPs are a rising scientific and societal issue in the environment as a new type of contaminant that is widely disseminated in aquatic ecosystems and organisms. Aquatic species that come into contact with MPs for an extended period of time experience ecotoxicity, which includes oxidative stress, genotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and reproductive issues. In aquatic environments, MPs not only transport chemicals within animals but also serve as mediators for chemicals or other contaminants. As a result of co-exposure of MPs and chemical contaminants, various toxicity incidences involving aquatic organisms have been reported. The final exposure of MPs occurs in humans through biomagnification of aquatic edible products. This study presents an important overview of the literature on MP ingestion by aquatic biota. It covers topics such as the present scenario of plastic pollution worldwide, the pathways that MPs take to reach humans and aquatic species, the eco-toxicological impacts of MPs on aquatic species, the relation between MPs and other environmental pollution and the ensuing effects on aquatic organisms, and the MP pollution status in Bangladesh.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1650.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: Porous organic polymer; biomass conversion; lignocellulose; 5-hydroxymethylfurfural; eco-friendly catalysts
Online: 23 May 2023 (11:04:40 CEST)
In the face of the current energy and environment problems, the full use of biomass resources instead of fossil energy to produce a series of high-value chemicals has great application prospects. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), which can be synthesized from lignocellulose as raw material, is an important biological platform molecule. Its preparation and catalytic oxidation of subsequent products have important research significance and practical value. In the actual production process, porous organic polymer (POPs) catalysts are highly suitable for biomass catalytic conversion due to its high efficiency, low cost, good designability, and environmentally friendly features. Here, we briefly described the application of various types of POPs (including COFs、PAFs、HCPs、CMPs) in the preparation and catalytic conversion of HMF from lignocellulosic biomass, and analyzed the influence of the structural properties of catalysts for the catalytic performance. Finally, we summarized some challenges that POPs catalysts will face in biomass catalytic conversion, and prospected the important research directions in future. This review would provide valuable references for the efficient conversion of biomass resources into high-value chemicals in practical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0192.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Eco-Efficiency; Human Capital Efficiency; family farms; TOPSIS-CRITIC; sustainable development
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:24:26 CEST)
Small and medium-sized family farms are the place of life and source of income for about half of the population. The aim of the analysis was to determine the relationship between Eco-Efficiency, Human Capital Efficiency in small and medium-sized family farms. The analyses were carried out using an economic measure (value of agricultural production per work hour calculated per 1 ha) and synthetic measures: human capital and environmental measures. The synthetic measures were determined using the CRITIC-TOPSIS method by defining weights for variables used in the synthetic measures. The analyses covered five countries, namely: Lithuania (960 farms), Moldova (532 farms), Poland (696 farms), Romania (872 farms), and Serbia (524 farms). All the countries qualified for analysis are characterised by a high fragmentation of agricultural holdings. The analyses carried out allowed us to formulate the following conclusions: the Eco-Efficiency and Human Capital Efficiency indexes increase with area for small and medium-sized family agricultural farms. An increase in the Eco-Efficiency index with an increase in farm area leads to a suspicion that the smaller the farm area is, the more extensive the agricultural production being carried out. In addition, an increase in human capital efficiency with an increase in the area of a farm indicates that there is inefficiency in the utilisation of human capital resources in the agricultural farms studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0133.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial interest; youth, family; entrepreneurial eco-system; principal component analysis
Online: 10 February 2020 (15:52:32 CET)
As entrepreneurial interest is believed to represent a causal factor increasing entrepreneurship, research has begun to explore how family systems affect youth entrepreneurial interests. In the present study, we attempt to identify different types of family influence on the entrepreneurial interests of young people. A questionnaire was used to obtain data from 1,633 Spanish youths, who were 15 to 18 years old, and another questionnaire was used to obtain data from 839 parents. Principal Component Analysis identified unique family types and revealed that they have differential associations to entrepreneurial interest among youths. These findings reaffirm the influence of family on the entrepreneurial ecosystem and the promotion of an entrepreneurial family cuture. This study further suggests that early attention should focus on the detection of entrepreneurial interest among youths so that actions can be implemented in the families of low-interest youths to incentivize an entrepreneurial family culture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0091.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Alginate fiber; rhubarb natural dye; color strength &fastness; SEM; Eco-friendly
Online: 16 October 2017 (13:19:07 CEST)
In this investigation dyeing of alginate fiber was carried out after cationic treatment of EPTAC (2, 3-Epoxypropyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride). Optimum dyeing process and parameter show good dyeing performance when alginate fiber dyed with rhubarb dye. In addition to cationic treatment is taken into account for alginate fiber to improve fastness, color strength, breaking strength. Later in dyeing for fixation ferrous sulfate, copper sulphate was considered as mordents. Moreover using pre-mordanting methods conveyed the dyeing of alginate fiber with the stave of metallic mordant and without metallic salt mordents. The evaluation of each color dyed material was done through following two terms for instance CIELAB (L*, a*, and b*) and K/S values. According to AATCC test methods color fastness to washing of the dyed fiber was determined whereas according to the ASTM D3822M standard the breaking strength of alginate fiber was estimated and tested. When dyeing was carried out on alginate fiber through considering optimum parameter like 80◦C for 90 min, M: L 1:40 and at pH 7 which showed optimum results. In addition to mostly very good wash fastness was obtained while there was no fading of the color, whereas the moderate level of color fastness to crocking was achieved. Later after dyeing the evaluations of SEM of the cationized alginate fiber and FTIR of powder from the rhubarb dye were observed. The results suggested that the surface of cationized alginate fiber was smoother than the raw alginate fiber.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: E-waste management; environmental impact; environmental sustainability; WEEE
Online: 10 March 2023 (11:36:12 CET)
This article aims to investigate gaps in the law and policies on e-waste management in communi-ties of Thailand and suggests a guideline for improving, developing, and designing legal measures and state policies for more effective enforcement of the law on e-waste management in communities. The findings reveal that the currently applicable law of Thailand lacks effective approaches and rules for e-waste management. Also, there is not any implementation of key envi-ronmental principles for e-waste management in communities, such as the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP) that requires manufacturing companies to take part in being responsible for disposal ex-penses or the Public Participation principle that requires users, manufacturers, distributors, and government agencies to take parts in disposing e-waste. As a result, problems of e-waste in com-munities of Thailand have been continuously increasing. According to such problems, the authors suggest that legal measures on e-waste management in communities should be specifically de-signed by implementing key environmental principles as a basis in determining formats and guidelines of e-waste management, especially participation of all sectors that can help in solving and reducing e-waste in communities that is harmful to health, sanitation, and environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0407.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: thematic analysis; pro-environmental behavior; motivation; environmental activists
Online: 24 August 2022 (04:00:15 CEST)
We conduct a thematic analysis of a U.S. adult sample’s self-reported motives and perception of environmental activists’ motives to engage in pro-environmental behavior via a qualitative online survey. We identified themes using a two-stage coding procedure, whereby the research team first helped to code all content into one or more of 17 inductive content categories, then the lead investigator examined themes in each of the categories and created 5 themes based on both inductive and theoretical (e.g., moral foundations theory) considerations: a) harm and care, b) purity, c) waste and efficiency, d) spreading awareness, and e) self-interest (mostly non-financial). Endorsement of themes were qualitatively similar across individuals’ own self-described motives and perceptions of environmental activists’ motives.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Environmental taxes; computable general equilibrium; environmental impacts; waste
Online: 25 November 2020 (14:43:55 CET)
Economic theory states that incineration and landfill taxation can effectively diminish the environmental impacts of pollution and resource use by reducing their associated pollutants while stimulating the reuse and recycling of materials, and therefore, fostering a circular economy. The aim of this research is to assess the economic and environmental effects of these taxes in Spain under different scenarios with a detailed dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, as there are no studies analyzing this in detail. We focus on the economic impact on GDP and sectorial production and the environmental impact on different categories: global warming potential, marine eutrophication potential, photochemical ozone formation potential, particulate matter, human toxicity (cancer and noncancer), ecotoxicity, and depletion of fossil resources. We find in all scenarios that these taxes have a limited economic impact while reducing all of the environmental impact categories analyzed. The study reinforces the theory that policy makers need to impose taxes on landfill and incineration to reinforce the circularity of the economy and reduce environmental burdens, but also demonstrates that they can improve their design without additional costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0570.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Environmental Communication; Environmental preservation; Folk media; Guna community
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:20:58 CET)
This study focused on the assessment of folk media aimed at Environmental Communication (EC) in the Guna Community and suggested the dominant Guna Community folk media for environmental communication and preservation to conserve Mount Guna. Guna Mount is the home of different biodiversity and the tower of water, but it is becoming degraded. Folk media are operative in environmental communication and preservation. They have the power to transmitted environmental messages that incorporate cultural values, beliefs, and attitudes with societal needs. Folk media are locally oriented, easily accessible, flexible, portable, inclusive, and relatively inexpensive. A qualitative research approach was employed for this research. Ethnographic research design, snowball, and purposive sampling techniques were used to select the respondents. The researchers were gathered the data through in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, and observation. For this survey, 16 FGDs, 45 individual in-depth interviews, and participant observation were employed. Guna community has unique and indigenous folk media that use as a source of entertainment, information, and education. Their folk music, songs, dances, campfire storytelling, traditional motifs, fairs, and festivals, and folk poems are the dominants. Using folk media for operative ecology preservation is vital in the form of EC that inspires and develops positive behavior in the community by educating about environmentalism in the method of facilitating environmental issues incorporating the latest message. Finally, we recommended some folk media for developmental activities that use inform of advocacy regarding recommended reasons
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0206.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: environmental monitoring; ecological processes; functional diversity; environmental indicators; primers for environmental rehabilitation; Urucum Massif
Online: 18 September 2019 (12:57:40 CEST)
Despite the wide variety of variables commonly applied to measure different aspects of rehabilitation, the assessment and subsequent definition of indicators of environmental rehabilitation status are not simple tasks. The main challenges are comparing rehabilitated sites with target ecosystems as well as integrating individual environmental and eventually collinear variables into a single tractable measure of the state of a system before effective indicators that track rehabilitation may be modeled. For that, a consensus is lacking regarding which and how many variables need to be surveyed. Our approach considered ecological processes, vegetation structure, and community diversity from nonrehabilitated, rehabilitating and reference sites. We applied this approach to a curated set of 32 environmental variables retrieved from nonrevegetated, rehabilitating and reference sites associated with iron ore mines from the Urucum Massif, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. By integrating variables from a single attribute or the entire set of variables into a single estimation of rehabilitation status, the proposed multivariate approach is straightforward and able to adequately address collinearity among variables. The proposed approach allows for the identification of biases towards single variables, surveys or analyses, which is necessary to rank environmental variables regarding their importance to the assessment. Furthermore, we show that bootstrapping permitted the detection of the minimum number of environmental variables necessary to achieve reliable estimations of the rehabilitation status. Finally, we show that the proposed variable integration enables the definition of environmental indicators for more comprehensive monitoring of mineland rehabilitation. Thus, the proposed multivariate ordination represents a powerful tool to outline the benefits of rehabilitating sites for the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services provided that sufficient environmental variables related to ecological processes, diversity and vegetation structure are gathered from nonrehabilitated, rehabilitating and reference study sites. By identifying deviations from predicted rehabilitation trajectories and providing assessments for environmental agencies, this proposed multivariate ordination increases the effectiveness of (mineland) rehabilitation.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: environment; virus; pollutant; evolution; exaptation; stem cells; transposons; APOBEC; ADAR,; ORF2p; cancer; Eco-Evo-Devo; symbiosis; ecological genomics; environmental stress; genetic recombination; biological plasticity; hypermutation; epigenetics; fractal systems; natural selection
Online: 19 July 2020 (19:35:46 CEST)
