ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0671.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: HPV; E7; variants; molecular dynamics simulation
Online: 25 December 2020 (16:05:04 CET)
The oncogenic potential of high-risk HPVs is focused on producing the E6 and E7 oncoproteins responsible for disrupting the control of the cell cycle. Epidemiological studies propose the presence of the N29S and H51N variants of the HPV16 E7 protein as a significant association with cervical cancer. It has been suggested that changes in the amino acid sequence of E7 variants may affect the oncoprotein 3D structure; however, this remains unknown. Analysis of the structural differences of the HPV16 E7 protein and its variants (N29S and H51N) was performed through homology modeling and structural refinement by molecular dynamics simulation. We propose for the first time a 3D structure of the E7 reference protein and two of its variants (N29S and H51N) and conclude that the mutations induced by the variants in N29S and H51N have a significant influence on the 3D structure of the E7 protein of HPV16, which could be related to the oncogenic capacity of this protein.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: HPV16; E7 variants; cervical cancer; transformation; wound healing; western blotting
Online: 8 November 2021 (12:28:30 CET)
The human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 oncogene is critical to carcinogenesis and highly conserved. Previous studies identified a preponderance of non-synonymous E7 variants amongst HPV16-positive cancer-free controls compared to those with cervical cancer. To investigate the function of E7 variants, we constructed full-length HPV16 E7 genes and tested variants at positions H9R, D21N, N29S, E33K, T56I, D62N, S63F, S63P, T64M, E80K, D81N, P92L, and P92S (found only in controls); D14E, N29H (CIN2), and P6L, H51N, R77S (CIN3). We determined the steady-state level of cytoplasmic and nuclear HPV16 E7 protein. All variants from the controls showed a reduced level of steady-state E7 protein, with 7/13 variants having deficient protein levels. In contrast, 2/3 variants from the CIN3 precancer group had near-normal E7 levels. We assayed the activity of representative variants in stably transfected NIH3T3 cells. The H9R, E33K, P92L, and P92S variants found in control subjects had lower transforming activity than D14E and N29H variants (CIN2); and the R77S (CIN3) had activity only slightly reduced from wildtype E7. In addition, R77S and WT E7 caused increased migration of NIH3T3 cells in a wound-healing assay as compared with H9R, E33K, P92L, and P92S (controls) and D14E (CIN2). These data provide evidence that the E7 variants found in HPV16-positive cancer-free women are partially defective for transformation and cell migration further demonstrating the importance of fully active E7 in clinical cancer development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: high-risk HPV infection; E7 oncoprotein; cigarette smoking; HPV carcinogenesis; cervical cancer
Online: 5 January 2018 (11:48:47 CET)
Persistent cervical infection with high-risk Human papillomaviruses (hrHPVs) is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for the development of cervical cancer. Therefore, there are other co-factors facilitating the hrHPV carcinogenic process, one of which is smoking. In order to assess the effect of smoking on high-risk (hr) HPV DNA positivity and on the expression of HPV E7 oncoprotein, as a surrogate of persistent hrHPV infection, we used data from women recruited for the PIPAVIR project, which examined the role of E7 protein detection in cervical cancer screening. Women were tested for hrHPV DNA, using Multiplex Genotyping and E7 protein, using a novel sandwich ELISA method, and gave information on their smoking habits. Among 1473 women, hrHPV prevalence was 19.1%. The odds ratio (OR) for hrHPV positivity of smokers compared to non-smokers was 1.785 (95%CI: 1.365-2.332, p<0.001). The ORs for E7 positivity, concerning hrHPV positive women, ranged from 0.720 to 1.360 depending on the E7 detection assay used, but this was not statistically significant. Smoking increases the probability of hrHPV infection, and smoking intensity is positively associated to this increase. Smoking is not related to an increased probability of E7 protein positivity for hrHPV positive women.