ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0278.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Rail impedance; earth stratification; Carson formula; Truncation method; Finite element method.
Online: 16 November 2021 (08:57:20 CET)
Rail impedance directly affects the transmission performance of track circuit . Considering the condition of earth stratification, for the difficult to calculate the rail impedance due to the semi-infinite integration interval and the oscillation of the integrand by using the Carson formula, The truncation method is proposed to divide the impedance formula is divided into definite integral and tail integral. The integral is approximated by the spline function, and the tail integral is calculated by using the exponential integral and Euler formula. Based on it, the rail impedance calculation formula of track circuit is obtained. The electromagnetic field model of track circuit with earth stratification is simulated by finite element method, and the correctness of the method is verified. Based on the formula, the influence of current frequency, soil depth and conductivity on rail impedance is studied. The relative error between the calculated results of rail impedance and the simulation results of finite element is within 5%. It can be seen that the formula has high accuracy and correctly reflects the law of rail impedance variation with current frequency, soil depth and resistivity. It provides a reliable reference for the theoretical calculation of rail impedance of track circuit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0280.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wheel force sensor, WFS, automobile proving ground, special road, dynamic detection.
Online: 21 May 2018 (16:35:40 CEST)
Automobile proving ground is important for the research of vehicles which is used for the vehicle dynamics, durability testing, braking testing, etc. However, the roads in automobile proving ground will inevitably be damaged with the extension of the service life. In most previous researches, equipment similar to laser cross-section was used to detect pavement quality, the principle of which was to reflect pavement quality by detecting road surface roughness. This method ignores the elastic deformation of the roads itself when the vehicle is traveling on it and hardly compensate for the amendment. Therefore, this article presents a new method based on force sensor to reduce the impact of elastic deformation such as wheel tyre deformation, pavement deformation, and wheel rim deformation. In which, force sensors mounted on the wheels collect the three-dimensional dynamic load of the wheel.The presented method has been tested with two sets of cobblestone road load data, and the results show that The incentives imposed by the test vehicle on the target road are 88.3%, 91.0%, and 92.05% of the incentives imposed by the test vehicle on the standard road in three dimensions, respectively. It is clear that the proposed method has strong potential effectiveness to be applied for lose detection of the special road application.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: aerial scene classification; remote-sensing image classification; few-shot learning; meta-learning
Online: 15 December 2020 (13:21:49 CET)
CNN-based methods have dominated the field of aerial scene classification for the past few years. While achieving remarkable success, CNN-based methods suffer from excessive parameters and notoriously rely on large amounts of training data. In this work, we introduce few-shot learning to the aerial scene classification problem. Few-shot learning aims to learn a model on base-set that can quickly adapt to unseen categories in novel-set, using only a few labeled samples. To this end, we proposed a meta-learning method for few-shot classification of aerial scene images. First, we train a feature extractor on all base categories to learn a representation of inputs. Then in the meta-training stage, the classifier is optimized in the metric space by cosine distance with a learnable scale parameter. At last, in the meta-testing stage, the query sample in the unseen category is predicted by the adapted classifier given a few support samples. We conduct extensive experiments on two challenging datasets: NWPU-RESISC45 and RSD46-WHU. The experimental results show that our method yields state-of-the-art performance. Furthermore, several ablation experiments are conducted to investigate the effects of dataset scale, the impact of different metrics and the number of support shots; the experiment results confirm that our model is specifically effective in few-shot settings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0124.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Clumped canopy; evapotranspiration; Unmanned aerial vehicles; METRIC; remote sensing
Online: 8 July 2019 (14:39:34 CEST)
Estimating evapotranspiration (ET) has been one of the most important research in agriculture recently because of water scarcity, growing population, and climate change. ET is the sum of evaporation from the soil and transpiration from the crops to the atmosphere. The accurate estimation and mapping of ET are necessary for crop water management. Traditionally, people use weighing lysimeters, Bowen ratio, eddy covariance and many other methods to estimate ET. However, these ET methods are points or location-specific measurements and cannot be extended to a large scale of ET estimation. With the advent of satellites technology, remote sensing images can provide spatially distributed measurements. The satellites multispectral images spatial resolution, however, is in the range of meters, which is often not enough for crops with clumped canopy structure such as trees and vines. And, the timing or frequency of satellites overpass is not always enough to meet the research or water management needs. The Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), commonly referred to as drones, can help solve these spatial and temporal challenges. Lightweight cameras and sensors can be mounted on drones and take high-resolution images on a large scale of field. Compared with satellites images, the spatial resolution of UAVs’ images can be as high as 1 cm per pixel. And, people can fly a drone at any time if the weather condition is good. Cloud cover is less of a concern than satellite remote sensing. Both temporal and spatial resolution is highly improved by drones. In this paper, a review of different UAVs based approaches of ET estimations are presented. Different modified models used by UAVs, such as Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), Two-source energy balance (TSEB) model, etc, are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0389.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: remote-sensing classification; scene classification; few-shot learning; meta-learning; vision transformers; multi-scale feature fusion
