REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0257.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Gene expression; transcriptome diversity; transcriptional variation; transcript diversity; isoform-level diversity; gene-level diversity
Online: 13 April 2023 (03:07:07 CEST)
Following the central dogma of molecular biology, gene expression heterogeneity can aid in predicting and explaining the wide variety of protein products, functions, and, ultimately, heterogeneity in phenotypes. There is currently overlapping terminology used to describe the types of diversity in gene expression profiles, and overlooking these nuances can misrepresent important biological information. Here, we describe transcriptome diversity as a measure of the heterogeneity in 1) the expression of all genes within a sample or a single gene across samples in a population (gene-level diversity) or 2) the isoform-specific expression of a given gene (isoform-level diversity). We first overview modulators and quantification of transcriptome diversity at the gene level. Then, we discuss the role alternative splicing plays in driving transcript isoform-level diversity and how it can be quantified. Additionally, we overview computational resources for calculating gene-level and isoform-level diversity for high-throughput sequencing data. Finally, we discuss future applications of transcriptome diversity. This review provides a comprehensive overview of how gene expression diversity arises, and how measuring it determines a more complete picture of heterogeneity across proteins, cells, tissues, organisms, and species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0015.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: wavelet transform; covariance matrix; spatial diversity; frequency diversity; robustness
Online: 1 August 2018 (10:10:13 CEST)
Crowd counting is of significant importance for numerous applications, e.g., urban security, intelligent surveillance and crowd management. Existing crowd counting methods typically require specialized hardware deployment and strict operating conditions, thereby hindering their widespread deployment. To acquire a more effective crowd counting approach, a device-free counting method based on Channel Status Information (CSI) is proposed, which could mitigate environment noise through wavelet transform and extract the amplitude or phase covariance matrix as the feature vector. Moreover, both the spatial diversity and frequency diversity are leveraged to improve detection robustness. The accuracy of the proposed CSI-based method is compared with a renowned crowd counting one, i.e., Electronic Frog Eye: Counting Crowd Using WiFi (FCC). The experimental results reveal an accuracy improvement of 30% over FCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1956.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: COI; teleostei; nucleotide diversity; haplotypic diversity; qPCR; demographic history; environmental DNA
Online: 28 June 2023 (07:37:41 CEST)
Fish tissue samples from 203 adult individuals were collected in the main ports and markets of the Pacific coast of Panama. Molecular identification based on cytochrome oxidase I gene segment of all species was verified GENBANK reference sequences. 34 species from 14 families (Ariidae, Lutjanidae, Caranjidae, Scianidae, Centropomidae, Serranidae, Scombridae, Sphyraenidae, Haemulidae, Gerreidae, Stromotidae, Lobotidae, Malacanthidae, Mugilidae) were identified at species molecular level from 164 sequences. Also, three Caribbean species were molecularly identified among the analyzed samples (Mycteroperca xenarcha, Paralonchurus brasilensis and Lobotes surinamensis). Species diversity was slightly higher in the Gulf of Panama than in the Gulf of Chiriquí. For species with 5 or more individual sequences, genetic diversity and genetic connectivity parameters such as: total number of haplotypes (H), haplotype diversity (Hd), and nucleotide diversity (π) were calculated. Overall, pelagic-migratory species showed higher values of genetic diversity than coastal and estuarine species with some exceptions. Connectivity between Gulf areas was compared using values of genetic distances and genetic differentiation (Fst). High level of connectivity observed between Gulf of Chiriqui and Gulf of Montijo indicates the existence of a single stock in that area for the following species: Scomberomorus sierra, Caranx caninus and Lutjanus guttatus. Demographic history of the most common species was examined using Tajima’s D values suggesting population expansion for two snapper species, L. peru and L. argentiventris, having significant and higher values. Another important contribution from this research was the production of primers and dual labeled probes for environmental DNA detection using qPCR for the five most abundant species (spotted rose snapper, yellow snapper, green jack, Pacific crevalle jack and the Pacific sierra fish). These markers represent a new set of tools for environmental DNA (eDNA) detection and molecular traceability of three commercially important fish species along the supply chain including landing sites and markets of the main fishery areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0328.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: mangrove forests; Marine Protected Areas; α-diversity; β-diversity; multivariate analyses
Online: 24 June 2022 (03:28:50 CEST)
Differences in fish assemblages’ structure and their relation with environmental variables (due to the variations in sampled seasons, habitats, and zones), were analyzed in two adjacent estuaries on the north Pacific coast of Mexico. Environmental variables and fish catches were registered monthly between August 2018 and October 2020. Multivariate analyses were conducted to define habitats and zones based on their environmental characteristics, and the effect of this variability on fish assemblages’ composition, biomass, and diversity (α and β) was evaluated. A total of 12,008 fish individuals of 143 species were collected using different fishing nets. Multivariate analyses indicated that fish assemblages’ structure was different between zones due to the presence, height, and coverage of distinct mangrove species. Additionally, factors such as depth and salinity showed effects on fish assemblages’ diversity (α and β-nestedness), which presented higher values in the ocean and remained similar in the rest of the analyzed zones and habitats. These results and the differences in species replacement (β-turnover) indicate the singularity of fish assemblages at estuaries (even in areas very close to the ocean), and the necessity to establish local management strategies for these ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0038.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Mediterranean steppes; drylands; alpha diversity; beta diversity; rangeland grazing; indicator species
Online: 5 January 2020 (15:22:33 CET)
Grazing exclusion has been proved to be one of the main measures for rehabilitating degraded arid steppes. However, the effect of this management practice on plant species diversity and composition is ambiguous, specially under prolonged droughts. Concurrently considering the responses of individual plant species, diversity of functional groups, α-diversity, and β-diversity (and its components) may be crucial to the holistic understanding of grazing exclusion effects on plant communities under drought conditions. Here, we investigated the response of these diversity measures to short-term sheep exclusion under severe drought episode in arid steppes of Alfa-grass (Stipa tenacissima) with a long evolutionary history of livestock grazing. Individual species responses were tested based on species occurrence and abundance in either grazed or grazing-excluded steppes, in addition, we used indicator species analysis to assess the strength of the association between plant species and management type. Likewise, α-diversity, abundance- and incidence-based β-diversity, as well as the functional groups’ diversities were quantified using Hill Numbers and compared between the two management types. Sheep grazing exclusion enabled the recovery of various Alfa-steppe indicator species and improved the size of regional species pool, overall α-diversity, and the diversity of therophytes. This management practice decreased the abundance-based β-diversity and the nestedness-resultant fraction of the incidence-based β-diversity at the local scale, while at the landscape scale increased the abundance-based β-diversity and its balanced variation fraction and reduced the incidence-based β-diversity and its turnover component. Furthermore, protection from grazing altered β-diversities scaling patterns by maintaining higher balanced variation in species abundance at large spatial scale and greater abundance-gradient in species composition at the fine-scale. Our results suggest that the implementation of short-term grazing exclusion in degraded arid steppes would be the appropriate management practice for vegetation restoration and plant diversity conservation during prolonged drought periods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0268.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: diversity; abundance; cartilaginous fish
Online: 20 June 2022 (10:10:54 CEST)
Although sharks have a fundamental role in maintaining the balance of aquatic ecosystems, exerting a great influence at lower levels, their populations are declining worldwide due, to a large extent, to overfishing. Of the 64 species registered in Ecuador, from January to December 2019, 19 species were recorded in Manta from 15455 captured individuals, with the family Carcharhinidae being the family most present in the catches (69.4%), and the most abundant species was Prionace glauca (57.9%). In the case of threatened species, such as Carcharhinus longimanus, Sphyrna lewini and Sphyrna zygaena, a greater presence of immature specimens was observed in landings, suggesting a possible existence of nursery areas. However, information on the composition and biological aspects of shark species in the Ecuadorian Pacific is very scarce. Therefore, research on the characteristics of life history (age, growth and maturity) are of utmost importance for the analysis evolution of the populations that are being exploited, especially in developing countries, where this information is very scarce, causing inadequate management of fishery resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0050.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Avian influenza; Reassortment; Diversity
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:32:39 CEST)
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) evolve via point mutations and reassortment of viral gene segments. The patterns of reassortment in different host species differ considerably. We investigated the genetic diversity of IAVs in wild ducks and compared it with the viral diversity in gulls. The complete genomes of 38 IAVs of H1N1, H1N2, H3N1, H3N2, H3N6, H3N8, H4N6, H5N3, H6N2, H11N6 and H11N9 subtypes isolated from wild mallard duck and gull habitants of a pond in Moscow city, Russia were sequenced. The sequences were closely related to those of avian IAVs isolated in Sweden and the Netherlands. The analysis of phylogenetic trees showed that stable viral genotypes do not persist from year to year in ducks owing to frequent gene reassortment. For comparison, similar analyses were carried out using sequences of IAVs isolated in the same period from ducks and gulls in the Netherlands. Our results revealed a significant difference in diversity and rates of reassorment of IAVs in ducks and gulls.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0010.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Diversity; Ecology; Fishes; Geoscience
Online: 2 December 2019 (10:38:09 CET)
Biological Hotspot research of fish larvae in estuarine waters of Timbulsoko Village, Demak was conducted in April-June 2019 in Timbulsoko Village. Timbulsloko has fertile waters because many fishermen make this location as a fishing ground area. Timbulsloko has the potential to become a nursery ground area and feeding ground for fish due to natural mangrove habitat but the abrasion disaster resulted in the degradation of the nursery ground habitat for early stage fish. The results showed that fish larvae caught in the waters of Timbulsloko Village consisted of 13 families. The composition of the types of fish larvae caught are Mugilidae, Siganidae, Gobiidae, Leiognathidae, Scatophagidae, Chanidae, Latidae, Engraulidae, Gerreidae, Carangidae, Bagridae, Sillaginidae, Ambassidae. The most common types of fish larvae are Ambassidae fish larvae, which are 46.98%, while the least caught are Carangidae fish larvae, Sillaginidae which is 1.01%. The largest abundance of fish larvae is 428,271 ind / m3 found at D2P2, while the abundance of fish larvae is at least at E1P1270 point with an abundance value of 51,498 ind / m3. The similarity of ecological habitat values at D2P2 and A2G1 points based on PCA analysis and the similarity of contours from spatial depth interpolation indicate the biological hotspot in the mangrove waters of Timbulsloko Village.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0346.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: diversity; ecology; fishes; geoscience
Online: 31 July 2019 (04:40:34 CEST)
Biological Hotspot larva ikan diperairan estusri Desa Timbulsoko, Demak dilakukan pada bulan April-Juni 2019 di Desa Timbulsoko. Timbulsloko memiliki perairan yang subur dikarenakan banyak nelayan yang menjadikan lokasi tersebut sebagai daerah fishing ground. Timbulsloko memiliki potensi untuk menjadi daerah nursery ground dan feeding ground untuk ikan dikarenakan adanya habitat mangrove yang alami akan tetapi bencana abrasi mengakibatkan degradasi habitat nursery ground untuk ikan stadia awal. Hasil penelitian menunjukan Larva ikan yang tertangkap di perairan Desa Timbulsloko terdiri dari 13 famili. Komposisi jenis-jenis larva ikan yang tertangkap adalah Mugilidae, Siganidae, Gobiidae, Leiognathidae, Scatophagidae, Chanidae, Latidae, Engraulidae, Gerreidae, Carangidae, Bagridae, Sillaginidae, Ambassidae. Jenis larva ikan yang paling banyak adalah larva ikan Ambassidae yaitu 46,98% sedangkan yang paling sedikit tertangkap adalah larva ikan Carangidae, Sillaginidae yaitu sebesar 1,01%. Kelimpahan larva ikan terbesar adalah 428,271 ind/m3 terdapat pada titik D2P2, sedangkan kelimpahan larva ikan paling sedikit pada titik NP4 dengan nilai kelimpahan adalah 25,974 ind/m3. Kemiripan nilai ekologis habitat pada titik D2P2 dan A2G1 berdasarkan analisis PCA dan kesamaan kontur dari interpolasi kedalaman secara spasial mengindikasikan adanya jejak biological hotspot di perairan mangrove Desa Timbulsloko sebelum terjadinya bencana abrasi.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0308.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Alpha diversity; Beta diversity; Mutton quality; Pasture-fed; Pen-fed; Tan lambs
Online: 13 April 2023 (08:01:03 CEST)
The mutton quality of Chinese Tan lambs (Ovis aries) has declined as feeding patterns have shifted from pasturing to pen rationing. Mutton quality is affected by fatty acids, and rumen microorganisms play a role in the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids, long-chain fatty acids, and conjugated linoleic acids. We used 16S rDNA sequencing to analyze the effects of two feeding patterns on the rumen bacteria of Tan lambs. In a randomized block design with 24 newborn Tan lambs, 12 lambs were fed by ewes in pasture and 12 were fed by pen-fed ewes. At 2 months, the biceps femoris and the longissimus dorsi were analyzed by gas chromatography for intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition, and DNA in the rumen contents was extracted and used to analyze the structure of the bacterial community. Different feeding patterns had no significant effect on the intramuscular fat content of the biceps femoris and longissimus dorsi of the lambs, but there was a significant effect on fatty acid composition. Rumen bacteria were significantly more diverse in the pasture group than in the pen-ration group (P < 0.01). Twenty-one phyla were identified in the pasture group, and 14 phyla were identified in the pen-ration group. The dominant phyla in the pasture group were Bacteroidetes and Fibrobacteres; the dominant phyla in the pen-ration group were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria was significantly higher in the pen-ration group than in the pasture group (P < 0.01). Diversity at the genus level was also higher in the pasture group, with 176 genera in the pasture group and 113 genera in the pen-ration group. The dominant genera in the pasture group were Prevotella_1, Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group, and Bacteroidales_BS11_gut_group_Na; the dominant genera in the pen-ration group were Prevotella_1, Prevotella_7, Succinivibrionaceae_UCG-001, and Succinivibrionaceae_NA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0018.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: temperate forests; species richness; lineage diversity; phylogenetic diversity; United States; trees; TILD
Online: 13 February 2019 (10:15:50 CET)
Lineage diversity can refer to the number of genetic lineages within species or to the number of deeper evolutionary lineages, such as genera or families, within a community. Community lineage diversity (CLD) is of interest to ecologists, evolutionary biologists, biogeographers, and those setting conservation priorities. Despite its relevance, it is not clear how to best quantify CLD. With North American tree communities as an example, we test which taxonomic and phylogenetic metrics best measure CLD. We find that phylogenetic metrics outperform taxonomic metrics. Faith’s phylogenetic diversity performs well, but is skewed towards the number of lineages in recent time. The best metric is newly derived here, and termed time integrated lineage diversity (TILD). Mapping the lineage diversity of tree communities across the contiguous United States, we find a spatial pattern differing from that of species richness in key areas. The Pacific Northwest, Great Lakes Region, state of Maine, and south-eastern piedmont and coastal plain forests all emerge as areas high in lineage diversity, but relatively lower in species richness. We urge the consideration of lineage diversity, as well as species richness, when setting conservation priorities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0283.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: alpha diversity; beta diversity; floristic arrangement; geological landscapes; geomorphology; Ecuador; mountain forests
Online: 15 October 2018 (06:19:16 CEST)
1) Background: Neotropical montane forests represent one of the most diverse ecosystems; however, they are also the most threatened for deforestation. Our main goal is to evaluate the change in Basal Area (BA), Density and Species Composition of montane forests in the southern Ecuador and to determine the influence on some critical ecological and geomorphological factors. 2) Methods: One hundred thirty-two temporary plots of 400 m2 each were installed; we identified and measured all trees> 10 cm DBH. We modeled species diversity (Fisher’s alpha) change in relation to climatic, elevational and geomorphological gradients with GLM and Kruskall-Wallis analyses. The change in composition was determined using Cluster Analyses (BIOENV analysis followed by a LINKTREE procedure). Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to analyze changes across climatic and geomorphological gradients. Finally, we used SIMPER analysis to identify the species that contributed most to the dissimilarity among the different elevations. 3) Results: Formation of floristic groups was influenced by altitude, temperature and Isothermality; physiographic province, great landscape, geological landscape and lithology. Plots located in low hills have higher alpha diversity with respect to the high hills and dissected mountains. 4) Conclusions: The elevation is first hierarchical factor responsible of the division of structural and floristic groups. Plots located on the whitish tuff have a higher alpha value diversity compared with plots in andesitic tuffs. Wettest quarter (> 839 mm) and Isothermality (> 90.5) are the climatic factors that driven de floristic divisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: indoor location; fine time measurement; round trip time; FTM; RTT; IEEE 802.11mc; IEEE 802.11-2016; time diversity; spatial diversity; bandwidth diversity; frequency diversity; Bayesian grid; observation model; transition model
Online: 8 January 2020 (04:18:02 CET)