This article challenges the notion of the randomness of mutations in eukaryotic cells by unveiling stress-induced human non-random genome editing mechanisms. To account for the existence of such mechanisms, I have developed molecular concepts of the cell environment and cell environmental stressors and, making use of a large quantity of published data, hypothesized the origin of some crucial biological leaps along the evolutionary path of life on Earth under the pressure of natural selection, in particular, 1) virus-cell mating as a primordial form of sexual recombination and symbiosis; 2) Lamarckian CRISPR-Cas systems; 3) eukaryotic gene development; 4) antiviral activity of retrotransposon-guided mutagenic enzymes and finally; 5) the exaptation of antiviral mutagenic mechanisms to stress-induced genome editing mechanisms directed at “hypertranscribed” endogenous genes. Genes transcribed at their maximum rate (hypertranscribed), yet still unable to meet new chronic environmental demands generated by “pollution”, are inadequate and generate more and more intronic retrotransposon transcripts. In this scenario, RNA-guided mutagenic enzymes (e.g. AID/APOBECs), which have been shown to bind to retrotransposon RNA-repetitive sequences, would be surgically targeted by intronic retrotransposons on opened chromatin regions of the same “hypertranscribed” genes. RNA-guided mutagenic enzymes may therefore “Lamarkianly” generate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and copy number variations (CNV), as well as transposon transposition and chromosomal translocations in the restricted areas of hyperfunctional and inadequate genes, leaving intact the rest of the genome. CNV and SNP of hypertranscribed genes may allow cells to surgically explore a new fitness scenario, which increases their adaptability to stressful environmental conditions. Like the mechanisms of immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation, non-random genome editing mechanisms may generate several cell mutants, and those codifying for the most environmentally-adequate proteins would have a survival advantage and would therefore be Darwinianly selected. Non-random genome editing mechanisms represent a link between environmental changes and biological novelty and plasticity, and provide a molecular basis to reconcile gene-centered and “ecological” views of evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0578.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: ecological footprint calculator; ecological footprint; environmental knowledge; environmental education; environmental values; carbon footprint calculator; carbon footprint; ecological behaviour; pro-environmental behaviour
Online: 25 February 2021 (12:00:10 CET)
Ecological footprint calculators are digital tools that help individuals calculate their environmental or climate impact, with the aim of stimulating pro-environmental behaviour change. These footprint calculators typically take an information-provision approach, but this strategy assumes that increased levels of knowledge result in increased levels of pro-environmental behaviour (i.e., a reduced footprint). This is not a given – existing literature on the relationship between environmental knowledge and pro-environmental behaviour is inconclusive, and this relationship may be different from that of environmental knowledge and ecological footprint. As such, we investigated the relationship between environmental knowledge and ecological footprint as estimated by a footprint calculator. 448 Dutch participants completed an online survey, including an ecological footprint calculator. We found no evidence for a relationship between environmental knowledge and ecological footprint calculator outcome. Rather, an exploratory analysis of our data showed that environmental values were more important predictors of ecological footprint. The finding that increased levels of knowledge are not related to a reduced ecological footprint suggests that calculators would do well to move beyond information provision, and employ additional behaviour change strategies. Based on our exploratory analysis, we provide several concrete examples of potential strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0081.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Neoliberalism; Environmental Awareness; Climate Change; Plastic Pollution; Environmental Activism
Online: 6 May 2021 (12:50:41 CEST)
We currently face several, interlinked environmental crises, including climate change, habitat destruction and biodiversity loss. However, many governments seem unwilling to take strong and immediate action to address these threats, preferring to promote neoliberal approaches to allow consumers and the general public to make environmentally friendly choices. This is despite neoliberal approaches being much less likely to be successful than government leadership, taxation, subsidies, and legislation in addressing environmental issues. In this study, we examine public perception of environmental threats and solutions to these threats, in a survey, mainly completed in the UK. Climate change is seen as the biggest issue, likely due to recent activist campaigns and subsequent media attention on the issue. Neoliberal attitudes, such as green consumer choices to environmental concerns, do still dominate in a series of possible presented solutions, and score more highly than lifestyle changes such as changing diet. However, when questioned specifically about plastic pollution, government intervention to ban all unnecessary plastic scored very strongly, indicating a shift from a consumer driven response. Furthermore, most participants think they are at best only partly ‘doing their bit’ to protect the environment. The results demonstrate that the public are aware that not enough is happening to protect the environment and provide evidence that there is willingness for stronger government intervention to address environmental issues, although there is potential resistance to major lifestyle changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0787.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Environmental disclosure; Green port; Environmental indicators; Port efficiency; DEA
Online: 31 December 2020 (11:24:24 CET)
The purpose of this article is to analyze, in a three-stage research, the relationships between environmental expenses, the improvements achieved in 5 environmental variables analyzed and efficiency, from an economic and operational perspective. The stages of this research are analyzing the sustainability reports to determine the level of information, analyzing the economic and operational efficiency, and analyzing the alignment with the environmental priorities of the Eco Ports-ESPO (European Sea Ports Organization). The results reveal that (1) the type of traffic does not condition environmental actions; (2) environmental performance (improvements) depends on environmental expenditures; (3) environmental spending and efficiency in port operations are correlated; and (4) environmental spending and port economic efficiency are correlated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0193.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Environmental regulation; green total factor productivity; Dynamic panel model; Environmental decentralization
Online: 25 November 2020 (11:08:10 CET)
Environmental decentralization (ED), or the allocation of environmental protection affairs and responsibilities among various administrative authorities, affects the effectiveness of environmental regulation in promoting green total factor productivity (GTFP). Based on panel data of 30 Chinese provinces from 2001 to 2015, this paper employs dynamic panel models to test the effects of environmental regulations (environmental protection investment, ENV; pollutant discharge fees, PDF) on GTFP, with or without being influenced by ED. Without the impact of ED, GTFP is significantly inhibited by ENV while significantly promoted by PDF. Considering the impact of ED, with the strengthening of ED, the negative effects of ENV on GTFP is significant; contrarily, the positive effects of PDF on GTFP is significant; improving provincial ED adds negative effects of ENV, while reduces the positive effects of PDF; increasing prefectural ED reduces negative effects of ENV; expanding county-level ED adds the positive effects of PDF. Therefore, to boost GTFP growth, prefectural environmental protection authorities should have more autonomy in ENV, while the county-level should have more autonomy in PDF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0027.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: environment; environmental pollution; environmental management; textile industry; legal instruments
Online: 12 July 2017 (10:14:33 CEST)
The aim of this short communication is to find out the legal set up that complies with the environmental management in the textile sector of Bangladesh. This sector is the one of the biggest contributor to the economy of the nation. This sector contributes 81% to the total export earnings involving an immense number of stakeholders to its production processes. It is also true that this sector is largely responsible for the overall environmental pollution through its effluent discharge. The findings suggest that there are both international and national legal guidelines exist for environmental management in the said sector. In order to improve the environmental standards rehearsing lawful instruments is compulsory for the said industries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0219.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: pollution; cost-effectiveness analysis; Cocody; environmental policies; environmental constraints
Online: 27 August 2016 (11:01:22 CEST)
The pollution of the bays in Abidjan is a major concern for the Ivorian policy makers. In fact, the pollution of the bays induce high costs to the society while impacting population health dramatically. As a result, pollution reduction management of production activities has been undertaken in the Cocody Bay area. To our knowledge, no study has yet proposed a model to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of these pollution management strategies. A cost-effectiveness model, based on Monte Carlo simulation, was developed to assess the economic and environmental impacts of various scenarios characterized by a set of production practices, both in the short term and in the long term. The authors discuss the steps and input parameters of the model presented. The proposed model may serve as the basis for identifying an optimal production scenario defined as the scenario with the best incremental cost-effectiveness ratio considering a willingness to pay (WTP) threshold. The WTP, to be estimated based on the gross domestic product of Côte d’Ivoire, represents the opportunity costs associated with selecting the optimal scenario. The current framework can also be applied to other settings facing similar challenge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1720.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Iraqi and Syrian refugees; displacement-related stressors; eco-systemic resilience; cultural racism
Online: 8 November 2023 (02:03:57 CET)
The ongoing conflict in Syria and Iraq has caused many residents of these countries to flee. This study explored how these refugees cope with traumatic experiences from pre-migration to post-migration phases and how they develop resilience experiences at the individual, familial, and community levels. Data were collected through individual interviews and analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. A discussion of the findings revealed (1) a cumulative effect of prolonged adversity from pre-migration to resettlement phases; (2) the impacts of post-migration context as it facilitates refugees’ adjustment or leads to re-traumatization through increased marginalization; and (3) finally, an overview of refugees’ ongoing survival. Clinical implications are presented along with policy implications and future directions for research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0499.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: urban green-space, eco-authoritarianism, preservation, conservation, cultural praxis; attitude towards nature
Online: 7 July 2023 (11:46:28 CEST)
The concept of "Eco-authoritarianism", although appeared in the 1970s, through the writings of Robert Heilbroner, William Ophuls etc., but Eco-authoritarianism as a theory has emerged very recently . In this era of global environmental degradation and rampant defacement of green space in the rapidly expanding cities of developing countries especially in India, historical sites of green belts, or eco-space developed by royal dynasties or colonial rulers are still preserved by eco-authoritarianism and cultural praxis. A lot of such heritage sites and built-up eco-spaces have faded out over time but at the same time, huge numbers are still present due to the imposition of restrictions by the state or national government or statutory organizations. Built up eco-space under Burdwan Raj Dynasty during the 18th and 19th centuries is still preserved almost in its original form due to the eco-authoritarianism outlook of the present stakeholder (The University authority mainly and the Forest Department). People of this urban unit not only feel proud of such built up eco-space; they also give credit to the university authority for maintaining the legacy of the Raj Dynasty. This investigation attempts to capture not only the role of authoritarian legacy for the preservation and conservation of eco-space in the urban context but also clarify the benefits of this eco-space regarding the cultural ecosystem services and outlook of urbanites towards nature. To portray this, both the qualitative and quantitative methods have been applied to glean the whole perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0151.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Circular Economy; Traceability; Sustainability; BPMN; Eco-Gamification; Textiles and Clothing Value Chain
Online: 9 February 2023 (01:24:56 CET)
The Textile and Clothing (T\&C) value chain is one of the most polluting in the world and one that produces the most waste. It is, therefore, important to encourage the Circular Economy (CE) model in this sector, to reduce pollution and mitigate the effects of waste production, and consequently increase environmental sustainability. For that, the involvement of the final consumer is essential. And, the final consumer's use of an Eco-gamified application for registering and promoting Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) and Consumer-to-Business (C2B) activities, which extends the life time of textile products, is of utmost importance. In this article, we survey gamification frameworks for analyzing system design level techniques that enable engaging the final consumer in the CE process. Then, we select and use one of such frameworks, Gameful Design Heuristics (GDH), for defining the gamification structure needed to implement on a Business-to-Consumer-to-Consumer (B2C2C) context of a circular economy. As result, we present a B2C2C circular business process model for the T\&C value chain, and propose the design model of a gamified platform for the final consumers, which allows them to register the C2B and C2C activities, from the circular value chain's business process, and benefit from a game-like experience. All model features have been mapped to GDH framework heuristics, validating that it is possible to support a set of defined heuristics of applied gamification for promoting CE in the T\&C value chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0045.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: circular economy; eco-design; business education; economics education; competencies; Management Education; ADKAR
Online: 5 May 2022 (15:57:09 CEST)
The Circular Economy is matter of recent discussions and quite popular, however the meaning has not been understood by most Business stakeholders. This Case study proposes to illustrate the Circular Economy importance and its status now. The contribution that UAE education sector can make to the Circular Economy is immense and is the focus of this study. Circular Economy awareness and its inner meaning can be only spread by the education sector and the author emphasizes the role of the education can play in implementing the Circular Economy. The study shows the way for the future Managers and Business stakeholders to participate in this crucial endeavor of Businesses to follow the Circular Economy. The ADKAR change management can be adopted to inspire the CE initiatives of the UAE Education sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0270.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sediments; circular economy; cement; ternary eco-binders; flash calcination method; mixture design
Online: 15 September 2021 (15:25:47 CEST)
CO2 emissions resulting from the production of cement is a major issue, but can be limited by the partial substitution of cement by low-carbon-impact additions. The aim of this study was the formulation of a ternary binder based on ordinary Portland cement (OPC), ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) and flash-calcined sediment (FCS), a dredged waste which was valorized after applying a new heat treatment: flash calcination. The used materials were physically, chemically and mineralogically characterized. The composition of the formulations was optimized using mixture designs. Five formulations, one reference formulation RM (100% OPC), one binary formulation (50% OPC/50% GGBS), and three ternary formulations with a variable FCS rate (10%, 15%, 20%), were selected and characterized fresh and hardened. Results showed that the incorporation of FCS reduced the workability and increased the density. In addition, a decrease in the initial setting time and the heat of hydration peak were observed. In the hardened state, the formulation containing 10% FCS showed 90-day mechanical strengths superior to that of RM. The use of FCS in ternary binders could reduce the environmental impact by reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0032.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: ecovillage movement; eco-discourses; ethnic traditions; innovation; intentional community; social media, Romania