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:29:29 CEST)
The central goal of few-shot scene classification is to learn a model that can generalize well to a novel scene category (UNSEEN) from only one or a few labeled examples. Recent works in the remote sensing (RS) community tackle this challenge by developing algorithms in a meta-learning manner. However, most prior approaches have either focused on rapidly optimizing a meta-learner or aimed at finding good similarity metrics while overlooking the embedding power. Here we propose a novel Task-Adaptive Embedding Learning (TAEL) framework that complements the existing methods by giving full play to feature embedding’s dual roles in few-shot scene classification - representing images and constructing classifiers in the embedding space. First, we design a lightweight network that enriches the diversity and expressive capacity of embeddings by dynamically fusing information from multiple kernels. Second, we present a task-adaptive strategy that helps to generate more discriminative representations by transforming the universal embeddings into task-specific embeddings via a self-attention mechanism. We evaluate our model in the standard few-shot learning setting on two challenging datasets: NWPU-RESISC4 and RSD46-WHU. Experimental results demonstrate that, on all tasks, our method achieves state-of-the-art performance by a significant margin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0009.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: 3D semantic mapping; incremental fusion; global optimization; real time; naturalistic road scenes
Online: 3 January 2019 (11:03:24 CET)
Fast 3D reconstruction with semantic information on road scenes is of great requirements for autonomous navigation. It involves issues of geometry and appearance in the field of computer vision. In this work, we propose a method of fast 3D semantic mapping based on the monocular vision. At present, due to the inexpensive price and easy installation, monocular cameras are widely equipped on recent vehicles for the advanced driver assistance and it is possible to acquire semantic information and 3D map. The monocular visual sequence is used to estimate the camera pose, calculate the depth, predict the semantic segmentation, and finally realize the 3D semantic mapping by combination of the techniques of localization, mapping and scene parsing. Our method recovers the 3D semantic mapping by incrementally transferring 2D semantic information to 3D point cloud. And a global optimization is explored to improve the accuracy of the semantic mapping in light of the spatial consistency. In our framework, there is no need to make semantic inference on each frame of the sequence, since the mesh data with semantic information is corresponding to sparse reference frames. It saves amounts of the computational cost and allows our mapping system to perform online. We evaluate the system on naturalistic road scenes, e.g., KITTI and observe a significant speed-up in the inference stage by labeling on the mesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1200.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: plant phenotype; soybean leaf; image segmentation; object detection
Online: 18 July 2023 (09:14:41 CEST)
Plant phenotype plays an important role in crop breeding and planting. Leaf phenotype is an important part of plant phenotype. In order to analyze the leaf phenotype, the target leaf is required to be segmented from the complex background image. In this paper, an automatic soybean leaf segmentation method based on object detection and interactive segmentation models is proposed. Firstly, the Libra R-CNN object detection algorithm is used to detect all soybean leaves in the image. Then, based on the idea that the target soybean leaf is located in the center of the image and the area is large, the detection bounding box of the target leaf is selected. In order not to destroy the segmentation result, the bounding box is optimized to completely enclose the whole leaf. Finally, according to the optimized bounding box, the prior channels of foreground and background are constructed using Gaussian model. The two channels together with the original image are as the input of the interactive object segmentation with inside-outside guidance model to segment the target soybean leaf. A large number of qualitative and quantitative experimental results show that the method has high segmentation accuracy and strong generalization capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1694.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: optical remote sensing; LiDAR; Stacking-InSAR; SBAS-InSAR; slope deformation; stability
Online: 26 September 2023 (02:38:33 CEST)
The current deformation and stable state of slopes with historical shatter signs is a concern for engineering construction. Suspected landslide scarps were discovered at the rear edge of the slope of the Genie in the Sichuan-Tibet transportation corridor during a field investigation. In order to qualitatively determine the current status of the surface deformation of this slope, this paper uses high-resolution optical remote sensing, airborne LiDAR and InSAR technologies for comprehensive analysis. The interpretation of high-resolution optical and airborne LiDAR data revealed that the rear edge of the slope exhibits three levels of scarps. However, no deformation was detected with the D-InSAR analysis of ALOS-1 radar images from 2007 to 2008 or with the Stacking-InSAR and SBAS-InSAR processing of Sentinel-1A radar images from 2017 to 2020. A geological model of the slope was established in combination with field investigation stipulating that the slope is composed of steep anti-dip layered dolomite limestone and that the scarps at the rear edge of the slope were caused by historical shallow toppling. Further research is recommended to determine the extent of toppling deformation and evaluate the slope stability under the disturbance of tunnel excavation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0484.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Doppler frequency shift; Angle of arrival; Microwave photonics; Sagnac loop.