Determination of indoor location based on fine time measurement (FTM) of the round trip time (RTT) of a signal between an initiator (smartphone) and a responder (Wi-Fi access point) enables a number of applications. However, the accuracy currently attainable — standard deviations of 1–2 meter in distance measurement under favorable circumstances — limits the range of possible application. A first responder, for example, may not be able to unequivocally determine on which floor someone in need of help is in a multi-story building. The error in location depends on several factors, including the bandwidth of the RF signal, delay of the signal due to the high relative permittivity of construction materials, and the geometry-dependent “noise gain” of location determination. Errors in distance measurements have unusual properties that are exposed here for the first time. Improvements in accuracy depend on understanding all of these error sources. This paper introduces “frequency diversity,” a method for doubling the accuracy of indoor location determination using weighted averages of measurements with uncorrelated errors obtained in different channels. The properties of this method are verified experimentally with a range of responders. Finally, different ways of using the distance measurements to determine indoor location are discussed and the Bayesian grid update method shown to be more useful than others, given the non- Gaussian nature of the measurement errors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0284.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Symbiodinaceae; genetic diversity; coral symbiosis
Online: 21 June 2022 (04:49:04 CEST)
Within microeukaryotes, genetic and functional variation sometimes accumulate more quickly than morphological differences. To understand the evolutionary history and ecology of such lineages, it is key to examine diversity at multiple levels of organization. In the dinoflagellate family Symbiodiniaceae, which can form endosymbioses with cnidarians (e.g., corals, octocorals, sea anemones, jellies), other marine invertebrates (e.g., sponges, molluscs, flatworms), and protists (e.g., foraminifera), molecular data have been used extensively over the past three decades to describe phenotypes and to make evolutionary and ecological inferences. Despite advances in Symbiodiniaceae genomics, a lack of consensus among researchers with respect to interpreting genetic data has slowed progress in the field and acted as a barrier to reconciling observations. Here, we identify key challenges regarding the assessment and interpretation of Symbiodiniaceae genetic diversity across three levels: species, populations, and communities. We summarize areas of agreement and highlight techniques and approaches that are broadly accepted. In areas where debate remains, we identify unresolved issues and discuss technologies and approaches that can help to fill knowledge gaps related to genetic and phenotypic diversity. We also discuss ways to stimulate progress, in particular by fostering a more inclusive and collaborative research community. We hope that this perspective will inspire and accelerate coral reef science by serving as a resource to those designing experiments, publishing research, and applying for funding related to Symbiodiniaceae and their symbiotic partnerships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0397.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: phage; dairy; Lactococcus; diversity; community
Online: 19 August 2021 (10:30:53 CEST)
Background: The dairy industry heavily relies on fermentation processes driven in high proportion by Lactococcus lactis. The fermentation process can be perturbed or even stopped by bacteriophage activity leading to complete loss of fermentation batch or decreased quality product. Monitoring of the phage diversity and dynamics in the process allows to implement protective measures (e.g. starter rotation) in order to maintain unperturbed production.; Methods: Universal primers were used to amplify sequences of the 936, c2, and P335 Lactococcus phage types. The amplicons were sequences with Sanger method and obtained degenerate sequences were analyzed using simple bioinformatic pipeline in R environment.; Results: The most prevalent phage type is 936, followed by P335, whereas c2 type is less frequent.; Conclusions: Curd cheeses prepared on non-pasteurized milk based on native milk microbiota had higher diversity of phages distinct of these found in dairy plants. Sanger sequencing of heterogenous amplicons generated on metagenome DNA can be used to asses low-complexity microbiota diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0254.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Insects; Diversity; ecosystem health; Ambon
Online: 9 March 2021 (10:03:23 CET)
Insects are the dominant group of organisms and act as indicators of biodiversity, ecosystem health, and landscape degradation. The research objective was to determine the spread of insects in the Mount Nona Ambon Protected Forest. The research was conduct in January - March 2020 using Pitfall traps, light traps, Sweep nets, Bait traps, namely detergent, sugar solution and tuna fish. The research was carried out in 2 ha as many as five lanes with a systematic inventory sampling method where the length of the line was 100 meters, 20 m wide and 20 m spacing between lanes. The analysis use descriptively quantitative by calculating the Diversity Index (H ') of Shannon Winner, Abundance Index (K), Dominance Index (C) and Evenness Index. The results of the study found 4063 individuals, 13 species in five orders. The Hymenoptera order dominated the spread of insects in the protected forest of Mount Nona, the Formicidae family with the smallest number of 12 individuals, namely Isodontia auripes from the order Hymenoptera family Sphecidae, and the largest number of them was Anoplolepis gracilipes with 401 individuals from the order Hymenoptera family Formicidae. The difference in insects' spread in the observation path is thought to be caused by differences in microclimate, altitude, vegetation cover, insect movement, light intensity and food availability.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0021.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: diversity; inclusion; equity; fieldwork; research
Online: 2 August 2020 (11:55:47 CEST)
As a result of identity prejudice, certain individuals are at higher risk for conflict and violence when they are in the field. At-risk individuals include minority identities of the following: race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, disability, gender identity, and/or religion. Everyone deserves to conduct fieldwork as safely as possible; therefore, it is paramount for anyone conducting fieldwork to be informed of the increased risk certain populations face when conducting field research and to define informed strategies. Research groups should adhere to best practices to minimize risk for all individuals who go into the field. Here we provide strategies that 1) acknowledge that some individuals encounter dangerous situations in the field due to their identity(ies), and 2) minimize the chance of conflict between and among researchers and other communities present at field sites. The inclusion of this document as a key resource in a research lab, a university department, or any active research or work environment sends a positive signal to at-risk individuals that their professional community acknowledges their risk and is willing to implement actions to ensure their safety. We suggest that this document be made freely available to anyone who is directly or indirectly involved in fieldwork. Supervisors who support the information in this document should publicly commit to promote a diverse and inclusive environment in order to maintain the safety of their researchers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0366.v1
Online: 19 July 2018 (15:43:50 CEST)
This paper investigates how Islamic tolerance contributes to solve religious conflict today that has impacted on various aspects such as economic collapse, insecurity in life, lack of professional society, academic retrogressions, and so on. Knowledge of these issues has become an urgent to build a community that is full of peace, harmony and unity. The paper suggests that Quranic views on tolerance should be understood and practiced in order to avoid disunity in society which is due to failure to appreciate tolerance values in association. The paper concludes problems or misunderstandings always occur in different religious societies, since every religion has its own teachings and principles, as well as each of them is interpreted in different ways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0179.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Diversity; resource curse; economic growth.
Online: 13 April 2018 (14:18:36 CEST)
This paper contributes to the debate on the impact of economic diversity and the resource curse on economic growth. We use dynamic panel data models on data on Canadian and US sub-national jurisdictions. We find evidence for a positive relationship between diversity and growth. Based on the Krugman Specialization Index, our analysis shows that the required threshold for not having the resource curse is 0.209. Above this threshold, the marginal contribution of natural resources to economic growth is lower for a more diversified regional economy than a less diversified one. We highlight the policy implications of these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0247.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: drought; diversity; oaks; remote sensing
Online: 26 January 2018 (04:52:27 CET)
Drought periods have an adverse impact on the condition of oak stands. Research on different types of ecosystems has confirmed a correlation between plant species diversity and the adverse effects of droughts. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes which occurred in an oak stand (Krotoszyn Plateau, Poland) under the impact of the summer drought in 2015. We used a method based on remote sensing indices from satellite images in order to detect changes in the vegetation in 2014 and 2015. A positive difference was interpreted as an improvement, whereas a negative one was treated as a deterioration of the stand condition. The Shannon-Wiener species diversity was estimated using an iterative PCA algorithm based on aerial images. We observed a relationship between the species indices of the individual forest divisions and their response to drought. The highest correlation between the index differences and the Shannon-Wiener indices was found for the GNDVI index (+0.74). In addition, correlations were observed between the mean index difference and the percentage shares in the forest divisions of species such as Pinus sylvestris (+0.67 ± 0.08) and Quercus robur (-0.65 ± 0.10). Our results lead us to infer that forest management based on highly diverse habitats is more suitable to meet the challenges in the context of global climatic changes, characterized by increasingly frequent droughts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0116.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: diversity; algorithms; legal information retrieval
Online: 23 November 2016 (09:50:24 CET)
"Public legal information from all countries and international institutions is part of the common heritage of humanity. Maximizing access to this information promotes justice and the rule of law". In accordance with the aforementioned declaration on Free Access to Law by Legal information institutes of the world, a plethora of legal information is available through the Internet, while the provision of legal information has never before been easier. Given that law is accessed by a much wider group of people, the majority of whom are not legally trained or qualified, diversification techniques, should be employed in the context of legal information retrieval, as to increase user satisfaction. We address diversification of results in legal search by adopting several state of the art methods from the web search, network analysis and text summarization domains. We provide an exhaustive evaluation of the methods, using a standard data set from the Common Law domain that we subjectively annotated with relevance judgments for this purpose. Our results i) reveal that users receive broader insights across the results they get from a legal information retrieval system, ii) demonstrate that web search diversification techniques outperform other approaches (e.g., summarization-based, graph-based methods) in the context of legal diversification and iii) offer balance boundaries between reinforcing relevant documents or sampling the information space around the legal query.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0385.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Cancer; Immunotherapy; Deconvolution; Alpha diversity; Beta diversity; Precision medicine; Microenvironment; Single-cell RNA sequencing
Online: 13 November 2020 (14:18:40 CET)
Cancer immunotherapy reaches a remarkable achievement in various cancer types and brings new possibilities to improve cancer patients’ long-term survival. However, outcomes vary from case to case, and the present protocol benefits a small fraction of patients. One notable factor is the tumor microenvironment, especially the immune cell components, that may reflect the immune response's status quo on site. Thus, understanding the content of infiltrating immune cells in tumors is not only for research interesting but also a crucial subject toward precision medicine. We implement an algorithm for resolving relative proportions of twenty-one immune cell subclasses from a human tissue profiled transcriptome by microarray technology to reach the goal above. By selecting gene features and then adopting ?-Support Vector Regression, we can construct a deconvolution model and resolve the immune cell context. The excellent consistency between the estimated values and the correct immune-cell composition further demonstrates this approach provides a more natural alternative to revealing samples' immune cell content and reliable results like recent single-cell technologies. Based on this algorithm, the web-based deconvolution tool implemented named mySORT provides a user-friendly interface for estimating the immune cell content by uploading gene expression profiling. We also present comprehensive visualization 2D/3D plots in mySORT so that users can easily make a comparison between different samples. Finally, we synthesized pseudo-bulk expression data from single-cell transcriptomic datasets of 17 melanoma and 16 head and neck cancer patients. The deconvolution results of microarray-based data in the previous study and synthetic pseudo-bulk data all proved the excellent performance of mySORT. We believe that mySORT can help researchers in all fields easily understand complex immune microenvironment. The website of mySORT is freely accessible on https://symbiosis.iis.sinica.edu.tw/mySORT/.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0627.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: chemical space; chemical data set; chemoinformatics; consensus diversity plot; drug discovery; molecular diversity; visualization
Online: 30 November 2018 (10:06:15 CET)
Compound databases of natural products have a major impact on drug discovery projects and other areas of research. The number of databases in the public domain with compounds from natural origin is increasing. Several countries have initiatives in place to construct and maintain compound databases that are representative of their diversity. Examples are Brazil, France, Panama and recently Vietnam. Herein, we discuss the first version of BIOFACQUIM, a novel compound database with natural products isolated and characterized in Mexico. We discuss its construction, curation, and a complete chemoinformatic characterization of the content and coverage in chemical space. It is reported the profile of physicochemical properties, scaffold content, and diversity, as well as structural diversity based on molecular fingerprints. BIOFACQUIM is freely available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0945.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: pigeon pea; bacterial diversity; metataxonomic analysis
Online: 16 October 2023 (13:15:21 CEST)
: With the increase in demand for non-dairy starter cultures and probiotic bacteria as carriers, the use of legumes (also called pulses) as an alternative has gained momentum. In this study, we investigated the diversity of bacterial communities in samples of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) soaked in water for 12 h and 24 h. We soaked 500 g of pigeon pea in sterile distilled water at room temperature (± 25 °C) for 12 h and 24 h; 10 mL of the soaking water was then collected to measure the bacterial diversity using a metataxonomic analysis. The V1–V9 regions on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene were amplified using 27F and 1492R primers under specific polymerase chain reaction conditions for the bacterial identification. Genomic DNA (130 ng) was sequenced on a R9.4 flow cell by Oxford Nanopore Technologies using a GridION sequencer. Library preparations were initiated using a Native Barcoding Kit 24 V14 (SQK-NBD114.24). Primary data were acquired using MinKNOW version 22.05.7. A total of 13 bacterial families and 89 genera were identified in the pigeon pea sample soaked for 12 h; 26 families and 90 genera were identified in the pigeon pea sample soaked for 24 h. Among the bacterial families identified, the five predominant families in both samples were Enterobacteriaceae, Erwiniaceae, Yersiniaceae, Pectobacteriaceae, and Lactobacillaceae. According to the relative abundance of the identified bacterial genera, the following nine genera were predominant in both samples: Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Pantoea, Kosakonia, Pseudoenterobacter, Pluralibacter, Leclercia, and Kluyvera. At a genus level, a slight increase in the abundance of Klebsiella, Kosakonia, and Pluralibacter and a slight decrease in the abundance of Citrobacter were observed after prolonged incubation from 12 h to 24 h. The values of five diversity indices revealed that the sample soaked in water for 24 h had a richer bacterial abundance and diversity than the 12 h sample. Shannon and Simpson values revealed a higher bacterial diversity in the sample collected at 24 h than the sample collected at 12 h. Species observations and abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) values demonstrated that the sample collected at 24 h harbored a higher bacterial richness than the sample collected at 12 h. These findings indicated that the bacterial diversity in the pigeon pea samples increased with the soaking time. The bacterial communities during the soaking of the pigeon pea samples were dominated by the Enterobacteriaceae family and Enterobacter genus. The presence of bacterial genera such as Lacticaseibacillus, Lentilactobacillus, and Secundilactobacillus was notable because of their importance as starter cultures for fermented plant-based milk products, including pigeon pea beverages for lactose-intolerant individuals or individuals with malnutrition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0419.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: soil health; mirobilogy; diversity; tree health
Online: 8 October 2023 (04:33:39 CEST)
This article delves into the pivotal role that biodiversity of soil microbes plays in bolstering tree health and overall agroecosystem productivity. With the advent of regenerative agricultural practices, there has been a resurgence of interest in understanding the complex interactions between soil microbiota and plant roots, particularly through processes like rhizophagy. Rhizophagy, the digestion of living root cells by soil microorganisms, stands out as a fundamental mechanism in nutrient cycling and overall tree vitality. By examining the impact of enhanced microbial diversity on tree health, we shed light on the practical applications, such as the utilization of the BEAM Inoculant product, which has demonstrated remarkable efficacy in augmenting soil health and, consequently, tree Vigor
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1064.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, History Keywords: culture; gender; business; organization; religion; diversity
Online: 18 September 2023 (05:30:42 CEST)