Online: 1 February 2021 (13:27:35 CET)
This case study explores social media discourses of a virtual ecovillage community based in Central Romania, in a Hungarian speaking region of Transylvania. The investigated virtual community embraces the idea of ecovillage as a local constructive answer to the challenges of the global ecological crisis, based on strategies of revitalizing local ethnic traditions, promoting sustainable development solutions, and innovations. Our key question is the relationship between tradition and innovation—as revealed by the discursive practices of the ecovillage Facebook group most active members. Using ecolinguistic as a frame of reference, the investigation unveiled the role social media played in fostering the formation of a virtual intentional community, and in clarifying the shared values of the group. We found that the local ecovillage is part of a larger regional and global movement, unfolding the organic connection between the Hungarian and the Romanian intentional communities, and the reframing of traditional values within innovative, sustainable everyday practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0542.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Automotive Engineering, Electric Bus, CFD, Numerical Fluid Mechanics, Electromobility, Noise, Eco-Design
Online: 26 January 2021 (15:23:24 CET)
The dynamic development of electromobility poses challenges to designers regarding not only the efficiency of energy transformation but also the battery life, which is influenced by the stability of its operating temperature. Designing cooling systems is connected not only with the optimization of energy management but also with other environmental parameters, such as noise emission. The paper presents the numerical optimization of an innovative radiator for use in electric buses in terms of energy consumption and noise emission. The results of the numerical studies were verified in laboratory and field conditions, showing a very good convergence of the model with the results of the experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0483.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: Humanities, World citizenship, World Languages, Higher Education, Peter Critchley, Eco-praxis, Ethics
Online: 25 July 2018 (12:45:08 CEST)
It is time that universities reexamine what is meant by globalization. Contemporary researchers in science and the humanities (Critchley, Chomsky, Mumford, Ostrom, Eisenstein, Ferry, Orr, Shiva, Klein, Margulis, Meadows, Capra and Tolba, just to name a few) have aptly redefined the concept of « world » as a biological and cultural ecosystem. This paper seeks ways to integrate the theory and practice of eco-citizenship into various cross-disciplinary aspects of higher education, with a focus on curricular adjustments that may be steered by World Languages and Cultures programs. While "global citizenship" is still often understood today as a form of supranational citizenship that may find its actualization through the valuable, yet often arrested efforts of the United Nations, or as the individualistic result of a neoliberal economic emancipation of markets and capital throughout the world, this notion must rather be embedded within a radically cultural, natural and ethical bedrock from which a more potent world citizenry will stem. Departments of World Languages and Cultures and cultures are ideally positioned in the academic landscape to foster the development of a greater eco-civic and biospheric awareness that can permeate new curricular orientations of universities in the US and abroad.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0153.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Eco-security; Land use and cover change (LUCC); Sustainability development and assessment
Online: 15 August 2016 (12:41:51 CEST)
Land use and cover change (LUCC) is an important method to investigate the causes of global environment change. We utilized the emergy ecological footprint (EEF) model to construct a land-use change model to be used as a systematic measuring tool for monitoring sustainable development trends. In particular, we estimated the eco-security of the Cing-jing region as a case study so that responsible agencies can use it to maintain a balance between ecological preservation and tourism development. The results indicated the following: First, the ecological environment of the Cing-jing region satisfied the safety standard in 2008–2014; however, the related indices increased considerably. Second, the grey model predicted a decrease in 2015–2024 ecological carrying capacities of Cing-jing and a large increase in capita EFs, resulting in a larger ecological deficit and higher EFI. The eco-security from 2015–2024 was higher compared to 7 years ago and is predicted to reach the Grade 2 intermediate level in 2022; thus the Cing-jing region is gradually becoming ecologically unsustainable. Strengths of our study included the use of EEF theory in a quantitative analysis of slope lands for the effective evaluation of ecological security. Finally, we expanded our research to include ecological security issues.
COMMENTARY | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0150.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Environmental Assessment Report (EAR); environmental health; Environmental Management/Environmental Management Systems (EM/EMS) Model; Environmental Management Plan (EMP); Multinational oil companies (MOCs); Niger Delta; Ogoni; Ogoniland; Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC); United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP)
Online: 30 December 2016 (07:39:30 CET)
In August 4 2011, United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) submitted an unprecedented, scientific, groundbreaking Environmental Assessment Report (EAR) of Ogoniland, to the Nigerian government. This was the outcome of a 14–month intensive evaluation of the extent of pollution. It was intended that UNEP’s recommendations would be implemented to restore the devastated environment, on the one hand, and on the other, counteract the numerous environmental health issues that have for decades, plagued Ogoniland. However, five years post EAR, and, despite the seriousness of the situation, no significant resolution has occurred, both on the part of the government, and on the part of Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) or Shell. To date, millions of Niger Delta residents, particularly those living in the oil-bearing communities, continue to suffer severe consequences. Although, the assessment was conducted in Ogoniland, other communities in the Niger Delta are also affected. This article explores prevailing issues, using Ogoniland (a microcosm of the Niger Delta) as an example. A multidisciplinary approach for sustainable mitigation of environmental health risks in the Niger Delta is paramount, and Environmental Management tools offer valuable strategies. Adopting UNEP’s recommendations for addressing environmental health problems requires implementing the Environmental Management/Environmental Management System (EM/EMS) model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1573.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Artificial intelligence; environmental impact assessment; strategic environmental assessment; biodiversity; digitalisation
Online: 24 July 2023 (08:46:03 CEST)
The opportunities and potential of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Environmental Assessment (EA) are often mentioned. However, do we in the EA field understand the implications of what is happening in other biological sciences, and are we preparing for the changes that are coming? This interdisciplinary letter focuses on AI-driven developments in biodiversity data and analysis as a starting point for stimulating discussion about what AI means in practice for the field of EA. We highlight implications for training, transformation of practice and decision making as first steps in a research agenda.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0299.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ddPCR, droplet digital PCR, environmental samples, environmental DNA, soil microbiology
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:48:11 CEST)
Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a method used to detect and quantify nu-cleic acids even when present in exceptionally low numbers. While it has proven to be valuable for clinical studies, it has failed to be widely adopted for environmental and applied studies. Due to the complexity of the chemical and biological composition of environmental samples, protocols tailored to clinical studies are not appropriate, and results are difficult to interpret. We used en-vironmental DNA samples originating from field studies to determine a protocol for environ-mental samples. Samples included field soils which had been inoculated with the soil fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (environmental positive control), field soils that had not been inoculat-ed and the targeted fungus was not naturally present (environmental negative control), and root samples from both field categories. To control for the effect of soil inhibitors, we also in-cluded DNA samples of an organismal control extracted from pure fungal spores (organismal positive control). Finally, we included a no-template control consisting only of the PCR reaction reagents and nuclease free water instead of template DNA. Using original data, we examined which factors contribute to poor resolution in root and soil samples and propose best practises to ensure accuracy and repeatability. Furthermore, we evaluated manual and automatic threshold determination methods and we propose a novel protocol based on multiple controls that is more appropriate for environmental samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0284.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Religion Keywords: Religious beliefs; Public pro-environmental behavior; Environmental risk perception; China
Online: 24 January 2020 (14:35:21 CET)
Although the positive relationship between religion and environmental behavior is well-argued, empirical research about the relationship between religion and public pro-environmental behavior is relatively lacking. This paper aims to explore the group differences in the influence of religion on public pro-environmental behavior and the mediating role of environmental risk perception in religion and public pro-environmental behavior. Using the Chinese General Social Survey data in 2013 for empirical analysis, this study’s results show that there are group differences in the impact of religion on public pro-environmental behavior. Women with religious beliefs are more willing to engage in public pro-environmental behavior than those without religious beliefs. Religious believers over the age of 45 are more willing to participate in public pro-environmental behavior than those without religious beliefs. Political participants with religious beliefs are more willing to practice public pro-environmental behavior than those without religious beliefs. In addition, we found that environmental risk perception can act as partial mediation in religious and public pro-environmental behavior. In other words, religious beliefs are deeply embedded in local political and social culture. In order to correctly understand the relationship between religion and public pro-environmental behavior, it is necessary to consider religion in a specific cultural background.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0032.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: rainwater; air pollution emissions; health; environmental law, environmental policy instruments
Online: 4 June 2018 (10:39:26 CEST)
Environmental legislation is moving towards global standards for ease of application and to impose sanctions and penalties when necessary, without compromising human health and biota. International environmental measures for control and monitoring of atmospheric air only monitor emissions of SOx, NOx, O3, and Pb. In general, most research work in air pollution done using the analysis of elements in rainwater show analysis of trace metals such as Na, Mg, Zn, and Mn. In this work, trace metals in the rainwater at the city of Goiânia, capital of the State of Goiás, were analyzed. Goiânia is a large city set in a predominantly agricultural province located in central Brazil. Presence of trace metals in rainwater was detected, indicating atmospheric air pollution levels higher than occupational limits set by WHO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2066.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Eco-friendly green synthesis; Nano zero-valent iron; Cadmium; Nickel; Definitive screening design
Online: 31 August 2023 (03:03:28 CEST)
The creation of nano-zero-valent iron (nZVI) by implementing plant extracts is an environmentally friendly process. High antioxidant capacity and phenol content indicated the possibility of oak-nZVI synthesis using oak leaf extract as a stable material with minimal agglomeration. Simultaneously removal of Cd and phosphates and Ni and phosphates was optimized by a statistically designed experiment with a definitive screening design. In terms of significance, 4 input parameters on process productivity were monitored: initial metal concentration (1 - 9 mgL-1), initial ion concentration (1- 9 mgL-1), pH value (2 - 10) and oak-nZVI dosage (2 - 16 ml). Phosphate removal efficiency, in the presence of cadmium, was the most influenced by oak-nZVI dose and cadmium concentration, while pH gave three statistically significant interactions with oak-nZVI dosage, cadmium concentration, and phosphate concentration. Phosphate removal efficiency, in the presence of Ni, is the most influenced by nickel concentration, phosphate concentration, pH, two-factor interaction between nZVI dose and Ni concentration, and quadratic phosphate interaction. The process optimization yielded the highest simultaneous removal efficiency of 98.99% and 87.30% for cadmium and phosphate ions, respectively. Also, the highest simultaneous removal efficiency of nickel and phosphates ion was 93.44% for 96.75%, respectively. The optimization process fits into the confidence intervals, confirming the assumption that the adopted regression model describes the process well. This work demonstrated an enormous potential and prosperous application for the Cd(II), Ni(II), and phosphate removal from water matrices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: tourism development; eco-environment resilience; spatiotemporal heterogeneity; Yangtze River Economic Belt of China
Online: 16 May 2023 (10:20:47 CEST)
Tourism sustainability is a significant approach to forming a synergistic model of industry and ecology in ecologically vulnerable areas. Scientifically detecting the effect mechanism of tourism development (TDI) on eco-environment resilience (ERI) is important in achieving regional social-ecological system sustainability. Empirical exploration is conducted on the levels of TDI and ERI in the Yangtze River Economic Belt (YREB) to study the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of TDI's effect on ERI. The results indicate a significant growth in TDI in the YREB, with the formation of tourist clusters around Shanghai and Chongqing as the core. Although ERI typically exhibits a declining trend, the rate of decline has notably slowed, forming a "high at the sides and low in the middle" spatial pattern. TDI and ERI are spatially dependent in the YREB, with predominantly high-high (HH) and low-high (LH) clusters in Shanghai, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu. Conversely, upstream regions with strong eco-environmental foundations exhibit low-low (LL) and high-low (HL) clusters. In general, TDI promotes ERI, but there is significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the YREB. Positive impact regions are expanding, while negative impact regions are shrinking. These results could provide scientific evidence for differentiated classification and control policies in the YREB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0759.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Eco-label; Customer; WTP; PLS-SEM; Cocoa powder; Biosphere reserve; Dong Nai; Vietnam.