Online: 26 December 2022 (10:49:47 CET)
A novel scheme that can simultaneously measure the Doppler frequency shift (DFS) and angle of arrival (AOA) of microwave signals is proposed. At the signal receiving unit (SRU), two echo signals and the reference signal are modulated by a Sagnac loop structure and sent to the central station (CS) for processing. At the CS, two low-frequency electrical signals are generated after polarization control and photoelectric conversion. The DFS without direction ambiguity and wide AOA measurement can be real-time acquired by monitoring the frequency and power of the two low-frequency electrical signals. In the simulation, an unambiguous DFS measurement with errors of ±3×10-3 Hz and a -90° to 90° AOA measurement range with errors of less than ±0.5° are realized. The safety and robustness of the system to environmental disturbance are improved, and it is more suitable for the modern electronic warfare system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0391.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: USA inbred lines; combining ability; machine harvesting characteristics; yield characteristics; control heterosis
Online: 27 November 2018 (10:32:26 CET)
In China, there is an increasing need for greater genetic diversity in maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm and hybrids appropriate for mechanical harvesting. In order to test and distinguish American maize inbred lines with exceptional combining ability, four Chinese maize inbred lines (Chang7-2, Zheng 58, four-144 and four-287) were used to judge the combining ability and heterosis of 16 USA inbred lines by a NCII genetic mating method. The results showed that among the American inbred lines, 6M502A, LH208, NL001, LH212Ht, PHW51, FBLA and LH181 expressed good GCA for yield characteristics; while RS710, PHP76, FBLA, and PHJ89 showed excellent GCA for machine harvesting characteristics. Five hybrids (NL001 × Chang7-2, LH212Ht × Chang7-2, FBLA × four-144, LH181 × four-287, PHK93 × four-287) had better SCA values for yield characteristics, at 1.69, 1.07, 1.48, 1.84 and 1.05, respectively; while NL001 × Chang 7-2, 6M502A × Chang7-2, LH212Ht × Chang7-2, LH181 × four-287, PHW51 × Chang7-2 had better TCA values for yield characteristics, at 3.03, 2.80, 2.41, 2.19 and 1.91, respectively; NL001 × Chang7-2, 6M502A × Chang7-2, LH212Ht × Chang7-2, LH181 × four-287, PHW51 × Chang7-2 showed excellent Control Heterosis values, with 21.48%, 19.64%, 15.93%, 14.05% and 11.60% increases, respectively, compared to the check and potential for future utilization in Inner Mongolian corn production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0083.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: urban sustainability; environmental governance; energy policy
Online: 27 July 2016 (05:56:56 CEST)
As the world’s second largest economy, China ranks amount the world’s top nations when it comes to carbon emission, and therefore its attitude towards climate change is closely followed by all parties concerned. There have been few researches on the role of environmental governance in low-carbon city transformation process, especially the Chinese one. This paper analyses the role of government environmental regulation played in the low-carbon city transformation process by taking Shenzhen as the research object. One of the world's youngest super cities, it also happens to be the lowest carbon emission intensity city in China. Striving to explore green low-carbon development path for the whole country, Shenzhen provides practical experience for countries to cope with global climate change. However, its efforts to reduce the total carbon emissions failed, but it emphasized the carbon emission intensity, which is consistent with the international commitments made by the central government. China’s policy towards handling climate change relies on hierarchical governance arrangement. The strength of the NGOs in the country is weak and incomparable with the government’s, which has mastered most of the resources and is just a reality in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0746.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: ship plate steel; tensile properties; fatigue limit; fracture observation; texture
Online: 12 July 2023 (08:53:40 CEST)
This study investigated the mechanical properties and fatigue behavior of FH36 steel plate rolled in different directions. By adopting a sequential rolling process in the rolling direction (RD) and transverse direction (TD), the differences in properties between RD and TD were eliminated, resulting in nearly identical tensile properties. The steel plate exhibited a yield strength of approximately 420 MPa, a tensile strength of approximately 506 MPa, and an elongation of approximately 25%. Fatigue tests conducted at room temperature and -60℃ showed a fatigue limit of the maximum stress of 488 MPa at room temperature and 500 MPa at -60℃, indicating improved low-temperature fatigue performance. The fracture surfaces displayed distinct characteristics, such as oblique shearing fractures for high-cycle fatigue and cup-cone shape fractures for low-cycle fatigue. The fatigue source zone were both on the surface of the specimens. As the maximum stress increased, the area of the crack propagation zone for high-cycle fatigue decreased, while the area of the final fracture zone, the number of dimples and the proportion of the LAGBs increased.