ABSTRACT: This paper provides an overview of the complex relationship between culture, gender, and business. It highlights the importance of understanding how these factors intersect and influence various aspects of the business world, including organizational practices, leadership styles, workplace dynamics, and economic outcomes. It also explores how cultural factors shape gender roles, expectations, and opportunities within the business context. Additionally, it discusses the implications of cultural influences on women's participation, advancement, and overall experiences in the business world. Understanding the interplay between culture, gender, and business is essential for fostering inclusive and diverse workplaces. Organizations that embrace cultural diversity and gender equality tend to exhibit greater creativity, innovation, and adaptability. They also benefit from increased employee satisfaction, improved decision-making processes, and enhanced financial performance. The work also examined how the values, beliefs, socialization, and team spirit of some distinct ethnic groups such as Japanese, Chinese, Jews, Igbo, and Indians have helped in the economic growth of not the groups alone but the countries where they reside. By examining these dynamics and cultures, scholars, practitioners, and policymakers can gain insights to develop effective strategies that promote gender equality, cultural sensitivity, and inclusive practices in the business world, ultimately leading to more equitable and prosperous societies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0692.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: biosphere reserve; disturbance; functional diversity; zonation
Online: 11 July 2023 (10:55:14 CEST)
In many previous studies, the conclusions for the effects of disturbance and environmental gradients on the diversity was remain controversial due to exclusions of trait-based diversity in their methodology. This study hypothesized trait-based indices are more likely to show monotonic and predictable relations than traditional based species diversity to guide effective restoration of tree species diversity against environmental change and anthropogenic factors. This study therefore, was initiated to access trait based functional diversity of Yayu Coffee Forest Biosphere Reserve (YCFBR), Southwest Ethiopia. Data was collected from 90 proportionally distributed plots along disturbance levels from core, buffer and transitional zones. For functional trait diversity estimation, traits relevant to plant-life strategy, competition and response to disturbances and climate change were selected. Multiple regression model was used to test the response of species diversity and functional diversity to disturbance and environmental gradients. The result revealed that, anthropogenic disturbance and elevational gradients are the most important factors influencing functional diversity in the YCFBR. Overall this study demonstrates that, trait based functional diversity is useful to predict adaptation potentials of species in heterogeneous environments. Species with low specific leaf area & selective seed mass is recommended for the restoration of disturbed ecosystem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1425.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Haemoglobin; Anaemia; Dietary, Diversity; Random-effect
Online: 19 May 2023 (10:06:34 CEST)
Anaemia is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the World and is associated with long-lasting developmental effects in children. Anaemia weakens the immune system and im-pairs cognitive development of children. Anaemia is multifactorial; therefore, anaemia’s pre-ventive/control measures should be evidence-based. This paper aimed to investigate the preva-lence and correlates of anaemia in preschool aged children at individual, maternal/household and community level in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Retrospective, nationally representative cross-sectional data, the 2013-2014 DRC Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) was used. Three -levels random intercept logistics regression models were fitted to the data using the outcome anaemia in children, defined as a haemoglobin concentration below 11dl with potential risk factors grouped at individual, maternal/household and community levels. Anaemia in children is a severe public health issue in the DRC, 63% of school-aged children are anaemic. Anaemia is highly prevalent amongst males, children with infections (fever/malaria and intestinal parasites), whose mothers are anaemic, from the poorest household, and whose drinking source of water is unclean, and who reside in provinces with recent/previous armed forces attacks. Results from this paper highlight the need for a clean and safe environment for children’s growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1234.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: structure; diversity; anthropic disturbance; conservation; Lepidoptera
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:38:26 CEST)
Montes de María is the best-preserved tropical dry forest fragment in the Colombian Caribbean, making it an ideal location for studying the impacts of human disturbance on local ecosystems. This study analyzed the ecological structure of diurnal butterflies in both forested and disturbed areas using 16 circular plots to identify relationships between alpha and beta diversity, and the geographic distance between disturbed areas and native forests, using a range of metrics, including range-abundance and rarefaction curves, nonlinear models, and the Bray–Curtis dissimilarity index. Results revealed three distinct species assemblages associated with forest, intermediate disturbed areas (IDA), and disturbed areas (DA). Nonlinear models show that IDA are more diverse than forest and DA. However, forests have more beta diversity among plots than IDA and DA. Indicator species for each butterfly assemblage were also identified. Thus, although new butterfly species assemblages emerge from a new human land-scape, it is clear that species that only occur within dry forest fragments are lost when forest fragments disappear. Overall, these findings have important implications for conservation efforts and understanding how human disturbance affects biodiversity in tropical ecosystems.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0879.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: glucosinolate; germplasm; breeding; anticancer; genebank; diversity
Online: 12 May 2023 (04:27:49 CEST)
The aim of this study was to analyze glucosinolates (GSLs) in germplasms that are currently conserved at the RDA-Genebank. The analysis focused on the glucosinolate diversity among the analyzed germplasms, with the goal of identifying those that would be most useful for future breeding efforts to produce nutritionally rich Choy sum plants..Twenty-three accessions of Choy sum which possessed ample background passport information were selected. By analyzing the glucosinolate content for 17 different glucosinolates, we observed aliphatic GSLs to be the most common. We identified one accession, IT228140 to synthesize high quantities of glucobrassi-canapin and progoitrin which have been reported to contain several therapeutic applications. Overall, this study highlights the importance of conserving and analyzing plant genetic re-sources, such as those held in national genebanks, for the purpose of developing new varieties of crops that are both nutritious and beneficial for human health. The identification of excellent germplasms for breeding material and the confirmation of the anticancer effects of glucosin-olates are significant contributions to the field of agricultural research and have the potential to positively impact public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0206.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: Africa; forest; savanna; phylogenetic; diversity; transition
Online: 4 May 2023 (06:04:39 CEST)
In tropical Africa, forests and savannas are the two most widespread biomes and potentially represent alternative stable states with divergent species composition. A classic, but untested, hypothesis posited by White (1983) suggests that the transition zones between forests and savannas contain a floristically impoverished assemblage with few representatives from each biome. Further, the evolutionary dimension of diversity has received limited attention, despite its importance for understanding the biogeographic history of biomes. Here, we quantify species richness and several measures of evolutionary diversity in 1° grid cells, using c. 300K occurrence records of trees and shrubs combined with biome affiliation data for 3,125 species. We find that assemblages in transition zones hold fewer woody species than assemblages in forest and savanna zones, as posited by White. However, transition zones hold more phylogenetic diversity than expected given their species richness, whether one considers forest and savanna assemblages separately or together. We also show that the Congo basin forest has low levels of phylogenetic diversity given the number of species and highlight south-eastern African savannas as a centre of savanna woody species richness and phylogenetic diversity. Regions with high phylogenetic diversity given the number of both forest and savanna species were centred around the Dahomey Gap and Cameroon, mainly in transition zones. Overall, our study shows that even if floristically impoverished, transition zones lead to unexpectedly high evolutionary diversity, suggesting they are important centres of evolutionary innovation and diversification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0056.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Emergency Medical Services; paramedics; gender; diversity
Online: 15 February 2023 (04:34:52 CET)
Introduction: Like other public safety professions, paramedicine has historically been a male-dominated occupation, both in the demography of its workforce and in its organizational culture. Although women are increasingly choosing paramedicine as a career, participation in leadership roles remains limited. Drawing on data from a recent comprehensive mental health survey, we describe the proportion of women in leadership in a single, large, urban paramedic service in Ontario, Canada. Methods: We distributed an in-person, paper-based survey during the fall 2019 - winter 2020 Continuing Medical Education (CME) sessions. Participating paramedics completed a demographic questionnaire alongside a battery of mental health screening tools. We assessed the demography of the workforce and explored differences in employment classification, provider level (e.g., primary vs. advanced care), and participation in formal leadership roles along self-reported gender lines. Results: Out of 607 paramedics attending CME, we received 600 completed surveys, with 11 excluded for missing data, leaving 589 for analysis and a 97% response rate. Women comprised 40% of the active-duty paramedic workforce, with an average of 8 years of experience. Compared to men, women were more than twice as likely to have a university degree (Odds Ratio [OR] 2.02), but almost half as likely to practice at the Advanced Care Paramedic level (OR 0.61), and somewhat less likely to be employed full-time (OR 0.77). Women were nearly 70% less likely to hold a leadership role in the service compared to men (OR 0.36), occupying just 20% of leadership positions. Conclusion: Although paramedicine is witnessing an encouraging shift in the demography of its workforce with greater participation from women, there is still work to be done, particularly in leadership. Future research should focus on identifying and ameliorating barriers to career advancement among women and other historically underrepresented people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0283.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: molecular ecology; functional diversity; DNA sequencing
Online: 28 April 2022 (10:31:56 CEST)
Wildfires have continued to increase in frequency and severity in Southern California due in part to climate change. To gain a further understanding of microbial soil communities’ response to fire and functions that may enhance post-wildfire resilience, soil fungal and bacterial microbiomes were studied from different wildfire areas in the Gold Creek Preserve within the Angeles National Forest using 16S, FITS, 18S, 12S, PITS, and CO1 amplicon sequencing. Sequencing datasets from December 2020 and June 2021 samplings were analyzed using DNA Subway, ranacapa, stats, vcd, EZBioCloud, and mixomics. Significant differences were found among bacterial and fungal taxa associated with different fire areas in the Gold Creek Preserve. There was evidence of seasonal shifts in the alpha diversity of the bacterial communities. In the sparse partial least squares analysis, there were strong associations (r>0.8) between longitude, elevation, and a defined cluster of Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs). The Chi-square test revealed differences in fungi:bacteria (F:B) proportions between different trails (p=2*10^-16). sPLS results focused on a cluster of Green Trail samples with high elevation and longitude. Analysis revealed the cluster included the post-fire pioneer fungi Pyronema, and Tremella. Chlorellales algae, and pathogenic Fusarium sequences were elevated. Bacterivorous Corallococcus, which secretes antimicrobials, and bacterivorous flagellate Spumella, were associated with the cluster. There was functional redundancy in clusters that were differently composed, but shared similar ecological functions. These results implied a set of traits for post fire resiliency. These included photo-autotrophy, mineralization of pyrolyzed organic matter and aromatic/oily compounds, pathogenicity and parasitism, antimicrobials, and N-metabolism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0414.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Giardia duodenalis; Assemblages; Epidemiology; Genetic diversity
Online: 27 January 2022 (11:18:33 CET)
Gut protozoan parasites are neglected and not targeted by specific control initiatives and this have led to a knowledge gap concerning their regional diversity and epidemiology. The present study aims to explore Giardia duodenalis genetic diversity and assess the epidemiologic scenario of subclinical infections in different Brazilian biogeographic regions. Cross-sectional surveys (n=1,334 subjects) were conducted in the Amazon, Cerrado, Semiarid and Atlantic Forest. Microscopy of non-diarrheal feces and nucleotide sequencing of a β-giardin gene fragment were performed. Twenty-seven (52.9%) β-giardin sequences were characterized as assemblage A and 24 (47.1%) as assemblage B. In Amazon, assemblage B was the most frequently detected with 2 novel sub-assemblages. Assemblage A predominated in the extra-Amazon region, with 5 novel sub-assemblages. Prevalence rates reached 17.8% in Amazon, 8.8% in Atlantic Forest, 7.4% in Cerrado and 2.3% in the Semiarid. People living in poverty and extreme poverty presented significantly higher positivity rates, reaching 11.9% and 14.5%, respectively. Giardiasis tended to be more frequent in stunted (21.6%) than in eutrophic children (12.9%). In conclusion, subclinical giardiasis in endemic in Brazilian communities in different biogeographic regions, presenting high genetic diversity and a heterogeneous genotypic distribution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0560.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: diversity index; multifractal; metagenome; gut mtagenome
Online: 26 July 2021 (10:04:41 CEST)
Species diversity in microbiome is a cutting-edge concept in metagenomic research. In this study, we propose a multifractal analysis for metagenomic research. From the chaos game representation (CGR) visualization of simulated and real metagenomes, we find that there exists self-similarity in the visualization of metagenomes. Then we compute the multifractal dimensions for simulated and real metagenomes. For simulated metagenomes, we also compute their diversity indices, such as species richness indices, Shannon’s diversity indices and Simpson’s diversity indices respectively for varying value of . Fom the Pearson correlation coefficients between their multifractal dimensions and traditional species diversity indices, we find that the correlation coefficients between the multifractal dimensions and species richness indices and Shannon diversity indices reach their maximums at respectively. The correlation coefficients between the multifractal dimensions and Simpson’s diversity indices reach their maximums at nearly. So the traditional diversity indices can be unified by the frame of multifractal analysis. These results coincided with the similar results in macrobial ecology. Finally, we apply our methods to real metagenomes of 100 infants’ gut microbiomes when they are newborn, 4 months and 12 months. Our results show that multifractal dimensions of infants’ gut microbiomes can discriminate the age difference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0349.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Bemisia tabaci; genetic diversity; distribution; haplotype
Online: 28 November 2019 (03:24:39 CET)
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a polyphagous, highly destructive pest capable of vectoring viruses in most agricultural crops. Currently, information on the distribution and genetic diversity of B. tabaci in South Sudan is not available. The objectives of this study were to investigate the genetic variability of B. tabaci infesting sweet potato and cassava in South Sudan. Field surveys were conducted between August 2017 and July and August 2018 in 10 locations in Juba County, Central Equatoria State, South Sudan. Sequences of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) were used to determine the phylogenetic relationships between sampled B. tabaci. Six distinct genetic groups of B. tabaci were identified including three non-cassava haplotypes (Mediterranean (MED), Indian Ocean (IO) and Uganda) and three cassava haplotypes (Sub-Saharan Africa 1 sub-group 1 (SSA1-SG1), SSA1-SG3 and SSA2). MED predominated on sweet potato and SSA2 on cassava in all the sampled locations. The Uganda haplotype was also widespread, occurring in five of the sampled locations. This study provides important information on the diversity of B. tabaci species in South Sudan. A comprehensive assessment of the genetic diversity, geographical distribution, population dynamics and host range of B. tabaci species in South Sudan is vital for its effective management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0249.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Fungal diversity; Saccharomyces; genetic diversity; glyphosate-based herbicides; copper-based fungicides; RoundUp Ready™ corn; phylogenetics
Online: 17 February 2020 (15:37:11 CET)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae are a phenotypically diverse species that adapt to a wide variety of environments by exploiting standing genetic diversity and selecting for advantageous mutations. Glyphosate and copper-based herbicides/ fungicides affect non-target organisms, these incidental exposures can impact microbial populations. In this study, glyphosate resistance was found in the historical collection of yeast which was collected over the last century, but only in yeast isolated after the introduction of glyphosate. The highest glyphosate-resistant yeasts were isolated from agricultural sites. However, herbicide application at these sites was not recorded. In an effort to assess glyphosate resistance and impact on non-target microorganisms, yeast were harvested from 15 areas with known herbicidal histories, including an organic farm, conventional farm, remediated coal mine, suburban locations, state park, and a national forest. Yeast representing 23 genera were isolated from 237 samples of plant, soil, spontaneous fermentation, nut, flower, fruit, feces, and tree material samples. Saccharomyces, Candida, Metschnikowia, Klyveromyces, Hanseniaspora, and Pichia were other genera commonly found across our sampled environments. Managed areas had less species diversity and at the brewery, only Saccharomyces and Pichia were isolated. A conventional farm growing RoundUp Ready™ corn had the lowest phylogenetic diversity and the highest glyphosate resistance. The mine was sprayed with multiple herbicides including a commercial formulation of glyphosate; however, the yeast did not have elevated glyphosate resistance. In contrast to the conventional farm, the mine was exposed to glyphosate only one year prior to sample isolation. Glyphosate resistance is an example of the anthropogenic selection of nontarget organisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0029.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: furunculosis; Aeromonas salmonicida; Salmo salar; genomic diversity
Online: 1 December 2023 (05:31:10 CET)
Furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, poses a significant threat to both salmonid and non-salmonid fish in diverse aquatic environments. This study explores the genomic intricacies of re-emergent A. salmonicida outbreaks in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Previous clinical cases have exhibited pathological characteristics, such as periorbital hemorrhages and gastrointestinal abnormalities. Genomic sequencing of three Chilean isolates (ASA04, ASA05, and CIBA_5017) and 25 previously described genomes determined the pan-genome, phylogenomics, insertion sequences, and restriction-modification systems. Unique gene families have contributed to an improved understanding of the psychrophilic and mesophilic clades, while phylogenomic analysis has been used to identify mesophilic and psychrophilic strains, thereby further differentiating between typical and atypical psychrophilic isolates. Diverse insertion sequences and restriction-modification patterns have highlighted genomic structural differences and virulence factor predictions can emphasize exotoxin disparities, especially between psychrophilic and mesophilic strains. Thus, a novel plasmid was characterized, which emphasized the role of plasmids in virulence and antibiotic resistance. The analysis of antibiotic resistance factors revealed resistance against various drug classes in Chilean strains. Overall, this study elucidates the genomic dynamics of re-emergent A. salmonicida and provides novel insights into their virulence, antibiotic resistance, and population structure. However, rigorous monitoring and control in aquaculture remain crucial to mitigate the spread of antibiotic resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1261.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Fungi; Diversity; Western Himalayan region; PCA; ANOVA
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:28:18 CEST)
The western Himalayan region is a biodiversity hotspot. Although many of the flora and fauna are documented, there are very few studies of the fungal diversity. Here, we present the statistical analyses of the specimen collections from the past 150 years of data in the fungarium of the Forest Research Institute. We found that the host tree species, pine, oak, deodar, and spruce, had very high Shannon diversity (SD) and species richness (SR), while Dalbergia and Rhododendron showed moderate to low SD, SR; Sal, although found at lower altitudes has high SD, SR. Among the fungal families, the highest SD, SR was found in Polyporaceae. Hymenochaetaceae, Peniophoraceae, Coleosporiaceae, and Stereaceae also showed SD with moderate SR. Fomitopsidaceae, Cronartiaceae, Ganodermataceae, and Thelephoraceae have low species diversity and species. Thelesporaceae are distributed above 2000 m altitude, and Ganodermateceae and Hymenochaetaceae have broader ranges, namely 0 - 3500 m and 0 - 5000 m, respectively. The Polyporaceae show diverse variations in species distribution, occurring between 0 and 4500 m; Colesporaceae and Cronartiaceae around 2000 m; and, Stereaceae, Meruliaceae, Peniophoraceae, and Fomitopsidaceae occur between 1700 and 1800 m, with all Stereaceae and Fomitopsidaceae having different distribution ranges up to 5000 m. We found that areas with relatively low rainfall had lower species richness, and vice versa, and high solar radiation also negatively impacted fungal density and SR. Similar studies must be undertaken in other parts of the Himalayas, and the importance of fungi in ethnobotanical needs to be understood for ensuring sustainable use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1579.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: species composition; tree diversity; regeneration; forest management
Online: 25 July 2023 (05:37:03 CEST)
Tropical forests provide habitats for diverse flora and fauna. In addition, they are essential in regulating the climate while at the same time millions of people depend on them for their livelihoods. As seen by rising political commitment and worldwide promises to reduce rates of deforestation and boost restoration of degraded forest ecosystems, forests are becoming more widely acknowledged for their role as a nature-based solution to many sustainable development concerns. Understanding tropical forest dynamics and their conservation have so become more important. This study analyzed, the forest stand structure, tree species composition, abundance and diversity and the regeneration status of Londiani Forest. Londiani Forest is divided into three blocks, namely Kedowa, Chebewor and Londiani and from each of these blocks belt transects 25 m wide and 1 km long were established 100 m from the edge of the forest to reduce edge effects. At every 200 m along the transect, 25 m × 25 m quadrats were set up in which, an inventory of all tree species was done. For tree species that could not be identified in the field, the local name was provided by para-taxonomists who participated in the data collection and the species name was later identified with the help of a taxonomist or a manual of woody tree species of Londiani Forest. The diameter at breast height (DBH) was measured at 1.3 m from the ground using a diameter tape. Tree height was measured using a Suunto angular clinometer. A nested quadrat 5 m x 5 m quadrat within the 25 m x 25 m quadrat was used to sample saplings while a 1 m x 1 m quadrat was used for sampling seedlings. Regeneration status was assessed using the number of seedlings and saplings. Stumps of trees cut were counted including identifying tree species from which the tree stump was derived. Data from the quadrats were entered into Microsoft Excel. Total stem density, species density, basal area, species basal area, relative density and species diversity were determined. A total of 1,308 individual trees belonging to 34 different species from 24 families were recorded. Kedowa had the highest (27) species richness followed by Chebewor (19) then Londiani (14). There was a statistically significant difference in species richness among the three forest blocks (p<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in the mean DBH (F=0.560; p=0.729) and height class distribution (F= 0.821, p=.558) among the three forest blocks. There was a statistically significant difference in stem density (F=12.22; p=0.005) and woody species diversity (F=0.32; p=0.001) within the three forests blocks. There was no statistically significant difference in the basal area distribution within the three forest blocks p>0.005. The similarity index ranged from 0.34 to 0.47. In all the forest blocks, there was evidence of seedlings and saplings indicating that there was regeneration. Results clearly show that while the Londiani Forest shows variation in characteristics, there is clear evidence that it is regenerating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0712.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: avifauna; checklist; habitat variation; species diversity; Vavuniya
Online: 13 July 2023 (07:11:21 CEST)
Vavuniya District is located in the lowland dry zone district of the Northern Province of Sri Lanka, which is still unexplored with a natural forest cover of 1,238 km2. Literature relates to the avifaunal birds is still a gap in the Vavuniya, as there are already studies about the diversity of water avifaunal species. In addition to that, the habitat diversity within the study area was discussed using a prepared checklist and the community indices like the Shannon-Weiner index (H’), Simpson’s diversity index (D), Simpson’s evenness (E), and Species richness (R) across various habitat ecosystems: Woodland-Paddy land (H1); Woodland-Water catchment area (H2); Forest (H3); Grassland with inundated land ecosystem (H4); and Manage garden with Occasional trees (H5); of the Pampaimadu premise, University of Vavuniya. The study area is located 10 km from the center of Vavuniya along the A30 highway, with the dry-mixed evergreen forest as vegetation. The checklist resulted in the observation of 93 avifaunal species belonging to 47 families (including 9 endemics, and 5 nationally threatened species). Family Columbidae (Rock Pigeon: Columba livia (n=123)) is found (68%) to be observed with the highest frequency and evenly distributed across different habitats but the family Ardeidae is found extensively dominating in H5 (39%). H1 is with the highest H` (3.5) and D (0.96); while H3 has the highest R (2.52) and E (0.62). Many anthropogenic disturbances, such as habitat alterations, intentional wildfire, and road mortality are the key threats encountered by the avifaunal species in the study area.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0087.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Japanese encephalitis virus; Population dynamic; Genetic diversity
Online: 2 May 2023 (11:02:54 CEST)
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) causes acute viral encephalitis in humans and reproductive disorders in pigs. JEV emerged during the 1870s in Japan and since that time, JEV has been transmitted exclusively throughout Asia, according to known reporting and sequencing records. A recent JEV outbreak occurred in Australia which affected commercial piggeries across different temperate southern Australian states and caused confirmed infections in humans. A total of 47 human cases and seven deaths were reported. The recent evolving situation of JEV needs to be reported due to its continuous circulation in endemic regions and spread to non-endemics areas. Here, we reconstructed the phylogeny and population dynamics of JEV using recent JEV isolates for the future perception of disease spread. Phylogenetic analysis shows the most recent common ancestor occurred about 3120 years ago (YA) (95% Highest posterior density [HPD], 2680 to 3715). Our results of the Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) demonstrates that JEV demography lacks fluctuations for the last two decades, but it shows that JEV genetic diversity has increased during the last ten years. This indicates the potential JEV replication in the reservoir host, which is helping it to maintain its genetic diversity, and to continue its dispersal into non-endemic areas. The continuous spread in Asia and recent detection from Australia further support these findings. Therefore, an enhanced surveillance system is needed along with precautionary measures such as regular vaccination and mosquito control to avoid future JEV outbreaks.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1127.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; gut microbiota; diversity; diabetes; metformin
Online: 28 April 2023 (07:06:36 CEST)
The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in maintaining host health and has a significant impact on human health and disease. In this study, we investigated the alpha diversity of gut microbiota in COVID-19 patients and analyzed the impact of COVID-19 variants, antibiotic treatment, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and metformin therapy on gut microbiota composition and diversity. We used a culture-based method to analyze the gut microbiota and calculated alpha-diversity using the Shannon H' and Simpson 1/D indices. We collected clinical data, such as length of hospital stay (LoS), C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR). We found that patients with T2D had significantly lower alpha-diversity than those without T2D. Antibiotic use was associated with a reduction in alpha-diversity, while metformin therapy was associated with an increase. We did not find significant differences in alpha-diversity between the Delta and Omicron groups. Length of hospital stay, CRP levels, and NLR showed weak to moderate correlations with alpha diversity. Our findings suggest that maintaining a diverse gut microbiota may benefit COVID-19 patients with T2D. Interventions aimed at preserving or restoring gut microbiota diversity, such as avoiding unnecessary antibiotic use and promoting metformin therapy, may improve patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0481.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: genetic fidelity; genetic diversity; IRAP; ISSR; Rhododendron
Online: 28 March 2023 (09:56:04 CEST)
Rhododendron is well-known for the colorful corolla. Molecular marker systems have the potentials to elucidate genetic diversity as well as to assess the genetic fidelity in rhododendrons. In the present study, the reverse transcription domains of long terminal repeat retrotransposons were cloned from rhododendrons and used to develop inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) marker system. Subsequently, 198 polymorphic loci were generated from the IRAP and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers, of which 119 were derived from the IRAP markers. It was justified that in rhododendrons, IRAP markers were superior to the ISSRs in some polymorphic parameters such as the average number of polymorphic loci (14.88 versus 13.17). In comparison with the single one, the combination of IRAPs and ISSRs systems was more discriminative for detecting 46 rhododendron accessions. Further, IRAP markers demonstrated more efficiency in genetic fidelity detection of in vitro R. bailiens, an endangered species just recorded in Guizhzhou Province, China. The available evidences revealed the distinct properties of IRAP and ISSR markers in the rhododendron-associated applications, and highlighted the availability of highly informative ISSR and IRAP markers in the genetic diversity evaluation and the genetic fidelity assessment of rhododendrons, which may facilitate the preservation and genetic breeding in rhododendron plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0505.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: phylogeny; salivary effectors; effector 84; genetic diversity
Online: 28 February 2023 (04:44:34 CET)
Herbivores have evolved several strategies to cope with plant defences. Some herbivores are able to resist toxic compounds, while others can manipulate host immunity. Previously it was found that spider mites collected from non-solanaceous wild host plants consist mostly of individuals that induce tomato defences, but also at low frequencies of individuals that can suppress these defences. Also, it has been shown that mites collected from non-solanaceous plants can adapt to tomato by evolving traits that allow them to suppress defences. Hence, we wanted to know if this trait is also common among mites naturally occurring on tomatoes. Here, we compared three T. urticae populations sampled from tomato at three field sites, and also an outbred population created from them through controlled crosses. We then assessed their fecundity on wild-type (WT) tomato plants and def-1 mutants impaired in inducible JA-defences. We also assessed the magnitude of JA defences they induce in WT plants to discriminate between resistant types (high induction and high performance) and those that can suppress defences (low induction, high performance). We then aligned these data with data on variation in mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and effector 84 (a suppressor of JA-defences in planta), in order to compare genetic diversity patterns among mite lines that induce or suppress defences. We found that suppression is the dominant phenotype in mite strains collected from field-grown tomatoes and that inducers and suppressors predominantly cluster in distinct effector 84 clades. We speculate that effector allelic diversity may be subject to natural selection when these mites colonize a novel host plant, promoting traits to cope with plant resistance, such as defence suppression, which facilitates adaptation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0462.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Apis; beta diversity; city; nestedness; network; pollinator
Online: 26 December 2022 (02:50:46 CET)
As the globe becomes more urban, the question how much natural biodiversity can subsist in cities becomes increasingly urgent to answer, and also how is urban diversity structured? To contribute to an answer, we studied the metacommunity of bees in a North European metropolitan area. The system consisted of 13 sites in the city of Aarhus, Denmark, censused from April to September during one year. Bees were sampled monthly in pan traps and a set of traits was related to their presence. In total, 40 species were collected–29 solitary species (40% of all sampled individuals), ten Bombus species (28%), and Apis mellifera (32%). Most sampled bees were soil-nesting, pollen generalists, and relatively common. Habitat diversity within a set of concentric circles with trap as centre and radius from 50 m to 1000 m was related to bee a diversity per site (total bee spp. with and without honeybee, solitary bees, and bumblebees). The relationship was only significant within the 1,000 m circle, and solitary bee diversity did not even correlate with habitat diversity at this large spatial scale level. The bee-site (space) and bee-month (time) networks were analyzed with respect to nestedness, modularity, and spatio-temporal b diversity. The two networks were weakly nested and strongly modular, being composed of five and six modules of tightly linked bees. Total b diversity, bTOTAL, is the sum of species turnover, bTURN, and species loss/gain or nestedness, bNEST; and for both space and time, bTURN was more important than bNEST. Furthermore, bTOTAL was higher than season bTOTAL. Thus, the urban bee metacommunity was well-structured in both space and time and the high bTURN indicated, that the network was strongly modular. We suggest the main reason is the high spatio-temporal patchiness of habitats, sustaining many unique species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0149.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Honeyeater; foraging behaviour; diversity; human activity; avifauna
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:28:15 CEST)
Forests are increasingly becoming fragmented and declining due to natural causes and human-induced activities. The latter creates an imbalance which put the survival of vulnerable species such as those of avifauna at risk. Honeyeaters are group of birds common in Fiji, with certain species strictly confined to specific habitats. This study is an attempt to compare the abundance and foraging behaviours of three sympatric honeyeaters namely Kikau wattled honeyeater, Orange-breasted myzomela and Giant honeyeater at two contradicted sites (USP campus and Colo-i-Suva Forest Reserve). The survey was carried out using point count method along three different transect routes of approximately 2 Km on each study sites . A higher species diversity and abundance was observed in Colo-i-Suva Forest Reserve than in USP campus. Kikau wattled honeyeater are more populated at USP campus due to adequate nectar-producing plants. Whereas both Orange-breasted myzomela (highly adaptable bird species) and Giant honeyeater (forest specifics) are frequent in Colo-i-Suva Forest Reserve. All exhibited a wider range of foraging techniques across forest vertical strata and plant species, except for Giant honeyeater (not observed). The statistical analysis showed that there is a significant difference (p < 0.05) in abundance as well as between the number of honeyeater species in both sites across the forest vertical strata. However, there is no significant difference in the foraging behaviour and the number of honeyeaters found foraging on diverse plant species (p > 0.05).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0178.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Citizen science; Colour pattern; geographic diversity; phylogeography
Online: 13 June 2022 (09:55:52 CEST)
The geographic variability of the dorsal pattern (DP) of the Italian wall lizard, Podarcis siculus, across its native range was studied with the aim to understand whether the distributions of this phenotypic trait were more shaped by allopatric differentiation rather than adaptive processes. A total of 1298 georeferenced observations scattered across the Italian peninsula and the main islands (Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia) were obtained from citizen science databases and five DPs were characterized by different shapes of the dark pattern (“reticulated”, “campestris”, “reticulated/campestris” and “striped”) or by absence of it (“concolor”). Frequencies of different DP phenotypes differ between the two main mtDNA lineages settled in central-northern and in southern Italy respectively. This pattern may be indicative of a role of long-term allopatric historical processes in determining the observed pattern. The analysis also identified a putative wide area of secondary contact, in central southern Italy, characterized by high diversity of the DP. Generalized Linear Models (GLMs), used to estimate a possible association between bioclimatic variables and the observed phenotypic variation, showed that each of the five DPs is correlated to different environmental factors and show different distribution of areas with high probability of occurrence. However, for all but one of the DPs, the area with the greatest probability does not correspond exactly to the real distribution of the DP. Conversely, the “concolor” phenotype does not seem related to any particular mtDNA lineage and it shows a preference for areas with high temperature and low rainfall. This is in agreement with the expectation of low amount of melanin of the dorsal pattern that, in the study areas, is characterized by a light uniform coloration which could confer a better thermoregulation ability in high temperatures environments avoiding overheating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Cynomorium songaricum; ecotype division; chemical diversity; metabolomics