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:10:32 CEST)
This study examines the Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) of consumers and the determinants of eco-labeling for the organic cocoa powder produced in the Dong Nai UNESCO Biosphere Reserve (DNBR), Southern Vietnam. Eco-labels are designed according to Tiers of eco-labeling for biosphere reserves (BR) introduced by UNESCO include BR Destination (Tier 1), BR Quality Label (Tier 2), and Professional Certification Label (Tier 3). Questionnaires are delivered to 203 customers in the DNBR and nearby places, such as Dong Nai and HCMC. This study employs a hybrid approach using descriptive statistics, ANOVA test, and Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM). The results indicate that gender and educational level have a positive effect on consumers' preferences. Customers are willing to pay more for cocoa powder with an eco-label than one with an organic label. Perceived food safety and product knowledge lower customers’ WTP, whereas agricultural environment and pricing concerns increase it. Tier 2 is suggested for labeling cocoa powder in the DNBR. The DNBR Management Board, together with the federal and provincial governments, should all follow a similar certification process. Increased eco-label awareness is crucial for the future of environmentally responsible shopping and responsible business practices.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0885.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: environmental engineering; geotechnics and geoenvironmental energy; geoenergy; energy harvesting; environmental impact
Online: 14 November 2023 (10:39:13 CET)
Geoenvironmental engineering involves defining solutions for complex problems, such as containment systems management, contaminant transport control, wastewater management, remediation of contaminated sites and valorization of geomaterials and wastes. In the last years, energy harvesting (EH) - or energy scavenging - methods and technologies have been developed to reduce the dependence on traditional energy sources, namely fossil fuels, and nuclear power, also responding to the increase of energy demands for human activities and to fulfill sustainable development goals. EH in geoenvironmental works and surrounding soil and water environment include a set of processes for capturing and accumulating energy from several sources considered deemed wasted or unusable associated to soil dynamics, stress and strain of geomaterials, hydraulic, vibrations, biochemical, light, heating and wind sources can be potential EH systems. Therefore, this work presents a review of the literature and critical analysis on the main opportunities for EH capturing, accumulating and use in geoenvironmental works, among basic electric concepts and mechanisms, analyzing those works in complex conditions involving biological, chemical, mechanical, hydraulic, and thermal coupled actions, concluding with the main investigation and challenges within geoenvironmental aspects for EH purpose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0336.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Environmental tax; Environmental policy; Carbon reduction; climate change; tax relief; forestation
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:38:13 CET)
Environmental tax is the climate policy that offers, in theory, the easiest way for carbon reduction. But in practice, implementation has proven complicated despite public demand for policy action on climate change. This research investigates to reframe environmental taxes in ways more personally engaging to create a moral foundation, and massive participation. As people show rising demand, we aimed to design a tool that responds to public expectations and operates directly at source on emission reducers, viz the trees. Drawing on research from environmental taxes and the evidence of measures taken, we reasoned that an environmental fiscal policy may not intend necessarily to punish the “bads”, but rather might reward the positive attitude and direct it to act. Consequently, we focused on tax reliefs and designed Green Aid, that can address people’s attitude to take active participation into account by incorporating virtuous behaviours into tax relief. Green Aid Tax relief works embedded in the Green Aid Participation Scheme that bears directly on a source of environmental recovery and organizes the global call to public action in a sustained, structured, and collective participation to forestation. Green Aid bridges the action of contributing to carbon reduction with immediate, tangible, and direct benefits. It can be an alternative environmental tax, able to address and operate directly at source on emission reducers and secure effectiveness in carbon reduction and efficiency in terms of public acceptance and viability at a global level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0561.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: environmental identity; environmental collective action; emotions; moral conviction; group efficacy beliefs.
Online: 24 February 2021 (17:13:27 CET)
The deterioration and destruction of the environment is becoming more and more considerable and greater efforts are needed to stop it. To accomplish this feat, all members of society must identify with environmental problems, with collective environmental action being one of the most relevant means of doing so. From this perspective, the analysis of the psychosocial factors that lead to participation in environmental collective action emerges as a priority objective in the research agenda. Thus, the aim of this study is to examine the role of "environmental identity" as conceptualized by Clayton, as a central axis for explaining environmental collective action. The inclusion of the latter in the theoretical framework of the SIMCA model gives rise to the model that we have called EIMECA. Two studies were conducted, and the results reveal that environmental identity, a variety of negative affects, as well as group efficacy accompanied by hope for a simultaneous additive effect, are critical when it comes to predicting environmental collective action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Lead poisoning; environmental health; toxic metals; sub-Saharan Africa; environmental exposure
Online: 6 October 2020 (10:55:42 CEST)
Lead exposure is associated with poor cognitive development in children. Very few studies in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have studied blood lead levels (BLLs) and non-gasoline sources of exposure in children. Data from a birth cohort in Benin (2011-2013) suggested that 58% of one-year-old children had BLLs > 50 ug/L. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of elevated BLLs (>50 µg/L and >100 µg /L) among 425 of these children at six-years-of-age in 2016-18 and to compare BLLs between age one-year and six-years and study sources of lead at six years. BLLs were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multiple linear regression and quantile regressions were used to study potential sources of lead. The prevalence of BLLs >50 µg/L in children was 59.5% [Geometric Mean (GM) 56.4 µg/L, 95% CI: 54.1 - 58.7] at six years of age compared to 54.8% [GM 56.5 µg/L, 95% CI: 53.4-59.6] at one year of age. The prevalence of children with BLLs >100 µg/L decreased from 14.4% at one year of age to 8.2% at six years of age. After adjustment for all other covariates, consumption of peanut more than once per month was significantly associated with a 22.0% (95% CI: 4.6, 42.5) increment in BLLs at six years compared with no consumption. Consumption of bushmeat killed by lead bullets at six years was associated with an increase in the higher percentiles of BLLs (P75) compared with the absence of this source. Other potential sources of lead associated with BLLs with marginal significance were consumption of rice, paternal occupational exposure, and the presence of activity with the potential use of lead. This prospective cohort confirms the persistently high prevalence of elevated BLLs in children residing in a rural region in the south of Benin as well as the presence of multiple and continuous sources of lead. These results highlight the need for prevention programs to reduce and eliminate lead exposure in children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0186.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Capacity building; decision criteria; determining factor; entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial eco-system; entrepreneurial startup; social inclusion
Online: 4 May 2023 (04:21:33 CEST)
The main goal of the study is to assess the Decision criteria, and the determining factor for the sustainability of entrepreneurial startups in order to contribute towards social inclusion and capacity building. Both concepts are in the development phase and are the outcome of entrepreneurial ecosystem and individual behavior and traits. The current study observed the research problem as entrepreneurship and the entrepreneurial startups are the continuous phenomena required for every economy. The lack of an efficient ecosystem and incompetent trait of an entrepreneur drags the entrepreneurial startup to a failure. Therefore, an assessment on decision criteria and determining factors categorizing them with their importance may provide requisites to lead a successful entrepreneurial startup contributing to the social inclusion and capacity building. The study solved the research problem by statistical assessment of decision criteria and determining factors and categorizing them with their importance may provide requisites to lead a successful entrepreneurial startup. The research is built on research questions, objectives, conceptual model, and hypothesis which are tested based on the data collected. The collection of data was done through a survey questionnaire on a sample of established entrepreneurs. The study concludes that five components of decision criteria are Region, Competition, Funding Opportunities, Tax System, and Country Economic Situation, whereas the eight components Consciousness and Reliable, Pursuit Results, Flexibility, Stress Resistance, Skills Identification Exploitation Potential Market Opportunities, Leadership, Creativity and Innovation, and Delegation Decision Making of determining factor are required for a successful entrepreneurial startup to be able to work towards social inclusion and capacity building.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0417.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Dynamic Programming; Vehicle-to-Everything; Real-World Scenario; Energy Minimization; Eco-driving; Speed Optimization
Online: 17 April 2023 (07:10:55 CEST)
The connectivity level of last-generation vehicles is constantly on the rise. The combined use of Vehicle-To-Everything (V2X) connectivity and autonomous driving can provide remarkable benefits through the optimization of the route and speed trajectory. In this framework, this paper focuses on vehicle eco-driving optimization in a connected environment. The virtual test rig of a premium segment passenger car was used for generating the simulation scenarios. The benefits, in terms of energy and time savings, that the introduction of V2X communication, integrated with cloud computing, can have in a real-world scenario were assessed. The Reference Scenario is a pre-defined Real Driving Emissions (RDE) compliant route, while the simulation scenarios were generated by assuming two different penetration levels of V2X technologies. The associated energy minimization problem is formulated and solved by means of a global optimization algorithm, i.e., Dynamic Programming (DP). The optimization framework includes information coming from the surrounding environment, e.g., traffic lights state, speed limits, distance to travel, etc. The simulations show that introducing a smart infrastructure along with optimizing the vehicle speed in a real-world route can potentially reduce the required energy by 54% while shortening the travel time by 38%. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the bi-objective optimization cost function to find a set of Pareto optimal solutions, between energy and travel time minimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0143.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear And High Energy Physics Keywords: Cold nuclear fusion; Iron-56 as a fuel; Eco friendly Thermal energy; Power plant
Online: 9 January 2023 (06:46:39 CET)
In this contribution, we make an attempt to write a theoretical proposal for designing an eco friendly thermal power plant which runs with cold nuclear fusion technology at a temperature of (1500 to 2000) deg.C. In our recently published papers, we have proposed a clear cut mechanism for understanding and implementing cold nuclear fusion technique pertaining to fusion of hydrogen with metals of mass numbers starting from 50. In this context, we would like to stress the point that, fusion of hydrogen under controllable temperature and pressure can be understood as a phenomenon of fusing neutron to the nucleus of the base atom. Part of isotopic nuclear binding energy difference of final and base atomic nuclides can be seen in the form of safe thermal energy of the order of (1 to 3) MeV per atom against 200 MeV released in nuclear fission of one Uranium atom. Due to increased heaviness and weak interaction, sometimes fused neutron splits into proton and electron. Proton seems to be retained by the base atom’s nuclear core and electron seems to join with the electronic orbits of the base atom. In this way, increased mass of base atomic nuclide helps in eco friendly production of thermal energy in large quantity. For this purpose we consider Iron-56 as a fuel. In a simplified view, under strong nuclear attractive forces, Iron-56 absorbs hydrogen atom as a neutron and by emitting 1MeV equivalent thermal energy transforms to Iron-57. Thus, one gram of Iron-56 can generate 1000MJ of heat with 50% efficiency. In a shortcut approach, by bombarding powder and semi-liquid forms of Iron-56 with direct neutrons coming from neutron source, our proposal can be tried, understood and verified experimentally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0419.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Urban Eco-Sustainable Index; Watershed Sustainability Index; Ecohydrology; River Basin Management; Water security; Participation
