ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0989.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: DCR-YOLO; Defect detection; Printed circuit board; SDDT-FPN; PCR; C5ECA
Online: 14 July 2023 (11:07:25 CEST)
Abstract: For the problem of small target of printed circuit board surface defects and low detection accuracy, the printed circuit board surface defect detection network DCR-YOLO is designed to meet the premise of real-time detection speed and effectively improve the detection accuracy. Firstly, the backbone feature extraction network DCR-backbone, consisting of two CR residual blocks and one common residual block, is used for small target defect extraction on printed circuit boards. Secondly, the SDDT-FPN feature fusion module is responsible for the fusion of high level features to low level features, while enhancing feature fusion for the feature fusion layer where the small target prediction head YOLO Head-P3 is located to further enhance the low level feature representation. the PCR module enhances the feature fusion mechanism between the backbone feature extraction network and the SDDT-FPN feature fusion module at different scales of feature layers. the C5ECA module is responsible for adaptive adjustment of feature weights and adaptive attention to the requirements of small target defect information, further enhancing the adaptive feature extraction capability of the feature fusion module. Finally, three YOLO-Heads are responsible for predicting small target defects for different scales. Experiments show that the DCR-YOLO network model detection Map reaches 98.58%, the model size is 7.73MB, which meets the lightweight requirement, and the detection speed reaches 103.15fps, which meets the application requirements for real-time detection of small target defects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1231.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; drug repurposing; connectivity mapping; transcriptomics
Online: 19 September 2023 (15:17:05 CEST)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that has significant impact on quality of life and work capacity. Treatment of RA aims to control inflammation and alleviate pain, however achieving remission with minimal toxicity is frequently not possible with the current suite of drugs. This review aims to summarise current treatment practices and highlight the urgent need for alternative pharmacogenomic approaches to novel drug discovery. These approaches can elucidate new relationships between drugs, genes, and diseases to identify additional effective and safe therapeutic options. This review discusses how computational approaches such as connectivity mapping offers the ability to repurpose FDA approved drugs beyond their original treatment indication. This review also explores the concept of drug sensitisation, to predict co-prescribed drugs with synergistic effects that produce enhanced anti-disease efficacy by involving multiple disease pathways. Challenges of this computational approach are discussed including the availability of suitable high-quality datasets for comprehensive analysis and other data curation issues. The potential benefits include accelerated identification of novel drug combinations, and ability to trial and implement established treatments in a new index disease. This review underlines the huge opportunity to incorporate disease-related data and drug-related data to develop methods and algorithms which have strong potential to determine novel and effective treatment regimens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0201.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: virtual geographic environment; virtual geographic experiment; virtual reality; VRGIS; heterogeneous distributed clients
Online: 30 December 2017 (14:43:41 CET)
Due to their strong immersion and real-time interactivity, helmet-mounted VR devices are becoming increasingly popular. Based on these devices, an immersive virtual geographic environment (VGE) provides a promising method for research into crowd behavior in an emergency. However, the current cheaper helmet-mounted VR devices are not popular enough and will continue to coexist with PC-based systems for a long time. Therefore, a heterogeneous distributed virtual geographic environment (HDVGE) could be a feasible solution to solve the heterogeneous problems caused by various types of clients, and support implementation of virtual crowd evacuation experiments, with large numbers of concurrent participants. In this study, we developed an HDVGE framework and put forward a set of design principles to define the similarities between the real world and the VGE. We discussed the HDVGE architecture and proposed an abstract interaction layer, a protocol-based interaction algorithm and an adjusted dead reckoning algorithm to solve the heterogeneous distributed problems. We then implemented an HDVGE prototype system focusing on subway fire evacuation experiments. Two types of clients are considered in the system, PC and all-in-one VR. Finally, we evaluated the performances of the prototype system and the key algorithms. The results showed that in a low-latency LAN environment, the prototype system can smoothly support 90 concurrent users consisting of PC and all-in-one VR clients. HDVGE could serve as a new means of obtaining observational data about individual and group behavior in support of human geography research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0056.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: active subunit combination; sulfonylurea benzothiazoline; solvent-free synthesis; safener activity
Online: 14 September 2017 (10:01:38 CEST)
A series of novel sulfonylurea benzothiazoline were designed by splicing active groups and bioisosterism. A solvent-free synthetic route was developed for the sulfonylurea benzothiazoline derivatives via the cyclization and carbamylation. All the compounds were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HRMS. The biological activity tests indicated the compounds could protect maize against the injury caused by chlorsulfuron to some extent. The molecular docking result showed that the new compound competed with chlorosulfuron to bind with the herbicide target enzyme active site to attain detoxification.