Online: 7 June 2022 (02:54:33 CEST)
Cynomorium songaricum is an important endangered plant with significant medicinal and edible values. However, the lack of resources and quality variation have limited the comprehensive developments and sustainable utilization of C. songaricum. Here, we evaluated chemical and genetic traits of C. songaricum from the highly suitable habitat regions simulated with species distribution models. The PCA and NJ tree analyses displayed intraspecific variation in C. songaricum, that could be divided into two ecotypes: ecotype I and ecotype II. Furthermore, the LC-MS/MS-based metabolomic was used to identify and analyze the metabolites of two ecotypes. The results indicated that a total of 589 compounds were detected, 236 of which were significantly different between the two ecotypes. Specifically, the relative content and the kind of flavonoids were more abundant in ecotype I, which were closely associated with the medicinal activities. In contrast, amino acids and organic acids were more enriched in ecotype II, which may provide better nutritional quality and unique flavor. In summary, our findings demonstrate the ecotype division and chemical diversity of C. songaricum in China from different geographical regions and provide a reference for the development of germplasm and directed plant breeding of endangered medicinal plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0553.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: mushroom; organic-debris; fruiting bodies; diversity; frequency
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:22:51 CEST)
A The present investigation was undertaken in foothill regions of Uttarakhand from July-2016 up to December-2018. A total of thirty four different sites ranging from the roadside areas, grasslands to forests were studied and Mushroom fruiting bodies were collected. A total of One Hundred sixty six fruiting counts were obtained and 68 mushroom genera belonging to 15 orders and 43 families were identified. During collection visits mushroom were apparent from organic debris of diversified habitats ranging from humid soil; grassland; leaf litter; living tree trunk; dead wood log of forest zone. Maximum fruiting bodies (75%) were obtained between July to September and minimum i.e. 6% between November – February. Among the collected mushroom Stereum rugosum, Crepidotus variabilis, Laccaria laccata, Schizophyllum commune, Ganoderma applantum, Cantharellus cibarius were more prevalent. Out of all collected mushroom sample the frequency of Mushroom belonging to order Agaricales was 45.18% followed by Polyporales i.e., 27.7%. The collected mushroom were cultured on PDA medium and their mycelial forms were preserved for further studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0659.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Beel, conservation, fish diversity, IUCN, native fishes
Online: 26 April 2021 (12:06:18 CEST)
This study was conducted in the Dhanu River and adjacent waters at Mithamain upazila (sub-district) under Kishoreganj district of Bangladesh to prepare a check list of available native fishes with their availability status, conservation perspectives, habitat preferences, population trends and intimidations. Data were collected monthly by direct field survey, focus group discussions, and personal interviews with fishers by using a semi-structured questionnaire and a pictorial check list of fish species. A total of 91 indigenous fish species of 59 genera belonging to 29 families under 11 orders were documented where 17.58% species was abundantly available, 27.47% was commonly available, 31.87% was moderately available and 23.08% was rarely available. Cypriniformes was found as the dominant order, consisting 37.36% of the fish species aggregation and Cyprinidae was the most dominant family with 32.97% of the entire species assemblage. Twenty four piscine species (26.37%) were under threatened category in Bangladesh which subsumed 3 critically endangered (3.29%), 11 endangered (12.08%), and 10 vulnerable species (10.99%). Notably globally threatened Cirrhinus cirrhosus, Channa orientalis, and Wallago attu were available there. Fish population trends of 24.18% and 59.34% of the entire fish species was found in decreasing trends in global and national level, respectively. Leading intimidation to the fish diversity was indiscriminately overfishing, followed by fishing by dewatering of wetlands, katha fishing method, use of deprecated fishing gears, climate change, etc. Minimization of anthropogenic impacts, assuring the flux of water round the year, enactments of fish laws, installation and management of fish sanctuaries, and raising public awareness can be effective for the conservation of existing fisheries resources.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0236.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: implict bias; gender disparity; diversity; racial dispariry
Online: 12 January 2021 (17:51:36 CET)
The editors of several major journals have recently asserted the importance of combating racism and sexism in science. This is especially relevant now, as the COVID-19 pandemic may have led to a widening of the gender and racial/ethnicity gaps. Implicit bias is a crucial component in this fight. Negative stereotypes that are socially constructed in a given culture are frequently associated with implicit bias (which is unconscious or not perceived). In the present article, we point to scientific evidence that shows the presence of implicit bias in the academic community, which contributes to strongly damaging unconscious evaluations and judgments of individuals or groups. Additionally, we suggest several actions aimed at (1) editors and reviewers of scientific journals, (2) people in positions of power within funding agencies and research institutions and (3) members of selection committees to mitigate this effect. These recommendations are based on the experience of a group of Latin American scientists comprising Black and Latin women, teachers and undergraduate students who participate in a women in science working group at universities in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. With this article, we hope to contribute to reflections, actions and the development of institutional policies that enable and consolidate diversity in science and reduce disparities based on gender and race/ethnicity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0313.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: drug resistance; natural diversity; C. elegans; anthelmintics
Online: 25 November 2020 (14:47:29 CET)
Anthelmintic drugs are the major line of defense against parasitic nematode infections, but the arsenal is limited and resistance threatens sustained efficacy of the available drugs. Discoveries of the modes of action of these drugs and mechanisms of resistance have predominantly come from studies of a related non-parasitic nematode species, Caenorhabditis elegans, and the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus. Here, we discuss how our understanding of anthelmintic resistance and modes of action came from the interplay of results from each of these species. We argue that this “cycle of discovery”, where results from one species inform the design of experiments in the other, can use the complementary strengths of both to understand anthelmintic modes of action and mechanisms of resistance.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; severe symptoms; inactivation; genetic diversity
Online: 16 April 2020 (09:15:49 CEST)
The rapid spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a serious threat to public health systems globally and is subsequently, a cause of anxiety and panic within human society. Understanding the mechanisms and reducing the chances of having severe symptoms from COVID-19 will play an essential role in treating the disease, and become an urgent task to calm the panic. However, the COVID-19 test developed to identify virus carriers is unable to predict symptom development in individuals upon infection. Experiences from other plagues in human history and COVID-19 statistics suggest that genetic factors may determine the compliance with the virus, i.e., severe, mild, and asymptomatic. Here, a hypothesis is put forward based on the epidemiological characteristics and traits of COVID-19, and our gene expression analysis. It proposes that COVID-19 inactivation in the blood by blocking virus entry into other internal organs for reproduction through the blood circulation after lung cell invasion prevents severe symptoms. Additionally, we investigated a genetic connection between candidate genes and severe COVID-19 symptoms through the utilization of strategies combining hypothesis and data-driven approaches. A list of genes and important SNPs that require further investigation to aid the screening of individuals who may suffer severe illness if exposed to the virus is present. Those individuals should be intensively safeguarded and prioritised for treatment. Concurrently to further research on the COVID-19 pathogenesis, our results also offer a new research strategy for pandemic prevention and health maintenance.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: genetic diversity; Dioscorea praehensilis; SSR markers; Ghana
Online: 8 March 2020 (14:55:19 CET)
Dioscorea praehensilis Berth is one of the wild yam species resistance to many yam disease (yam anthracnose disease and yam mosaic virus) grow in Ghana especially in the cocoa grown regions of the country. It is a crucial crop that has been known to contribute to poverty reduction and food gap. Genetic diversity in this yam species has been discovered to be eroding and neglected. In this study we evaluated the genetic diversity among 43 D. praehensilis collected from Ghana using simple sequence repeat (SSR). Using 11 SSR marker, a total of 99 number of alleles were generated with an average of 8.48 alleles per locus. The mean gene diversity was 0.81, mean polymorphism information content was 0.82 while mean Shannon information index was 1.94. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed a contribution of 40.16% of the first three coordinate axes and grouped the 43 morphotypes into 2 groups while hierarchical cluster through UPGMA revealed the presence of 3 main clusters. Molecular variance (AMOVA) alongside the Fst revealed low genetic diversity and differentiation among accessions and population. Result of this study assess the genetic diversity and will facilitate the use D. praehensilis as sources of resistance gene into yam breeding program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: citrus; root rhizosphere; mancozeb; bacteria community; diversity
Online: 7 March 2020 (03:12:53 CET)
Mancozeb is extensively used fungicide to prevent citrus melanose in most Asian countries, especially in China. So far, however, there have been no reports of thet effect of Mancozeb on the citrus rhizosphere bacterial community. Therefore, this comparative experiment defined the genomic and functional related to community and soil health of 2-years old Citrus unshiu Marc. rhizosphere through amplicon sequencing and chemical analysis. This study evaluated the effect of mancozeb on the chemical properties of citrus-cultivated soil and the richness and diversity of rhizosphere bacterial community. We also investigated the abundance response of rhizosphere bacterial groups to 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 times application of 2 g mancozeb (active ingredient content, ai.) 600 times diluted with water. Our data revealed that the abundance of rhizosphere-associated bacterial species increased significantly after planting citrus. The relative abundance of Candidatus, Saccharibacteria, Parcubacteria, and Proteobacteria increased with the increase in mancozeb watering times. Meanwhile, the abundance of Nitrospirae decreased with the increase in mancozeb application times. The findings indicated that the chemical properties of the soil and the richness and diversity of rhizosphere bacterial community did not significantly differ across the mancozeb gradients in soil.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0176.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: conservation; genetic diversity; decision-making; ex situ
Online: 12 December 2019 (12:43:13 CET)
The rapid and extensive loss of biodiversity globally has resulted in an increased urgency to capture and conserve the diversity which is present, including genetic diversity within species. However, for many species there is currently no detailed genetic data available to inform the collection and use of material held in ex situ collections and this can hamper the consideration of genetic issues and reduce the likelihood collection represent the diversity present. Even in the absence of direct genetic data, however, it is possible to consider genetic issues using the existing theoretical and empirical evidence-based and biological, ecological and demographic data for a given species. Here a framework to facilitate the consideration of genetic diversity and genetic issues, even where genetic data is lacking, is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0057.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Urbanization, biological diversity, ruderal vegetation, roof, walls
Online: 5 March 2019 (11:34:03 CET)
Objective: Main purpose of this study is to identify the ruderal plant species which spontaneously grows on the wall and roof surfaces in urban and sub-urban areas due to their limited ecological needs and to contribute to the creating of the sustainable green areas in urban environments by understanding the parameters that ruderals depend on while they require little maintenance and irrigation support if not no. Material and Methods: The main material of this study is the ruderal plants which were collected from totally 60 walls and 36 roof surfaces within six districts of Trabzon city –Akçaabat, Arsin, Çaykara, Of, Ortahisar and Yomra in Turkey. From these 96 habitats, 1540 plants samples form the walls and 448 plant samples from the roofs were collected. All the plant samples collected from the research area were identified in the herbarium of the faculty of forestry in Karadeniz Technical University. Apart from this, parametres affecting coverage rate of common species on three different habitats were analysed.Results: It was found that 448 samples from the roof surfaces distributed into 61 species while 1540 samples from the walls distributed into 196 species. Plus, according to the analyses, 28 species were found on all three different habitats. As a result of the observations, measurements and analyses, it is clear from the study that coverage rate of the plant species depends on anthropogenic interaction, daylight period and depth of the media but there is no relation with the number of the species on the surfaces.Conclusion: Ruderal plants are definitely important to study on, if the world wants the term sustainability to find its real meaning as they require nearly nothing to grow in hard conditions. In urban life, maintenance is getting more and more expensive for green areas in urban life and this makes it difficult for them to survive especially when cities have limited budget on this, which has often occurred all over the world recently. There is no doubt that ruderal plants offer a great opportunity for modern era urban areas with their limited needs to grow in hard conditions. Furthermore, when thinking about the fact a serious amount of the ruderal plants detected on all three basic habitats has a great landscape plant characteristics, the approaches to their usage in urban areas are really critical.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: microbiome; complex networks; species diversity; criticality; RSA; information flow; transitions
Online: 28 March 2019 (09:10:18 CET)
The human microbiome is an extremely complex ecosystem considering the amount of bacterial species, their interactions, and its variability over time. Here we untangle the complexity of the human microbiome for the Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) that is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder in human populations. Based on a novel information theoretic network inference model we detect species interaction networks that are functionally and structurally different for healthy and unhealthy individuals. Healthy networks are characterized by a neutral symmetrical pattern of species interactions and scale-free topology versus random unhealthy networks. We detect an inverse scaling relationship between species total outgoing information flow, meaningful of node interactivity, and relative species abundance (RSA). The top ten interacting species are also the least relatively abundant for the healthy microbiome and the most detrimental. These findings support the idea about the diminishing role of network hubs and hubs should be defined considering the total outgoing information flow rather than the node degree. Macroecologically, the healthy microbiome is characterized by the highest total species diversity growth rate, the lowest species turnover, and the smallest variability of RSA for all species. This result challenges current views that posit a universal association between healthy states and the highest absolute species diversity in ecosystems. Additionally, we show how the transitory microbiome is unstable and microbiome criticality is not at the phase transition between healthy and unhealthy states. We stress out the importance of considering interacting pairs versus single node dynamics when characterizing the microbiome and of ranking these pairs in terms of their dynamics. Interactions (i.e. species collective behavior) shape transition from healthy to unhealthy states.\\ The macroecological characterization of the microbiome is useful for diagnostic purposes and disease etiognosis, while species-specific analyses can detect species that are more beneficial leading to personalized design of pre- and pro-biotic treatments and microbiome engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0215.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris L.; REML/BLUP; genetic diversity
Online: 26 March 2018 (10:35:00 CEST)
In the international scenario of agriculture, Brazil stands out as the main producer and consumer of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) The increase in the productive potential of the crop is mainly due to breeding programs. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters, predict genotypic values with REML/BLUP (Restricted Maximum Likelihood/Best Linear Unbiased Prediction) and, based on these values, study the variability in common bean cultivars with carioca and black grain. Twenty three agromorphological descriptors were evaluated, among them grain yield. Deviance analysis detected significant differences between the cultivars in both groups. Selective accuracy (Ac) was considered high for most of the traits. Broad-sense heritability (hg2 ) ranged from 0.05 to 0.72, but it was low for the trait yield (YLD). In the carioca grain group, the hg2 values for the traits related to plant morphology were higher than in the black group. Nevertheless, the hg2 values in the black group were higher in relation to the pod and seed traits. The correlations for YLD were moderate but different in the two commercial groups studied. In the black group, variables related to the seed morphology were correlated with grain yield, and in the carioca group, traits related to seed quantity. Based on the groupings, variability among the cultivars was observed. Three distinct clusters were formed for the carioca group and four for the black group. Based on the predicted genetic values, genetic variability and the most adapted and stable cultivars were detected among the cultivars in the studied environments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0243.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Lupinus mutabilis; genetic diversity; breeding; anthracnose resistance; alkaloids