Online: 19 July 2021 (15:22:17 CEST)
The Urban Eco-Sustainable Index for Upscaling Water Security at Catchment Level in Langat River, Malaysia has developed by using the Modified Watershed Sustainability Index or MicroWSI (MWSI), which was based on the Participation, Design and Management Components. The study has successfully applied spatial and social dimensions on ecohydrology of the selected Langat River reach for stormwater management, natural ecosystems health and quality of life. The planning and public participation aspects of the study have evaluated the surrounding neighborhood area of Langat. The conceptual design of rehabilitation works implementation related to Urban Stormwater Management Manual for Malaysia (MSMA) Stormwater Management Ecohydrology (SME) within the study area has been developed with four components of MSMA-SME to be implemented in the study area i.e Bioretention System, Porous Pavement System, Constructed Wetland and Slope Protection Works. These components were proposed to be applied in the development of Langat Riverfront Community Park (LRCP) which has taken into account the components of Design, Management and Participation of Community and Stakeholders in Langat River Basin, Malaysia. This study analyzed the MWSI for the Upscaling of MSMA Ecohydrology at Catchment Level of Langat River and has found the medium level of sustainability for the level of participation, proposed design, and management. Thus, there is a need to increase the level of readiness in the community and stakeholder participation in the Langat River towards sustainability of river conservation and rehabilitation programmes in this basin.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0451.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: eco-evo-devo; evolution of multicellularity; fruiting body; life-history evolution; microbial evo-devo
Online: 19 May 2021 (14:37:11 CEST)
Microbes have evolved many fascinating and complex ways of interacting with conspecifics. Perhaps one of the most interesting is aggregative multicellularity, wherein independent cells come together and adhere to one another in order to form a larger entity. The fundamental benefits of active aggregation into multicellular groups generally remain unclear, and there are many open questions about what selective pressures led to the evolution of this behavior in various eukaryotic and prokaryotic taxa, most notably the dictyostelids and the myxobacteria. Aggregative multicellularity can be partitioned into three main phases: coming together, staying together as a group, and disaggregation. Different selective pressures may have led to adaptations unique to each phase. While aggregative microbial systems generally form elevated multicellular structures such as fruiting bodies, these can vary in complexity and morphology even among closely related species. What evolutionary forces shaped such morphological diversification remains unknown. Strains that are not genetically identical can coaggregate, which can impact group-level function either positively through functional synergy or negatively through harmful exploitation. Such chimerism within aggregates is likely to have played important roles in shaping the evolution of microbial multicellularity. Much further research is needed into the evolutionary forces and processes leading to and shaping the many forms of microbial aggregation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0431.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: agricultural eco-efficiency; DEA-SBM model; spatio-temporal evolution pattern; improvement potential; Jiangsu Province
Online: 16 April 2021 (10:34:15 CEST)
Achieving eco-efficiency in agriculture production at low environmental costs is key to sustainable agriculture. Using the DEA-SBM model, this study evaluated the agricultural eco-efficiency of the 77 counties and districts in China’s Jiangsu province from 1999 to 2018 and analyzed its spatio-temporal evolution pattern and influencing factors. The mains conclusions were as follows: (1) The overall agricultural eco-efficiency and its decomposition terms, pure technology efficiency and scale efficiency, exhibited a fluctuating downward trend. The regional inequality in agricultural eco-efficiency had been widening and exhibited a strong positive spatial association. (2) The agricultural eco-efficiency in Jiangsu province presented a “high south and low north” spatial pattern. High-level agricultural eco-efficiency areas were in the Taihu Plain in Sunan, while low-level agricultural eco-efficiency zones are distributed across Subei City. The High-High-type spatial association pattern is concentrated in the Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou region, while the Low-Low areas are mainly in the coastal regions of Subei and Suzhong. (3) The spatial pattern of PTE and SE generally exhibited a “high south and low north” distribution. Areas with positive growth in agricultural eco-efficiency, PTE, and SE, were situated in Xuzhou, Nanjing city, and the bordering regions between Yangzhou and Huai’an, and Changzhou and Wuxi. (4) The excessive redundant use and application of pesticides, chemical fertilizer, agricultural diesel, labor, land, and agricultural carbon emission have been the primary factor affecting Jiangsu's agricultural eco-efficiency. Irrigation had also signficantly impacted agricultural eco-efficiency, while mechanical power and agricultural film had minimal effect. The majority of counties and districts in Subei, Suzhong, and Ningzhen Yang Hilly region have issues regarding their excessive usage of chemical fertilizer, pesticide, chemical fertilizer, agricultural diesel, labor, and land. The findings of this study can contribute towards a better understanding of agricultural eco-efficiency and spatial association effect and can help policymakers increase agricultural eco-efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0062.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: environmental inequality; environmental justice; industrial pollution; prefectures; demographic and socioeconomic factors; China
Online: 10 October 2017 (11:47:20 CEST)
In China, environmental pollution generated via industrialization as well as the profound changes in the social structure and gradual maturation of the social hierarchy have jointly contributed to the Chinese people's increased environmental consciousness and appeals for environmental justice (EJ). Because of the absence of an EJ theory and a lack of empirical research focused on China, this paper proposes a ‘Pyramid Model’ for China’s EJ research that involves the following three factors: basic demographic and socioeconomic factors, U.S.-based EJ principles, and Chinese characteristics. A nationwide pilot analysis of environmental inequity at the prefecture level is conducted by empirically studying the association of demographics and socioeconomic status with sources of industrial pollution in China. The prefecture-based results are shown to be robust and indicate that areas inhabited by ethnic minorities and western regions in China carry disproportionate environmental burdens. However, a different picture for migrants is presented, revealing that Chinese migrants are not currently exposed to greater levels of industrial pollution, and relevant interpretations of these findings are provided. The results also show that environmental inequality associated with income level, which is observed in the U.S., does not occur in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0193.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: environmental economics; general; valuation of environmental effects; pollution control adoption and costs; recycling
Online: 12 December 2022 (04:40:25 CET)
In this article we investigate the impact of “Renewable Electricity Output” on green economy in the context of circular economy for 193 countries in the period 2011-2020. We use data from World Bank ESG framework. We perform Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, WLS, and Pooled OLS. Our results show that Renewable Electricity Output is positively associated, among others, to “Adjusted Savings-Net Forest Depletion” and “Renewable Energy Consumption” and negatively associated, among others, to “CO2 Emission” and “Cooling Degree Days”. Furthermore, we perform a cluster analysis implementing the k-Means algorithm optimized with the Elbow Method and we find the presence of 4 clusters. Finally, we confront seven different machine learning algorithms to predict the future level of “Renewable Electricity Output”. Our results show that Linear Regression is the best algorithm and that the future value of renewable electricity output is predicted to growth on average at a rate of 0.83% for the selected countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0044.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: air pollution; environmental awareness; environmental education; green gas emission; sustainable development; water shortage
Online: 4 June 2018 (13:01:55 CEST)
This study inscribes itself in the global discussion on the nurturing of pro-environmental behaviors among young people for a sustainable future. Here we focus on students' interest in Ecosystem Services and Sustainability to explain their awareness and optimism about the environmental issues of air pollution, water shortage and green gas emission in 50 countries around the world. To this end, we use the cross-sectional survey data of the OECD's Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015, along with seemingly unrelated bi-variate weighted ordered Probit modeling with country specific effects. The results show that in addition to factors such as age, gender, immigration status, and economic, social and cultural status, interest in the biosphere is a significant determinant of students' environmental awareness and optimism. In fact, a one level increase in students' interest in ecosystem services and sustainability raises on average their awareness level by 15.3% for the issue of air pollution, 15.7% for the issue of water shortage, and 24.6% for the issue of green gas emission. Although students' interest in the biosphere seems to not have a significant effect on their expectations about the issue of green gas emission, it does however raise their level of optimism by 0.8% for the issue of air pollution, and 0.2% for the issue of water shortage. Furthermore, every one level increase in students' environmental awareness leads to 17.3% more optimism about the issue of air pollution, 15.8% more optimism about the issue of water shortage, and 17.4% more optimism about the issue of green gas emission. Therefore, relying on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), our results imply that governments and policy makers can successfully leverage young people interests in the biosphere to effectively achieve their goals for sustainability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0179.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Human-powered energy generation; Eco-village system; Sustainable communities; The unified theory of complex systems
Online: 2 November 2023 (11:57:10 CET)
This comprehensive review explores the principles, applications, and future directions of human-powered energy generation technologies. It begins by providing a detailed examination of viable human energy sources, elucidating the physical principles behind various energy harvesting devices. The review then compiles and assesses existing products in the field of human power generation, while also outlining the opportunities and challenges it presents. Finally, an innovative concept of an eco-village system is introduced to demonstrate a future potential application scenario for human-generated electricity. It outlines two developmental stages for this system and underscores its significance in the construction of the harmonious and sustainable communities. This forward-thinking approach could pave the way for broader discussions on sustainable living and eco-friendly energy generation in a world increasingly focused on environmental concerns and social stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1685.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Reverse logistic; Reverse Chain; WEEE; Industry 4.0 Technology; Simulation; Artificial intelligence; Eco-efficiency; Circular Economy
Online: 26 July 2023 (02:43:27 CEST)
The objective of this study was to apply simulation and computational intelligence techniques using artificial intelligence and genetic algorithm for economic and environmental optimization of the reverse network (manufacturers, waste managers and recyclers in São Paulo, Brazil) of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) to promote circular economy. For the economic evaluation, the reduction of: fuel, drivers, insurance, depreciation, maintenance and charges was considered and for the environmental evaluation, the environmental impact was measured in the abiotic, biotic, water, land, air and greenhouse gases compartments. It is concluded that the optimized structure of the WEEE reverse chain for São Paulo, Brazil reduced the number of collections, making the most of the cubage. It also generated economic and environmental gains, contributing to the strategic actions of the circular economy. Thus, the proposed simulation allows replication in organizational practice, mainly to meet the 2030 agenda on reducing the carbon footprint generated in transport in large cities. Thus, this study can guide companies on structuring the reverse WEEE chain in São Paulo, Brazil for economic and environmental optimization, a relevant aspect considering the exponential generation of WEEE, requiring the implementation of the national solid waste policy, and subsequently the signature of the electronics sector agreement in São Paulo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1216.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Multi-level labels; Eco-labels; Sustainability; Willingness to pay; Choice Experiment; Meat attachment; Hierarchical Bayes
Online: 16 June 2023 (10:25:29 CEST)
Eco-labels are an instrument for enabling informed food choices and supporting a demand-sided change towards a more and urgently needed sustainable food system. Lately, novel eco-labels that depict a product’s environmental life-cycle assessment on a multi-level scale are being tested across Europe’s retailers. This study elicits consumers preferences and willingness to pay (WTP) for a multi-level eco-label. A Discrete Choice Experiment was conducted in Austria. Individual partworth utilities were estimated by means of Hierarchical Bayes. Results show higher WTP for a positive evaluated multi-level label, revealing consumers’ perceived benefits of colorful multi-level labels over binary black-and-white designs. Even a negative evaluated multi-level label showed higher WTP compared to no label, pointing towards limited effectiveness of eco-labels. Respondents’ preferences for eco-labels were independent from their subjective eco-label knowledge, health consciousness, and environmental concern. The attribute “protein source” was most important, and preferences for animal-based protein source (beef) was strongly correlated with consumers’ meat attachment, implying that a shift towards more sustainable protein sources is challenging and sustainability labels have only a small impact on the meat product choice of average consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1243.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: environmental pollution; biomonitoring; heavy metals
Online: 16 June 2023 (12:48:26 CEST)
This article presents the results of research on the influence of polymetallic dust aerial emissions on the pollution levels in the soil and plants by heavy metals which have been under impact of the “Severonickel” smelter complex on the Kola peninsula (Russia) for many years. Research using soil- and bio-indicators was carried out at fixed measuring points in the years 1980-1999 (high aerotechnogenic emissions) and 2000-2019 (low aerotechnogenic emissions). The organic horizon (forest litter) of the Al-Fe-humus podzol, leaves of Vaccinium myrtillus L., V. vitis-idaea L., V. uliginosum L., Empetrum hermaphroditum Hagerup and one-year old Scots pine needles Pinus sylvestris L. as well as tree rings of Pinus sylvestris L. were used for bioindication research. The content of heavy metals was determined by the AAS method. During these time periods, the volume of atmospheric emissions of sulfur dioxide decreased 5 fold, polymetallic dust by 3.5 times, while the level of forest litter pollution by heavy metals in the buffer zone increased by 2 times, and did not change significantly in the impact zone. The decrease in atmospheric emissions of pollutants led to a 1.5- fold increase in the width of the annual rings of pine trunks in the impact zone, while in the buffer zone the differences were insignificant. At present, the content of Ni and Cu in the leaves of the wild dwarf-shrubs and pine needles in the impact zone has decreased by 5 times compared with 1980-1999 due to a decrease in polymetallic dust on the leaf surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0060.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Environmental Health; Education; Climate Change
Online: 1 June 2023 (08:04:49 CEST)
Introduction. Environmental Health in a Global World at New York University was re-designed as a class participatory effort, challenging undergraduate students to understand environmental hazards and the resultant adverse health outcomes by embracing the inherent complexity of environmental risks and proposing solutions. Methods. Following introductory lectures, students are placed into teams and assigned a specific perspective, or avatar, which includes learning to see the challenge from the perspective of a technical expert such as a biologist, an engineer, or an anthropologist. The teams then design specific systems maps to visualize the complex interactions that lead to adverse health outcomes after a given environmental exposure. The maps highlight potential leverage points, where relatively minor interventions can provide a disproportionate benefit in health outcomes. The teams then explore potential interventions and identify the potential unintended consequences of those actions, develop and advocate for innovative new strategies to mitigate risk and improve outcomes. Results and Discussion. Over the past 5 years we have taught this methodology to over 680 students with strong, student-oriented results. The teams created and presented more than 100 strategies, addressing a diverse set of environmental challenges that include water contamination, gun violence, air pollution, environmental justice, health security, and climate change. Developing the strategies helped the students understand environmental threats in a more holistic way, provided them with some agency in finding solutions, and offered an opportunity for them to improve their presentation skills. The responses in course evaluations have been enthusiastic, with many students reporting a deep impact on their college experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0554.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Environmental justice; Urban parks; Tarragona
Online: 23 June 2021 (09:25:19 CEST)
There is consensus over the fact that urban green areas contribute to the quality of life of their inhabitants. So, efficient city management must assess whether the population has access to green areas and their quality in relation to vegetation, facilities or furnishings, for example. Therefore, the objective set is to establish the environmental justice of urban parks in Tarragona (Spain) by developing a Park Quality Index (PQI) and the sociodemographic characteristics (level of studies, Human Development Index [HDI], home sale and rental prices) of the population living within 300 metres of a park. To prepare this, a GIS-integrated Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) has been produced. The results show that the green areas have low accessibility and availability and that most parks obtain an average-low PQI, with the best- valued aspect being the vegetation and the worst the facilities. As for the degree of environmental justice, a casual relationship emerges between the PQI and the indicators used. The average value of the home sale prices is the one that shows the greatest correlation. These results can be used together with participatory procedures as a basis for identifying places with greater inequality, and for selecting the more effective actions that enable increasing environmental justice with respect to green areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0079.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Environmental heterogeneity; Habitat; Anthropization; Chiropterans
Online: 2 June 2021 (12:47:01 CEST)
Bats play important ecosystem roles. Anthropogenic activities cause the decrease and loss of biological diversity and, consequently, the loss of these ecosystem services. One way of measuring local habitat conditions and relating the landscape to biodiversity. Our objective is to investigate how the bat community is influenced by this change in the landscape. Collections were carried out at five points and 76 individuals of 12 species are sampled. Although the points present a high variation in relation to land use, we did not observe any correlation between species richness and guilds with land use. However, the difference in the composition of the guilds is related to the variation in land use, in which 74% of the variation in the abundance of guilds is related to the different patterns of land use. At SENAI, even though it was the place with the greatest anthropic impact, it was the one with the greatest abundance of species, while the points Module two and Sítio Jaburu had the greatest abundance of guilds. This result corroborates the idea that ecosystem services are dependent on habitat maintenance, since the greater the heterogeneity the greater the difference in the composition of the trophic guilds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0014.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Governance, Environmental Management, Biodiversity, Bangladesh
Online: 3 June 2019 (09:57:59 CEST)
Governance is one of the most essential instruments for environmental management. Biodiversity is in the core field of environmental governance. Yet environmental authorities are persistently challenged the loss of biodiversity as a very important global issue for several years due to high dependent exposure to risks. The study attempts to relook at the key governance tools that strengthen policies towards managing biodiversity within and around the national park’s survey in Moulvibazar district. The study showed that biodiversity related legislation amended was the highest in Bangladesh for the period of 2010 to 2016. The growth of policy instruments maximized at but in low environmental governance services within the same period. The study assessed that the existing environmental policy instrument is inadequate and sluggish for effective conservation, compared with several others governance tools and various performances are still below par. Governance knowledge is indispensable for biodiversity management but such knowledge is poorly identified. These results reflect the importance of effective governance for transparency that the State provides. The research is to represent a dynamic and adaptable framework that can be applied for collective governance relevant to policy integration, participation and enforcement in order to foster environmental conservation sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0212.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: dengue; Aedes mosquitoes; environmental factor
Online: 10 October 2018 (09:49:35 CEST)
Background: Dengue incidence has grown dramatically around the world in recent years. It transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Many factors contributed to the vector densities such as environmental and sociological factors. Objective: This study is aimed at determining the environmental and sociological factors contributing to dengue cases. Methods: The study used questionnaire survey involving 379 respondent with dengue history. Result: The study showed that there is significant association between the time departs to work and mobility of respondents (95%CI = 2.779 and 5.594, p < 0.0001). Similarly, there is significant association between the time of arrival to work and mobility of respondents (95%CI = 1.617 and 2.155, p < 0.0001). Moreover, the type of housing and the surrounding vegetation were the environmental factors that showed significant values; p = 0.023, and p = 0.017. Conclusion: The study indicated the factors contributed are patient who lived in independent houses and the time of mobility patient.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0483.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Graphene family materials; Ecotoxicity; Nanoecotoxicology; Environmental impact; Environmental relevance; Microcosm; Mesocosm; Multispecies ecotoxicity testing
Online: 7 August 2023 (09:58:51 CEST)
Even though, graphene family materials (GFMs) hold great promise for various applications, there are still significant knowledge gaps in ecotoxicology and environmental risk assessment associated with their potential environmental impacts. Here, we provide a critical perspective on published ecotoxicity studies of GFMs based on a meticulous bibliometric research. Analysis of the available data revealed that to date, ecotoxicity studies with GFMs have been carried out predominantly using freshwater species (82%), while their effects on marine or terrestrial or-ganisms are understudied. Three groups of organisms were found dominating ecotoxicological research: fish (39%), algae (20%) and arthropoda (20%) predominantly applying small, planktonic crustaceans. It was also revealed that despite their widespread detection in different environ-mental compartments the potential impacts of GFMs in complex test systems with hierarchical trophic organisation or in trophic transfer studies are significantly under-represented. One of the main causes was identified as the difficulties in the physicochemical characterisation of GFMs in complex terrestrial test systems or in aquatic micro- and mesocosm studies containing a sediment phase. The lack of tools for adequate characterisation of GFMs in these complex test systems may discourage researchers from conducting experiments under environmentally relevant test condi-tions. However, in the coming years, fundamental research about these complex test systems will con-tinue to better understand the mechanism behind GFMs toxicity affecting organisms in different environmental compartments and to ensure their safe and sustainable use in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0496.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Environmental Economics; General; Valuation of Environmental Effects; Pollution Control Adop-tion and Costs; Recycling.