Online: 5 October 2023 (02:38:00 CEST)
Lupinus mutabilis, also known as tarwi or chocho, is an important agricultural species cultivated in South America since ancient times. Tarwi is native from the Andean regions of Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador and has a very high protein content. Despite its high nutritional value and promotion efforts by regional researchers and breeders, tarwi is not a widely cultivated crop in its center of origin. In this review, we present the work carried out by public breeding programs of L. mutabilis at national agricultural research institutes, universities, and other institutions in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. The main breeding method used in the Andes to improve local landraces has been mass selection to adapt lines to specific environments. At least 25 cultivars or ecotypes have been selected and released over the last 40 years using this breeding system. Notwithstanding, breeders are currently struggling to develop new varieties that are high yielding, suitable for mechanized harvesting, have a low content of alkaloids or other anti-nutritional properties, and to anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum). Therefore, it is necessary to reassess the potential of this crop and invest in its research to incorporate new techniques and breeding strategies to optimize the development of new varieties in the Andes which address the current cultivation challenges of the species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0593.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rice; integrated cultivation practices; microbial diversity; environmental factors
Online: 11 September 2023 (05:07:03 CEST)
Integrated cultivation strategies can significantly improve rice yield. However, it is unclear how integrated cultivation practices improve soil microbial diversity and its related mechanism in rice field. Therefore, four integrated cultivation practices i.e., no N application (N0), local farmers’ practice (FP), high-yield and high-efficiency practice (HYEY), and super-high-yield cultivation practice, impacts on soil properties and structure composition of microbial community were explored. Compared with N0, SHY treatment, significantly increased soil alkaline nitrogen and organic matter contents. HYHE and SHY treatments significantly altered soil fungal community and Alpha diversity. Based on Venn diagram analysis, the composition of bacterial communities under all treatments was similar, but with different compositions of fungal communities. Cluster analysis indicates that the Proteobacteria was the absolute dominant group of bacterial communities, and Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria were the dominant group. Different cultivation methods also led to changes in the main factors affecting soil bacteria and fungi composition. Available potassium and organic matter were the main environmental factors that affected bacteria, with the strong of available potassium on the soil. To sum up, SHY and HYEY were beneficial management options in terms of improved soil fertility Alpha diversity of the soil bacterial community respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0925.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: sorghum landraces; diversity; nutrition; minerals; phenolic compounds; antioxidants
Online: 11 August 2023 (09:56:20 CEST)
Sorghum is one of the staple food crops in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Despite this, limited research attention was given to nutritional and antinutritional profiling of sorghum. Thus, this research was investigated to profile and evaluate the variabilities in protein, starch, minerals, flavonoid, tannin, and antioxidant activities among sorghum landraces of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Protein and starch were analyzed using near infrared spectrophotometer and whereas mineral elements were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Antioxidant activity was analyzed using DPPH free radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and phosphomolybdenum assays. The result revealed significant variation among the landraces for all the evaluated parameters. Protein and starch contents were ranged from 6.21 to 18% and 33.42 to 78.30%, respectively. Wider variations were observed for Fe (32-101), Zn (16.9-42.98), Cu (1.48-5.25), Mn (9.21-20.23), and Cr (0-1.5) as measured in mg/100g. The variabilities were high for total flavonoid (0-665 mgCE/g) and tannin (0.18-7.5 mgCE/100g). DPPH (EC50= 29.09-818.37 µg/ml), ferric reducing antioxidant power (17.85-334.81 mgAAE/g) and total antioxidant activity (1.71-63.88 mgBHTE/g) were also highly variable among the samples. Flavonoid and tannin were strongly correlated (r = 0.90) with antioxidant activity. The relationship between seed color and phenolics as well as antioxidant activities are discussed. Multivariate analysis revealed that the landraces were clustered in to four distinct groups. The rich genetic diversity in the nutritional and antinutritional attributes may be an opportunity for breeding for grain quality improvements of sorghum that in turn helps in addressing malnutrition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0183.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: bacterial diversity; gut microbiota; prolactin receptor; lactation; weaning
Online: 2 August 2023 (08:46:06 CEST)
Maternal milk supports offspring development by providing microbiota, macronutrients, micronutrients, immune factors, and hormones. The hormone prolactin (PRL) is an important component of milk with protective effects against chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Because maternal milk regulates microbiota composition and microbiota protect against NCDs, we aimed to investigate whether PRL regulates gut microbiota in newborn mice. 16SrRNA sequencing of feces and bioinformatics analysis were performed to evaluate gut microbiota in mice null for the PRL receptor (Prlr-KO) at the onset of weaning (postnatal day 21). The normalized colon and cecal weights were higher and lower, respectively, in Prlr-KO mice relative to wild-type mice (Prlr-WT). Relative abundance (Simpson Evenness Index), phylogenetic diversity, and bacterial concentration in gut contents were lower in the absence of the PRL receptor. Eleven bacteria species, out of 470, differed between Prlr-KO and Prlr-WT mice with two bacterial genera (Anaerotruncus and Lachnospiraceae) related to NCD development being the most common in Prlr-KO. Furthermore, a higher metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides was predicted in Prlr-KO mice compared to Prlr-WT mice; these metabolites have antimicrobial properties and are present in microbe-associated pathogenicity. In summary, the absence of the PRL receptor changes intestinal microbiota composition, resulting in lower microbiota abundance and richness, which could contribute to NCD development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1528.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: Leishmania donovani; Geographical; Temporal diversity; Epidemic; Transmission cycle
Online: 21 June 2023 (10:31:13 CEST)
Background: Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease with a global spread that affects both domestic and wild animals in addition to people. Leishmania donovani is the suspected anthroponotic cause of VL in India, where it is an endemic disease. The reservoir hosts play a crucial role in the life cycle of the Leishmania parasite. The complicated connection between the pathogen, vector, and reservoir exhibits geographical and temporal diversity. Human-to-human and, to a lesser extent, human-to-animal transmission is the principal mechanism for the maintenance of anthroponotic diseases. Scope and approach: A deliberate, systematic search was conducted on PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar using keywords such as "Leishmania donovani," "zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis," and "wild animal reservoir for leishmania donovani." 530 potentially significant references were obtained from these 507 were disallowed due to copy avoidance, irrelevant titles, research publications from nations other than India, or modified compositions. The remaining 20 investigations were later rejected because they did not meet the criteria for inclusion. Finally 3 research papers with 867 goats, 161 cattles, 106 chickens, 26 sheep, 3 buffaloes, 406 dogs and 309 rats were reported. Conclusion: According to the review, goats are the epidemic's primary host and possible reservoir in several regions of India. In the endemic regions of the disease, some species of rodents along with the canines appear to be maintaining the L. donovani transmission cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0613.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Accessions; genetic diversity; morphological traits; SSRs; winged bean
Online: 8 June 2023 (09:25:39 CEST)
Winged bean productivity and the potential to enhance food and nutrition security in sub-Saharan Africa are recurrently affected by several constraints, including but not limited to the lack of genetic improvement. The dearth of adequate information on the genetic diversity that guides the choice of progenitors’ selection among other advantages has been a major setback in planning appropriate improvement programs. This study assessed 15 winged bean accessions for genetic diversity using 10 quantitative traits and 10 microsatellites (SSRs) markers. These accessions were evaluated using RCBD with three replicates for two growing seasons. Ten plants constitute each accession during evaluation from where leaf samples were obtained for SSR marker genotyping. Phenotypic results revealed significant variation (p < 0.05) in the performances of the accessions for the measured traits. H2 estimates varied from 18.92% for seed length to 72.67% for seed weight per plant. Pod weight had a positive and significant correlation with pod length (0.53), pod width (0.70), and number of seeds per pod (0.64). However, the number of seeds per pod negatively correlated with days to maturity (-0.71). The number of seeds per pod was positively predicted by pod weight, seed thickness, and days to maturity. Cluster analysis revealed two genetic groups characterized by different traits. The ten SSRs revealed an average allele count of 4.2, gene diversity of 0.25, and polymorphic information content of 0.22. Analysis of molecular variance revealed within the population of 95% as compared to between population variance of 5%. Phylogeny analysis revealed two primary genetic groups from where five secondary genetic subgroups were identified and only three accessions (TPt-6, TPt-126, and TPt-48) showed genetic purity. This study provides the basis for further studies aimed at exploiting existing variations in winged bean germplasm for its improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0851.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Herbicides; mixed toxicity; microbial diversity; microbial community structure
Online: 24 April 2023 (10:49:58 CEST)
As two commonly-used non-selective herbicides, glyphosate (GP) and diquat (DQ) are easily co-resided in lateritic paddy soil due to the rich iron/aluminum oxides, nevertheless there is limited information on their co-impact on microbial diversity and community structure in this type soil. In this study, the short-term effects of combined GP and DQ on soil microbial diversity and community structure shifts were investigated in lateritic paddy soil from a tropical agricultural region (Hainan, China) based on 16S rRNA and ITS high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that mixed herbicides promoted the abundance of Streptomyces in bacteria (0.45-1.84%) and Curvularia in fungi (0.01-5.85%), while GP and DQ had inhibitory effects on the abundance of Streptomyces (0.13-2.21%) and Curvularia (0.03-1.13%), which were significantly different with their single exposure (p < 0.05); the combined application of the two herbicides aggravate the adverse effect on the diversity of soil fungal community (p < 0.05), although their mixture did not have a greater impact on the soil bacteria abundance/diversity and fungi abundance (p > 0.05). Results suggested that the combined application of GP and DQ affected the fungal diversity although they did not cause other significant negative effects on soil microorganisms, hinting that more attention should be paid to the mixed effect caused by GP and DQ on specific fungal populations in lateritic paddy soil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0244.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: aromatic rice; salt screening; RAPD marker; genetic diversity
Online: 14 November 2022 (07:43:36 CET)
Salinity is abiotic stress, which causes adverse environmental conditions for rice cultivation. In particular, local aromatic rice cultivation is heavily influenced by soil salinity stress, which has an impact on global food security. This study aimed to screen local aromatic rice genotypes in a hydroponics experiment using Yoshida solutions to evaluate the effect of increasing NaCl concentrations on the early growth stages of rice seedlings. Genetic diversity along with phylogenetic relationship was assessed using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Out of 20 RAPD markers, 17 markers produced reproducible polymorphic bands. Individuals of all genotypes shared 88 (89.80%) of the 98 total RAPD elements amplified. The genetic distance-focused similarity index ranged from 0.05 to 0.94. The highest genetic distance (0.94) was discovered between genotypes Nayanmoni and Kalijira Barisal, and the lowest was between Badshabhog and Kataribhog (0.05). In addition, the OPS 3(510bp) and OPA 14(1100bp) markers could be used to identify salt-tolerant genotypes. According to genetic distance, the salt stress tolerant check genotype, Pokkali was genetically related to Chinigura as well as Kalijira Barisal. This study established a simple and consistent method for evaluating variability across various aromatic rice genotypes, which will benefit in genotype selection for breeding salinity stress tolerant aromatic rice varieties in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0444.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: reptile; tortoise; welfare; diversity index; behaviour; enrichment; ethogram
Online: 28 October 2022 (08:28:08 CEST)
Reptile behaviour and welfare are understudied in comparison with mammals. In this study, behavioural data on three species of tortoises were recorded before and after an environmental change which was anticipated to be positive in nature. The environmental changes differed for each population, but included a substantial increase in enclosure size, the addition of substrate material, and a change in handling procedure. A tortoise-specific ethogram was created to standardise data collection. Focal behaviour sampling was used to collect behavioural data. Changes in the duration of performance of co-occupant interaction and object interaction in the leopard (Stigmochelys pardalis) and Aldabra (Aldabrachelys gigantea) tortoises were observed following the environmental changes. The Shannon-Weiner’s diversity index did not yield a significant increase after the changes but had a numerical increase which was relatively greater for the leopard tortoise group, which had experienced the greatest environmental change. The leopard tortoises also demonstrated changes in a greater number of behaviours compared to the other species, and this was sustained over the study period. However, this included a behaviour indicative of negative affect; aggression. Whilst we are unable to conclude that welfare was improved by the management changes, there are suggestions that behavioural diversity increased, and some promotion of positive social behaviours occurred.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0186.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: collections of microorganisms; data bases; fungal diversity; metabolites
Online: 13 May 2022 (09:42:11 CEST)
This material presents the results of a comparative analysis of the fungal diversity in the world system of microbial culture collections on one side with a variety of known fungal producers on the other side. The main VKM databases used are Fungal DC and Metabolites of Fungi, the central point of analysis - the fungal ability to synthesize promising metabolites for applied use. It indicates that the option of obtaining new promising strains from the collection funds is still underestimated by the scientific community. In particular it is shown that not more than 3% of the total fungal species fund contained in culture collections are used practically. The database Fungal DC developed in VKM is available on-line in www.vkm.ru and www.mycobank.org. It is possible their use will considerably expand the range of studied strains and lead to the acquisition of new scientifically significant data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0157.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: feline; panleukopenia; canine parvovirus; metagenomics; diversity; intra-host
Online: 12 May 2022 (04:07:11 CEST)
Feline panleukopenia (FPL), a highly contagious and frequently fatal disease of cats, is caused by Feline parvovirus (FPV) and Canine parvovirus (CPV). We characterized the diversity of these Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 variants in 18 faecal samples collected from domestic cats with FPL during an outbreak, using targeted parvoviral DNA metagenomics to a mean depth of >10,000 X coverage per site. All samples comprised FPV alone. Compared to the reference FPV genome, isolated in 1967, 44 mutations were detected. Ten of these were non-synonymous, including 9 in non-structural genes and one in VP1/VP2 (Val232Ile), which was the only one to exhibit inter-host diversity, being present in five sequences. There were five other polymorphic nucleotide positions, all with synonymous mutations. Intra-host diversity at all polymorphic positions was low with sub-consensus variant frequencies (SVF) of >1% except for two positions (2108 and 3208) in two samples with SVF of 1.1 – 1.3%. Intra-host nucleotide diversity was measured across the whole genome (0.7 - 1.5%) and for each gene, and was highest in the NS2 gene of four samples (1.2 – 1.9%). Overall, intra-host viral genetic diversity was limited and most mutations observed were synonymous, indicative of a low background mutation rate and strong selective constraints.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0147.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Diversity; Equality; Dental Education; Career Progression; Higher Education
Online: 8 November 2021 (13:40:53 CET)
IntroductionDiversity is known to be important but diversity of staff working in dental schools in the UK and Ireland is low in comparison with the dental profession and the overall population. AimsTo provide a detailed snapshot of the diversity of dental academic staff in 2021 including staff working in academic and clinical roles.MethodsAn online survey was circulated to dental schools by Dental Schools Council. Questions included dates of graduation and key career milestones, demographics and indicators of esteem. Free text questions were also included.ResultsThere was a high degree of variability in dental academic careers which made direct comparisons difficult. Neither gender nor race appeared to be associated with a faster career progression. Females and those of racialised minority were less represented at the most senior grades. For those who had completed specialty training, racialised minority staff were far less likely to be working at consultant grade than their White equivalents.ConclusionThere are differences in career progression between staff in dental schools. The high amount of individual variability makes these difficult to quantify except at the most senior positions. Qualitative information is needed to contextualise the results and provide additional information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0305.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ISSR; Rosa spp.; DNA fingerprinting; genotypes; genetic diversity
Online: 13 May 2021 (14:01:21 CEST)