Online: 27 December 2022 (01:30:08 CET)
In this article we investigate the role of “Renewable Energy Consumption” in the context of Circular Economy. We use data from the World Bank for 193 countries in the period 2011-2020. We perform several econometric techniques i.e., Panel Data with Fixed Effects, Panel Data with Random Effects, Pooled OLS, WLS. Our results show that “Renewable Energy Consumption” is positively associated among others to “Cooling Degree Days” and “Adjusted savings: net forest depletion” and negatively associated among others to “GHG net emissions/removals by LUCF” and “Mean Drought Index”. Furthermore, we perform a cluster analysis with the application of the k-Means algorithm optimized with the Silhouette Coefficient and we find the presence of two clusters. Finally, we compare eight different machine learning algorithms to predict the value of Renewable Energy Consumption. Our results show that the Polynomial Regression is the best algorithm in the sense of prediction and that on average the renewable energy consumption is expected to growth of 2.61%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1328.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: community-based conservation; conservation; Madagascar; resource management; wildlife eco-nomics; wildlife trade; wildlife tourism; wildlife valorisation.
Online: 18 August 2023 (07:26:26 CEST)
Wildlife tourism and wildlife trade may appear juxtaposed, but are two, potentially aligning, in-come generators that could benefit conservation in developing countries. Utilising data sets collated from Madagascar’s Ministère du Tourisme and CITES respectively for the period 2007 to 2018, this study estimated levels of income from wildlife tourism and wildlife trade for Madagascar. Between 2007-2018, tourism reported yearly incomes ranging from a low of US \$1.4 million up to a high of US \$15.7 million. However, it was unclear what percentage of this figure flowed to benefit local communities. Alternatively, using reported networks for the live wildlife trade, the estimated eco-nomic value reaching collectors and/or intermediaries on Madagascar was US $72,299.80 for the period 2007 to 2018. Both revenue generators operated within different geographical areas, with tourism opportunities presenting themselves to communities adjacent NPs, while wildlife trade networks were not restricted to National Parks and operated sporadically across Madagascar. Hence, the economic benefits reached different Malagasy participants across the country. The management of both activities needs great care to ensure that environmental impacts and sus-tainability are core measures on any such activities. Whilst this study shines light on economic values and novel perspectives regarding these two trade types, it also highlighted knowledge gaps. Thus, indicating where much greater research attentions was required to allow better understanding of the specific benefits and risks from engaging with both trade types for local Malagasy people and their environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0004.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: Shear thickening fluids; Viscosity; Shear rate; Impact resistance; Lightweight armour; Crashworthiness; Sustainability; Cork; Composites; Eco-friendly
Online: 3 April 2023 (03:42:35 CEST)
Shear thickening fluids (STF) are a class of fluids whose viscosity increases considerably when subjected to an external load. The study of these fluids has developed significantly in recent years regarding potential applications in engineering like the development of impact energy absorbing composites. Following green agendas pushed by governments and legislators, this work explores the use of STF combined with other sustainable material. Cork is a natural cellular material with a negative carbon footprint and excellent energy absorption capabilities. Cork agglomerates were produced with different concentrations of STF material. Particularly, the mixtures studied are homogeneous, in contrast with other works in literature. An experimental campaign was performed in quasi-static and dynamic cases to establish the different mechanical responses. It can be concluded that STF plays a role in the mechanical behaviour of cork agglomerates, by simultaneously providing gentler deceleration rates while dispersing more energy through disaggregation mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0266.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: eco-friendly sound-absorbing material; corrugated cardboard; perforated corrugated cardboard; sound absorption coefficient; sound transmission loss
Online: 9 April 2021 (14:46:49 CEST)
The continuing development of industrialization and increasing population density has led to the emergence of noise as an increasingly common problem, requiring various types of sound absorption and insulation methods to address it. Meanwhile, the recycling of resources to ensure a sustainable future for the planet and mankind is also required. Therefore, this study investigates the potential of corrugated cardboard as a resource for noise reduction. The sound absorption and insulation performance of non-perforated corrugated cardboard (NPCC) were measured, and modified corrugated boards were fabricated by drilling holes either through the surface of the corrugated board alone or through the corrugated board in its entirety. The sound absorption/insulation performance both of perforated corrugated cardboard (PCC), and perforated corrugated cardboard with multi frequency resonators (PCCM) were measured using the transfer function method and the transmission matrix method. To determine the effectiveness of NPCC, PCC, and PCCM in noise reduction, the sound pressure level was analyzed by applying it to a home blender. The results showed PCCM’s sound absorption and insulation performance to be excellent. On the basis of these findings, we propose the use of PMMC as an eco-friendly noise reduction material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0010.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Environmental Product Declaration; Life Cycle Assessment; Generic databases; Environmental impacts; Uncertainty; Product category rules (PCR)
Online: 1 November 2023 (08:33:07 CET)
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is increasingly prevalent in the quantification of environmental status in the building sector, following new legislative frameworks. Countries need to quantify and assess their environmental impacts as a previous base for regulation and decision making. In this context, standardised national data sets are being developed, based on consensus with manufacturers: sectoral Environmental Product Declarations. This study focuses on assessing these EPDs with the aim of providing relevant information for global decision-making, focusing on consistency and pointing out shortcomings. An assessment has been carried out both at national level, considering all sectoral EPDs and declared products, and at international level, with three common building materials (brick, steel and concrete). The results highlight the lack of traceability in the development and assessment of uncertainty, resulting in substantial discrepancies in reported impacts, especially in the later stages of the life cycle (up to 90% difference). Meanwhile, impacts such as Global Warming Potential or total renewable and non-renewable primary energy use show homogeneous values in the cradle-to-gate stages with differences generally less than 10%. The analysis of sectoral EPDs should be a design guide with environmental sustainability criteria, as the last section of this study attempts to focus on.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0881.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Zero-Emission Building; Life cycle assessment; Environmental sustainability; Building materials; Environmental engineering design; Energy efficiency
Online: 13 September 2023 (12:41:44 CEST)
Buildings can play an important role in reducing GHG emissions through increased energy efficiency. The European Commission issued a proposal in 2021 suggesting that all new buildings should be “zero-emission Buildings” (ZEB), aiming at a zero GHG emission building stock by 2050.The extent to which ZEB can contribute to reduced GHG emissions, however, varies between countries, due to different energy systems. It is also important to consider other environmental effects to avoid that climate benefits come with unintended consequences.Here, we explore the life-cycle environmental performance for a ZEB in a case where electricity and heating is largely fossil-free. The assessment concentrates on i) environmental impact of the use stage in relation to the product stage, ii) the interrelation between different energy sources, with attention on household electricity, and iii) the performance for more impact categories than primary energy use and climate change. While our results generally support the use of ZEBs from an environmental perspective, they also show that the climate benefit in this setting is marginal. However, given that energy systems are connected and energy savings in one place can reduce the demand for fossil energy elsewhere, the climate benefit of ZEBs is likely underestimated. Besides methdological implications for future studies, this indicates that current EU policy is promising, as incentives for implementation of ZEBs is unaffected by domestic effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1388.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: HBCD; occurrence and distribution; environmental media
Online: 22 November 2023 (06:30:08 CET)
Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was most important flame retardant in Expanded Polystyrene foam and Extruded Polystyrene foam in the past forty years in the world. China was the major producer and user of HBCD, and the total HBCD production was about 0.3 million tons. Although HBCD has been completely banned in China in 2021 because of its long-range transport, bioaccumulation and toxicity, there's still a lot of residues in environment. Therefore, we reviewed multiple studies concerning the distribution of HBCD in diverse environmental matrices, such as air, dust, soil, water, sediment and biota. Results revealed that HBCD levels in different environments in China present a geographical variation and were at high level compared with other countries. In all environmental media, relatively high HBCD concentrations have been found in industrial and urban areas. Industrialization and urbanization are two important factors that influence the concentration and distribution of HBCD in the environment. In terms of isomer, γ-HBCD was the dominant isomer in soil, water, and sediment, while in the biota, α-HBCD was the predominant isomer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0202.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: amaranth; environmental index; linear regression; stability
Online: 4 October 2023 (05:04:02 CEST)
Amaranth has the potential to support Malawi's food and nutrition security, income generation and livelihoods, and climate change resilience efforts. Due to the high genetic variability of Ama-ranth, there is a need to develop stable and high-yielding genotypes for sustainable production. To determine the degree of genetic stability in different environments, five Amaranth accessions were subjected to stability analysis. The experiment was carried out at three sites (Bunda, Bembeke, and Chipoka) for two seasons in 2020-2021 in the central region of Malawi. It was laid out in Ran-domized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replicates. Eberhart and Russell linear regres-sion model was used for stability analysis and Pearson correlation was used to test the relationship between variables. Environmental variance + (genotype x environment) was significant for four of the parameters studied, namely grain yield, plant height, leaf length, and leaf width, indicating the presence of a remarkable interaction between genotypes and environment. The results of a pooled analysis of variance showed significant differences at a 5% significance level among the Amaranth accessions, indicating inherent genetic variability. Using the linear regression model of Eberhart and Russell, accessions PE-LO-BH -01 and LL-BH -04 were identified as the highest yielding stable genotypes for leaf and grain yield, respectively. In addition, Bembeke site was the most favourable environment for all the accessions. Thus, to enhance the production of amaranth in Malawi, LL-BH-04 and PE-LO-BH-01 were put forward for release as varieties for grain and leaf respectively. These results will also guide and support for future breeding programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1600.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Environmental cues; Flowering intensity; Mango; Phenology
Online: 22 June 2023 (11:15:30 CEST)
Mango flowering phenostages were recorded under global warming conditions to assess the relationship between environmental cues and flowering time shifts and their consequences on reproductive success. Phenological transition to floral destiny was studied in relation to standard metrological week and weather parameters. Shifting of phenostage was recorded in Bud swelling, which is important for the shoot transitioning from vegetative to flowering meristem. Variations were also recorded for panicle elongation and early anthesis. The critical temperature for Bud burst stage was estimated for Dashehari, Langra, Amrapali and Chausa while Chausa had the propensity for late flowering correlated with higher temperature. The shifting of phenological calendar in response to weather parameters was obvious and needed a bigger range of yearly data for arriving at the climatic drives. In general, the results revealed that flower intensity was positively correlated with temperature, sunshine hours and evaporation while humidity showed a negative correlation. Hermaphrodite Flower % is an important attribute affecting fruit set and yield and was found most variable in the two years in the case of the three alternate bearing cultivars. In conclusion, it can be inferred that weather parameters prevailing in subtropics affect flowering intensity and consequently its fate i.e.; fruit yield.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0867.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: thermal insulation; energy efficiency; environmental impact
Online: 11 May 2023 (13:54:19 CEST)
The thermal insulation properties of building walls are critical to the overall energy efficiency and comfort of a building. One important factor that can affect these properties is the type of bricks used in construction. Bricks can vary in their geometry and thermal coefficient, which can impact their ability to transfer heat through the wall. The geometry of a brick can affect its thermal properties by altering the amount of air trapped within it and the surface area available for heat transfer. Hollow bricks or those with complex geometries may have lower thermal conductivity than regular solid bricks due to the air pockets trapped within them. Conversely, larger surface areas on the exterior of the brick can increase heat transfer. The thermal coefficient of clay, a common material used in brick production, is another important factor. Clay has a relatively low thermal conductivity, meaning it is a poor conductor of heat. However, the quality of the clay, as well as the firing temperature and duration used in brick production, can impact its thermal coefficient. Higher firing temperatures and longer firing times can result in a more compact and dense clay brick, which can improve its thermal properties. In summary, the thermal insulation properties of building walls can be significantly affected by the type of bricks used in their construction. It is important to consider the geometry and thermal coefficient of the bricks when designing a building to achieve the desired level of thermal insulation. By selecting bricks with appropriate properties, designers can help to improve the energy efficiency and comfort of the building while reducing its environmental impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0814.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: environmental geotechnology; landscape ecology; forest recovery