Genetic diversity is inevitable in making any crop improvement program successful. DNA fingerprinting technology to assess the genetic relationship among the selected genotypes for identification and cataloging of different species and cultivars of roses is a promising tool for Rosa genomes. The inter-simple sequence repeats markers (ISSRs) were used to investigate the genetic diversity among twenty-one diverse Rosa genotypes belonging to two different species, Rosa hybrida and R. damascena, and three distinct groups of rose varieties, namely Hybrid Tea, Floribunda, and Damask roses. Twenty-four ISSR primers yielded a total of 280 scorable amplified fragments from 250-1800 bp in length, from which 244 were polymorphic, resulting in an average of 86.4% polymorphism. UPGMA cluster analysis based on Jaccard’s pairwise similarity coefficient values ranged from 0.264 to 0.818, clearly distinguished different species and genotypes, grouping them into three distinct clusters. The results confirmed a high degree of variation in the rose germplasm studied highlighting the potential of improvement in roses for the ornamental and perfume industry.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0342.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Undergraduate research experience; diversity; equity; inclusion; science communication
Online: 12 November 2020 (11:31:22 CET)
Ecology is working to face its colonial roots and institutional inequities. As we build more diverse, equitable, and inclusive (DEI) institutions we must work to support new ecologists by empowering them with the knowledge and tools to succeed. Undergraduate research experiences (UREs) are critical for a student’s professional and interpersonal skill development and key for recruiting more diverse groups of students to ecology. Here, we highlight DEI dimensions of a URE in ecology, acknowledge safety considerations for field ecology, including harassment and assault, and provide tools to support the URE. This is written primarily for all URE students and secondarily for their advisors. We welcome students from underrepresented groups and encourage allyship from students from non-underrepresented groups. After reading this paper, we hope that all students feel more confident and excited about their URE and that advisors see how to improve DEI in their lab.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0387.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: environmental diversity; eco-tourism; Asir region; GIS; RS
Online: 17 September 2020 (08:06:50 CEST)
This is study follows environmental diversity assessment for geotourism development in Asir region. Geotourism seeks to supporting the tourism landscape in its interaction with the historical and archaeological, architectural or immaterial heritage, and requires diversification in terms of product, market and geographical potential. The study is based on various tourist facades and environmental diversity in Asir. As tourism development is a comprehensive undertaking involving many sectors, and these are the challenges to which the country’s tourism industry should respond to promote domestic tourism. quality and spatial pattern of tourism resources, climate comfort, and natural disaster possibility. Based on analyze multi-source datasets collected, geomorphological features of this area, we created a GIS database comprising geologic and topographic maps, and satellite images using these datasets. The findings of the study provided valuable insights into the role of environmental diversity in achieving tourism. The study examined the interrelationship between tourism and environmental diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0119.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: black rice; transcriptome sequencing; genic SSRs; genetic diversity
Online: 7 March 2020 (09:03:34 CET)
Study in black rice has gain prominence in recent times due to its high nutritive value, curative effect, and anti-oxidant properties. However, its poor agronomic traits, including low yield necessitates the incorporation of the colour-grain trait into elite varieties through plant breeding techniques. SSR markers play an important role in plant identification and breeding. Here, the generation of reference-based transcriptome, annotation of transcriptome datasets, and a large set of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers derived from Black rice have been described. In all 28664 SSRs were predicted in 34978 (48.59%) expressed transcripts. However, 7068 (20.20%) transcripts were found to have more than one SSR. The identified SSRs were dominated by tri-nucleotide and tetra-nucleotide repeats representing about 54.11% and 33.31% respectively, of total SSRs. Validation of selected markers associated with anthocyanin trait performed across different black rice accessions established the reliability of the process used for mining SSR markers. The SSR markers identified in this study could be used to select varieties with desired traits, and to investigate the genetic mechanism underlying anthocyanin accumulation in the pericarps of black rice. Furthermore, the findings from this study may prove beneficial in future genetic diversity studies, primer development, and selective breeding programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0321.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: chickpea; genetic diversity; linkage disequilibrium; DArTseq-SNP markers
Online: 29 April 2019 (07:56:52 CEST)
Characterization of genetic diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium is prerequisite for proper management of breeding programs and conservation of genetic resources. In this study, 186 chickpea genotypes including advanced “Kabuli” breeding lines and Iranian landrace “Desi” chickpea genotypes were genotyped using DArTseq-Based SNP markers. Out of 3339 SNPs, 1152 markers with known chromosomal position were selected for genome diversity analysis. The number of mapped SNP markers varied from 52 (LG8) to 378 (LG4), with an average of 144 SNPs per linkage group. The chromosome size that covered by SNPs varied from 16236.36 kbp (LG8) to 67923.99 kbp (LG5), while LG4 showed higher number of SNPs, with an average of 6.56 SNPs per Mbp. Polymorphism information content (PIC) value of SNP markers ranged from 0.05 to 0.50, with an average of 0.32, while the markers on LG4, LG6 and LG8 showed higher mean PIC value than average. Un-weighted Neighbor Joining cluster analysis and Bayesian-based model population structure grouped chickpea genotypes into four distinct clusters. Principal component analysis (PCoA) and Discriminant Analysis of Principal Component (DAPC) results were consistent with that of the cluster and population structure analysis. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was extensive and LD decay in chickpea germplasm was relatively low. A few markers showed r2≥0.8, while 2961 pairs of markers showed complete LD (r2=1) and a huge LD block was observed on LG4. High genetic diversity and low kinship value between pairs of genotypes suggesting the presence of a high genetic diversity among studied chickpea genotypes. This study also demonstrated the efficiency of DArTseq-based SNP genotyping for large scale genome analysis in chickpea. The genotypic markers provided in this study are useful for various association mapping studies when combined with phenotypic data of different traits such as seed yield, abiotic and biotic stresses and therefore can be efficiently used in breeding programs to improve chickpea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0526.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Landraces, indigenous, accession, seed characters, diversity, faba bean
Online: 30 August 2018 (12:01:36 CEST)
Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the popular pulse crops grown for traditional consumption, not only in Oman but also in Arabian Peninsula and other countries. In Oman, the famers living in and around high altitude mountain areas mostly grow it. This paper highlights features of variation in seed color and diversity in seed traits found in collected accessions from the joint collecting missions of 2008-2010 between the staff of College of Agriculture, Sultan Qaboos University and the Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries throughout all the governorates of the Sultanate of Oman. 41 seed samples/accessions were collected from 38 sites. Of these, the highest number of accessions was collected from Batinah South governorate (38) represented mostly by the mountains of Rustaq, followed by the mountains of Interior/Al-Dakhliyah (8), and Dhahira & Buraimi (4). Only one accession was collected from mountains of the Eastern/ Al-Sharqiyah governorates. The seed accessions were found diverse with respect to all seed characters studied, i.e. seed length (cm) and width (cm) and 1000-seed weight (g) besides seed color. The faba bean accessions were classified into 9 genetically diverse clusters based on the Principal Component Analysis, which indicated that the contribution of seed width and 100-seed weight to the total variation existing in indigenous germplasm collected from all the governorates of Oman. It was found from the critical analysis of seed colors that 38 accessions were homogenous (pure) with one color and three were heterogeneous with combinations of colors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0042.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: species, edible, food bearing, diversity, neighborhoods, urban forest
Online: 3 July 2018 (12:10:53 CEST)
In Africa, 80% of households in urban areas are food insecure and is coupled with a dramatically changing urban food culture towards increased consumption of sugary and fatty foods. Consequently, incidences of obesity and undernourishment in many African cities are becoming escalating. Urban and peri-urban forestry emerges as a complementary measure to contribute towards elimination of urban hunger and improved nutritional security. However, there is scanty knowledge about the composition, diversity and socioeconomic contributions of urban food trees in African cities and this hinders policy discussions integrating urban forestry into the food security discourse. This paper examines the diversity and composition of the urban forest and food trees of Accra and sheds light on perceptions of urbanites regarding food tree cultivation and availability in the city. Using a mixed methods approach, about 105 respondents in six neighbourhoods of Accra were interviewed while over 200 100-m2 plots were surveyed across five land use types. Twenty-two out of the 70 woody species in Accra are edible. The food tree abundance in the city is about half of the total number of trees enumerated. The species richness and abundance of the edible trees and all trees in the city were significantly different among land use types (p<0.0001) and neighbourhood types (p<0.0001). The diversity of food bearing tree species was much higher in the poorer neighbourhoods than in the wealthier neighbourhoods. Respondents in wealthier neighbourhoods indicated that tree and fruit tree cover of the city was generally low and showed greater interests in cultivating fruit trees and expanding urban forest cover than poorer neighbourhoods. These findings demonstrate the need for urban food policy reforms that integrate urban grown tree foods in the urban food system/culture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0149.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Spatial Pattern; Land Use; Spatial Metric; Aggregation; Diversity
Online: 19 May 2017 (16:21:11 CEST)
Pekalongan is one of several cities that lies in the northern coast of Java island which is often flooded due to sea level rise. This condition impacted its urban development characteristic and increase in the future. In this research both Geographical Information System based and Spatial Metric approach are used. The spatial pattern is analyzed by using spatial metric based on the exploration of land use change that occurred. In this research, the spatial pattern is focused on aggregation pattern and diversity in coastal area. The result shows that the land use of coastal area are dominated with swamp, then followed by settlement and fishpond. It is also shown that the greatest land use change occurred on paddy field and swamp areas. Based on the spatial metric calculation, the aggregation level of land use decrease periodically and has a small growth level. It is indicated from its metric value aggregation and diversity from two periods: 2003-2009 and 2009-2016. Overall the land use of Pekalongan experienced large dynamics, especially in its coastal area. The spatial pattern trend in those area tend to be more sprawl as defined by the decrease of aggregation pattern and low level of land use growth pattern.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0145.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: spatial pattern; land use; spatial metric; aggregation; diversity
Online: 19 May 2017 (08:43:14 CEST)
Pekalongan is one of several cities that lies in the northern coast of Java island which is often flooded due to sea level rise. This condition impacted its urban development characteristic and increase in the future. In this research both Geographical Information System based and Spatial Metric approach are used. The spatial pattern is analyzed by using spatial metric based on the exploration of land use change that occurred. In this research, the spatial pattern is focused on aggregation pattern and diversity in coastal area. The result shows that the land use of coastal area are dominated with swamp, then followed by settlement and fishpond. It is also shown that the greatest land use change occurred on paddy field and swamp areas. Based on the spatial metric calculation, the aggregation level of land use decrease periodically and has a small growth level. It is indicated from its metric value aggregation and diversity from two periods: 2003-2009 and 2009-2016. Overall the land use of Pekalongan experienced large dynamics, especially in its coastal area. The spatial pattern trend in those area tend to be more sprawl as defined by the decrease of aggregation pattern and low level of land use growth pattern.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1729.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: genetic diversity; genetic variability; microsatellites; allele frequencies; population structure
Online: 28 November 2023 (08:08:48 CET)
Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a species is widely distributed in Córdoba, despite this, there are few studies that have been carried out to understand its genetic diversity. For this reason, the objective of this research was to evaluate the genetic diversity and variability of guava (Psidium guajava L) using microsatellite markers in Montería, Córdoba-Colombia. Forty-five accessions were evaluated. For DNA extraction, the CTAB 2x extraction protocol was used with modifications. The extracted DNA was amplified by the PCR technique using seven microsatellite markers. A total of 46 alleles were found with an average of 6.5 alleles per locus. A total of 28 private alleles were identified in the populations, possibly fixed by different evolutionary forces. The evaluated population presented an average expected heterozygosity of 0.572 and the observed heterozygosity was lower (0.058). The fixation index presented a total average of 0.906, indicating that in Montería there is an excess of homozygotes. The PIC values allowed us to determine that the markers mPgCIR9, mPgCIR11, mPgCIR13, mPgCIR16, mPgCIR19 and mPgCIR22 are highly informative, while mPgCIR23 is moderately informative. The guava population in Montería presented a low genetic diversity within the subpopulations, which could be related to inbreeding events such as self-pollination..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0942.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Phrynocephalus forsythii; microsatellite; genetic diversity; population structure
Online: 14 November 2023 (15:25:45 CET)
Desert ecosystem occupies an important position in the composition of global biodiversity. The Tarim Basin locates in south Xinjiang of China and has the world 's second largest mobile desert, the Taklamakan Desert. As an endemic species in this region, Phrynocephalus forsythii has been demonstrated with potential high extinction risk to climate change. In order to understand the overall genetic status and provide accordant conservation strategies of the species, we investi-gated the genetic diversity and population structure of P. forsythii from 15 sites in the Tarim Basin using 21 highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. We found significant genetic structure across the study region. We also revealed generally low levels of gene flow between the 25 sites, sug-gesting individual dispersal and migration may be restricted within populations. In addition, geographical distance and ambient temperature might be important factors in explaining the observed genetic structure. Our results will provide scientific basis for the future protection of P. forsythii in this area, as well as an important reference for the conservation and management of biodiversity in desert ecosystems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0016.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: macrobenthos; species diversity; community structure; Cosmonaut Se; Environmental factors
Online: 1 November 2023 (04:33:02 CET)
The Cosmonaut Sea is an under-studied area and a “blank canvas” for macrobenthos research. Here, we report on the species diversity and community structure of macrobenthos collected using the tringle trawl on the 38th Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) in the Cosmonaut Sea, East Antarctica. A total of 11 tringle trawls were deployed at different depths across the shelf, slope and seamount of the Cosmonaut Sea. A total of 275 macrobenthic species were found from 207-1994 m. The species richness per station varied from 23 to 89. Echinoderms (100 species), arthropods (48 species) and mollusks (36 species) were the most dominant groups. Echinoderms and arthropods dominated in abundance at seamount stations, and echinoderms, arthropods and polychaetes dominated in abundance at slope stations, while bryozoans, corals, ascidians and sponges were abundant on the Cosmonaut Sea Shelf. Depth was the major driving force influencing the distribution of macrobenthos. The main components were two core communities. One was dominated by sessile suspension feeders and associated fauna. Variants of this community include sponges and bryozoans. The other core community was dominated by mobile deposit feeders, infauna and grazers–epifauna, which included arthropods and echinoderms. The results showed that the slope (40-50° E, 65-67° S) of the Cosmonaut Sea may be an important area with complex ecological processes. The results of this study contribute to the knowledge of species diversity and communities of macrobenthos in the Cosmonaut Sea and provide monitoring data for future ecosystem health assessments and better protection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0824.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: cultural heritage; monument degradation; fungal diversity; preservation and restoration
Online: 12 October 2023 (11:59:02 CEST)
This review resumes published data on fungal diversity in and within monuments (e.g., religious and secular monuments, museums, and statues), covering a multidisciplinary investigation into the complex interactions between fungi and cultural heritage structures. Fungi represent remarkable adversaries to monuments, potentially compromising their structural integrity and aesthetic value. Based on a bibliographic search of manuscripts published, the knowledge of fungal communities colonizing monuments was comprehensively assessed. This work first describes the diverse fungal species implicated in the degradation of monument materials (e.g., stone, metal, and glass). It elucidates the factors governing fungal colonization and proliferation in and within these structures (e.g., environmental conditions, construction materials, and human interventions). Finally, the efficacy of preservation and restoration techniques to mitigate fungal threats and safeguard our cultural heritage is also discussed. This synthesis highlights the pivotal role of mycological research in heritage conservation, and a platform for future studies to address critical knowledge gaps is provided. Understanding fungal diversity in and within monuments is critical to preserving these invaluable cultural treasures, as it informs targeted conservation strategies and ensures their longevity in the face of fungal challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0220.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Genetic diversity; Germplasm; molecular markers; transcription factors; DEGs; genes.
Online: 4 October 2023 (09:03:49 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0826.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: proso millet collection; genetic diversity; SSR markers; agronomic traits
Online: 13 September 2023 (10:37:54 CEST)
Proso millet is an important allotetraploid cereal crop, however, it is the least studied species of the Poaceae family as it is an under-utilized crop. Genomic resources of proso millet are very limited compared to the major crops. Understanding of genetic relationships among germplasm resources is important for future breeding endeavors. In the present study, the SSR markers were employed to assess the polymorphism and genetic diversity of 100 millet accessions from different countries, which were tested in the dry steppe zone conditions of the Akmola region from 2020 to 2022. The use of 20 SSR markers detected a total of 47 alleles with an average allele number of 2.35 per locus among these proso accessions. Nine of them were polymorphic among genotypes, which suggests that these SSR markers can be used for genetic studies. The results showed a moderate level of polymorphism information content (PIC) averaged at 0.424, ranging from 0.125 to 0.795. The markers SSR 67, SSR-82, SSR-85 and SSR-109 showed high PIC values, 0.536, 0.756, 0.795 and 0.758 respectively. Markers SSR 85 and SSR 86 significantly correlated to agronomic traits, such as productive tillering (PT) and grain yield (GY). The genetic structure, UPGMA cluster and PCoA assay indicated that the accessions originated from Central Asia had higher genetic diversity. Based on Structure (K=3), all the accessions were divided into three groups, whereas the gene pool originated from Central Asia were detected in all the three clusters. Based on principal component analysis (PCA), the accessions of Central Asian origin were genetically closer to the North Asian group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0101.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: female; women; academia; higher education; leadership; gender equality; diversity
Online: 2 August 2023 (02:26:53 CEST)
The goal of this narrative review was to identify, synthesize and summarize research providing both institutional and personal recommendations for female leaders who aspire to hold leadership roles in academia. Existing evidence regarding factors that influence females acquiring leadership positions was first gathered and examined, noting recurring issues that have been identified as inimical to women assuming leadership roles. Recent research studies and statistical trends were then investigated, tracking and reporting on the increase in female leadership in academia that has occurred over recent years. Quantitative and qualitative literature focusing on successful strategies to support females aspiring to academic leadership positions were then elaborated upon, with specific factors identified in order to deepen understanding of shifts that may help to account for the rise of females in academic leadership roles. The recommendations resulting from the findings of this narrative review could be used to scaffold female success in the pursuit of academic leadership roles and offer insights for university executives and administrators on methods of more effectively supporting an increase in female leaders in academia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1471.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Mountain ungulate; MHC DRB gene; genetic diversity; population fluctuation
Online: 21 July 2023 (09:13:12 CEST)
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are the most polymorphic genes in vertebrates, and their proteins play a critical role in adaptive immunity for defense against a variety of pathogens. MHC diversity was lost in many species after experiencing a decline in size. To understand the variation and evolution of MHC genes in the Siberian ibex, Capra sibirica, which has undergone a population decline, we analyzed the variation of the second exon of MHC class II DRB genes in samples collected from five geographic localities in Xinjiang, China, that belong to three diverged mitochondrial clades. Consequently, we identified a total of 26 putative functional alleles (PFAs) with 260 bp in length from 43 individuals, and found one (for 27 individuals) to three (for 5 individuals) PFAs per individual, indicating the presence of one or two DRB loci per haploid genome. The Casi-DRB1*16 was the most frequently occurring PFA, Casi-DRB1*22 came after found in only seven individuals, 14 PFAs occurred once (7 PFAs twice), implying high frequency of rare PFAs. Interestingly, more than half of the (15) PFAs were specific to clade I, only one and three PFAs were specific to clades II and III, respectively. So, we assume that the polygamy and sextual segregation nature of this species likely contributed to the allelic diversity of DRB genes. Genetic diversity indices showed that PFAs of clade II were lower in nucleotide, amino acid, and supertype diversity compared to those of the other two clades. The way of allele sharing and FST values between three clades were to some extent in agreement with pattern observed in mitochondrial DNA divergence. In addition, recombination analyses revealed no evidence for significant signatures of recombination events. Alleles shared by clades III and the other two clades diverged 6 million years ago, and systematic neighbor grids showed cross-species polymorphisms. Together with the PAML and MEME analyses, the results indicated that the DRB gene in C. sibirica evolved under balancing and positive selection. However, by comparison, it can be clearly seen that different populations were under different selective pressures. Our results are valuable in understanding the diversity and evolution of the DRB gene in a mountain living C. sibirica and in making decisions on future long-term protection strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0820.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Dietary Pattern; Dietary Diversity Score; Nutrition Knowledge; Nutrition Attitudes
Online: 12 June 2023 (10:13:16 CEST)
Healthy eating behaviour of women is critical not only for their health but also for their children's health and well-being. The present study examined the dietary pattern, nutrition knowledge and attitudes of working women in Western Province, Sri Lanka. In addition, identify the factors associated with Dietary Diversity Score (DDS). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 working women, aged 20-60 years, in Western Province, Sri Lanka. The data on so-cio-demography, dietary patterns, and nutrition-related knowledge and attitudes were collected. Overall, 38% of the women were overweight and 13% were obese. The median frequency of intake of chicken, fish, eggs, milk and milk products, green leafy vegetables and fruits were 2, 5, 2, 9, 5 and 10 respectively, per week. A large majority of the women (70%) had tea/coffee with sugar and snacks (60%) at least four times a week. Only a third of the women met the minimum DDS, while more than half of the women had good nutrition-related knowledge and attitudes. Multiple regression analysis showed that age and household income were significantly independently related to DDS, while attitudes were negatively associated. While there was a trend, the association of nutrition-related knowledge with DDS was not statistically significant (p=0.057). The overall F ratio (8.46) was highly significant (p=0.000) and the adjusted R2 was 0.093. The results demonstrated that a significant proportion of working women have good basic nutrition-related knowledge and attitudes, while two-thirds of them do not meet the minimum DDS. Furthermore, age, family income and knowledge were positively associated with DDS, while attitudes were negatively associated. Before designing any intervention, further research is needed using a qualitative approach to understand how nutrition knowledge and eating behaviour are related in this population group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2067.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Metagenomics; red algae; microbial diversity; algal-polysaccharide-degrading enzymes
Online: 30 May 2023 (07:33:37 CEST)
Macroalgae and macroalgae-associated bacteria together constitute the most efficient metabolic cycling system in the ocean. Their interactions, especially the responses of macroalgae-associated bacteria communities to algae in different geographical locations, is mostly unknown. In this study, metagenomics was used to analyze the microbial diversity and associated algal polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on the surface of red algae among three remote regions. There were significant differences in the macroalgae-associated bacteria community composition and diversity among the different regions. At the phylum level, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria had a significantly high relative abundance among the regions. From the perspective of species diversity, samples from China had the highest macroalgae-associated bacteria diversity, followed by those from Antarctica and Indonesia. In addition, in the functional prediction of the bacterial community, genes associated with amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, and membrane transport had a high relative abundance. Canonical correspondence analysis and redundancy analysis of environmental factors showed that, without considering algae species and composition, pH and temperature were the main environmental factors affecting bacterial community structure. Furthermore, there were significant differences in algal polysaccharide-degrading enzymes among the regions. Samples from China and Antarctica had high abundances of algal polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, while those from Indonesia had extremely low abundances. The environmental differences between these three regions may impose a strong geographic differentiation regarding the biodiversity of algal microbiomes and their expressed enzyme genes. This work expands our knowledge of algal microbial ecology, and contributes to an in-depth study of their metabolic characteristics, ecological functions, and applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1578.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Guangxi kumquat; Germplasm resources; Diversity; SRAP markers; Genetic analysis
Online: 23 May 2023 (05:06:39 CEST)
In order to understand the genetic diversity of germplasm resources of kumquat in Guangxi, 14 kumquat germplasm resources in Guangxi and 12 accessions from other provinces were analyzed by using SRAP markers. In total, 19 primer pairs with high stability, good reproducibility, and high polymorphism were chosen for analysis of all the 26 kumquat genotypes. Among the 101 amplified bands, 87 (86.14%) were polymorphic. SRAP markers were analyzed by employing Principal Coordinate Analysis, Population Structure Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (UPGMA). The classification results showed that 26 kumquat germplasm could be divided into 5 groups, including cultivated kumquat, intergeneric hybrid, wild kumquat from other provinces, wild kumquat from Guangxi and hybrid kumquat from Guangxi. Guangxi kumquat germplasm occurred high genetic diversity, which were clearly divided into 3 groups like cultivated kumquat, wild kumquat and kumquat hybrid. And the 8 cultivated kumquat varieties in Guangxi were further divided into two subgroups. Wild kumquat in Guangxi and wild kumquat in other provinces belong to different groups, meanwhile the hybrids of Guangxi kumquat form independent groups, thus indicated that Guangxi wild kumquat and kumquat hybrid possessed certain specificity, or they maybe belonged to different species. Among the tested 26 kumquat accessions, 23 unique genotype-specific SRAP markers were detected for 14 kumquat genotypes, which made it possible to surely identify them. For the remaining 12 accessions without genotype-specific markers, they were distinguished by various combinations of markers. These results may have certain importance for kumquat genetic research and cultivar selection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0295.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Urinary schistosomiasis; Schistosoma haematobium; sub-Saharan Africa; Genetic Diversity
Online: 22 March 2022 (04:25:24 CET)
: Urinary schistosomiasis caused by the parasite Schistosoma haematobium is the most common form of schistosomiasis. This parasite has a high potential for genetic exchange within parasite populations giving rise to the genetic diversity that is important for its survival. Genetic differ-ences may lead to some parasite strains being more immunogenic which may have a negative impact on management and control of schistosomiasis. Therefore, understanding these genetic differences in the parasite may lead to better management of the disease. A literature search was done on PubMed, African Journals online and Google scholar using predefined search terms such as urinary schistosomiasis, S. haematobium, genetic diversity in sub-Saharan Africa in com-bination with Boolean operators (AND, OR). The search included studies published from 2000-2020 that emphasised on genetic diversity of Schistosoma haematobium in sub-Saharan Africa. Sixteen studies from 18 sub-Saharan African countries that met the inclusion criteria were se-lected. Most studies conducted in these countries showed a high genetic diversity of Schistosoma haematobium studies with microsatellite markers being the most commonly used method for ge-netic diversity determination. Fisher’s exact test showed that the distribution of genetic diversity in sub-Saharan African regions was not statistically significant (p=0.768). The highest number of studies on genetic diversity of Schistosoma haematobium were conducted in West Africa with Ni-geria and Zimbabwe in Southern Africa conducting the most studies, 4/36 (11%) each. Results obtained show the need for continued monitoring of genetic variations in Schistosoma haemato-bium in sub- Saharan Africa. This will aid in understanding the epidemiology of disease, ad-vancing novel treatment and vaccine strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0162.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Amazon forest; capirona; molecular markers; genetic diversity; population structure
Online: 7 June 2021 (10:06:14 CEST)
Capirona (Calycophyllum spruceanum Benth) is a tree species of commercial importance widely distributed in South American forests and is traditionally used for its medicinal properties and wood quality. Studies on this tree species have been focused mainly on wood properties, propagation and growth. Genetic studies on capirona are very limited to date. Today it is possible to explore genetic diversity and population structure in a fast and reliable manner by using molecular markers. We here used 10 Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) markers to analyze genetic diversity and population structure of 59 samples of capirona that were sampled from four provinces located in the eastern region of the Peruvian amazon. A total of 186 bands were manually scored, generating a 59 x 186 presence/absence matrix. We used R software to calculate genetic distances based on provesti coefficient. A dendrogram was generated using the UPGMA clustering algorithm and showed four groups that correspond to the geographic origin of the capirona samples. Similarly, a discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) confirmed that capirona is grouped into four clusters. However, we also noticed few accessions are intermingled. Genetic diversity estimation was conducted considering the four groups (populations) identified by adegenet package in R. Nei's genetic diversity estimate varied from 0.26 to 0.39 and Shannon index ranged from 2.48 to 2.83. AMOVA analysis revealed the greatest variation exist within populations (69.7%) and indicated that variability among populations is 31.5%. To our best knowledge, this is the first investigation employing molecular markers in capirona in Peru considering their natural distribution, and sheds light towards its modern genetic improvement and for the sustainable management of forests in Peru.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0465.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: DArTSeq markers; genetic diversity; Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana); subset
Online: 20 May 2021 (09:46:57 CEST)
Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth) is one of the most important forage grasses used throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Enhancing the conservation and use of genetic resources requires the development of knowledge and understanding about the existing global diversity of the species. In this study, 104 Rhodes grass accessions, held in trust in the ILRI forage genebank, were characterized using DArTSeq markers to evaluate the genetic diversity and population structure, and to develop representative subsets, of the collection. The genotyping produced 193,988 SNP and 142,522 SilicoDArT markers with an average polymorphic information content of 0.18 and 0.26, respectively. Hierarchical clustering using selected informative markers showed the presence of two and three main clusters using SNP and SilicoDArT markers, respectively, with a cophenetic correction coefficient of 82 %. Bayesian population structure analysis also showed the presence of two main subpopulations using both marker types indicating the existence of significant genetic variation in the collection. A representative subset, containing 21 accessions from diverse origins, was developed using the SNP markers. In general, the results revealed substantial genetic diversity in the Rhodes grass collection and the generated molecular information, together with the developed subset, should help enhance the management, use and improvement of Rhodes grass germplasm in the future.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: mentorship; citations; bias; sexism; racism; equity; diversity; inclusion; wellbeing
Online: 22 February 2021 (16:17:45 CET)
Success and impact metrics in science are based on a system that perpetuates sexist and racist ‘rewards’ through prioritizing citations and impact factors. These metrics are flawed and biased against already marginalized groups and fail to accurately capture the breadth of individuals’ meaningful scientific impacts. We advocate shifting this outdated value system to advance science through principles of justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion. We outline pathways for a paradigm shift in academic values based on multidimensional mentorship and promoting mentee wellbeing. These actions will require collective efforts supported by academic leaders and administrators to drive essential systemic change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0713.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Economic output; Energy use; Institutional quality; cultural diversity; FMOLS
Online: 29 December 2020 (07:44:08 CET)
Energy and institutional quality are two factors that determine economic output, but these two factors are often neglected in the search for economic output. Therefore, this study examines the relative importance of energy use and its interaction with institutional quality for economic output. We employ a robust econometric estimation technique on a panel sample of 21 African countries between 2002-2019. Our results show that energy use is significant and negatively related to economic output while moderating terms of institutional quality are significantly associated with economic output, but the direction of the association depends on the specific quality. We find the moderating term control of corruption and government effectiveness to be negative and significantly associated with economic output, whilst political stability, regulatory quality, rule of laws, voice, and accountability positively impact. Our results imply that improved economic output is possible when there are specific institutional strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0149.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: breeding; diversity; genetic engineering; genomics; male sterility; melon; QTLs
Online: 7 October 2020 (09:22:33 CEST)
Melon (Cucumis melo L.) a member of family Cucurbitaceae is extensively cultivated for its fleshy fruits. Based on the specific agro-climatic zones of cultivation as well as concerning the regional preferences, melon displays significant variability phenotypic and biochemical attributes. Below, an effort is put forth to considerably evaluate the scope of achievements while in the growth as well as the enactment of melon breeding programs by employing the newest solutions. Melon breeding has achieved critical milestones throughout the previous century, and we hope this trend will go on to persist down the road. However, studies have to determine new genetic information for genes associated with the challenges imposed by climate change. The identification of valuable hereditary and also metabolic variability in the form of landraces and melon wild relatives will be useful for harvest diversification and also for the broadening of the cultivated melon genetic base. Whereas, considerable information on genomics, and melon metabolomics, is beneficial for dissecting the basis of the inheritance of important traits and their impact on the former characteristics. Overall, we hope the manuscript is going to serve as a crucial resource for the melon breeders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0019.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antibiotic cycling; antibiotic mixing; antibiotic resistance; diversity; entropy; heterogeneity
Online: 27 August 2020 (08:03:07 CEST)
Diversity as well as temporal and spatial changes of the proportional abundances of different antibiotics (cycling, mixing or combinations thereof) have been hypothesised to be an effective administrative control strategy in hospitals to reduce the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in nosocomial or community-acquired infections. However, a rigorous assessment of the efficacy of these control strategies is lacking. The main purpose here is to present a mathematical framework for the assessment of control stategies from a processual stance. To this end, we adopt diverse measures of heterogeneity and diversity of proportional abundances based on the concept of entropy from other fields and adapt them to the needs in assessing the impact of variations in antibiotic consumption on antibiotic resistance. Thereby, we derive a family of diversity measures whose members exhibit different degrees of complexity. Most important, we extent these measures such that they account for the assessment of temporal changes in heterogeneity including otherwise undetected diversity-invariant permutations of antibiotics consumption and prevalence of resistant pathogens. We apply a correlation analysis for the assessment of associations between changes of heterogeneities on the antibiotics and on the pathogen side. As a showcase, which serves as a proof-of-principle, we apply the derived methods to records of antibiotic consumption and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant germs from University Hospital Dresden. Besides the quantification of heterogeneities of antibiotics consumption and antibiotic resistance, we show that a reduction of prevalence of antibiotic-resistant germs correlates with a temporal change of similarity with respect to the first observation of antibiotics consumption, although heterogeneity remains approximately constant. Although an interventional study is pending, our mathematical framework turns out to be a viable concept for the assessment and optimisation of control strategies intended to reduce antibiotic resistance.
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: live-streaming; video-conference; broadcast; scientific conferences; diversity; inclusion
Online: 10 March 2020 (02:29:22 CET)
Live streaming conferences increase the participation of a diverse audience, help defray travel costs and overcome problems related to travel restrictions. In this article, we lay out tips for implementing live-streaming in scientific meetings. We also cover legal, ethical, and technical aspects implicated with live-streaming scientific talks. To write this article, we leveraged knowledge from our experience in organizing the symposium “Deciphering the Denisovans,” presented at the 88th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropology (AAPA) in Cleveland, OH, in 2019, as well as literature on the topic.