Online: 24 April 2023 (03:53:36 CEST)
Ecological corridors function as a viable way to mitigate the environmental impact arising from forest fragmentation by interconnecting forest fragments through various techniques. In this context, the objective of this study is to propose a route for the implementation of an ecological corridor in the Itapemirim river watershed. The specific objectives were: (i) to delimit the permanent preservation areas (APP) of the Itapemirim river watershed and compare land use and land cover in the delimited areas; (ii) to calculate landscape ecology indices and select the forest fragments with the highest potential for ecological corridor implementation using Fuzzy logic; (iii) to assess costs and trace the best route for ecological corridor implementation, considering distance and physical impediments; (iv) to assess land costs and expropriation costs to delimit the ecological corridor in the study area. To map land use and land cover, the MapBiomas platform was used, based on Landsat 8 satellite images. The permanent preservation areas were delimited according to criteria established by Law No. 12.651 of May 25, 2012, which establishes parameters, definitions, and limits for APP. The characterization and structural quantification of some landscape ecology indices were performed using the QGIS 3.26 computational application, through the LecoS 3.0.1 plugin and Fragstats 4.2. The connected forest fragments were the Caparaó National Park, the Serra das Torres State Natural Monument, and the fragments selected through the application of Fuzzy logic to the landscape ecology indices. The corridor was delimited according to the lowest cost route, considering land use and land cover, APP, fragment potential, slope, and subnormal clusters. For each cost raster image, its respective statistical weights were calculated using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) hierarchical method, as well as for the analysis of priority areas for forest restoration, considering land use and land cover, APP, pedology, lithology, and biological importance. The interconnection between protected areas and fragments with the ecological corridor followed the orientation described by CONAMA nº 09/96. Based on the development of the work, the following results were identified: the highest land use and land cover class is pasture. Of the area designated for permanent preservation, 68.58% is in conflicting use with the legislation. The bare land value per hectare of the pasture class is the second highest among the bare land value per LULC values, representing 64.28% of the total. The priority area map showed that 31.86% of the area was classified as of very high or high importance and 42.97% as low or very low priority for forest restoration. Thus, it is concluded that the least cost path algorithm associated with the result generated by the multi-criteria decision method (AHP) constitutes an important tool for planning and implementing an ecological network by taking into account the primary factors for decision-making regarding the location of the best route.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0127.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: environmental literacy; sustainable environment; nursing students
Online: 8 August 2022 (03:40:49 CEST)
Environmental literate citizenship is a lifelong learning process that aims to develop citizens who have the knowledge, skills, and commitment to make responsible decisions that will affect the quality of the environment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the environmental literacy levels of nursing students in terms of sustainable environmental by considering the dimensions of environmental literacy. It was also aimed at understanding the correlation among dimensions of environmental literacy and revealing the factors affecting the dimensions of environmental literacy. This research was designed as a descriptive study in the survey model. A total of 278 nursing students participated in this research. It was revealed that students obtained a high score for use and concern from the dimensions of environmental literacy, their attitudes towards the environment were moderate; however, nursing students took the lowest points for the environmental knowledge component, which indicates that students need support in environmental knowledge. It was put forward that there were statistically significant differences based on gender and taking environmental related courses with dimensions of environmental literacy. All dimensions of environmental literacy were found to be positively correlated with each other, ranging from low to moderate relations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0162.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Environmental Pollution; Airborne Carcinogens; Lung Cancer;
Online: 11 February 2022 (12:23:22 CET)
The risk of lung cancer continues to elevate for both smokers and never-smokers. With the increasing morbidities and mortalities related to lung cancer, there is much interest on establishing other confounding factors that lead to lung cancer, other than smoking which is the most common cause. Some of the environmental factors have been identified as potential lung cancer causes. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to assess the relationship of environmental factors and lung cancer incidences by investigating various carcinogenic risks exposures that predispose an individual to lung cancer. The objective of this systematic review is thus to assess the evidence of relationship between environmental carcinogens and lung cancer incidence by systematically reviewing relevant studies. A standard criterion for the review methodology was formulated to guide the review process and data extraction. Online databases like PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus (EMBASE), Google Scholar, Web of Science, and CINAHL were systematically searched for articles published between 2000 and 2021 that explored potential environmental carcinogens that were believed to expose occupational workers and individuals within the environment with lung cancer risks. 25 studies were eligible based on the selection criteria, and were finally included in the systematic review among which four were case-control studies, seven were cohorts, five was prospective, four were previous systematic reviews and four were systematic analysis. Chemical exposures like pesticides were analyzed for their carcinogenesis. Air pollution was also discussed with particulate and coal being the core of evidence of association with lung cancer. Second hand smoke, Asbestos, metal compounds like copper, PVC dust particles and ionizing radiations also provided evidence of environmental carcinogenesis associating to lung cancer cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0246.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Spatial effects; environmental pollution; healthcare services
Online: 13 January 2021 (12:48:11 CET)
With the rapid development of urbanization and industrialization in China, environmental issues have become a knotty problem, especially issues related to air, water, and solid-waste pollution. These pollutants pose threats to the health of the population and to that of communities and have a vicious influence on the healthcare system. Additionally, pollution also exhibits spill-over effects, which means that pollution in the local region could affect the healthcare services in a neighbouring region. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the relationship between pollution and healthcare. A spatial autocorrelation analysis was conducted and spatial panel econometric models were constructed to explore the characteristics of pollution and healthcare services in China and the relationship between them using data on all 31 provinces over twelve consecutive years (2006-2017). The results showed that the utilization of healthcare services and environmental pollution were not randomly distributed; unsurprisingly, air pollution and solid-waste pollution were mainly found in parts of northern China, while water pollution was highest in southern and coastal China. In addition, environmental pollution exhibited spill-over effects on healthcare services. For example, a 1% increase in solid waste in one specific geographical unit was estimated to increase the inpatient visits per capita in adjacent counties by 0.559%. Specifically, pollution showed different degrees of influence on healthcare services, which means that the impact of environmental pollution on the number of outpatient visits is greater than on the number of inpatient visits. Our results provide the government with evidence for effectively formulating and promulgating policies, especially policies aimed at tackling spill-over effects among different regions.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0401.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: calorie restriction; longevity; environmental fluctuation; senescence
Online: 17 September 2020 (11:22:37 CEST)
The world’s human population is reaching record longevities. Consequently, societies are experiencing the tangible impacts of prolonged longevity, such as increased retirement age. A major hypothesised influence on ageing patterns is resource availability and calorie restriction, considered by many to extend longevity in any organism. Here, we highlight challenges facing the field of calorie restriction research as it pertains to ageing and how more realistic environments can impact the role calorie restriction plays in longevity of species. We reviewed 120 peer-reviewed published studies to quantify calorie restriction effects on longevity. We show that calorie restriction research does not always have positive effects on ageing with 27% of studies having no, negative or neutral effects. Additionally, research is biased towards short-lived species and lacks realism. We argue that only by taking a more realistic approach can the impacts of calorie restriction on longevity under climate change be understood. We conclude by discussing Planarians and Hydra as model species that allow for future research to have a better understanding of calorie restriction effects on long-lived species, while incorporating climate change impacts. Steering future calorie restriction research towards integrating interaction effects across a broader range of species will begin addressing the challenges of calorie restriction research. Crucial insights from future research can contribute to the fundamental and translational understanding of human senescence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0361.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: human resource; management; environmental protection; Serbia
Online: 27 December 2019 (10:27:44 CET)
Starting from the fact that the units of local self-government of the Republic of Serbia are not sufficiently oriented towards innovations related to human resources and the environment, the application of quantitative research tradition examines the positioning and understanding of certain procedures and decisions of human resources management regarding the functioning of the environmental protection system, on the one hand, and future strategies for changing the given system, on the other. A series of 105 face-to-face interviews were conducted during the whole of 2016 in 105 of the 191 municipalities in the Republic of Serbia. Examination of the attitudes of the local self-government was carried out using a specially designed closed electronic questionnaire. The results of the multivariate regressions show that the most important predictor of the possible improvement of the environment is the size of the municipality. The remaining variables (e.g., human resources policy, human resources service) did not have significant effects on the ability to improve the environment. In more than half of local self-governments, there was no clearly defined human resources strategy in the field of environmental protection, an environmental protection service, an Environmental Action Plan, as well as an employment plan for waste management in local governments, etc. The research has shown that top managers of local governments agree that the management of human resources in environmental protection represents a significant opportunity to improve the quality of the environment. The results of the research can be used to improve the organization of human resource competence in environmental protection and the quality of a working and sustainable environment in the area of local self-government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0309.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: legionella; legionellosis; environmental surveillance; water system
Online: 30 January 2019 (10:12:29 CET)
Legionnaires’ disease is normally acquired by inhalation of legionellae from a contaminated environmental source. Water systems of large buildings, such as hospitals, are often contaminated with legionellae and therefore represent a potential risk for the hospital population. In this study, we demonstrated the constant presence of Legionella in water samples from the water system of a large university hospital in Messina (Sicily, Italy) consisting of 11 separate pavilions during a period of 15 years (2004-2018). In total, 1346 hot water samples were collected between January 2004 and December 2018. During this period, to recover Legionella spp. from water samples the standard procedures reported by the Italian Guidelines emanated in 2000 were adopted; from May 2015 to 2018 Italian Guidelines revised in 2015 (ISS, 2015), were used. The most water samples (72%) were positive to L. pneumophila serogroups 2-14 whereas L. pneumophila serogroup 1 accounted for the 18% and Legionella spp. for the 15%. Most of the positive samples were found in the buildings where are situated critical wards as ICU, Neurosurgery, Surgeries, Pneumology and Neonatal Intensive Unit Care. We highlighted the importance of a continuous monitoring of hospital water samples to prevent the potential risk of nosocomial legionellosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0255.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: metagenomics; antibiotic resistance; wastewater; environmental ecology
Online: 14 September 2018 (06:27:29 CEST)
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are thought to be potential incubators of antibiotic resistance. Persistence of commonly used antibiotics in wastewater may increase the potential for selection of resistance genes transferred between bacterial populations, some of which may pose a threat to human health. In this study, we measured the concentrations of ten antibiotics in wastewater plant influents and effluents, and in surface waters up- and downstream from two Charlotte area treatment facilities. We performed Illumina shotgun sequencing to assay the microbial community and resistome compositions at each site across four time points from late winter to mid-summer of 2016. Antibiotics are present throughout wastewater treatment, and elevated concentrations of multiple antibiotics are maintained in moving stream water downstream of effluent release. While some human gut and activated sludge associated taxa are detectable downstream, these seem to attenuate with distance while the core microbial community of the stream remains fairly consistent. We observe slight suppression of functional pathways in the downstream microbial communities, including amino acid, carbohydrate and nucleic acid metabolism as well as nucleotide and amino acid scavenging. Nearly all antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and potentially pathogenic taxa are removed in the treatment process, though a few ARG markers are elevated downstream of effluent release. Taken together, these results represent baseline measurements which future studies can utilize to help to determine which factors control the movement of antibiotics and resistance genes through aquatic urban ecosystems before, during and after wastewater treatment.